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Sample records for versatile skin bioactive

  1. Vesicular system: Versatile carrier for transdermal delivery of bioactives.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deependra; Pradhan, Madhulika; Nag, Mukesh; Singh, Manju Rawat

    2015-01-01

    The transdermal route of drug delivery has gained immense interest for pharmaceutical researchers. The major hurdle for diffusion of drugs and bioactives through transdermal route is the stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the skin. Currently, various approaches such as physical approach, chemical approach, and delivery carriers have been used to augment the transdermal delivery of bioactives. This review provides a brief overview of mechanism of drug transport across skin, different lipid vesicular systems, with special emphasis on lipid vesicular systems including transfersomes, liposomes, niosomes, ethosomes, virosomes, and pharmacosomes and their application for the delivery of different bioactives. PMID:24564350

  2. Tropoelastin - a versatile, bioactive assembly module

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Steven G.; Yeo, Giselle C.; Hiob, Matti A.; Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; Kaplan, David L.; Ng, Martin K. C.; Weiss, Anthony S.

    2013-01-01

    Elastin provides structural integrity, biological cues and persistent elasticity to a range of important tissues including the vasculature and lungs. Its critical importance to normal physiology makes it a desirable component of biomaterials that seek to repair or replace these tissues. The recent availability of large quantities of the highly purified elastin monomer, tropoelastin, have allowed for a thorough characterization of the mechanical and biological mechanisms underpinning the benefits of mature elastin. While tropoelastin is a flexible molecule, a combination of optical and structural analyses has defined key regions of the molecule that directly contribute to the elastomeric properties and control the cell interactions of the protein. Insights into the structure and behavior of tropoelastin have translated into increasingly sophisticated elastin-like biomaterials, evolving from classically manufactured hydrogels and fibers to new forms, stabilized in the absence of incorporated cross-linkers. Tropoelastin is also compatible with synthetic and natural co-polymers, expanding the applications of its potential use beyond traditional elastin-rich tissues and facilitating finer control of biomaterial properties and the design of next-generation tailored bioactive materials. PMID:23938199

  3. Diphenylthiourea, a common rubber chemical, is bioactivated to potent skin sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, Kristin; Bergström, Moa Andresen; Jonsson, Charlotte A; Westman, Gunnar; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2011-01-14

    Diphenylthiourea (DPTU) is a known skin sensitizer commonly used as a vulcanization accelerator in the production of synthetic rubber, for example, neoprene. The versatile usage of neoprene is due to the multifaceted properties of the material; for example, it is stretchable, waterproof, and chemical- and abrasion-resistant. The wide application of neoprene has resulted in numerous case reports of dermatitis patients allergic to DPTU. The mechanism by which DPTU works as a contact allergen has not been described; thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate if DPTU is a prohapten that can be activated by skin metabolism. The metabolic activation and covalent binding of (14)C-labeled DPTU to proteins were tested using a skinlike cytochrome P450 (P450) cocktail containing the five most abundant P450s found in human skin (CYP1A1, 1B1, 2B6, 2E1, and 3A5) and human liver microsomes. The incubations were carried out in the presence or absence of the metabolite trapping agents glutathione, methoxylamine, and benzylamine. The metabolism mixtures were analyzed by LC-radiochromatography, LC-MS, and LC-MS/MS. DPTU was mainly metabolically activated to reactive sulfoxides resulting in desulfurated adducts in both enzymatic systems used. Also, phenylisothiocyanate and phenylisocyanate were found to be metabolites of DPTU. The sensitizing capacity of the substrate (DPTU) and three metabolites was tested in the murine local lymph node assay. Two out of three metabolites tested were strong skin sensitizers, whereas DPTU itself, as previously known, was negative using this mouse model. In conclusion, DPTU forms highly reactive metabolites upon bioactivation by enzymes present in the skin. These metabolites are able to induce skin sensitization and are probable causes for DPTU allergy. To increase the possibilities of diagnosing contact allergy to DPTU-containing items, we suggest that suitable metabolites of DPTU should be used for screening testing. PMID:21073181

  4. Identification of bioactive peptide from Oreochromis niloticus skin gelatin.

    PubMed

    Choonpicharn, Sadabpong; Tateing, Suriya; Jaturasitha, Sanchai; Rakariyatham, Nuansri; Suree, Nuttee; Niamsup, Hataichanoke

    2016-02-01

    Fish skin, one type of wastes generated from Nile tilapia processing, is still a good source of collagen and gelatin. Bioactive peptides can be obtained from Nile tilapia skin gelatin by trypsin digestion. Trypsin hydrolysate was subsequently purified by gel filtration chromatography. Trypsin A fraction showed the greatest reducing power (5.138 ± 1.060 μM trolox/mg peptide) among all hydrolysate fractions, while trypsin B fraction from gel filtration column was found to exhibit the best radical scavenging and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities 8.16 ± 2.18 μg trolox/mg peptide and 59.32 ± 9.97 % inhibition, respectively. The most active fraction was subjected to MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS. After annotation by Mascot sequence matching software (Matrix Science) with Ludwig NR Database, two peptide sequences were identified; GPEGPAGAR (MW 810.87 Da) and GETGPAGPAGAAGPAGPR (MW 1490.61 Da). The docking analysis suggested that the shape of the shorter peptide may be slightly more proper, to fit into the binding cleft of the ACE. However, the binding affinities calculated from the docking showed no significant difference between the two peptides. In good agreement with the in silico data, results from the in vitro ACE inhibitory activity with synthetic peptides also showed no significant difference. Both peptides are thus interesting novel candidates suitable for further development as ACE inhibitory and antioxidant agents from the natural source. PMID:27162402

  5. Bioactive compounds from natural resources against skin aging.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Pulok K; Maity, Niladri; Nema, Neelesh K; Sarkar, Birendra K

    2011-12-15

    Skin aging involves degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in both the epidermal and dermal layers, it leaves visible signs on the surface of skin and the physical properties of the skin are modified. Chronological aging is due to passage of time, whereas premature aging occurred due to some environmental factors on skin produces visible signs such as irregular dryness, dark/light pigmentation, sallowness, severe atrophy, telangiectases, premalignant lesions, laxity, leathery appearance and deep wrinkling. There are several synthetic skincare cosmetics existing in the market to treat premature aging and the most common adverse reactions of those include allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, phototoxic and photo-allergic reactions. Recent trends in anti-aging research projected the use of natural products derived from ancient era after scientific validation. Ample varieties of phytomolecules such as aloin, ginsenoside, curcumin, epicatechin, asiaticoside, ziyuglycoside I, magnolol, gallic acid, hydroxychavicol, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, etc. scavenges free radicals from skin cells, prevent trans-epidermal water loss, include a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 or higher contribute to protect skin from wrinkles, leading to glowing and healthy younger skin. Present era of treating aging skin has become technologically more invasive; but herbal products including botanicals are still relevant and combining them with molecular techniques outlined throughout this review will help to maximize the results and maintain the desired anti-skin aging benefits. PMID:22115797

  6. Simultaneous Delivery of Highly Diverse Bioactive Compounds from Blend Electrospun Fibers for Skin Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Peh, Priscilla; Lim, Natalie Sheng Jie; Blocki, Anna; Chee, Stella Min Ling; Park, Heyjin Chris; Liao, Susan; Chan, Casey; Raghunath, Michael

    2015-07-15

    Blend emulsion electrospinning is widely perceived to destroy the bioactivity of proteins, and a blend emulsion of water-soluble and nonsoluble molecules is believed to be thermodynamically unstable to electrospin smoothly. Here we demonstrate a method to retain the bioactivity of disparate fragile biomolecules when electrospun. Using bovine serum albumin as a carrier protein; water-soluble vitamin C, fat soluble vitamin D3, steroid hormone hydrocortisone, peptide hormone insulin, thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3), and peptide epidermal growth factor (EGF) were simultaneously blend-spun into PLGA-collagen nanofibers. Upon release, vitamin C maintained the ability to facilitate Type I collagen secretion by fibroblasts, EGF stimulated skin fibroblast proliferation, and insulin potentiated adipogenic differentiation. Transgenic cell reporter assays confirmed the bioactivity of vitamin D3, T3, and hydrocortisone. These factors concertedly increased keratinocyte and fibroblast proliferation while maintaining keratinocyte basal state. This method presents an elegant solution to simultaneously deliver disparate bioactive biomolecules for wound healing applications. PMID:26079091

  7. Cocoa Bioactive Compounds: Significance and Potential for the Maintenance of Skin Health

    PubMed Central

    Scapagnini, Giovanni; Davinelli, Sergio; Di Renzo, Laura; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Olarte, Hector Hugo; Micali, Giuseppe; Cicero, Arrigo F.; Gonzalez, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    Cocoa has a rich history in human use. Skin is prone to the development of several diseases, and the mechanisms in the pathogenesis of aged skin are still poorly understood. However, a growing body of evidence from clinical and bench research has begun to provide scientific validation for the use of cocoa-derived phytochemicals as an effective approach for skin protection. Although the specific molecular and cellular mechanisms of the beneficial actions of cocoa phytochemicals remain to be elucidated, this review will provide an overview of the current literature emphasizing potential cytoprotective pathways modulated by cocoa and its polyphenolic components. Moreover, we will summarize in vivo studies showing that bioactive compounds of cocoa may have a positive impact on skin health. PMID:25116848

  8. Epigenetic Alterations in Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Skin Carcinogenesis: Interaction of Bioactive Dietary Components on Epigenetic Targets†

    PubMed Central

    Katiyar, Santosh K.; Singh, Tripti; Prasad, Ram; Sun, Qian; Vaid, Mudit

    2011-01-01

    The importance of epigenetic alterations in the development of various diseases including the cancers has been realized. As epigenetic changes are reversible heritable changes, these can be utilized as an effective strategy for the prevention of cancers. DNA methylation is the most characterized epigenetic mechanism that can be inherited without changing the DNA sequence. Although limited, but available data suggest that silencing of tumor suppressor genes in ultraviolet (UV) radiation-exposed epidermis leads to photocarcinogenesis and is associated with a network of epigenetic modifications including alterations in DNA methylation, DNA methyltransferases and histone acetylations. Various bioactive dietary components have been shown to protect skin from UV radiation-induced skin tumors in animal models. The role of bioactive dietary components, such as, (−)-epicatechins from green tea and proanthocyanidins from grape seeds, has been assessed in chemoprevention of UV-induced skin carcinogenesis and underlying epigenetic mechanism in vitro and in vivo animal models. These bioactive components have the ability to block UV-induced DNA hypermethylation and histone modifications in the skin required for the silencing of tumor suppressor genes (e.g., Cip1/p21, p16INK4a). These information are of importance for understanding the role of epigenetic modulation in UV-induced skin tumor and the chemopreventive mechanism of bioactive dietary components. PMID:22017262

  9. Glove imprint templating: A versatile tool in skin graft surgery and more.

    PubMed

    Pagliaro, Thomas; Coates, Dougal

    2016-05-01

    Measurement of the shape and size of skin lesions is an important component of skin excision and repair, especially in full-thickness skin grafting. Current templating methods can be time-consuming and may lead to inaccurate sizing of both full-thickness and split-thickness skin grafts. A novel, accurate, and time-efficient method has been employed for 10 years in a dermatology clinic, in addition demonstrating utility in additional applications. A surgical glove is used to gain an imprint of a marked surgical incision site, to transcribe to the donor site for graft harvest. Further, the size of lesions in difficult-to-see areas of the body can be shown to patients. This method has been found to be clinically useful in reducing procedure times and providing accurate graft templates, as well as improving patients' satisfaction by helping them to understand the procedure. This method is also advantageous in obtaining informed consent by helping to clearly demonstrate the size of simple elliptical excisions. PMID:26460803

  10. Aspergillus fumigatus CY018, an endophytic fungus in Cynodon dactylon as a versatile producer of new and bioactive metabolites.

    PubMed

    Liu, J Y; Song, Y C; Zhang, Z; Wang, L; Guo, Z J; Zou, W X; Tan, R X

    2004-11-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus CY018 was recognized as an endophytic fungus for the first time in the leaf of Cynodon dactylon. By bioassay-guided fractionation, the EtOAc extract of a solid-matrix steady culture of this fungus afforded two new metabolites, named asperfumoid (1) and asperfumin (2), together with six known bioactive compounds including monomethylsulochrin, fumigaclavine C, fumitremorgin C, physcion, helvolic acid and 5alpha,8alpha-epidioxy-ergosta-6,22-diene-3beta-ol as well as other four known compounds ergosta-4,22-diene-3beta-ol, ergosterol, cyclo(Ala-Leu) and cyclo(Ala-Ile). Through detailed spectroscopic analyses including HRESI-MS, homo- and hetero-nuclear correlation NMR experiments (HMQC, COSY, NOESY and HMBC), the structures of asperfumoid and asperfumin were established to be spiro-(3-hydroxyl-2,6-dimethoxyl-2,5-diene-4-cyclohexone-(1,3')-5'-methoxyl-7'-methyl-(1'H, 2'H, 4'H)-quinoline-2',4'-dione) and 5-hydroxyl-2-(6-hydroxyl-2-methoxyl-4-methylbenzoyl)-3,6-dimethoxyl-benzoic methyl ester, respectively. All of the 12 isolates were subjected to in vitro bioactive assays against three human pathogenic fungi Candida albicans, Tricophyton rubrum and Aspergillus niger. As a result, asperfumoid, fumigaclavine C, fumitremorgin C, physcion and helvolic acid were shown to inhibit C. albicans with MICs of 75.0, 31.5, 62.5, 125.0 and 31.5 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:15522437

  11. Bioactive reagents used in mesotherapy for skin rejuvenation in vivo induce diverse physiological processes in human skin fibroblasts in vitro- a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Claudia; Brenner, Christiane; Habicht, Jüri; Wallich, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    The promise of mesotherapy is maintenance and/or recovery of a youthful skin with a firm, bright and moisturized texture. Currently applied medications employ microinjections of hyaluronic acid, vitamins, minerals and amino acids into the superficial layer of the skin. However, the molecular and cellular processes underlying mesotherapy are still elusive. Here we analysed the effect of five distinct medication formulas on pivotal parameters involved in skin ageing, that is collagen expression, cell proliferation and morphological changes using normal human skin fibroblast cultures in vitro. Whereas in the presence of hyaluronic acid, NCTF135(®) and NCTF135HA(®) , cell proliferation was comparable to control cultures; however, with higher expression of collagen type-1, matrix metalloproteinase-1 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1, addition of Soluvit(®) N and Meso-BK led to apoptosis and/or necrosis of human fibroblasts. The data indicate that bioactive reagents currently applied for skin rejuvenation elicit strikingly divergent physiological processes in human skin fibroblast in vitro. PMID:22151394

  12. Influence of extraction techniques on antioxidant properties and bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracts

    PubMed Central

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracted by two extraction methods (solvent and ultrasound-assisted) with three solvents (ethanol, water and ethanol–water) were compared to supercritical fluid extraction. The antioxidant activities of skin and pulp extracts were evaluated and compared to tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, and the Rancimat assays. In DPPH assay solvent extracts of skin by ethanol (SSE) and ethanol–water (SSEW) showed strong inhibitory activity. The SSEW also showed the highest inhibition percentage of 85.58% by the β-carotene bleaching assay and longest induction time of 4.78 h by the Rancimat method. The large amount of tocopherols and phenolics contained in the skin extract may cause its strong antioxidant ability. The results indicated that the solvent extraction with ethanol–water produced the maximum extraction yield of phenolic and tocopherol compounds from loquat fruit skin and pulp. Furthermore, solvent extraction was the most effective in antioxidant activity of the extracts compared to other extraction techniques. PMID:25987992

  13. The impact of grape skin bioactive functionality information on the acceptability of tea infusions made from wine by-products.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Vern Jou; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Sedcole, Richard; Hamid, Nazimah

    2010-05-01

    The effect of information on the health benefits of bio-active compounds on the acceptability of 5 tea infusions made from grape skins generated from wine processing waste (from Vitis vinifera var. Pinot Noir and Pinot Gris) was investigated. Samples of tea infusions with natural additives (PNHGT25 and PGGT50) and without additives (control PN, control PG, and PNPG50) were evaluated by 45 in-home consumer panels (30 female, 15 male) before and after information on the health benefits of grape skins were provided. Information significantly increased the overall acceptability, overall aroma, flavor, and aftertaste of the infusions. The results obtained showed a clear tendency toward increased purchase intention (by 29%) when information on the health benefits of the tea infusion samples was provided to consumers. Interactions existed between gender/infusion samples and stage of information on the purchase intention. Females recorded a significant increase (by 53%) in purchase intention, whereas no change in the males' purchase intention was found after information was provided. PMID:20546418

  14. Fish skin gelatin hydrolysates produced by visceral peptidase and bovine trypsin: Bioactivity and stability.

    PubMed

    Ketnawa, Sunantha; Benjakul, Soottawat; Martínez-Alvarez, Oscar; Rawdkuen, Saroat

    2017-01-15

    The peptidase from the viscera of farmed giant catfish was used for producing gelatin hydrolysates (HG) and compared with those produced from commercial bovine trypsin (HB). The degree of hydrolysis (DH) observed suggests that proteolytic cleavage rapidly occurred within the first 120min of incubation, and there was higher DH in HG than in HB. HG demonstrated the highest ACE-inhibitory activity, DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging activity, and FRAP. HB showed the highest FRAP activity. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of HG was quite stable over the pH range of 1-11, but it increased slightly when the heating duration time reached 240min at 100°C. The ACE-inhibitory activity of HG showed the highest stability at a pH of 7, and it remained very stable at 100°C for over 15-240min. The visceral peptidase from farmed giant catfish could be an alternative protease for generating protein hydrolysates with desirable bioactivities. The resulting hydrolysates showed good stability, making them potential functional ingredients for food formulations. PMID:27542490

  15. Review on Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah): bioactive phytochemicals and skin collagen synthesis promoting herb.

    PubMed

    Chua, Lee Suan; Lee, Sze Yean; Abdullah, Norhanisah; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji

    2012-12-01

    Labisia pumila is a traditional herb widely used as post-partum medication for centuries. Recently, extensive researches have been carried out on the phytochemical identification, biological and toxicological studies for the herb. Phytochemicals found in the herbal extract showed high antioxidant properties, which were essential for various pharmacological activities. The significant findings are anti-estrogenic deficiency and -immunodeficiency diseases. Another finding that has considerable impact on natural product research is the contribution of L. pumila in promoting skin collagen synthesis. The performance of the herb as anti-aging agent due to natural aging process and accelerated by UV radiation was reviewed critically. PMID:22521793

  16. Surface functionalization of bioactive glasses with natural molecules of biological significance, part II: Grafting of polyphenols extracted from grape skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Ferraris, Sara; Prenesti, Enrico; Verné, Enrica

    2013-12-01

    Polyphenols, as one of the most important family of phytochemicals protective substances from grape fruit, possess various biological activities and health-promoting benefits, for example: inhibition of some degenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancers, reduction of plasma oxidative stress and slowing aging. The combination of polyphenols and biomaterials may have good potential to reach good bioavailability and controlled release, as well as to give biological signaling properties to the biomaterial surfaces. In this research, conventional solvent extraction was developed for obtaining polyphenols from dry grape skins. The Folin&Ciocalteu method was used to determine the amount of total polyphenols in the extracts. Surface functionalization of two bioactive glasses (SCNA and CEL2) was performed by grafting the extracted polyphenols on their surfaces. The effectiveness of the functionalization was tested by UV spectroscopy, which analyzes the amount of polyphenols in the uptake solution (before and after functionalization) and on solid samples, and XPS, which analyzes the presence of phenols on the material surface.

  17. Assessment of Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis L.) Hydrogels: Quality and Bioactivity in Skin Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramanauskienė, Kristina; Stelmakiene, Ada; Majienė, Daiva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to design gels with lemon balm extract, assess their quality, and investigate the effect of rosmarinic acid on skin cells in normal conditions and under oxidative stress. Methods. The quantities of rosmarinic acid (RA) released from gels were evaluated by applying the HPLC technique. HaCaT cell viability was assessed by using the MTT method. ROS generation was measured using DCFH-DA dye. The results showed that the gelling material affected the release of RA content from gels. Lower and slower RA content release was determined in carbomer-based gels. After 6 hours of biopharmaceutical research in vitro, at least 4% of RA was released from the gel. The results of the biological studies on HaCaT cells demonstrated that, in the oxidative stress conditions, RA reduced intracellular ROS amounts to 28%; 0.25–0.5 mg/mL of RA increased cell viability by 10–24% and protected cells from the damage caused by H2O2. Conclusions. According to research results, it is appropriate to use a carbomer as the main gelling material, and its concentration should not exceed 1.0%. RA, depending on the concentration, reduces the amount of intracellular ROS and enhances cell viability in human keratinocytes in oxidative stress conditions. PMID:26600864

  18. Assessment of Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis L.) Hydrogels: Quality and Bioactivity in Skin Cells.

    PubMed

    Ramanauskienė, Kristina; Stelmakiene, Ada; Majienė, Daiva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to design gels with lemon balm extract, assess their quality, and investigate the effect of rosmarinic acid on skin cells in normal conditions and under oxidative stress. Methods. The quantities of rosmarinic acid (RA) released from gels were evaluated by applying the HPLC technique. HaCaT cell viability was assessed by using the MTT method. ROS generation was measured using DCFH-DA dye. The results showed that the gelling material affected the release of RA content from gels. Lower and slower RA content release was determined in carbomer-based gels. After 6 hours of biopharmaceutical research in vitro, at least 4% of RA was released from the gel. The results of the biological studies on HaCaT cells demonstrated that, in the oxidative stress conditions, RA reduced intracellular ROS amounts to 28%; 0.25-0.5 mg/mL of RA increased cell viability by 10-24% and protected cells from the damage caused by H2O2. Conclusions. According to research results, it is appropriate to use a carbomer as the main gelling material, and its concentration should not exceed 1.0%. RA, depending on the concentration, reduces the amount of intracellular ROS and enhances cell viability in human keratinocytes in oxidative stress conditions. PMID:26600864

  19. The versatility of a glycerol-preserved skin allograft as an adjunctive treatment to free flap reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mat Saad, A. Z.; Khoo, T. L.; Dorai, A. A.; Halim, A. S.

    2009-01-01

    Skin allografts have been used in medical practice for over a century owing to their unique composition as a biological dressing. Skin allografts can be obtained in several preparations such as cryopreserved, glycerol-preserved, and fresh allograft. A glycerol-preserved allograft (GPA) was introduced in the early 1980s. It has several advantages compared with other dressings such as ease of processing, storage and transport, lower cost, less antigenicity, antimicrobial properties, and neo-vascularisation promoting properties. Skin allografts are mainly used in the management of severe burn injuries, chronic ulcers, and complex, traumatic wounds. Published reports of the use of skin allografts in association with free flap surgery are few or non existent. We would like to share our experience of several cases of free tissue transfer that utilised GPA as a temporary wound dressing in multiple scenarios. On the basis of this case series, we would like to recommend that a GPA be used as a temporary dressing in conjunction with free flap surgery when required to protect the flap pedicle, allowing time for the edema to subside and the wound can then be closed for a better aesthetic outcome. PMID:19881027

  20. Molecular biology of the human cytosolic sulfotransferase gene superfamily implicated in the bioactivation of minoxidil and cholesterol in skin.

    PubMed

    Dooley, T P

    1999-08-01

    Cytosolic sulfotransferases (ST) catalyze the sulfation of various phenolic agents, catecholamines, thyroid hormones, steroids, drugs, and procarcinogens, usually resulting in the inactivation and subsequent excretion of the compound. My laboratory's efforts have focused on the cloning of the human phenol-sulfating (PST) members of this gene superfamily, implicated in the bioactivation of the hair growth stimulant, minoxidil. At least two major forms of human PST enzymes have been characterized biochemically, the phenol-preferring PST (P-PST), and the catecholamine-preferring PST (M-PST). Various cDNAs have been cloned representing alleles of 3 gene loci termed as STP1, STP2, and STM, which were all mapped precisely to a small region on human chromosome 16p and to the homologous region of mouse chromosome 7. Human cosmid genomic clones have been sequenced to determine the genomic organization for each of the 3 highly-related genes. All contain 7 coding exons, with conserved intron-exon boundaries, and presumptive alternative tissue-specific promoters. At least one of the 3 PST-encoding genes is responsible for forming minoxidil sulfate in the lower outer root sheath of anagen hair follicles. The steroid sulfating genes, STD and STE, have been cloned by other laboratories. The isozyme products of these genes sulfate DHEA and estrogens, respectively. I hypothesize that either STE or STD is involved in the formation of cholesterol sulfate (CS) in epidermal keratinocytes. CS has been demonstrated by other groups to be an activator of keratinocyte Protein Kinase Ceta, which subsequently results in the activation of epidermal transglutaminase and formation of the cornified envelop. STE or STD might also be involved in bioinactivation of estrogens and androgens within skin. Our recent unpublished results have focused on elucidating the patterns of ST gene expression in cultured keratinocytes and fibroblasts derived from human skin using RT-PCR, to understand which of the

  1. Characterization of physiochemical and microbiological properties, and bioactive compounds, of flour made from the skin and bagasse of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa).

    PubMed

    Soquetta, Marcela Bromberger; Stefanello, Flávia Santi; Huerta, Katira da Mota; Monteiro, Sabrina Sauthier; da Rosa, Claudia Severo; Terra, Nelcindo Nascimento

    2016-05-15

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical and microbiological properties, as well as the bioactive compounds, of flour made from the skin and bagasse of two varieties (Bruno and Monty) of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa) at two stages of maturation. The flour made with kiwi fruit peel from both varieties showed higher levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity that the flour made with bagasse from both varieties. The flour made with green kiwi fruit skin from the Bruno variety had higher DPPH values and levels of phenolic compounds (1262.34 mg GAE/100g flour), while the Monty variety showed higher FRAP values, vitamin C (189.06 mg/100g flour), flavonoids (486.47 mg/100g flour), chlorophylls (12.13 mg/100g flour) and carotenoids (246.91 μg/100g flour). Flour made from kiwi fruit bagasse can be used to reduce agro-industrial waste. This flour is a promising ingredient which can be used to enrich products providing dietary fiber and bioactive compounds, as well as antioxidant action. PMID:26775997

  2. Bioactives derived from ripe corn tassels: a possible new natural skin whitener, 4-hydroxy-1-oxindole-3-acetic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we showed that extracts of ripe seasonal sweet corn tassels possess anti-irritant and anti-oxidant activities. The chemical identification of corn tassel bioactives were investigated by HPLC analysis. The hydroalcoholic extracts are composed primarily (>85%) phenolic-type compounds. The ...

  3. Bioactive molecules from the Blue Lagoon: in vitro and in vivo assessment of silica mud and microalgae extracts for their effects on skin barrier function and prevention of skin ageing.

    PubMed

    Grether-Beck, Susanne; Mühlberg, Kathrin; Brenden, Heidi; Felsner, Ingo; Brynjólfsdóttir, Asa; Einarsson, Sigurbjörn; Krutmann, Jean

    2008-09-01

    Bathing in the Blue Lagoon, a specific geothermal biotope in Iceland has been known for many years to be beneficial for human skin in general and for patients with psoriasis and atopic dermatitis in particular. The scientific rationale for this empirical observation, however has remained elusive. We now report that extracts prepared from silica mud and two different microalgae species derived from the Blue Lagoon are capable of inducing involucrin, loricrin, transglutaminase-1 and filaggrin gene expression in primary human epidermal keratinocytes. The same extracts also affects primary human dermal fibroblasts, because extracts from silica mud and one type of algae inhibited UVA radiation-induced upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression and both algae, as well as silica mud extracts induced collagen 1A1 and 1A2 gene expression in this cell type. These effects were not restricted to the in vitro situation because topical treatment of healthy human skin (n = 20) with a galenic formulation containing all three extracts induced identical gene regulatory effects in vivo, which were associated with a significant reduction of transepidermal water loss. In aggregate, these results suggest that the bioactives in Blue Lagoon have the capacity to improve skin barrier function and to prevent premature skin ageing. These observations explain at least some of the beneficial effects of bathing in the Blue Lagoon and provide a scientific basis for the use of Blue Lagoon extracts in cosmetic and/or medical products. PMID:18312388

  4. Wound dressings composed of copper-doped borate bioactive glass microfibers stimulate angiogenesis and heal full-thickness skin defects in a rodent model.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shichang; Li, Le; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Yadong; Cheng, Xiangguo; Zhou, Nai; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Liu, Zhongtang; Huang, Wenhai; Zhang, Changqing

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for better wound dressings that possess the requisite angiogenic capacity for rapid in situ healing of full-thickness skin wounds. Borate bioactive glass microfibers are showing a remarkable ability to heal soft tissue wounds but little is known about the process and mechanisms of healing. In the present study, wound dressings composed of borate bioactive glass microfibers (diameter = 0.4-1.2 μm; composition 6Na2O, 8K2O, 8MgO, 22CaO, 54B2O3, 2P2O5; mol%) doped with 0-3.0 wt.% CuO were created and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. When immersed in simulated body fluid, the fibers degraded and converted to hydroxyapatite within ∼7 days, releasing ions such as Ca, B and Cu into the medium. In vitro cell culture showed that the ionic dissolution product of the fibers was not toxic to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and fibroblasts, promoted HUVEC migration, tubule formation and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and stimulated the expression of angiogenic-related genes of the fibroblasts. When used to treat full-thickness skin defects in rodents, the Cu-doped fibers (3.0 wt.% CuO) showed a significantly better capacity to stimulate angiogenesis than the undoped fibers and the untreated defects (control) at 7 and 14 days post-surgery. The defects treated with the Cu-doped and undoped fibers showed improved collagen deposition, maturity and orientation when compared to the untreated defects, the improvement shown by the Cu-doped fibers was not markedly better than the undoped fibers at 14 days post-surgery. These results indicate that the Cu-doped borate glass microfibers have a promising capacity to stimulate angiogenesis and heal full-thickness skin defects. They also provide valuable data for understanding the role of the microfibers in healing soft tissue wounds. PMID:25890736

  5. Colour Evaluation, Bioactive Compound Content, Phenolic Acid Profiles and in Vitro Biological Activity of Passerina del Frusinate White Wines: Influence of Pre-Fermentative Skin Contact Times.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Katya; Fiordiponti, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Passerina del Frusinate is an autochthonous wine grape variety, which grows in the Lazio region that is currently being evaluated by local wine producers. In this study, colour properties (CIELab coordinates), bioactive compounds (total polyphenols and flavan-3-ols), HPLC-DAD phenolic acid profiles and in vitro biological activity of monovarietal Passerina del Frusinate white wines and the effect of different maceration times (0, 18 and 24 h) were evaluated based on these parameters. Results highlighted statistically significant differences for almost all analysed parameters due to a strong influence of the pre-fermentative skin contact time. The flavan content of macerated wines was six times higher than that of the control, while total polyphenols were 1.5 times higher. According to their phytochemical content, macerated wines showed the highest antiradical capacity tested by means of DPPH(•) and ABTS(+•) assays. Besides, prolonged maceration resulted in a reduction of CIELab coordinates as well as of the content of phenolic substances and antiradical capacity. Among the phenolic acids analysed, the most abundant were vanillic acid and caffeic acid; the latter proved to be the most susceptible to degradation as a result of prolonged maceration. Passerina del Frusinate appears as a phenol-rich white wine with a strong antioxidant potential similar to that of red wines. PMID:27455227

  6. Identification and bioactivity evaluation of two novel temporins from the skin secretion of the European edible frog, Pelophylax kl. esculentus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaole; Wang, He; Yang, Mu; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Mei; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2016-08-01

    The amphibian temporins, amongst the smallest antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), are α-helical, amphipathic, hydrophobic and cationic and are active mainly against Gram-positive bacteria but inactive or weakly active against Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we report two novel members of the temporin family, named temporin-1Ee (FLPVIAGVLSKLFamide) and temporin-1Re (FLPGLLAGLLamide), whose biosynthetic precursor structures were deduced from clones obtained from skin secretion-derived cDNA libraries of the European edible frog, Pelophylax kl. esculentus, by 'shotgun' cloning. Deduction of the molecular masses of each mature processed peptide from respective cloned cDNAs was used to locate respective molecules in reverse-phase HPLC fractions of secretion. Temporin-1Ee (MIC = 10 μM) and temporin-1Re (MIC = 60 μM) were both found to be active against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, but retaining a weak haemolytic activity. To our knowledge, Single-site substitutions can dramatically change the spectrum of activity of a given temporin. Compared with temporine-1Ec, just one chemically-conservative substitution (Val8 instead of Leu8), temporin-1Ee bearing a net charge of +2 displays broad-spectrum activity with particularly high potency on the clinically relevant Gram-negative strains, Escherichia coli (MIC = 40 μM). These factors bode well for translating temporins to be potential drug candidates for the design of new and valuable anti-infective agents. PMID:27255993

  7. Versatile telemonitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fergus, R. W.

    1969-01-01

    Small scale versatile multichannel telemonitoring can be installed economically with considerable expansion capabilities. This system contains a data transmitter, control transmitter, control receiver, display of readout units, a sync generator, and some remote control features.

  8. Apigenin, a bioactive flavonoid from Lycopodium clavatum, stimulates nucleotide excision repair genes to protect skin keratinocytes from ultraviolet B-induced reactive oxygen species and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Das, Sreemanti; Das, Jayeeta; Paul, Avijit; Samadder, Asmita; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we examined the antioxidative and the DNA protective potentials of apigenin, a flavonoid polyphenol isolated from Lycopodium clavatum, in both in-vitro (HaCaT skin keratinocytes) and in-vivo (mice) models against UV-B radiation. We used DAPI staining in UV-B-irradiated HaCaT skin keratinocytes pre-treated with and without apigenin to assess DNA damage. We also used a flow-cytometric analysis in mice exposed to UV-B radiation with or without topical application of apigenin to assess, through a comet assay, chromosomal aberrations and quanta from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Data from the stability curves for the Gibb's free energy determined from a melting-temperature profile study indicated that apigenin increased the stability of calf thymus DNA. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that apigenin caused a reduction in the number of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) after 24 h, the time at which the nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes were activated. Thus, apigenin accelerated reversal of UV-B-induced CPDs through up-regulation of NER genes, removal of cyclobutane rings, inhibition of ROS generation, and down-regulation of NF-κB and MAPK, thereby revealing the precise mechanism of DNA repair. PMID:24139463

  9. Extracellular matrix formation in self-assembled minimalistic bioactive hydrogels based on aromatic peptide amphiphiles

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Mi; Ulijn, Rein V

    2014-01-01

    The hitherto inconsistency in clinical performance for engineered skin drives the current development of novel cell-scaffolding materials; one challenge is to only extract essential characteristics from the complex native ECM (extracellular matrix) and incorporate them into a scaffold with minimal complexity to support normal cell functions. This study involved small-molecule-based bioactive hydrogels produced by the co-assembly of two aromatic peptide amphiphiles: Fmoc-FF (Fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine) and Fmoc-RGD (arginine–glycine–aspartic acid). Three-dimensionally cultured human dermal fibroblasts deposited dense ECM networks including fibronectin and collagen I within the hydrogels in a 14-day culture. The fibroblasts organized the fibrous ECM and contracted the gel without differentiating into myofibroblasts. The stiffness of the cell-gel constructs increased dramatically due to ECM formation and gel contraction. This created an economical biomimetic model-scaffold to further understand skin reconstruction in vitro and supplied a design pathway to create versatile cell-scaffolds with varied bioactivities and simplicity. PMID:24812581

  10. Extracellular matrix formation in self-assembled minimalistic bioactive hydrogels based on aromatic peptide amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mi; Ulijn, Rein V; Gough, Julie E

    2014-01-01

    The hitherto inconsistency in clinical performance for engineered skin drives the current development of novel cell-scaffolding materials; one challenge is to only extract essential characteristics from the complex native ECM (extracellular matrix) and incorporate them into a scaffold with minimal complexity to support normal cell functions. This study involved small-molecule-based bioactive hydrogels produced by the co-assembly of two aromatic peptide amphiphiles: Fmoc-FF (Fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine) and Fmoc-RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid). Three-dimensionally cultured human dermal fibroblasts deposited dense ECM networks including fibronectin and collagen I within the hydrogels in a 14-day culture. The fibroblasts organized the fibrous ECM and contracted the gel without differentiating into myofibroblasts. The stiffness of the cell-gel constructs increased dramatically due to ECM formation and gel contraction. This created an economical biomimetic model-scaffold to further understand skin reconstruction in vitro and supplied a design pathway to create versatile cell-scaffolds with varied bioactivities and simplicity. PMID:24812581

  11. Suppression of COX-2, IL-1β and TNF-α expression and leukocyte infiltration in inflamed skin by bioactive compounds from Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Mengoni, Eleonora S; Vichera, Gabriel; Rigano, Luciano A; Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L; Galliano, Silvia R; Cafferata, Eduardo E; Pivetta, Omar H; Moreno, Sivia; Vojnov, Adrián A

    2011-04-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the effects of extracts and purified compounds from fresh leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Pretreatment with the major anti-inflammatory compounds, carnosic acid (CA) and carnosol (CS), inhibited phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced ear inflammation in mice with an EC(50) of 10.20 μg/cm(2) and 10.70 μg/cm(2), respectively. To further understand the anti-inflammatory mechanism of these compounds, we analyzed the in vivo expression of several inflammation-associated genes in mouse skin by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Our data showed that CA and CS reduced the expression of IL-1β and TNF-α but had less effect on fibronectin and ICAM-1 expression. Interestingly, both compounds selectively inhibited COX-2 but not COX-1. Histopathological analysis of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained tissue revealed a marked reduction in leukocyte infiltration and epidermal ulceration of PMA-treated ears when ears were pretreated with ethanolic extracts or pure CA. In vitro, we showed that ethanolic extract, carnosic acid and carnosol significantly inhibited the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) in a dose-dependent manner in the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. For the first time in vivo, we showed that CA and CS differentially regulate the expression of inflammation-associated genes, thus demonstrating the pharmacological basis for the anti-inflammatory properties reported for CA and CS. PMID:21129455

  12. Transfersomes: self-optimizing carriers for bioactives.

    PubMed

    Rai, Kavita; Gupta, Yashwant; Jain, Anekant; Jain, Sanjay K

    2008-01-01

    The transdermal route of drug delivery has gained great interest of pharmaceutical research, as it circumvents number of problems associated with oral route of drug administration. The major barrier in transdermal delivery of drug is the skin intrinsic barrier, the stratum corneum, the outermost envelop of the skin that offers the principal hurdle for diffusion of hydrophilic ionizable bioactives. Recently, various strategies have been used to augment the transdermal delivery of bioactives. Mainly, they include iontophoresis, electrophoresis, sonophoresis, chemical permeation enhancers, microneedles, and vesicular system (liposomes, niosomes, elastic liposomes such as ethosomes and transfersomes). Among these strategies transferosomes appear promising. Transport of this vesicular system through skin and epithelial hurdle depends upon the flexibility of their membrane, which can be attained using appropriate ratio of surfactant. Transfersomes have shown immense potential in drug delivery across the skin. Recent success also demonstrates the potential of transfersome in vaccine, steroid, protein, and peptide delivery across the skin. It is also used for transporting genetic material and achieving transfection. This review highlights the various aspects of the transferosomes in the effective delivery of drug/bioactives across the skin. PMID:19055232

  13. VAC: Versatile Advection Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Gábor; Keppens, Rony

    2012-07-01

    The Versatile Advection Code (VAC) is a freely available general hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic simulation software that works in 1, 2 or 3 dimensions on Cartesian and logically Cartesian grids. VAC runs on any Unix/Linux system with a Fortran 90 (or 77) compiler and Perl interpreter. VAC can run on parallel machines using either the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library or a High Performance Fortran (HPF) compiler.

  14. Skin turgor

    MedlinePlus

    Doughy skin; Poor skin turgor; Good skin turgor; Decreased skin turgor ... Call your health care provider if: Poor skin turgor occurs with vomiting, diarrhea, or fever. The skin is very slow to return to normal, or the skin "tents" up ...

  15. Skin Dictionary

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ...

  16. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    Skin transplant; Skin autografting; FTSG; STSG; Split thickness skin graft; Full thickness skin graft ... site. Most people who are having a skin graft have a split-thickness skin graft. This takes ...

  17. The wide pharmacological versatility of semicarbazones, thiosemicarba-zones and their metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Beraldo, Heloisa; Gambino, Dinorah

    2004-01-01

    The more significant bioactivities of a variety of semicarbazones (anti-protozoa, anticonvulsant) and thiosemicarbazones (antibacterial, antifungal, antitumoral, antiviral) and their metal complexes are reviewed together with proposed mechanisms of action and structure-activity relationships. Clinical or potential pharmacological applications of these versatile compounds are discussed. PMID:14754441

  18. Versatile composite amplifier configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gift, Stephan J. G.; Maundy, Brent

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a versatile composite amplifier in which a current feedback amplifier (CFA) drives an operational amplifier (OPA). In the conventional OPA-CFA composite amplifier, an OPA drives a CFA resulting in a composite structure that combines the DC input stability of the OPA and the high speed capability of the CFA. The proposed composite configuration combines different features of the CFA and OPA, specifically the constant bandwidth property of the CFA and the high power and high current output capacity of the OPA. The new circuit is easily implemented in the standard inverting and non-inverting configurations using commercially available devices, and the accuracy and constant bandwidth features were experimentally verified. Local feedback around the associated CFA ensures that the proposed composite amplifier possesses a higher level of bandwidth constancy than a single CFA.

  19. Sagging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  20. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the sun. Photo: PhotoDisc Care for conditions from acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin ... other skin conditions. Many skin problems, such as acne, also affect your appearance. Your skin can also ...

  1. Bioactivation of particles

    DOEpatents

    Pinaud, Fabien; King, David; Weiss, Shimon

    2011-08-16

    Particles are bioactivated by attaching bioactivation peptides to the particle surface. The bioactivation peptides are peptide-based compounds that impart one or more biologically important functions to the particles. Each bioactivation peptide includes a molecular or surface recognition part that binds with the surface of the particle and one or more functional parts. The surface recognition part includes an amino-end and a carboxy-end and is composed of one or more hydrophobic spacers and one or more binding clusters. The functional part(s) is attached to the surface recognition part at the amino-end and/or said carboxy-end.

  2. Biological Versatility and Earth History

    PubMed Central

    Vermeij, Geerat J.

    1973-01-01

    Examples from various plant and animal groups indicate that there has been a general increase in potential versatility of form, determined by the number and range of independently varying morphogenetic parameters, among taxa appearing at successively younger stages in the fossil record. Taxa or body plans with higher potential versatility have tended to replace less potentially versatile groups in the same or similar adaptive zone through time. Greater potential diversity allows for greater homeostasis, efficiency, and integration of structures and functions, and for an increase in size of the potential adaptive zone. In contrast, chemical versatility has generally decreased within groups from the pre-Cambrian to the Phanerozoic, partly as the result of apparent changes in the chemical environment and partly as the consequence of selection for efficiency and greater metabolic ease of handling of certain materials. PMID:4198660

  3. DVD - digital versatile disks

    SciTech Connect

    Gaunt, R.

    1997-05-01

    An international standard has emerged for the first true multimedia format. Digital Versatile Disk (by its official name), you may know it as Digital Video Disks. DVD has applications in movies, music, games, information CD-ROMS, and many other areas where massive amounts of digital information is needed. Did I say massive amounts of data? Would you believe over 17 gigabytes on a single piece of plastic the size of an audio-CD? That`s the promise, at least, by the group of nine electronics manufacturers who have agreed to the format specification, and who hope to make this goal a reality by 1998. In this major agreement, which didn`t come easily, the manufacturers will combine Sony and Phillip`s one side double-layer NMCD format with Toshiba and Matsushita`s double sided Super-Density disk. By Spring of this year, they plan to market the first 4.7 gigabyte units. The question is: Will DVD take off? Some believe that read-only disks recorded with movies will be about as popular as video laser disks. They say that until the eraseable/writable DVD arrives, the consumer will most likely not buy it. Also, DVD has a good market for replacement of CD- Roms. Back in the early 80`s, the international committee deciding the format of the audio compact disk decided its length would be 73 minutes. This, they declared, would allow Beethoven`s 9th Symphony to be contained entirely on a single CD. Similarly, today it was agreed that playback length of a single sided, single layer DVD would be 133 minutes, long enough to hold 94% of all feature-length movies. Further, audio can be in Dolby`s AC-3 stereo or 5.1 tracks of surround sound, better than CD-quality audio (16-bits at 48kHz). In addition, there are three to five language tracks, copy protection and parental ``locks`` for R rated movies. DVD will be backwards compatible with current CD-ROM and audio CD formats. Added versatility comes by way of multiple aspect rations: 4:3 pan-scan, 4:3 letterbox, and 16:9 widescreen. MPEG

  4. Environment and the skin.

    PubMed

    Suskind, R R

    1977-10-01

    The skin is an important interface between man and his environment; it is an important portal of entry for hazardous agents and a vulnerable target tissue as well. It is a uniquely accessible model system for detecting hazards and for studying mechanisms of a wide variety of biologic funcitons. Environmental causes of skin reactions comprise a vast array of physical, chemical and biological agents. To appreciate the role of the skin as an interface with man's environment, it is necessary to understand the multiple adaptive mechanisms, and the defenses of the skin against the environmental stresses. The skin is endowed with a versatile group of defenses against penetration, fluid loss from the body, thermal stress, solar radiation, physical trauma and microbial agents. Patterns of adverse response range in quality and intensity from uncomplicated itching to metastatic neoplasia. Environmental problems comprise a large segment of disabling skin disease. Although critical epidemiologic data is limited, cutaneous illnesses comprise a significant segment of occupational disease. This represents a significant loss in productivity and a major cause of disability. The most serious research needs include the development of surveillance systems for identifying skin hazards and determining frequency of environmental skin disease; the development of new models for studying cutaneous penetration; the elucidation of the mechanisms of nonallergic inflammatory reactions (primary irritation) and of the accommodation phenomenon; the development of more sensitive models for predicting adverse responses to marginal irritants; the utilization of modern skills of immunobiology and immunochemistry to elucidate mechanisms of allergic responses; the launching of epidemiologic studies to determine the long term effects of PCBs and associated compounds such as dioxins; and the expansion of research in the mechanisms of skin cancer in relation to susceptibility, genetic and metabolic

  5. Environment and the skin

    PubMed Central

    Suskind, Raymond R.

    1977-01-01

    The skin is an important interface between man and his environment; it is an important portal of entry for hazardous agents and a vulnerable target tissue as well. It is a uniquely accessible model system for detecting hazards and for studying mechanisms of a wide variety of biologic funcitons. Environmental causes of skin reactions comprise a vast array of physical, chemical and biological agents. To appreciate the role of the skin as an interface with man's environment, it is necessary to understand the multiple adaptive mechanisms, and the defenses of the skin against the environmental stresses. The skin is endowed with a versatile group of defenses against penetration, fluid loss from the body, thermal stress, solar radiation, physical trauma and microbial agents. Patterns of adverse response range in quality and intensity from uncomplicated itching to metastatic neoplasia. Environmental problems comprise a large segment of disabling skin disease. Although critical epidemiologic data is limited, cutaneous illnesses comprise a significant segment of occupational disease. This represents a significant loss in productivity and a major cause of disability. The most serious research needs include the development of surveillance systems for identifying skin hazards and determining frequency of environmental skin disease; the development of new models for studying cutaneous penetration; the elucidation of the mechanisms of nonallergic inflammatory reactions (primary irritation) and of the accommodation phenomenon; the development of more sensitive models for predicting adverse responses to marginal irritants; the utilization of modern skills of immunobiology and immunochemistry to elucidate mechanisms of allergic responses; the launching of epidemiologic studies to determine the long term effects of PCBs and associated compounds such as dioxins; and the expansion of research in the mechanisms of skin cancer in relation to susceptibility, genetic and metabolic

  6. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are specialized skin cells that produce pigment called melanin. The melanin pigment produced by melanocytes gives skin its color. ... absorbing and scattering the energy. People with more melanin have darker skin and better protection from UV ...

  7. Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  8. Cryotherapy - skin

    MedlinePlus

    Cryosurgery - skin; Warts - freezing; Warts - cryotherapy ... Cryotherapy or cryosurgery may be used to: Remove warts Destroy precancerous skin lesions (actinic keratoses or solar keratoses) In rare cases, ...

  9. Bioactive Peptides in Milk and Dairy Products: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Woo; Nam, Myoung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Functionally and physiologically active peptides are produced from several food proteins during gastrointestinal digestion and fermentation of food materials with lactic acid bacteria. Once bioactive peptides (BPs) are liberated, they exhibit a wide variety of physiological functions in the human body such as gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, immune, endocrine, and nervous systems. These functionalities of the peptides in human health and physiology include antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antioxidative, antithrombotic, opioid, anti-appetizing, immunomodulatory and mineral-binding activities. Most of the bioactivities of milk proteins are latent, being absent or incomplete in the original native protein, but full activities are manifested upon proteolytic digestion to release and activate encrypted bioactive peptides from the original protein. Bioactive peptides have been identified within the amino acid sequences of native milk proteins. Due to their physiological and physico-chemical versatility, milk peptides are regarded as greatly important components for health promoting foods or pharmaceutical applications. Milk and colostrum of bovine and other dairy species are considered as the most important source of natural bioactive components. Over the past a few decades, major advances and developments have been achieved on the science, technology and commercial applications of bioactive components which are present naturally in the milk. Although the majority of published works are associated with the search of bioactive peptides in bovine milk samples, some of them are involved in the investigation of ovine or caprine milk. The advent of functional foods has been facilitated by increasing scientific knowledge about the metabolic and genomic effects of diet and specific dietary components on human health. PMID:26877644

  10. Electrostatic Control of Bioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberger, Joshua E.; Berns, Eric J.; Bitton, Ronit; Newcomb, Christina J.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2012-03-15

    The power of independence: When exhibited on the surface of self-assembling peptide-amphiphile nanofibers, the hydrophobic laminin-derived IKVAV epitope induced nanofiber bundling through interdigitation with neighboring fibers and thus decreased the bioactivity of the resulting materials. The inclusion of charged amino acids in the peptide amphiphiles disrupted the tendency to bundle and led to significantly enhanced neurite outgrowth.

  11. New bioactive lipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octad...

  12. New bioactive fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octad...

  13. New Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecen...

  14. Bioactive glass coupling with natural polyphenols: Surface modification, bioactivity and anti-oxidant ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzola, Martina; Corazzari, Ingrid; Prenesti, Enrico; Bertone, Elisa; Vernè, Enrica; Ferraris, Sara

    2016-03-01

    Polyphenols are actually achieving an increasing interest due to their potential health benefits, such as antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial and bone stimulation abilities. However their poor bioavailability and stability hamper an effective clinical application as therapeutic principles. The opportunity to couple these biomolecules with synthetic biomaterials, in order to obtain local delivery at the site of interest, improve their bioavailability and stability and combine their properties with the ones of the substrate, is a challenging opportunity for the biomedical research. A silica based bioactive glass, CEL2, has been successfully coupled with gallic acid and natural polyphenols extracted from red grape skins and green tea leaves. The effectiveness of grafting has been verified by means of XPS analyses and the Folin&Ciocalteu tests. In vitro bioactivity has been investigated by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). Surface modification after functionalization and early stage reactivity in SBF have been studied by means of zeta potential electrokinetic measurements in KCl and SBF. Finally the antioxidant properties of bare and modified bioactive glasses has been investigated by means of the evaluation of free radical scavenging activity by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR)/spin trapping technique after UV photolysis of H2O2 highlighting scavenging activity of the bioactive glass.

  15. Bioactivity of degradable polymer sutures coated with bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Bretcanu, Oana; Verné, Enrica; Borello, Luisa; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2004-08-01

    Novel bioactive materials have been prepared by coating violet resorbable Vicryl sutures with a bioactive glass powder derived from a co-precipitation method. Two techniques have been chosen for the composite preparation: pressing the sutures in a bed of glass powder and slurry-dipping of sutures in liquid suspensions of bioactive glass powders. The uniformity and thickness of the coatings obtained by the two methods were compared. The bioactivity of the sutures with and without bioactive glass coating was tested by soaking in an inorganic acellular simulated body fluid (SBF). The composite sutures were characterised by XRD, SEM and FTIR analyses before and after soaking in SBF solution to assess the formation of hydroxyapatite on their surfaces, which is a qualitative measure of their bioactivity. The possible use of bioactive sutures to produce tissue engineering scaffolds and as reinforcement of resorbable calcium phosphates is discussed. PMID:15477741

  16. Porous bioactive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai

    Bioactive materials chemically bond to tissues through the development of biologically active apatite. Porous structures in biomaterials are designed to enhance bioactivity, grow artificial tissues and achieve better integration with host tissues in the body. The goal of this research is to design, fabricate and characterize novel porous bioactive materials. 3D ordered macroporous bioactive glasses (3DOM-BGs, pore size: 200--1000 nm) were prepared using a sol-gel process and colloidal crystal templates. 3DOM-BGs are more bioactive and degradable than mesoporous (pore size <50 nm) sol-gel BGs in simulated body fluid (SBF). Apatite formation and 3DOM-BG degradation rates increased with the decrease of soaking ratio. Apatite induction time in SBF increased with 3DOM-BG calcination temperature (600--800°C). Apatite formation and 3DOMBG degradation were slightly enhanced for a phosphate containing composition. Large 3DOM-BG particles formed less apatite and degraded less completely as compared with small particles. An increase in macropore size slowed down 3DOM-BG degradation and apatite formation processes. After heating the converted apatite at a temperature higher than 700°C, highly crystalline hydroxyapatite and a minor tri-calcium phosphate phase formed. 3DOM-BGs have potential applications as bone/periodontal fillers, and drugs and biological factors delivery agents. Anchoring artificial soft tissues (e.g., cartilage) to native bone presents a challenge. Porous polymer/bioactive glass composites are candidate materials for engineering artificial soft tissue/bone interfaces. Porous composites consisting of polymer matrices (e.g., polysulfone, polylactide, and polyurethane) and bioactive glass particles were prepared by polymer phase separation techniques adapted to include ceramic particles. Composites (thickness: 200--500 mum) have asymmetric structures with dense top layers and porous structures beneath. Porous structures consist of large pores (>100 mum) in a

  17. Skin Biomes.

    PubMed

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders. PMID:27056560

  18. MicroRNAs in skin tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kyle J; Brown, David A; Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Ramchal, Talisha D; Levinson, Howard

    2015-07-01

    35.2 million annual cases in the U.S. require clinical intervention for major skin loss. To meet this demand, the field of skin tissue engineering has grown rapidly over the past 40 years. Traditionally, skin tissue engineering relies on the "cell-scaffold-signal" approach, whereby isolated cells are formulated into a three-dimensional substrate matrix, or scaffold, and exposed to the proper molecular, physical, and/or electrical signals to encourage growth and differentiation. However, clinically available bioengineered skin equivalents (BSEs) suffer from a number of drawbacks, including time required to generate autologous BSEs, poor allogeneic BSE survival, and physical limitations such as mass transfer issues. Additionally, different types of skin wounds require different BSE designs. MicroRNA has recently emerged as a new and exciting field of RNA interference that can overcome the barriers of BSE design. MicroRNA can regulate cellular behavior, change the bioactive milieu of the skin, and be delivered to skin tissue in a number of ways. While it is still in its infancy, the use of microRNAs in skin tissue engineering offers the opportunity to both enhance and expand a field for which there is still a vast unmet clinical need. Here we give a review of skin tissue engineering, focusing on the important cellular processes, bioactive mediators, and scaffolds. We further discuss potential microRNA targets for each individual component, and we conclude with possible future applications. PMID:25953499

  19. Quantification and bioaccessibility of california pistachio bioactives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuntao; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Chen, C-Y Oliver

    2014-02-19

    The content of carotenoids, chlorophylls, phenolics, and tocols in pistachios ( Pistacia vera L.) has not been methodically quantified. The objective of this study was to first optimize extraction protocols for lipophilic nutrients and then quantify the content of two phenolic acids, nine flavonoids, four carotenoids, two chlorophylls, and three tocols in the skin, nutmeat, and whole nut of California pistachios. The dominant bioactives in whole pistachios are lutein [42.35 μg/g fresh weight (FW)], chlorophyll a (142.24 μg/g FW), γ-tocopherol (182.20 μg/g FW), flavan-3-ols (catechins) (199.18 μg/g FW), luteolin (217.89 μg/g FW), myricetin (135.18 μg/g FW), and cyanidin-3-galactose (38.34 μg/g FW) in each nutrient class. Most phenolics are present in the skin, while the lipophilic nutrients are dominantly present in the nutmeat. Digestion with a gastrointestinal mimic showed <10% of most hydrophilic compounds are released from pistachio matrices. In conclusion, 9 lipophilic and 11 hydrophilic bioactives in pistachios are systematically quantified. PMID:24460079

  20. The Microbiota of the Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Egert, Markus; Simmering, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to sum up important progress in the field of human skin microbiota research that was achieved over the last years.The human skin is one of the largest and most versatile organs of the human body. Owing to its function as a protective interface between the largely sterile interior of the human body and the highly microbially contaminated outer environment, it is densely colonized with a diverse and active microbiota. This skin microbiota is of high importance for human health and well-being. It is implicated in several severe skin diseases and plays a major role in wound infections. Many less severe, but negatively perceived cosmetic skin phenomena are linked with skin microbes, too. In addition, skin microorganisms, in particular on the human hands, are crucial for the field of hygiene research. Notably, apart from being only a potential source of disease and contamination, the skin microbiota also contributes to the protective functions of the human skin in many ways. Finally, the analysis of structure and function of the human skin microbiota is interesting from a basic, evolutionary perspective on human microbe interactions.Key questions in the field of skin microbiota research deal with (a) a deeper understanding of the structure (species inventory) and function (physiology) of the healthy human skin microbiota in space and time, (b) the distinction of resident and transient skin microbiota members, PMID:27161351

  1. Tandem ion exchange fractionation of chicken egg white reveals the presence of proliferative bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Albert; Molloy, Mark P; Baker, Mark S; Kapur, Amit

    2013-05-01

    Chicken eggs are recognized for their versatility as a food product and as a model for research in biology and medicine. This study investigated the egg white as a source of bioactive compounds. Egg white was fractionated using tandem ion exchange chromatography (SAX and SCX), and seven fractions were assessed for any associated bioactivity. Four fractions at various protein concentrations were shown to contain proliferative bioactivity that exceeded the FBS control. The most potent fraction (6) was used in an in vitro wound closure assay to demonstrate a positive influence on cell migration and restored scratch wounds more rapidly than the control. LC-MS/MS identified 33 proteins in fraction 6 of egg white, most of which play important roles in cell growth and development, signaling, motility, and proliferation. These candidate bioactives suggest that the egg white contains essential compounds that contribute to the growth of an embryo prior to fertilization. PMID:23574589

  2. Versatile document image content extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Henry S.; Moll, Michael A.; Nonnemaker, Jean; Casey, Matthew R.; Delorenzo, Don L.

    2006-01-01

    We offer a preliminary report on a research program to investigate versatile algorithms for document image content extraction, that is locating regions containing handwriting, machine-print text, graphics, line-art, logos, photographs, noise, etc. To solve this problem in its full generality requires coping with a vast diversity of document and image types. Automatically trainable methods are highly desirable, as well as extremely high speed in order to process large collections. Significant obstacles include the expense of preparing correctly labeled ("ground-truthed") samples, unresolved methodological questions in specifying the domain (e.g. what is a representative collection of document images?), and a lack of consensus among researchers on how to evaluate content-extraction performance. Our research strategy emphasizes versatility first: that is, we concentrate at the outset on designing methods that promise to work across the broadest possible range of cases. This strategy has several important implications: the classifiers must be trainable in reasonable time on vast data sets; and expensive ground-truthed data sets must be complemented by amplification using generative models. These and other design and architectural issues are discussed. We propose a trainable classification methodology that marries k-d trees and hash-driven table lookup and describe preliminary experiments.

  3. Versatile Reed-Solomon decoders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajableh-Shayan, Yousef

    1990-08-01

    Reed-Solomon (RS) codes have found many applications such as space and mobile communication due to their error correcting capability (ECC) and optimum structure. It is shown that time domain algorithms are the best candidates for designing versatile hardware decoders, but syndrome based algorithms are advantageous for software decoders. The algorithms for decoding RS codes require algebraic operations over Galois fields. Parallel in, parallel out multipliers and inverters in Galois fields are considered and least complex structures for the multiplier are introduced. A new normal basis multiplier is presented, as well as a universal multiplier for multiplying two elements of Galois field 2 to the m (m=4,5,6,7,8). The time domain algorithm based on transform decoder is restructured and two versatile decoder structures are presented. Both are simple and modular, thus suitable for very large scale integration design, and can be used for decoding any primitive RS code defined in a specific Galois field. The ECC of these decoders is configurable. The structure of a universal RS decoder is also presented. The time domain decoding algorithm based on algebraic decoder is modified to reduce the complexity of the universal decoder. The ECC and the size for the Galois field of this decoder are configurable. A method is also introduced for decoding RS codes generated by any generator polynomial.

  4. Mechanisms of Nitrite Bioactivation

    PubMed Central

    Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    It is now accepted that the anion nitrite, once considered an inert oxidation product of nitric oxide (NO), contributes to hypoxic vasodilation, physiological blood pressure control, and redox signaling. As such, its application in therapeutics is being actively testing in pre-clinical models and in human phase I–II clinical trials. Major pathways for nitrite bioactivation involve its reduction to NO by members of the hemoglobin or molybdopterin family of proteins, or catalyzed dysproportionation. These conversions occur preferentially under hypoxic and acidic conditions. A number of enzymatic systems reduce nitrite to NO and their activity and importance are defined by oxygen tension, specific organ system and allosteric and redox effectors. In this work, we review different proposed mechanisms of nitrite bioactivation, focusing on analysis of kinetics and experimental evidence for the relevance of each mechanism under different conditions. PMID:24315961

  5. Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Peanut Skin Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut skins are regarded as a low economic value by-product of the peanut industry; however, they contain high levels of bioactive compounds including catechins and procyanidins, which are known for their health-promoting properties. The in vitro antioxidant activity of peanut skin extracts (PSE) ...

  6. Bioactive glass in tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Day, Delbert E.; Bal, B. Sonny; Fu, Qiang; Jung, Steven B.; Bonewald, Lynda F.; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on recent advances in the development and use of bioactive glass for tissue engineering applications. Despite its inherent brittleness, bioactive glass has several appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. New bioactive glasses based on borate and borosilicate compositions have shown the ability to enhance new bone formation when compared to silicate bioactive glass. Borate-based bioactive glasses also have controllable degradation rates, so the degradation of the bioactive glass implant can be more closely matched to the rate of new bone formation. Bioactive glasses can be doped with trace quantities of elements such as Cu, Zn and Sr, which are known to be beneficial for healthy bone growth. In addition to the new bioactive glasses, recent advances in biomaterials processing have resulted in the creation of scaffold architectures with a range of mechanical properties suitable for the substitution of loaded as well as non-loaded bone. While bioactive glass has been extensively investigated for bone repair, there has been relatively little research on the application of bioactive glass to the repair of soft tissues. However, recent work has shown the ability of bioactive glass to promote angiogenesis, which is critical to numerous applications in tissue regeneration, such as neovascularization for bone regeneration and the healing of soft tissue wounds. Bioactive glass has also been shown to enhance neocartilage formation during in vitro culture of chondrocyte-seeded hydrogels, and to serve as a subchondral substrate for tissue-engineered osteochondral constructs. Methods used to manipulate the structure and performance of bioactive glass in these tissue engineering applications are analyzed. PMID:21421084

  7. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  8. Skin Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs that can help clear up this condition. Day-to-Day Skin Care See our tips for daily skin ... Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your ...

  9. Skin lumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... and contains fluid or semisolid material Benign skin growths such as seborrheic keratoses or neurofibromas Boils , painful, red bumps usually involving an infected hair follicle Corn or callus, caused by skin thickening in response ...

  10. Skin Pigment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Version Pigment Disorders Overview of Skin Pigment Albinism Vitiligo Hyperpigmentation Melasma Melanin is the brown pigment ... dark-skinned people produce the most. People with albinism have little or no melanin and thus their ...

  11. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused a large amount of skin loss Burns Cosmetic reasons or reconstructive surgeries where there has been skin damage or skin ... anesthesia are: Reactions to medicines Problems with breathing Risks for this surgery are: Bleeding Chronic pain (rarely) Infection Loss of ...

  12. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  13. Folate in Skin Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J.D.; Jacobson, Elaine L.; Kim, H.; Kim, M.; Jacobson, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Skin, the largest, most exposed organ of the body, provides a protective interface between humans and the environment. One of its primary roles is protection against exposure to sunlight, a major source of skin damage where the UV radiation (UVR) component functions as a complete carcinogen. Melanin pigmentation and the evolution of dark skin is an adaptive protective mechanism against high levels of UVR exposure. Recently, the hypothesis that skin pigmentation balances folate preservation and Vitamin D production has emerged. Both micronutrients are essential for reproductive success. Photodegradation of bioactive folates suggests a mechanism for the increased tendency of populations of low melanin pigmentation residing in areas of high UV exposure to develop skin cancers. Folate is proposed as a cancer prevention target for its role in providing precursors for DNA repair and replication, as well as its ability to promote genomic integrity through the generation of methyl groups needed for control of gene expression. The cancer prevention potential of folate has been demonstrated by large-scale epidemiological and nutritional studies indicating that decreased folate status increases the risk of developing certain cancers. While folate deficiency has been extensively documented by analysis of human plasma, folate status within skin has not been widely investigated. Nevertheless, inefficient delivery of micronutrients to skin and photolysis of folate argue that documented folate deficiencies will be present if not exacerbated in skin. Our studies indicate a critical role for folate in skin and the potential to protect sun exposed skin by effective topical delivery as a strategy for cancer prevention. PMID:22116700

  14. Sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Misery, L; Loser, K; Ständer, S

    2016-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical condition defined by the self-reported facial presence of different sensory perceptions, including tightness, stinging, burning, tingling, pain and pruritus. Sensitive skin may occur in individuals with normal skin, with skin barrier disturbance, or as a part of the symptoms associated with facial dermatoses such as rosacea, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although experimental studies are still pending, the symptoms of sensitive skin suggest the involvement of cutaneous nerve fibres and neuronal, as well as epidermal, thermochannels. Many individuals with sensitive skin report worsening symptoms due to environmental factors. It is thought that this might be attributed to the thermochannel TRPV1, as it typically responds to exogenous, endogenous, physical and chemical stimuli. Barrier disruptions and immune mechanisms may also be involved. This review summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology, potential mechanisms, clinics and therapy of sensitive skin. PMID:26805416

  15. Broad spectrum bioactive sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Sarruf, Fernanda Daud; Salgado-Santos, Idalina Maria Nunes; Haroutiounian-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Baby, André Rolim

    2008-11-01

    The development of sunscreens containing reduced concentration of chemical UV filters, even though, possessing broad spectrum effectiveness with the use of natural raw materials that improve and infer UV absorption is of great interest. Due to the structural similarities between polyphenolic compounds and organic UV filters, they might exert photoprotection activity. The objective of the present research work was to develop bioactive sunscreen delivery systems containing rutin, Passiflora incarnata L. and Plantago lanceolata extracts associated or not with organic and inorganic UV filters. UV transmission of the sunscreen delivery system films was performed by using diffuse transmittance measurements coupling to an integrating sphere. In vitro photoprotection efficacy was evaluated according to the following parameters: estimated sun protection factor (SPF); Boot's Star Rating category; UVA/UVB ratio; and critical wavelength (lambda(c)). Sunscreen delivery systems obtained SPF values ranging from 0.972+/-0.004 to 28.064+/-2.429 and bioactive compounds interacted with the UV filters positive and negatively. This behavior may be attributed to: the composition of the delivery system; the presence of inorganic UV filter and quantitative composition of the organic UV filters; and the phytochemical composition of the P. incarnata L. and P. lanceolata extracts. Among all associations of bioactive compounds and UV filters, we found that the broad spectrum sunscreen was accomplished when 1.68% (w/w) P. incarnata L. dry extract was in the presence of 7.0% (w/w) ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, 2.0% (w/w) benzophenone-3 and 2.0% (w/w) TiO(2). It was demonstrated that this association generated estimated SPF of 20.072+/-0.906 and it has improved the protective defense against UVA radiation accompanying augmentation of the UVA/UVB ratio from 0.49 to 0.52 and lambda(c) from 364 to 368.6nm. PMID:18662760

  16. Using machine learning for improving knowledge on antibacterial effect of bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Echezarreta-López, M M; Landin, M

    2013-09-10

    The aim of this work was to find relationships between critical bioactive glass characteristics and their antibacterial behaviour using an artificial intelligence tool. A large dataset including ingredients and process variables of the bioactive glasses production, bacterial characteristics and microbiological experimental conditions was generated from literature and analyzed by neurofuzzy logic technology. Our findings allow an explanation on the variability in antibacterial behaviour found by different authors and to obtain general conclusions about critical parameters of bioactive glasses to be considered in order to achieve activity against some of the most common skin and implant surgery pathogens. PMID:23806814

  17. Skin aging and dry skin.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Hideo

    2004-08-01

    Skin aging appears to be the result of both scheduled and continuous "wear and tear" processes that damage cellular DNA and proteins. Two types of aging, chronological skin aging and photoaging, have distinct clinical and histological features. Chronological skin aging is a universal and inevitable process characterized primarily by physiologic alterations in skin function. In this case, keratinocytes are unable to properly terminally differentiate to form a functional stratum corneum, and the rate of formation of neutral lipids that contribute to the barrier function slows, causing dry, pale skin with fine wrinkles. In contrast, photoaging results from the UVR of sunlight and the damage thus becomes apparent in sun-exposed skin. Characteristics of this aging type are dry and sallow skin displaying fine wrinkles as well as deep furrows, resulting from the disorganization of epidermal and dermal components associated with elastosis and heliodermatitis. Understanding of the functions of the skin and the basic principles of moisturizer use and application is important for the prevention of skin aging. Successful treatment of dry skin with appropriate skin care products gives the impression of eternal youth. PMID:15492432

  18. Bioactivity in Organic Chemistry Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Lloyd N.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are three ways in which bioactivity of organic compounds has been introduced in organic chemistry courses. One is to point out a typical bioactivity of a given functional group. A second is to discuss biorganic mechanisms. A third is to draw structure-activity correlations (SAR). (Author/HM)

  19. Antimicrobial Peptides: Versatile Biological Properties

    PubMed Central

    Pushpanathan, Muthuirulan; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are diverse group of biologically active molecules with multidimensional properties. In recent past, a wide variety of AMPs with diverse structures have been reported from different sources such as plants, animals, mammals, and microorganisms. The presence of unusual amino acids and structural motifs in AMPs confers unique structural properties to the peptide that attribute for their specific mode of action. The ability of these active AMPs to act as multifunctional effector molecules such as signalling molecule, immune modulators, mitogen, antitumor, and contraceptive agent makes it an interesting candidate to study every aspect of their structural and biological properties for prophylactic and therapeutic applications. In addition, easy cloning and recombinant expression of AMPs in heterologous plant host systems provided a pipeline for production of disease resistant transgenic plants. Besides these properties, AMPs were also used as drug delivery vectors to deliver cell impermeable drugs to cell interior. The present review focuses on the diversity and broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of AMPs along with its multidimensional properties that could be exploited for the application of these bioactive peptides as a potential and promising drug candidate in pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23935642

  20. The Versatile Modiolus Perforator Flap

    PubMed Central

    Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur; Thomsen, Jorn Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perforator flaps are well established, and their usefulness as freestyle island flaps is recognized. The whereabouts of vascular perforators and classification of perforator flaps in the face are a debated subject, despite several anatomical studies showing similar consistency. In our experience using freestyle facial perforator flaps, we have located areas where perforators are consistently found. This study is focused on a particular perforator lateral to the angle of the mouth; the modiolus and the versatile modiolus perforator flap. Methods: A cohort case series of 14 modiolus perforator flap reconstructions in 14 patients and a color Doppler ultrasonography localization of the modiolus perforator in 10 volunteers. Results: All 14 flaps were successfully used to reconstruct the defects involved, and the location of the perforator was at the level of the modiolus as predicted. The color Doppler ultrasonography study detected a sizeable perforator at the level of the modiolus lateral to the angle of the mouth within a radius of 1 cm. This confirms the anatomical findings of previous authors and indicates that the modiolus perforator is a consistent anatomical finding, and flaps based on it can be recommended for several indications from the reconstruction of defects in the perioral area, cheek and nose. Conclusions: The modiolus is a well-described anatomical area containing a sizeable perforator that is consistently present and readily visualized using color Doppler ultrasonography. We have used the modiolus perforator flap successfully for several indications, and it is our first choice for perioral reconstruction. PMID:27257591

  1. VEGAS: VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussa, Srikanth; VEGAS Development Team

    2012-01-01

    The National Science Foundation Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation (NSF-ATI) program is funding a new spectrometer backend for the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). This spectrometer is being built by the CICADA collaboration - collaboration between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the Center for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) at the University of California Berkeley.The backend is named as VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) and will replace the capabilities of the existing spectrometers. This backend supports data processing from focal plane array systems. The spectrometer will be capable of processing up to 1.25 GHz bandwidth from 8 dual polarized beams or a bandwidth up to 10 GHz from a dual polarized beam.The spectrometer will be using 8-bit analog to digital converters (ADC), which gives a better dynamic range than existing GBT spectrometers. There will be 8 tunable digital sub-bands within the 1.25 GHz bandwidth, which will enhance the capability of simultaneous observation of multiple spectral transitions. The maximum spectral dump rate to disk will be about 0.5 msec. The vastly enhanced backend capabilities will support several science projects with the GBT. The projects include mapping temperature and density structure of molecular clouds; searches for organic molecules in the interstellar medium; determination of the fundamental constants of our evolving Universe; red-shifted spectral features from galaxies across cosmic time and survey for pulsars in the extreme gravitational environment of the Galactic Center.

  2. Misconstrued versatility of Ganoderma lucidum: a key player in multi-targeted cellular signaling.

    PubMed

    Gill, Balraj Singh; Sharma, Prateek; Kumar, Raj; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2016-03-01

    A Basidiomycetes fungus belonging to polypore family of mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum (GL), has been known since a long time for their myriad therapeutic indications. Renowned as an invaluable resource of cardinal mycoconstituents they encompass numerous terpenoids polysaccharides and proteins. Possessing the therapeutically potent lanosteroidal skeleton, terpenoids are upheld for their invariable participation in therapeutically diverse bioactivities. Polysaccharides and proteins exhibiting distinguishable bioactivities provide this oriental mushroom with additional edges over immune function and anti-cancer potential. This review is a concerted effort to throw light upon the therapeutic versatility of the fungus, shadowed by various other natural products. An effort has been made towards conglomerating the mycoconstituents decisive for the many activities portrayed by this fungus. More importantly, this review seeks to fathom the inextricable role played by derivatives in modulating signaling cascades such as downregulation of various mitogenic pathways, inhibiting growth factors, or upregulating certain pathways enhancing cellular integrity. PMID:26715282

  3. Skin optics

    SciTech Connect

    van Gemert, M.J.; Jacques, S.L.; Sterenborg, H.J.; Star, W.M.

    1989-12-01

    Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model representing skin geometry, as well as experimental methods to determine the optical properties of each skin layer. These activities are unified under the name skin optics. This paper first reviews the current status of tissue optics, distinguishing between the cases of: dominant absorption, dominant scattering, and scattering about equal to absorption. Then, previously published data as well as some current unpublished data on (human) stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis, have been collected and/or (re)analyzed in terms of absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and anisotropy factor of scattering. The results are that the individual skin layers show strongly forward scattering (anisotropy factors between 0.7 and 0.9). The absorption and scattering data show that for all wavelengths considered scattering is much more important than absorption. Under such circumstances, solutions to the transport equation for a multilayer skin model and finite beam laser irradiation are currently not yet available. Hence, any quantitative dosimetry for skin treated with (laser) light is currently lacking.

  4. Methanol: A Versatile Fuel for Immediate Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, T. B.; Lerner, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Advocates the large-scale production and use of methanol as a substitute for the diminishing reserves of low-cost petroleum resources. Describes the manufacturing process and advantages of the versatile fuel. (JR)

  5. Nocardiopsis species: a potential source of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Bennur, T; Ravi Kumar, A; Zinjarde, S S; Javdekar, V

    2016-01-01

    Members of the genus Nocardiopsis are an ecologically versatile and biotechnologically important group of Actinomycetes. Most of the isolates are halotolerant or halophilic and they prevail in soils, marine environments or hypersaline locations. To aid their survival under these conditions, they mainly produce extremozymes, compatible solutes, surfactants and bioactive compounds. The current review details the bioactive compounds obtained for this genus. Important antimicrobial agents obtained from this genus include polyketides, phenzines, quinoline alkaloids, terphenyls, proteins, thiopeptides and amines. Polyketides and peptides displaying potent anticancer activities are also significant. Tumour promoting agents, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors, immunomodulators and protein kinase inhibitors are other relevant products obtained from Nocardiopsis species. Structurally, polyketides (synthesized by polyketide synthases) and peptides (made by nonribosomal peptide synthetases or cyclodipeptide synthases) are important compounds. Considered here are also toxins, anti photoaging and adipogenic agents produced by this genus. The gene clusters mediating the synthesis of bioactive compounds have been described. Commercially available products (Apoptolidins and K-252a) derived from this genus have also been described. This review highlights the significance of a single genus in producing an assortment of compounds with varied biological activities. On account of these features, the members of this genus have established a place for themselves and are of considerable value in producing compounds with profound bio-medical applications. PMID:26369300

  6. Skin Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Nicole; Cohen, George

    2014-01-01

    In a relatively short timespan, a wealth of new skin substitutes made of synthetic and biologically derived materials have arisen for the purpose of wound healing of various etiologies. This review article focuses on providing an overview of skin substitutes including their indications, contraindications, benefits, and limitations. The result of this overview was an appreciation of the vast array of options available for clinicians, many of which did not exist a short time ago. Yet, despite the rapid expansion this field has undergone, no ideal skin substitute is currently available. More research in the field of skin substitutes and wound healing is required not only for the development of new products made of increasingly complex biomolecular material, but also to compare the existing skin substitutes. PMID:25371771

  7. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry: a versatile technique for real world samples.

    PubMed

    Rintoul, L; Panayiotou, H; Kokot, S; George, G; Cash, G; Frost, R; Bui, T; Fredericks, P

    1998-04-01

    The versatility of FTIR spectrometry was explored by considering a variety of samples drawn from industrial applications, materials science and biomedical research. These samples included polymeric insulators, bauxite ore, clay, human hair and human skin. A range of sampling techniques suitable for these samples is discussed, in particular FTIR microscopy, FTIR emission spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance and photoacoustic FTIR spectrometry. The power of modern data processing techniques, particularly multivariate analysis, to extract useful information from spectral data is also illustrated. PMID:9684399

  8. Gamma Radiation Effects on Peanut Skin Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-D’Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2012-01-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached-deodorized (RBD) soybean oil. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Oil Stability Index method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. All extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Oil Stability Index method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts’ antioxidative properties when added to soybean oil. PMID:22489142

  9. Gamma radiation effects on peanut skin antioxidants.

    PubMed

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-D'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2012-01-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached-deodorized (RBD) soybean oil. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Oil Stability Index method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. All extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Oil Stability Index method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts' antioxidative properties when added to soybean oil. PMID:22489142

  10. Skin Cancer in Skin of Color

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Porcia T.

    2009-01-01

    Skin cancers in skin of color often present atypically or with advanced stage in comparison to Caucasian patients. Health care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion when examining skin lesions in skin of color. PMID:19691228

  11. Bioactive Glasses: Frontiers and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Hench, Larry L.; Jones, Julian R.

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive glasses were discovered in 1969 and provided for the first time an alternative to nearly inert implant materials. Bioglass formed a rapid, strong, and stable bond with host tissues. This article examines the frontiers of research crossed to achieve clinical use of bioactive glasses and glass–ceramics. In the 1980s, it was discovered that bioactive glasses could be used in particulate form to stimulate osteogenesis, which thereby led to the concept of regeneration of tissues. Later, it was discovered that the dissolution ions from the glasses behaved like growth factors, providing signals to the cells. This article summarizes the frontiers of knowledge crossed during four eras of development of bioactive glasses that have led from concept of bioactivity to widespread clinical and commercial use, with emphasis on the first composition, 45S5 Bioglass®. The four eras are (a) discovery, (b) clinical application, (c) tissue regeneration, and (d) innovation. Questions still to be answered for the fourth era are included to stimulate innovation in the field and exploration of new frontiers that can be the basis for a general theory of bioactive stimulation of regeneration of tissues and application to numerous clinical needs. PMID:26649290

  12. Hyperelastic skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... is most often seen in people who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic skin. ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present?

  13. Your Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Butterflies? Read This Chloe & Nurb Meet The Brain (Movie) Quiz: Do You Need a Flu Shot? Got ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Movie: Skin Acne Myths Blisters, Calluses, and Corns Fungal ...

  14. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Review. 17 Wu S, Han J, Laden F, Qureshi AA. Long-term ultraviolet flux, other potential risk factors, ... MR, Shive ML, Chren MM, Han J, Qureshi AA, Linos E. Indoor tanning and non-melanoma skin ...

  15. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... nearby What to Do Teach kids not to pop, pick at, or scratch pimples, pus-filled infections, ... Your Skin Abscess Impetigo Ringworm Cellulitis Should I Pop My Pimple? Tips for Taking Care of Your ...

  16. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposure to ultraviolet light, which is found in sunlight and in lights used in tanning salons. What ... the safe-sun guidelines. 1. Avoid the sun. Sunlight damages your skin. The sun is strongest during ...

  17. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... early. If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ... and a type of laser light to kill cancer cells. Biologic therapy boosts your body's own ability to ...

  18. Hyperelastic skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... is most often seen in people who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic skin. ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present? Alternative Names India ...

  19. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...

  20. Analyzing cranberry bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Côté, J; Caillet, S; Doyon, G; Sylvain, J-F; Lacroix, M

    2010-10-01

    There is a growing public interest for the North American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) as a functional food because of the potential health benefits linked to phytochemical compounds present in the fruit--the anthocyanin pigments, responsible for its brilliant red color, and other secondary plant metabolites (flavonols, flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acid derivatives). Isolation of these phenolic compounds and flavonoids from a sample matrix is a prerequisite to any comprehensive analysis scheme. By far the most widely employed analytical technique for the characterization of these compounds has been high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) coupled with ultraviolet-visible(UV/Vis) and mass spectrometer(MS) detection. This review covers the cranberry major bioactive compounds, the extraction and purification methods, and the analytical conditions for HPLC used to characterize them. Extraction, chromatographic separation and detection strategies, analyte determinations, and applications in HPLC are discussed and the information regarding methods of specific cranberry analyte analyses has been summarized in tabular form to provide a means of rapid access to information pertinent to the reader. PMID:20924868

  1. Senescent Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kushniruk, William

    1974-01-01

    The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067

  2. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  3. Skin care and incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    Incontinence - skin care ... in a wheelchair, regular chair, or bed TAKING CARE OF THE SKIN Using diapers and other products ... skin. Over time, the skin breaks down. Special care must be taken to keep the skin clean ...

  4. Skin characteristics in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    Newborn skin characteristics; Infant skin characteristics ... the first few weeks of the baby's life. Newborn skin will vary, depending on the length of the pregnancy. Premature infants have thin, transparent skin. The skin of a ...

  5. Skin compatibility and antimicrobial studies on biofunctionalized polypropylene fabric.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Sadiya; Gupta, Amlan; Sharma, Deepika; Dalal, Prashansa; Gupta, Bhuvanesh

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was the development of antimicrobial fabric which can be used as skin contacting material. The nanosilver loaded bioactive nanogels of polyacrylamide were prepared by gamma irradiation process and the particle size was observed to be in the range of 10-50nm. In this study, we used polyethylene glycol as carrier for the combination of functional nanogel and essential oils together. Plasma functionalized polypropylene fabric was used as the base material for the bio-immobilization. Bioactive emulsion was coated on the fabric which exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Skin irritation studies were carried out over a period of 3d on Swiss albino mice. Histopathology studies of the fabric did not show adverse inflammatory response in contact with the skin. The biofunctionalized fabric offers appear to be promising material for skin contacting applications. PMID:27612801

  6. The versatility of the Lapidus arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Blitz, Neal M

    2009-07-01

    Lapidus Arthrodesis is probably the most versatile procedure of the foot and ankle surgeon. The procedure was conceived initially for the surgical treatment of met primus adductus associated with hallux valgus, but has also been used for the treatment of a variety of other conditions including hallux limitus, revision bunion surgery, medial column stabilization, and others. Although the use of the Lapidus in bunion surgery is well supported in the literature, surgeons have been expanding its indications to manage a variety of disorders affecting the foot. As more surgeons continue to gain experience with the procedure, additional studies will emerge, further supporting its versatility in the realm of foot surgery. PMID:19505642

  7. Harnessing the Versatility of Bacterial Collagen to Improve the Chondrogenic Potential of Porous Collagen Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Paresh A; St-Pierre, Jean-Philippe; Chow, Lesley W; Puetzer, Jennifer L; Stoichevska, Violet; Peng, Yong Y; Werkmeister, Jerome A; Ramshaw, John A M; Stevens, Molly M

    2016-07-01

    Collagen I foams are used in the clinic as scaffolds to promote articular cartilage repair as they provide a bioactive environment for cells with chondrogenic potential. However, collagen I as a base material does not allow for precise control over bioactivity. Alternatively, recombinant bacterial collagens can be used as "blank slate" collagen molecules to offer a versatile platform for incorporation of selected bioactive sequences and fabrication into 3D scaffolds. Here, we show the potential of Streptococcal collagen-like 2 (Scl2) protein foams modified with peptides designed to specifically and noncovalently bind hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate to improve chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) compared to collagen I foams. Specific compositions of functionalized Scl2 foams lead to improved chondrogenesis compared to both nonfunctionalized Scl2 and collagen I foams, as indicated by gene expression, extracellular matrix accumulation, and compression moduli. hMSCs cultured in functionalized Scl2 foams exhibit decreased collagens I and X gene and protein expression, suggesting an advantage over collagen I foams in promoting a chondrocytic phenotype. These highly modular foams can be further modified to improve specific aspects chondrogenesis. As such, these scaffolds also have the potential to be tailored for other regenerative medicine applications. PMID:27219220

  8. Mushroom Lectins: Specificity, Structure and Bioactivity Relevant to Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Mohamed Ali Abol; Rouf, Razina; Tiralongo, Evelin; May, Tom W.; Tiralongo, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Lectins are non-immunoglobulin proteins that bind diverse sugar structures with a high degree of selectivity. Lectins play crucial role in various biological processes such as cellular signaling, scavenging of glycoproteins from the circulatory system, cell–cell interactions in the immune system, differentiation and protein targeting to cellular compartments, as well as in host defence mechanisms, inflammation, and cancer. Among all the sources of lectins, plants have been most extensively studied. However, more recently fungal lectins have attracted considerable attention due to their antitumor, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. Given that only 10% of mushroom species are known and have been taxonomically classified, mushrooms represent an enormous unexplored source of potentially useful and novel lectins. In this review we provide an up-to-date summary on the biochemical, molecular and structural properties of mushroom lectins, as well as their versatile applications specifically focusing on mushroom lectin bioactivity. PMID:25856678

  9. Mushroom lectins: specificity, structure and bioactivity relevant to human disease.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohamed Ali Abol; Rouf, Razina; Tiralongo, Evelin; May, Tom W; Tiralongo, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Lectins are non-immunoglobulin proteins that bind diverse sugar structures with a high degree of selectivity. Lectins play crucial role in various biological processes such as cellular signaling, scavenging of glycoproteins from the circulatory system, cell-cell interactions in the immune system, differentiation and protein targeting to cellular compartments, as well as in host defence mechanisms, inflammation, and cancer. Among all the sources of lectins, plants have been most extensively studied. However, more recently fungal lectins have attracted considerable attention due to their antitumor, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. Given that only 10% of mushroom species are known and have been taxonomically classified, mushrooms represent an enormous unexplored source of potentially useful and novel lectins. In this review we provide an up-to-date summary on the biochemical, molecular and structural properties of mushroom lectins, as well as their versatile applications specifically focusing on mushroom lectin bioactivity. PMID:25856678

  10. Attachment and conformational changes of collagen on bioactive glass surface.

    PubMed

    Magyari, K; Vanea, E; Baia, L; Simon, V

    2016-05-12

    The proteins adsorption on biomaterials surface leads to changes in their structural conformation that may further influence the adhesion, migration and growth of cells. The aim of this study was to examine the attachment of collagen (calf skin type I) on bioactive glass powders and the conformational changes of the protein. Scanning electron microscopy analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements indicate that the collagen cover the glass surface in a nanometric thin layer. The infrared amide I absorption signal shows pronounced changes in the secondary structure of the adsorbed collagen. PMID:27175468

  11. Bioactive saponins from Dioscorea futschauensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, H W; Hu, K; Zhao, Q C; Cui, C B; Kobayashi, H; Yao, X S

    2002-08-01

    A new anti-neoplastic spirostanol saponin, (25S)-spirost-5-en-3 beta, 27-diol-3O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->3)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside and three known compounds viz. prosapogenin A of dioscin, dioscin and gracilin were isolated from Dioscorea futschauensis by bioactivity-guided fractionation. Their structures were elucidated mainly by means of spectroscopic analysis. Their bioactivity against Pyricularia oryzae and cytotoxic activity on ts-FT210 cell line was evaluated. PMID:12227201

  12. A Versatile Technique for Solving Quintic Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulkarni, Raghavendra G.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a versatile technique to solve several types of solvable quintic equations. In the technique described here, the given quintic is first converted to a sextic equation by adding a root, and the resulting sextic equation is decomposed into two cubic polynomials as factors in a novel fashion. The resultant cubic equations are…

  13. Guinea Pigs: Versatile Animals for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.

    1977-01-01

    Guinea pigs are presented as versatile classroom animals. Suggestions for animal behavior and genetics studies are given. Also included is information concerning sex determination and the breeding of guinea pigs, and hints on keeping these animals in the classroom. References and illustrations complete the article. (MA)

  14. Skin cancer and photoaging in ethnic skin.

    PubMed

    Halder, Rebat M; Ara, Collette J

    2003-10-01

    Skin cancer prevalence in ethnic skin is low. Squamous cell carcinoma, hypopigmented mycosis fungoides, and acral lentiginous melanoma are the most serious types of skin cancer noted in the darker-skinned population. Photoaging occurs less frequently and is less severe in ethnic skin. PMID:14717413

  15. How to Check Your Skin for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Cancer Types Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer ...

  16. Bare Bones of Bioactive Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Paul Ducheyne, a principal investigator in the microgravity materials science program and head of the University of Pernsylvania's Center for Bioactive Materials and Tissue Engineering, is leading the trio as they use simulated microgravity to determine the optimal characteristics of tiny glass particles for growing bone tissue. The result could make possible a much broader range of synthetic bone-grafting applications. Even in normal gravity, bioactive glass particles enhance bone growth in laboratory tests with flat tissue cultures. Ducheyne and his team believe that using the bioactive microcarriers in a rotating bioreactor in microgravity will produce improved, three-dimensional tissue cultures. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and University of Pennsylvania Center for Bioactive Materials and Tissue Engineering.

  17. Computer-Aided Drug Design of Bioactive Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Prachayasittikul, Veda; Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Shoombuatong, Watshara; Songtawee, Napat; Simeon, Saw; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Nantasenamat, Chanin

    2015-01-01

    Natural products have been an integral part of sustaining civilizations because of their medicinal properties. Past discoveries of bioactive natural products have relied on serendipity, and these compounds serve as inspiration for the generation of analogs with desired physicochemical properties. Bioactive natural products with therapeutic potential are abundantly available in nature and some of them are beyond exploration by conventional methods. The effectiveness of computational approaches as versatile tools for facilitating drug discovery and development has been recognized for decades, without exception, in the case of natural products. In the post-genomic era, scientists are bombarded with data produced by advanced technologies. Thus, rendering these data into knowledge that is interpretable and meaningful becomes an essential issue. In this regard, computational approaches utilize the existing data to generate knowledge that provides valuable understanding for addressing current problems and guiding the further research and development of new natural-derived drugs. Furthermore, several medicinal plants have been continuously used in many traditional medicine systems since antiquity throughout the world, and their mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, the utilization of computational approaches and advanced synthetic techniques would yield great benefit to improving the world's health population and well-being. PMID:25961523

  18. PPD skin test

    MedlinePlus

    Purified protein derivative standard; TB skin test; Tuberculin skin test; Mantoux test ... Berger BJ. Mantoux skin test (PPD test, purified protein derivative test, Tb test, tuberculin skin test, TST, ...

  19. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  20. Allergy testing - skin

    MedlinePlus

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test ... There are three common methods of allergy skin testing. The skin prick test involves: Placing a small amount of substances that may be causing your symptoms on the skin, ...

  1. Versatile microfluidic droplets array for bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shan-Wen; Xu, Bi-Yi; Ye, Wei-Ke; Xia, Xing-Hua; Chen, Hong-Yuan; Xu, Jing-Juan

    2015-01-14

    We propose a novel method to obtain versatile droplets arrays on a regional hydrophilic chip that is fabricated by PDMS soft lithography and regional plasma treatment. It enables rapid liquid dispensation and droplets array formation just making the chip surface in contact with solution. By combining this chip with a special Christmas Tree structure, the droplets array with concentrations in gradient is generated. It possesses the greatly improved performance of convenience and versatility in bioscreening and biosensing. For example, high throughput condition screening of toxic tests of CdSe quantum dots on HL-60 cells are conducted and cell death rates are successfully counted quickly and efficiently. Furthermore, a rapid biosensing approach for cancer biomarkers carcinoma embryonic antigen (CEA) is developed via magnetic beads (MBs)-based sandwich immunoassay methods. PMID:25525675

  2. A versatile scalable PET processing system

    SciTech Connect

    H. Dong, A. Weisenberger, J. McKisson, Xi Wenze, C. Cuevas, J. Wilson, L. Zukerman

    2011-06-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) historically has major clinical and preclinical applications in cancerous oncology, neurology, and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, in a new direction, an application specific PET system is being developed at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in collaboration with Duke University, University of Maryland at Baltimore (UMAB), and West Virginia University (WVU) targeted for plant eco-physiology research. The new plant imaging PET system is versatile and scalable such that it could adapt to several plant imaging needs - imaging many important plant organs including leaves, roots, and stems. The mechanical arrangement of the detectors is designed to accommodate the unpredictable and random distribution in space of the plant organs without requiring the plant be disturbed. Prototyping such a system requires a new data acquisition system (DAQ) and data processing system which are adaptable to the requirements of these unique and versatile detectors.

  3. A parallel, portable and versatile treecode

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, M.S.; Salmon, J.K. |

    1994-10-01

    Portability and versatility are important characteristics of a computer program which is meant to be generally useful. We describe how we have developed a parallel N-body treecode to meet these goals. A variety of applications to which the code can be applied are mentioned. Performance of the program is also measured on several machines. A 512 processor Intel Paragon can solve for the forces on 10 million gravitationally interacting particles to 0.5% rms accuracy in 28.6 seconds.

  4. Cutaneous skin tag

    MedlinePlus

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  5. Nanofilm biomaterials: localized cross-linking to optimize mechanical rigidity and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Jennifer A; Morisse, Samuel; Hindié, Mathilde; Degat, Marie-Christelle; Pauthe, Emmanuel; Van Tassel, Paul R

    2011-02-01

    Nanofilm biomaterials, formed by the layer-by-layer assembly of charged macromolecules, are important systems for a variety of cell-contacting biomedical and biotechnological applications. Mechanical rigidity and bioactivity are two key film properties influencing the behavior of contacting cells. Increased rigidity tends to improve cells attachment, and films may be rendered bioactive through the incorporation of proteins, peptides, or drugs. A key challenge is to realize films that are simultaneously rigid and bioactive. Chemical cross-linking of the polymer framework--the standard means of increasing a film's rigidity--can diminish bioactivity through deactivation or isolation of embedded biomolecules or inhibition of film biodegradation. We present here a strategy to decouple mechanical rigidity and bioactivity, potentially enabling nanofilm biomaterials that are both mechanically rigid and bioactive. Our idea is to selectively cross-link the outer region of the film, resulting in a rigid outer skin to promote cell attachment, while leaving the film interior (with any embedded bioactive species) unaffected. We propose an approach whereby an N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide (sulfo-NHS) activated poly(L-glutamic acid) is added as the terminal layer of a multilayer film and forms (covalent) amide bonds with amino groups of poly(L-lysine) placed previously within the film. We characterize film assembly and cross-linking extent via quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCMD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection mode (FTIR-ATR), and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and measure the attachment and metabolic activity of preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. We show cross-linking to occur primarily at the film surface and the subsequent cell attachment and metabolic activity to be enhanced compared to native films. Our method appears promising as a means to realize films that are simultaneously mechanically rigid and

  6. Bioactive apocarotenoids from Tectona grandis.

    PubMed

    Macías, Francisco A; Lacret, Rodney; Varela, Rosa M; Nogueiras, Clara; Molinillo, Jose M G

    2008-11-01

    The bioactive fractions of Tectona grandis have yielded seven apocarotenoids, two of which have been isolated for the first time as natural products (tectoionols A and B). The chemical structures were determined through 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. The absolute configuration of tectoionol A was determined using a modified Mosher methodology. Some NMR assignments for the compounds 9(S)-4-oxo-7,8-dihydro-beta-ionol and 3beta-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-beta-ionone have been corrected on the basis of g-HSQC and g-HMBC experiments. The general bioactivities of isolated compounds have been studied using etiolated wheat coleoptiles. Those compounds that presented higher levels of activity were assayed on standard target species (Lactuca sativa, Lycopersicum esculentum, Lepidium sativum and Allium cepa). PMID:18834604

  7. Marine Peptides: Bioactivities and Applications.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Ng, Tzi Bun; Wong, Jack Ho

    2015-07-01

    Peptides are important bioactive natural products which are present in many marine species. These marine peptides have high potential nutraceutical and medicinal values because of their broad spectra of bioactivities. Their antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antioxidative, cardioprotective (antihypertensive, antiatherosclerotic and anticoagulant), immunomodulatory, analgesic, anxiolytic anti-diabetic, appetite suppressing and neuroprotective activities have attracted the attention of the pharmaceutical industry, which attempts to design them for use in the treatment or prevention of various diseases. Some marine peptides or their derivatives have high commercial values and had reached the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical markets. A large number of them are already in different phases of the clinical and preclinical pipeline. This review highlights the recent research in marine peptides and the trends and prospects for the future, with special emphasis on nutraceutical and pharmaceutical development into marketed products. PMID:26132844

  8. Marine Peptides: Bioactivities and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Ng, Tzi Bun; Wong, Jack Ho

    2015-01-01

    Peptides are important bioactive natural products which are present in many marine species. These marine peptides have high potential nutraceutical and medicinal values because of their broad spectra of bioactivities. Their antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antioxidative, cardioprotective (antihypertensive, antiatherosclerotic and anticoagulant), immunomodulatory, analgesic, anxiolytic anti-diabetic, appetite suppressing and neuroprotective activities have attracted the attention of the pharmaceutical industry, which attempts to design them for use in the treatment or prevention of various diseases. Some marine peptides or their derivatives have high commercial values and had reached the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical markets. A large number of them are already in different phases of the clinical and preclinical pipeline. This review highlights the recent research in marine peptides and the trends and prospects for the future, with special emphasis on nutraceutical and pharmaceutical development into marketed products. PMID:26132844

  9. Bare Bones of Bioactive Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Paul Ducheyne, a principal investigator in the microgravity materials science program and head of the University of Pernsylvania's Center for Bioactive Materials and Tissue Engineering, is leading the trio as they use simulated microgravity to determine the optimal characteristics of tiny glass particles for growing bone tissue. The result could make possible a much broader range of synthetic bone-grafting applications. Bioactive glass particles (left) with a microporous surface (right) are widely accepted as a synthetic material for periodontal procedures. Using the particles to grow three-dimensional tissue cultures may one day result in developing an improved, more rugged bone tissue that may be used to correct skeletal disorders and bone defects. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research.

  10. A nanotectonics approach to produce hierarchically organized bioactive glass nanoparticles-based macrospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luz, Gisela M.; Mano, João F.

    2012-09-01

    Bioactive particles have been widely used in a series of biomedical applications due to their ability to promote bone-bonding and elicit favorable biological responses in therapies associated with the replacement and regeneration of mineralized tissues. In this work hierarchical architectures are prepared by an innovative methodology using SiO2-CaO sol-gel based nanoparticles. Inspired by colloidal crystals, spherical aggregates were formed on biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces using bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG-NPs) able to promote bone regeneration. A highly ordered organization, a common feature of mineralized structures in Nature, was achieved at both nano- and microlevels, being the crystallization degree of the structures controlled by the evaporation rates taking place at room temperature (RT) or at 4 °C. The crystallization degree of the structures influenced the Ca/P ratio of the apatitic film formed at their surface, after 7 days of immersion in SBF. This allows the regulation of bioactive properties and the ability to release potential additives that could be also incorporated in such particles with a high efficiency. Such a versatile method to produce bioactive particles with controlled size and internal structure could open new possibilities in designing new spherical devices for orthopaedic applications, including tissue engineering.

  11. A review of bioactive glasses: Their structure, properties, fabrication and apatite formation.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurbinder; Pandey, Om P; Singh, Kulvir; Homa, Dan; Scott, Brian; Pickrell, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive glass and glass-ceramics are used in bone repair applications and are being developed for tissue engineering applications. Bioactive glasses/Bioglass are very attractive materials for producing scaffolds devoted to bone regeneration due to their versatile properties, which can be properly designed depending on their composition. An important feature of bioactive glasses, which enables them to work for applications in bone tissue engineering, is their ability to enhance revascularization, osteoblast adhesion, enzyme activity and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells as well as osteoprogenitor cells. An extensive amount of research work has been carried out to develop silicate, borate/borosilicate bioactive glasses and phosphate glasses. Along with this, some metallic glasses have also been investigated for biomedical and technological applications in tissue engineering. Many trace elements have also been incorporated in the glass network to obtain the desired properties, which have beneficial effects on bone remodeling and/or associated angiogenesis. The motivation of this review is to provide an overview of the general requirements, composition, structure-property relationship with hydroxyapatite formation and future perspectives of bioglasses.Attention has also been given to developments of metallic glasses and doped bioglasses along with the techniques used for their fabrication. PMID:23468256

  12. Skin Keratins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A.

    2016-01-01

    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin. PMID:26795476

  13. A Versatile Rocket Engine Hot Gas Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James M.

    1993-01-01

    The capabilities of a versatile rocket engine facility, located in the Rocket Laboratory at the NASA Lewis Research Center, are presented. The gaseous hydrogen/oxygen facility can be used for thermal shock and hot gas testing of materials and structures as well as rocket propulsion testing. Testing over a wide range of operating conditions in both fuel and oxygen rich regimes can be conducted, with cooled or uncooled test specimens. The size and location of the test cell provide the ability to conduct large amounts of testing in short time periods with rapid turnaround between programs.

  14. Synthesis of a semi-interpenetrating polymer network as a bioactive curcumin film.

    PubMed

    Mayet, Naeema; Kumar, Pradeep; Choonara, Yahya E; Tomar, Lomas K; Tyagi, Charu; du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2014-12-01

    This study focused on the synthesis and characterization of a natural polymeric system employing the interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) comprising curcumin as a bioactive. Biopolymers and actives such as chitosan, hypromellose, citric acid, genipin, and curcumin were used to develop an effective, biodegradable, and biocompatible film employed therapeutically as a wound healing platform. The semi-IPN films were investigated for their physicochemical, physicomechanical, and biological properties by quantification by FTIR, DSC, and Young's modulus. Following characterization, an optimum candidate formulation was produced whereby further in vitro and ex vivo studies were performed. Results revealed a burst release occurring at the first hour with 1.1 mg bioactive released when in contact with the dissolution medium and 2.23 mg due to bioactive permeation through the skin, thus suggesting that the lipophilic nature of skin greatly impacted the bioactive release rate. Furthermore, chemical and mechanical characterization and tensile strength analysis revealed that the degree of crosslinking and concentration of polymeric material used significantly influenced the properties of the film. PMID:24984920

  15. VISYTER: versatile and integrated system for telerehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Parmanto, Bambang; Saptono, Andi; Pramana, Gede; Pulantara, Wayan; Schein, Richard M; Schmeler, Mark R; McCue, Michael P; Brienza, David M

    2010-11-01

    The versatile and integrated system for telerehabilitation (VISYTER) is a software platform for developing various telerehabilitation applications. VISYTER has been designed to take into account the environments and requirements of rehabilitation services. The requirements considered in the platform design include minimal equipment beyond what is available in many rehabilitation settings, minimal maintenance, and ease of setup and operation. In addition, the platform has been designed to be able to adjust to different bandwidths, ranging from the very fast new generation of Internet to residential broadband connections. VISYTER is a secure integrated system that combines high-quality videoconferencing with access to electronic health records and other key tools in telerehabilitation such as stimuli presentation, remote multiple camera control, remote control of the display screen, and an eye contact teleprompter. The software platform is suitable for supporting low-volume services to homes, yet scalable to support high-volume enterprise-wide telehealth services. The VISYTER system has been used to develop a number of telerehabilitation applications, including a remote wheelchair prescription, adult autistic assessments, and international physical therapy teleconsultations. An evaluation of VISYTER for delivering a remote wheelchair prescription was conducted on 48 participants. Results of the evaluation indicate a high level of satisfaction from patients with the use of VISYTER. The versatility and cost-effectiveness of the platform has the potential for a wide range of telerehabilitation applications and potentially may lower the technical and economic barriers of telemedicine adoption. PMID:21034239

  16. The chemical and biological versatility of riboflavin.

    PubMed

    Massey, V

    2000-01-01

    Since their discovery and chemical characterization in the 1930s, flavins have been recognized as being capable of both one- and two-electron transfer processes, and as playing a pivotal role in coupling the two-electron oxidation of most organic substrates to the one-electron transfers of the respiratory chain. In addition, they are now known as versatile compounds that can function as electrophiles and nucleophiles, with covalent intermediates of flavin and substrate frequently being involved in catalysis. Flavins are thought to contribute to oxidative stress through their ability to produce superoxide, but at the same time flavins are frequently involved in the reduction of hydroperoxides, products of oxygen-derived radical reactions. Flavoproteins play an important role in soil detoxification processes via the hydroxylation of many aromatic compounds, and a simple flavoprotein in liver microsomes catalyses many reactions similar to those carried out by cytochrome P450 enzymes. Flavins are involved in the production of light in bioluminescent bacteria, and are intimately connected with light-initiated reactions such as plant phototropism and nucleic acid repair processes. Recent reports also link them to programmed cell death. The chemical versatility of flavoproteins is clearly controlled by specific interactions with the proteins with which they are bound. One of the main thrusts of current research is to try to define the nature of these interactions, and to understand in chemical terms the various steps involved in catalysis by flavoprotein enzymes. PMID:10961912

  17. Multilayer network decoding versatility and trust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Camellia; Yadav, Alok; Jalan, Sarika

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, the multilayer networks have increasingly been realized as a more realistic framework to understand emergent physical phenomena in complex real-world systems. We analyze massive time-varying social data drawn from the largest film industry of the world under a multilayer network framework. The framework enables us to evaluate the versatility of actors, which turns out to be an intrinsic property of lead actors. Versatility in dimers suggests that working with different types of nodes are more beneficial than with similar ones. However, the triangles yield a different relation between type of co-actor and the success of lead nodes indicating the importance of higher-order motifs in understanding the properties of the underlying system. Furthermore, despite the degree-degree correlations of entire networks being neutral, multilayering picks up different values of correlation indicating positive connotations like trust, in the recent years. The analysis of weak ties of the industry uncovers nodes from a lower-degree regime being important in linking Bollywood clusters. The framework and the tools used herein may be used for unraveling the complexity of other real-world systems.

  18. A Versatile Ion Injector at KACST

    SciTech Connect

    El Ghazaly, M. O. A.; Behery, S. A.; Almuqhim, A. A.; Papash, A. I.; Welsch, C. P.

    2011-10-27

    A versatile ion-beam injector is presently being constructed at the National Centre for Mathematics and Physics (NCMP) at the King Abdul-Aziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Saudi Arabia. This versatile injector will provide an electrostatic storage ring with high-quality ion beams of energies up to 30 keV per charge q. It will also allow for crossed-beams experiments in single-pass setups. The injector has been designed to include beams from two different ion sources, switched by a 90 deg. deflection setup, and to allow for matching of the beam parameters to the Twiss parameters of the ring. The injector is equipped with two crossed beam-lines (inlets), with duplicated beam extraction and acceleration systems. As part of the initial setup, a simple electric discharge ion source has been developed for commissioning of the whole injector. In this paper, we report on the ion optics layout and the design parameters of the injector.

  19. Current and potential uses of bioactive molecules from marine processing waste.

    PubMed

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Masci, Paul; Gobe, Glenda; Osborne, Simone

    2016-03-15

    Food industries produce huge amounts of processing waste that are often disposed of incurring expenses and impacting upon the environment. For these and other reasons, food processing waste streams, in particular marine processing waste streams, are gaining popularity amongst pharmaceutical, cosmetic and nutraceutical industries as sources of bioactive molecules. In the last 30 years, there has been a gradual increase in processed marine products with a concomitant increase in waste streams that include viscera, heads, skins, fins, bones, trimmings and shellfish waste. In 2010, these waste streams equated to approximately 24 million tonnes of mostly unused resources. Marine processing waste streams not only represent an abundant resource, they are also enriched with structurally diverse molecules that possess a broad panel of bioactivities including anti-oxidant, anti-coagulant, anti-thrombotic, anti-cancer and immune-stimulatory activities. Retrieval and characterisation of bioactive molecules from marine processing waste also contributes valuable information to the vast field of marine natural product discovery. This review summarises the current use of bioactive molecules from marine processing waste in different products and industries. Moreover, this review summarises new research into processing waste streams and the potential for adoption by industries in the creation of new products containing marine processing waste bioactives. PMID:26332893

  20. Quinazoline derivatives: synthesis and bioactivities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the significant biological activities, quinazoline derivatives have drawn more and more attention in the synthesis and bioactivities research. This review summarizes the recent advances in the synthesis and biological activities investigations of quinazoline derivatives. According to the main method the authors adopted in their research design, those synthetic methods were divided into five main classifications, including Aza-reaction, Microwave-assisted reaction, Metal-mediated reaction, Ultrasound-promoted reaction and Phase-transfer catalysis reaction. The biological activities of the synthesized quinazoline derivatives also are discussed. PMID:23731671

  1. Skin (Pressure) Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Skin dryness Next Topic Sleep problems Skin (pressure) sores A skin or pressure sore develops when the blood supply to an ... is bedridden or always in a wheelchair puts pressure on the same places much of the time. ...

  2. Layers of the Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... produce the skin coloring or pigment known as melanin, which gives skin its tan or brown color ... Sun exposure causes melanocytes to increase production of melanin in order to protect the skin from damaging ...

  3. Learning about Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... have red or blond hair and blue or light-colored eyes - although anyone can get skin cancer. Skin cancer is related to lifetime exposure to UV radiation, therefore most skin cancers appear after age ...

  4. Scalded skin syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Ritter disease; Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSS) ... Scalded skin syndrome (SSS) is caused by infection with certain strains of Staphylococcus bacteria. The bacteria produce a toxin that causes the skin ...

  5. Basal cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. This type of skin ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  6. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin, which may bleed if severe. Chapped or cracked lips. When dry skin cracks, germs can get ... cause the skin to become dry, raw, and cracked. Swimming : Some pools have high levels of chlorine, ...

  7. Skin Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  8. Stages of Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  9. Bioactive Components in Fish Venoms

    PubMed Central

    Ziegman, Rebekah; Alewood, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Animal venoms are widely recognized excellent resources for the discovery of novel drug leads and physiological tools. Most are comprised of a large number of components, of which the enzymes, small peptides, and proteins are studied for their important bioactivities. However, in spite of there being over 2000 venomous fish species, piscine venoms have been relatively underrepresented in the literature thus far. Most studies have explored whole or partially fractioned venom, revealing broad pharmacology, which includes cardiovascular, neuromuscular, cytotoxic, inflammatory, and nociceptive activities. Several large proteinaceous toxins, such as stonustoxin, verrucotoxin, and Sp-CTx, have been isolated from scorpaenoid fish. These form pores in cell membranes, resulting in cell death and creating a cascade of reactions that result in many, but not all, of the physiological symptoms observed from envenomation. Additionally, Natterins, a novel family of toxins possessing kininogenase activity have been found in toadfish venom. A variety of smaller protein toxins, as well as a small number of peptides, enzymes, and non-proteinaceous molecules have also been isolated from a range of fish venoms, but most remain poorly characterized. Many other bioactive fish venom components remain to be discovered and investigated. These represent an untapped treasure of potentially useful molecules. PMID:25941767

  10. Bioactivity of plasma implanted biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Paul K.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII&D) is an effective technique to enhance the surface bioactivity of materials. In this paper, recent progress made in our laboratory on plasma surface modification of biomedical materials is described. NiTi alloys have unique super-elastic and shape memory properties and are suitable for orthopedic implants but the leaching of toxic Ni may pose health hazards in humans. We have recently investigated the use of acetylene, oxygen and nitrogen PIII&D to prevent out-diffusion of nickel and good results have been obtained. Silicon is the most important material in the microelectronics industry but its surface biocompatibility has not been investigated in details. We have recently performed hydrogen PIII into silicon to improve the surface bioactivity and observed biomimetic growth of apatite on the surface in simulated body fluids. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is widely used in the industry due to its excellent mechanical properties and chemical inertness and by incorporation of elements such as nitrogen and phosphorus, the surface blood compatibility can be improved. The properties as well as in vitro biological test results are discussed in this article.

  11. Bioactive components in fish venoms.

    PubMed

    Ziegman, Rebekah; Alewood, Paul

    2015-05-01

    Animal venoms are widely recognized excellent resources for the discovery of novel drug leads and physiological tools. Most are comprised of a large number of components, of which the enzymes, small peptides, and proteins are studied for their important bioactivities. However, in spite of there being over 2000 venomous fish species, piscine venoms have been relatively underrepresented in the literature thus far. Most studies have explored whole or partially fractioned venom, revealing broad pharmacology, which includes cardiovascular, neuromuscular, cytotoxic, inflammatory, and nociceptive activities. Several large proteinaceous toxins, such as stonustoxin, verrucotoxin, and Sp-CTx, have been isolated from scorpaenoid fish. These form pores in cell membranes, resulting in cell death and creating a cascade of reactions that result in many, but not all, of the physiological symptoms observed from envenomation. Additionally, Natterins, a novel family of toxins possessing kininogenase activity have been found in toadfish venom. A variety of smaller protein toxins, as well as a small number of peptides, enzymes, and non-proteinaceous molecules have also been isolated from a range of fish venoms, but most remain poorly characterized. Many other bioactive fish venom components remain to be discovered and investigated. These represent an untapped treasure of potentially useful molecules. PMID:25941767

  12. Bioactive Egg Components and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Catherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a normal acute response of the immune system to pathogens and tissue injury. However, chronic inflammation is known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Thus, the impact of dietary factors on inflammation may provide key insight into mitigating chronic disease risk. Eggs are recognized as a functional food that contain a variety of bioactive compounds that can influence pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, the effects of egg consumption on inflammation varies across different populations, including those that are classified as healthy, overweight, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetic. The following review will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of egg components, with a focus on egg phospholipids, cholesterol, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, and bioactive proteins. The effects of egg consumption of inflammation across human populations will additionally be presented. Together, these findings have implications for population-specific dietary recommendations and chronic disease risk. PMID:26389951

  13. A new, versatile Stirling energy conversion unit

    SciTech Connect

    Meijer, R.J.; Ziph, B.

    1982-08-01

    A new concept in Stirling engine technology is embodied in the ''Base Engine'' now being developed at Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc. This is a versatile energy conversion unit suitable for many different applications and heat sources. The Base Engine, rated at 40 kw at 2800 rpm, is a four cylinder, double acting, variable displacement Stirling engine. It incorporates remote-heating technology with a stacked-heat-exchanger configuration and a liquid metal heat pipe connected to a distinctly separate combustor or other heat source. It specifically emphasizes high efficiency over a wide range of operating conditions, long life, low manufacturing cost and low material cost. This paper describes the Base Engine, its design philosophy and approach, its projected performance, and some of its more attractive applications.

  14. Versatile Structures of α-Synuclein

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuchu; Zhao, Chunyu; Li, Dan; Tian, Zhiqi; Lai, Ying; Diao, Jiajie; Liu, Cong

    2016-01-01

    α-Synuclein (α-syn) is an intrinsically disordered protein abundantly distributed in presynaptic terminals. Aggregation of α-syn into Lewy bodies (LB) is a molecular hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD). α-Syn features an extreme conformational diversity, which adapts to different conditions and fulfills versatile functions. However, the molecular mechanism of α-syn transformation and the relation between different structural species and their functional and pathogenic roles in neuronal activities and PD remain unknown. In this mini-review, we summarize the recent discoveries of α-syn structures in the membrane-bound state, in cytosol, and in the amyloid state under physiological and pathological conditions. From the current knowledge on different structural species of α-syn, we intend to find a clue about its function and toxicity in normal neurons and under disease conditions, which could shed light on the PD pathogenesis. PMID:27378848

  15. Versatile Structures of α-Synuclein.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuchu; Zhao, Chunyu; Li, Dan; Tian, Zhiqi; Lai, Ying; Diao, Jiajie; Liu, Cong

    2016-01-01

    α-Synuclein (α-syn) is an intrinsically disordered protein abundantly distributed in presynaptic terminals. Aggregation of α-syn into Lewy bodies (LB) is a molecular hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). α-Syn features an extreme conformational diversity, which adapts to different conditions and fulfills versatile functions. However, the molecular mechanism of α-syn transformation and the relation between different structural species and their functional and pathogenic roles in neuronal activities and PD remain unknown. In this mini-review, we summarize the recent discoveries of α-syn structures in the membrane-bound state, in cytosol, and in the amyloid state under physiological and pathological conditions. From the current knowledge on different structural species of α-syn, we intend to find a clue about its function and toxicity in normal neurons and under disease conditions, which could shed light on the PD pathogenesis. PMID:27378848

  16. How versatile are inositol phosphate kinases?

    PubMed Central

    Shears, Stephen B

    2004-01-01

    This review assesses the extent and the significance of catalytic versatility shown by several inositol phosphate kinases: the inositol phosphate multikinase, the reversible Ins(1,3,4) P (3)/Ins(3,4,5,6) P (4) kinase, and the kinases that synthesize diphosphoinositol polyphosphates. Particular emphasis is placed upon data that are relevant to the situation in vivo. It will be shown that catalytic promiscuity towards different inositol phosphates is not typically an evolutionary compromise, but instead is sometimes exploited to facilitate tight regulation of physiological processes. This multifunctionality can add to the complexity with which inositol signalling pathways interact. This review also assesses some proposed additional functions for the catalytic domains, including transcriptional regulation, protein kinase activity and control by molecular 'switching', all in the context of growing interest in 'moonlighting' (gene-sharing) proteins. PMID:14567754

  17. Practical applications of a versatile geothermal simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, J.F.

    1983-12-01

    Since 1976, the author has programmed, developed and applied a versatile twodimensional geothermal simulator for many interesting applications in cold regions engineering. This paper concentrates on applications to problems which have not been hitherto easily solved by other available geothermal models. Some of the important capabilities of the HAL simulator are: radial or cartesian coordinate options, convective ground water flow component, simple data entry, ability to specify internal pipes, or areas of specified temperature, monthly surface temperature and snow cover inputs as boundary conditions. The first application involves a steel pile, embedded in warm permafrost. A circular cryogenic storage tank is studied next, and the effectiveness of an insulation layer is illustrated. The convection option in the program is invoked when studying the effects of ground water flow around a series of vertical freeze pipes. Finally, the thermal degradation beneath an Arctic lake is studied, and the subsequent refreezing and growth of a pingo has been simulated.

  18. Practical applications of a versatile geothermal simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, J.F.; Halliwell, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Since 1976, the senior author has programmed, developed and applied a versatile two-dimensional geothermal simulator for many interesting applications in cold regions engineering. This paper concentrates on applications to problems which have not been hitherto easily solved by other available geothermal models. Some of the important capabilities of the Hardy Associates (1978) Ltd. (HAL) simulator are radial or cartesian coordinate options, convective ground water flow component, simple data entry, ability to specify internal ''pipes'', or areas of specified temperature, monthly surface temperature and snow cover inputs. The first application involves a steel pile, embedded in warm permafrost. A circular cryogenic storage tank is studied next, and the effectiveness of an insulation layer is illustrated. The convection option in the program is invoked when studying the effects of ground water flow around a series of vertical freeze pipes. Finally, the thermal degradation beneath an Arctic lake is studied, and the subsequent re-freezing and growth of a pingo has been simulated.

  19. Versatile microrobotics using simple modular subunits.

    PubMed

    Cheang, U Kei; Meshkati, Farshad; Kim, Hoyeon; Lee, Kyoungwoo; Fu, Henry Chien; Kim, Min Jun

    2016-01-01

    The realization of reconfigurable modular microrobots could aid drug delivery and microsurgery by allowing a single system to navigate diverse environments and perform multiple tasks. So far, microrobotic systems are limited by insufficient versatility; for instance, helical shapes commonly used for magnetic swimmers cannot effectively assemble and disassemble into different size and shapes. Here by using microswimmers with simple geometries constructed of spherical particles, we show how magnetohydrodynamics can be used to assemble and disassemble modular microrobots with different physical characteristics. We develop a mechanistic physical model that we use to improve assembly strategies. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of dynamically changing the physical properties of microswimmers through assembly and disassembly in a controlled fluidic environment. Finally, we show that different configurations have different swimming properties by examining swimming speed dependence on configuration size. PMID:27464852

  20. Versatile microrobotics using simple modular subunits

    PubMed Central

    Cheang, U Kei; Meshkati, Farshad; Kim, Hoyeon; Lee, Kyoungwoo; Fu, Henry Chien; Kim, Min Jun

    2016-01-01

    The realization of reconfigurable modular microrobots could aid drug delivery and microsurgery by allowing a single system to navigate diverse environments and perform multiple tasks. So far, microrobotic systems are limited by insufficient versatility; for instance, helical shapes commonly used for magnetic swimmers cannot effectively assemble and disassemble into different size and shapes. Here by using microswimmers with simple geometries constructed of spherical particles, we show how magnetohydrodynamics can be used to assemble and disassemble modular microrobots with different physical characteristics. We develop a mechanistic physical model that we use to improve assembly strategies. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of dynamically changing the physical properties of microswimmers through assembly and disassembly in a controlled fluidic environment. Finally, we show that different configurations have different swimming properties by examining swimming speed dependence on configuration size. PMID:27464852

  1. Probiotics - the versatile functional food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Syngai, Gareth Gordon; Gopi, Ragupathi; Bharali, Rupjyoti; Dey, Sudip; Lakshmanan, G M Alagu; Ahmed, Giasuddin

    2016-02-01

    Probiotics are live microbes which when administered in adequate amounts as functional food ingredients confer a health benefit on the host. Their versatility is in terms of their usage which ranges from the humans to the ruminants, pigs and poultry, and also in aquaculture practices. In this review, the microorganisms frequently used as probiotics in human and animal welfare has been described, and also highlighted are the necessary criteria required to be fulfilled for their use in humans on the one hand and on the other as microbial feed additives in animal husbandry. Further elaborated in this article are the sources from where probiotics can be derived, the possible mechanisms by which they act, and their future potential role as antioxidants is also discussed. PMID:27162372

  2. Versatile repair vessel tested in deep water

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    Testing of a new subsea pipeline repair system in up to 1640 ft of water has been completed. The versatile system, integrated into a catamaran-type vessel, was to be operational by the end of 1985. The main characteristic of the Submersible Underwater Pipeline Repair and Work Apparatus (Supra) is its stable floating capability on the sea surface. Supra can be towed by a supply tug or diving support vessel at five knots in 13-ft waves. The system can be operated without the assistance of heavy-lift cranes or large barges. The developers claim Supra is highly independent of bad weather and sea conditions and can work 90% of the year. Since Supra is pressure-proof similar to a submarine, it can be submerged at sea by means of an integrated propulsion and ballast system and then maneuvered to the desired working location and positioned on the seabed by means of an underwater tracking and navigation system.

  3. Versatile microrobotics using simple modular subunits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheang, U. Kei; Meshkati, Farshad; Kim, Hoyeon; Lee, Kyoungwoo; Fu, Henry Chien; Kim, Min Jun

    2016-07-01

    The realization of reconfigurable modular microrobots could aid drug delivery and microsurgery by allowing a single system to navigate diverse environments and perform multiple tasks. So far, microrobotic systems are limited by insufficient versatility; for instance, helical shapes commonly used for magnetic swimmers cannot effectively assemble and disassemble into different size and shapes. Here by using microswimmers with simple geometries constructed of spherical particles, we show how magnetohydrodynamics can be used to assemble and disassemble modular microrobots with different physical characteristics. We develop a mechanistic physical model that we use to improve assembly strategies. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of dynamically changing the physical properties of microswimmers through assembly and disassembly in a controlled fluidic environment. Finally, we show that different configurations have different swimming properties by examining swimming speed dependence on configuration size.

  4. Surface modification of bioactive glasses and preparation of PDLLA/bioactive glass composite films.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Chang, Jiang

    2009-08-01

    In order to improve the homogeneous dispersion of particles in the polymeric matrix, 45S5, mesoporous 58S, and 58S bioactive glasses were surface modified by esterification reactions with dodecyl alcohol at reflux temperature of 260 degrees C (named as m-45S5, m-mesoporous 58S, and m-58S, respectively). The modified particles showed better hydrophobicity and longer time of suspension in organic matrix. The PDLLA/bioactive glass composite films were fabricated using surface modified bioactive glass particles through solvent casting-evaporation method. Surface morphology, mechanical property, and bioactivity were investigated. The results revealed that the inorganic particle distribution and tensile strength of the composite films with modified bioactive glass particles were significantly improved while great bioactive properties were maintained. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation illustrated that the modified bioactive glass particles were homogeneously dispersed in the PDLLA matrix. The maximum tensile strengths of composite films with modified bioactive glass particles were higher than that of composite films with unmodified bioactive glass particles. The bioactivity of the composite films were evaluated by being soaked in the simulated body fluid (SBF) and the SEM observation of the films suggested that the modified composite films were still bioactive in that they could induce the formation of HAp on its surface and the distribution of HAp was even more homogeneous on the film. The results mentioned above indicated that the surface modification of bioactive glasses with dodecyl alcohol was an effective method to prepare PDLLA/bioactive glass composites with enhanced properties. By studying the comparisons of modification effects among the three types of bioactive glasses, we could get the conclusion that the size and morphology of the inorganic particles would greatly affect the modification effects and the properties of composites. PMID:18801895

  5. Nutritional compositions and bioactivities of Dacryodes species: a review.

    PubMed

    Tee, Lee Hong; Yang, Bao; Nagendra, Krishnamurthy Prasad; Ramanan, Ramakrishnan Nagasundara; Sun, Jian; Chan, Eng-Seng; Tey, Beng Ti; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Lau, Cheng Yuon; Jiang, Yueming

    2014-12-15

    Dacryodes species are evergreen, perennial trees with fleshy fruits and belong to the family Buseraseae. Many Dacryodes species are underutilized but are widely applied in traditional folk medicine to treat malaria, fever and skin diseases. The nutritional compositions, phytochemicals and biological activities of Dacryodes edulis, Dacryodes rostrata, Dacryodes buettneri, Dacryodes klaineana and Dacryodes hexandra are presented. The edible fruits of D. edulis are rich in lipids, proteins, vitamins, fatty acids and amino acids. Its extracts (leaf, fruit and resin) exhibit antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-carcinogenic and other bioactivities. D. rostrata fruit has significant nutrient content, and is rich in proteins, lipids and minerals. These fruits are also highly rich in polyphenols, anthocyanins and antioxidant activities. This comprehensive review will assist the reader in understanding the nutritional benefits of Dacryodes species and in identifying current research needs. PMID:25038673

  6. Investigating the protective properties of milk phospholipids against ultraviolet light exposure in a skin equivalent model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Ashley; Laubscher, Andrea; Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Laiho, Lily H.

    2010-02-01

    Current research on bioactive molecules in milk has documented health advantages of bovine milk and its components. Milk Phospholipids, selected for this study, represent molecules with great potential benefit in human health and nutrition. In this study we used confocal reflectance and multiphoton microscopy to monitor changes in skin morphology upon skin exposure to ultraviolet light and evaluate the potential of milk phospholipids in preventing photodamage to skin equivalent models. The results suggest that milk phospholipids act upon skin cells in a protective manner against the effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Similar results were obtained from MTT tissue viability assay and histology.

  7. Bioactive coating with low-fouling polymers for the development of biocompatible vascular implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalla, Pradeep Kumar

    The replacement of occluded blood vessels and endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) are performed with the use of synthetic vascular grafts and stent grafts, respectively. Both implants lead to frequent clinical complications that are different but due to a similar problem, namely the inadequate surface properties of the polymeric biomaterials used (generally polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE)). Therefore the general objective of this thesis was to create a versatile bioactive coating on vascular biomaterials that reduce material-induced thrombosis and promote desired cell interactions favorable to tissue healing around implants. The use of low-fouling backgrounds was decided in order to reduce platelet adhesion as well as the non-specific protein adsorption and thus increase the bioactivity of immobilized biomolecules. As part of the preliminary objective, a multi-arm polyethylene glycol (PEG) was chosen to create a versatile low-fouling surface, since the current coating methods are far from being versatile and rely on the availability of compatible functional groups on both PEG and the host surface. This PEG coating method was developed by taking advantage of novel primary amine-rich plasma polymerized coatings (LP). As demonstrated by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), fluorescence measurements and platelet adhesion assays, our PEG coatings exhibited low protein adsorption and almost no platelet adhesion after 15 min perfusion in whole blood. Although protein adsorption was not completely abrogated and short-term platelet adhesion assay was clearly insufficient to draw conclusions for long-term prevention of thrombosis in vivo, the low-fouling properties of this PEG coating were sufficient to be exploited for further coupling of bioactive molecules to create bioactive coatings. Therefore, as a part of the second objective, an innovative and versatile bioactive coating was developed on PEG and

  8. Skin lesion biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... This may include deep layers of skin and fat. The area is closed with stitches to place the skin back together. If a large area is biopsied, the surgeon may use a skin graft or flap to replace the skin that was ...

  9. Stiff skin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Geng, S; Lei, X; Toyohara, J P; Zhan, P; Wang, J; Tan, S

    2006-07-01

    Stiff skin syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by pronounced skin induration, mild hypertrichosis and limited joint mobility, predominantly on the buttocks and thighs. Many heterogeneous cases have been reported under the name of stiff skin syndrome. We present a case of stiff skin syndrome from China, the diagnosis based on the patient's typical clinical and histopathological features. PMID:16836505

  10. Bioactive lipids in pathological retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qi; Shen, Jun-Hui; Shen, Sheng-Rong; Das, Undurti N

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a common condition that occurs in patients with diabetes with long-standing hyperglycemia that is characterized by inappropriate angiogenesis. This pathological angiogenesis could be a sort of physiological proliferative response to injury by the endothelium. Recent studies suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a significant role in this angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic growth factor that plays a significant role in diabetic retinopathy. The interaction between VEGF and ROS, and theirs in turn with pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory bioactive lipid molecules such as lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins is particularly relevant to understand the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy and develop future therapeutic interventions. PMID:24188230

  11. Bioactive furanonaphthoquinones from Crescentia cujete.

    PubMed

    Hetzel, C E; Gunatilaka, A A; Glass, T E; Kingston, D G; Hoffmann, G; Johnson, R K

    1993-09-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of the MeCOEt extract of Crescentia cujete (Bignonaceae) resulted in the isolation of (2S,3S)-3-hydroxy-5,6-dimethoxydehydroiso-alpha-lapachone [1], (2R)-5,6-dimethoxydehydroiso-alpha-lapachone [2], (2R)-5-methoxydehydroiso-alpha-lapachone [3], 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione [4], 5-hydroxy-2-(1-hydroxyethyl)naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione [5], 2-isopropenylnaphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione [6], and 5-hydroxydehydroiso-alpha-lapachone [7]. Compounds 1-3 are new, and all compounds are bioactive, showing selective activity towards DNA-repair-deficient yeast mutants. The isolation, structure elucidation, and biological activities of these compounds are reported. PMID:8254347

  12. Skin cancer in skin of color.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Porcia T

    2009-01-01

    In general, skin cancer is uncommon in people of color when compared to Caucasians. When it does occur, it is often associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Differences in survival rates may be attributed to skin cancers being diagnosed at a more advanced stage, and socioeconomic factors such as lack of adequate insurance coverage and lack of transportation can function as barriers to timely diagnosis and early treatment. In addition to advanced stage at presentation, malignant skin lesions in skin of color often present in an atypical fashion. Because skin cancer prevention and screening practices historically have been lower among Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians, and given the changing demographics in the United States, interventions that are tailored to each of these groups will be needed. Public educational campaigns should be expanded to educate people of all skin types with emphasis on skin cancers occurring in areas not exposed to the sun (Byrd-Miles et al., 2007), since sunlight is not as important an etiologic factor in the pathogenesis of skin cancer in people of color. Dermatologists and primary care physicians should instruct their darker-skinned patients on how to perform routine skin self-examinations. Physicians should also encourage patients to ask their specialists such as their gynecologist, dentist, and ophthalmologist to look for abnormal pigmentation during routine exams. To reduce the burden of skin cancer, several prevention methods for all people have been strongly encouraged, including monthly self-examinations, daily use of SPF 30 or greater sunscreen, sunglasses with UV-absorbing lenses, and avoiding tanning booths (American Cancer Society, 2008) (see Table 7). In addition, recommendations for clinicians to promote the prevention of skin cancer in skin of color have also been made, including closely monitoring changing pigmented lesions on the palms and soles and hyperkeratotic or poorly healing ulcers in immunosuppressed patients

  13. Planctomycetes as Novel Source of Bioactive Molecules.

    PubMed

    Graça, Ana P; Calisto, Rita; Lage, Olga M

    2016-01-01

    Marine environments are a fruitful source of bioactive compounds some of which are the newest leading drugs in medicinal therapeutics. Of particular importance are organisms like sponges and macroalgae and their associated microbiome. Planctomycetes, abundant in macroalgae biofilms, are promising producers of bioactive compounds since they share characteristics, like large genomes and complex life cycles, with the most bioactive bacteria, the Actinobacteria. Furthermore, genome mining revealed the presence of secondary metabolite pathway genes or clusters in 13 analyzed Planctomycetes genomes. In order to assess the antimicrobial production of a large and diverse collection of Planctomycetes isolated from macroalgae from the Portuguese coast, molecular, and bioactivity assays were performed in 40 bacteria from several taxa. Two genes commonly associated with the production of bioactive compounds, nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS), and polyketide synthases (PKS) genes were screened. Molecular analysis revealed that 95% of the planctomycetes potentially have one or both secondary bioactive genes; 85% amplified with PKS-I primers and 55% with NRPS primers. Some of the amplified genes were confirmed to be involved in secondary metabolite pathways. Using bioinformatic tools their biosynthetic pathways were predicted. The secondary metabolite genomic potential of strains LF1, UC8, and FC18 was assessed using in silico analysis of their genomes. Aqueous and organic extracts of the Planctomycetes were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against an environmental Escherichia coli, E. coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, and a clinical isolate of Candida albicans. The screening assays showed a high number of planctomycetes with bioactive extracts revealing antifungal (43%) and antibacterial (54%) activity against C. albicans and B. subtilis, respectively. Bioactivity was observed in

  14. Planctomycetes as Novel Source of Bioactive Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Graça, Ana P.; Calisto, Rita; Lage, Olga M.

    2016-01-01

    Marine environments are a fruitful source of bioactive compounds some of which are the newest leading drugs in medicinal therapeutics. Of particular importance are organisms like sponges and macroalgae and their associated microbiome. Planctomycetes, abundant in macroalgae biofilms, are promising producers of bioactive compounds since they share characteristics, like large genomes and complex life cycles, with the most bioactive bacteria, the Actinobacteria. Furthermore, genome mining revealed the presence of secondary metabolite pathway genes or clusters in 13 analyzed Planctomycetes genomes. In order to assess the antimicrobial production of a large and diverse collection of Planctomycetes isolated from macroalgae from the Portuguese coast, molecular, and bioactivity assays were performed in 40 bacteria from several taxa. Two genes commonly associated with the production of bioactive compounds, nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS), and polyketide synthases (PKS) genes were screened. Molecular analysis revealed that 95% of the planctomycetes potentially have one or both secondary bioactive genes; 85% amplified with PKS-I primers and 55% with NRPS primers. Some of the amplified genes were confirmed to be involved in secondary metabolite pathways. Using bioinformatic tools their biosynthetic pathways were predicted. The secondary metabolite genomic potential of strains LF1, UC8, and FC18 was assessed using in silico analysis of their genomes. Aqueous and organic extracts of the Planctomycetes were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against an environmental Escherichia coli, E. coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, and a clinical isolate of Candida albicans. The screening assays showed a high number of planctomycetes with bioactive extracts revealing antifungal (43%) and antibacterial (54%) activity against C. albicans and B. subtilis, respectively. Bioactivity was observed in

  15. Bioactive factor delivery strategies from engineered polymer hydrogels for therapeutic medicine.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh Khanh; Alsberg, Eben

    2014-07-01

    Polymer hydrogels have been widely explored as therapeutic delivery matrices because of their ability to present sustained, localized and controlled release of bioactive factors. Bioactive factor delivery from injectable biopolymer hydrogels provides a versatile approach to treat a wide variety of diseases, to direct cell function and to enhance tissue regeneration. The innovative development and modification of both natural-(e.g., alginate (ALG), chitosan, hyaluronic acid (HA), gelatin, heparin (HEP), etc.) and synthetic-(e.g., polyesters, polyethyleneimine (PEI), etc.) based polymers has resulted in a variety of approaches to design drug delivery hydrogel systems from which loaded therapeutics are released. This review presents the state-of-the-art in a wide range of hydrogels that are formed though self-assembly of polymers and peptides, chemical crosslinking, ionic crosslinking and biomolecule recognition. Hydrogel design for bioactive factor delivery is the focus of the first section. The second section then thoroughly discusses release strategies of payloads from hydrogels for therapeutic medicine, such as physical incorporation, covalent tethering, affinity interactions, on demand release and/or use of hybrid polymer scaffolds, with an emphasis on the last 5 years. PMID:25242831

  16. Bioactive Hybrid Particles from Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) Nanoparticle Stabilized Lipid Droplets.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Paul; Whitby, Catherine P; Prestidge, Clive A

    2015-08-12

    Biodegradable and bioactive hybrid particles composed of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles and medium-chain triglycerides were prepared by spray drying lipid-in-water emulsions stabilized by PLGA nanoparticles, to form PLGA-lipid hybrid (PLH) microparticles approximately 5 μm in mean diameter. The nanoparticle stabilizer was varied and mannitol was also incorporated during the preparation to investigate the effect of stabilizer charge and cryoprotectant content on the particle microstructure. An in vitro lipolysis model was used to demonstrate the particles' bioactivity by manipulating the digestion kinetics of encapsulated lipid by pancreatic lipase in simulated gastrointestinal fluid. Lipid digestion kinetics were enhanced in PLH and PLGA-lipid-mannitol hybrid (PLMH) microparticles for both stabilizers, compared to a coarse emulsion, in biorelevant media. An optimal digestion rate was observed for the negatively charged PLMH system, evidenced by a 2-fold increase in the pseudo-first-order rate constant compared to a coarse emulsion. Improved microparticle redispersion, probed by dual dye confocal fluorescence microscopy, increased the available surface area of lipid for lipase adsorption, enhancing digestion kinetics. Thereby, lipase action was controlled in hybrid microparticles by altering the surface charge and carbohydrate content. Our results demonstrate that bioactive microparticles composed of versatile and biodegradable polymeric particles and oil droplets have great potential for use in smart food and nutrient delivery, as well as safer and more efficacious oral delivery of drugs and drug combinations. PMID:26181279

  17. Bioactive factor delivery strategies from engineered polymer hydrogels for therapeutic medicine

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Minh Khanh; Alsberg, Eben

    2014-01-01

    Polymer hydrogels have been widely explored as therapeutic delivery matrices because of their ability to present sustained, localized and controlled release of bioactive factors. Bioactive factor delivery from injectable biopolymer hydrogels provides a versatile approach to treat a wide variety of diseases, to direct cell function and to enhance tissue regeneration. The innovative development and modification of both natural-(e.g., alginate (ALG), chitosan, hyaluronic acid (HA), gelatin, heparin (HEP), etc.) and synthetic-(e.g., polyesters, polyethyleneimine (PEI), etc.) based polymers has resulted in a variety of approaches to design drug delivery hydrogel systems from which loaded therapeutics are released. This review presents the state-of-the-art in a wide range of hydrogels that are formed though self-assembly of polymers and peptides, chemical crosslinking, ionic crosslinking and biomolecule recognition. Hydrogel design for bioactive factor delivery is the focus of the first section. The second section then thoroughly discusses release strategies of payloads from hydrogels for therapeutic medicine, such as physical incorporation, covalent tethering, affinity interactions, on demand release and/or use of hybrid polymer scaffolds, with an emphasis on the last 5 years. PMID:25242831

  18. Skin sensitization of epoxyaldehydes: importance of conjugation.

    PubMed

    Delaine, Tamara; Hagvall, Lina; Rudbäck, Johanna; Luthman, Kristina; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2013-05-20

    Structure-activity relationship (SAR) models are important tools for predicting the skin sensitization potential of new compounds without animal testing. In compounds possessing a structural alert (aldehyde) and an activation alert (double bond), it is important to consider bioactivation/autoxidation (e.g., epoxidation). In the present study, we have explored a series of aldehydes with regard to contact allergy. The chemical reactivity of these 6 aldehydes toward a model hexapeptide was investigated, and their skin sensitization potencies were evaluated using the local lymph node assay (LLNA). Overall, we observed a similar trend for the in vitro reactivity and the in vivo sensitization potency for the structural analogues in this study. The highly reactive conjugated aldehydes (α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and 2,3-epoxyaldehydes) are sensitizing moieties, while nonconjugated aldehydes and nonterminal aliphatic epoxides show low reactivity and low sensitization potency. Our data show the importance of not only double bond conjugation to aldehyde but also epoxide-aldehyde conjugation. The observations indicate that the formation of nonconjugated epoxides by bioactivation or autoxidation is not sufficient to significantly increase the sensitization potency of weakly sensitizing parent compounds. PMID:23534857

  19. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits. PMID:27527154

  20. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits. PMID:27527154

  1. Sol-gel derived porous bioactive nanocomposites: Synthesis and in vitro bioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankhwar, Nisha; Kothiyal, G. P.; Srinivasan, A.

    2013-06-01

    Porous bioactive composites consisting of SiO2-CaO-Na2O-P2O5 bioactive glass-ceramic and synthetic water soluble polymer Polyvinylpyrrolidone [PVP (C6H9NO)n, MW˜40000 g/mol] have been synthesized by sol-gel route. As-prepared polymeric composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Two major bone mineral phases, viz., hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] and wollastonite [calcium silicate (CaSiO3)] have been identified in the XRD patterns of the composites. Presence of these bone minerals indicates the bioactive nature of the composites. In vitro bioactivity tests confirm bioactivity in the porous composites. The flexibility offered by these bioactive polymer composites is advantageous for its application as implant material.

  2. Type IV Pilin Proteins: Versatile Molecular Modules

    PubMed Central

    Giltner, Carmen L.; Nguyen, Ylan

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Type IV pili (T4P) are multifunctional protein fibers produced on the surfaces of a wide variety of bacteria and archaea. The major subunit of T4P is the type IV pilin, and structurally related proteins are found as components of the type II secretion (T2S) system, where they are called pseudopilins; of DNA uptake/competence systems in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive species; and of flagella, pili, and sugar-binding systems in the archaea. This broad distribution of a single protein family implies both a common evolutionary origin and a highly adaptable functional plan. The type IV pilin is a remarkably versatile architectural module that has been adopted widely for a variety of functions, including motility, attachment to chemically diverse surfaces, electrical conductance, acquisition of DNA, and secretion of a broad range of structurally distinct protein substrates. In this review, we consider recent advances in this research area, from structural revelations to insights into diversity, posttranslational modifications, regulation, and function. PMID:23204365

  3. Roller presses -- Versatile equipment for mineral processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pietsch, W.

    1995-12-31

    Roller presses were first invented in the middle of the 19th century for the economical size enlargement of coal fines as fuels. In addition to contemporary coal briquetting, in fields such as smokeless fuel and form-coke, it was found that redesigned and modernized roller presses, which are now capable of exerting high forces, are versatile machines for many tasks in mineral processing. Today they are used for: the classic pressure agglomeration and the new high pressure comminution. In pressure agglomeration, the characteristics of fine minerals are improved by forming briquettes or granulated products from compacts. During size enlargement with roller presses briquettes are directly obtained while granular materials are produced by crushing and sizing of compacted sheets. A relatively new application of roller presses in mineral processing is the utilization of the crushing effect when brittle materials pass the nip area between the rollers. It was found that this crushing mechanism is very efficient thus saving energy, particularly in grinding circuits handling large capacities. The paper introduces the fundamentals of the process and describes the design as well as applications of modern roller presses in mineral processing.

  4. The Versatile Type VI Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Alteri, Christopher J.; Mobley, Harry L.T.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Bacterial Type VI Secretion Systems (T6SS) function as contractile nanomachines to puncture target cells and deliver lethal effectors. In the ten years since the discovery of the T6SS, much has been learned about the structure and function of this versatile protein secretion apparatus. Most of the conserved protein components that comprise the T6SS apparatus itself have been identified and ascribed specific functions. In addition, numerous effector proteins that are translocated by the T6SS have been identified and characterized. These protein effectors usually represent toxic cargoes that are delivered by the attacker cell to a target cell. The field is beginning to better understand the lifestyle or physiology that dictates when bacteria normally express their T6SS. In this Chapter, we consider what is known about the structure and regulation of the T6SS, the numerous classes of antibacterial effector T6SS substrates, and how the action of the T6SS relates to a given lifestyle or behavior in certain bacteria. PMID:27227310

  5. Building versatile bipartite probes for quantum metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farace, Alessandro; De Pasquale, Antonella; Adesso, Gerardo; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    We consider bipartite systems as versatile probes for the estimation of transformations acting locally on one of the subsystems. We investigate what resources are required for the probes to offer a guaranteed level of metrological performance, when the latter is averaged over specific sets of local transformations. We quantify such a performance via the average skew information (AvSk), a convex quantity which we compute in closed form for bipartite states of arbitrary dimensions, and which is shown to be strongly dependent on the degree of local purity of the probes. Our analysis contrasts and complements the recent series of studies focused on the minimum, rather than the average, performance of bipartite probes in local estimation tasks, which was instead determined by quantum correlations other than entanglement. We provide explicit prescriptions to characterize the most reliable states maximizing the AvSk, and elucidate the role of state purity, separability and correlations in the classification of optimal probes. Our results can help in the identification of useful resources for sensing, estimation and discrimination applications when complete knowledge of the interaction mechanism realizing the local transformation is unavailable, and access to pure entangled probes is technologically limited.

  6. Design of a versatile clinical aberrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, Matthew; Goncharov, Alexander; Dainty, Chris

    2005-09-01

    We have designed an ocular aberrometer based on the Hartmann-Shack (HS) type wavefront sensor for use in optometry clinics. The optical system has enhanced versatility compared with commercial aberrometers, yet it is compact and user-friendly. The system has the capability to sense both on-axis and off-axis aberrations in the eye within an unobstructed 20 degree field. This capability is essential to collect population data for off-axis aberrations. This data will be useful in designing future adaptive optics (AO) systems to improve image quality of eccentric retinal areas, in particular, for multi-conjugate AO systems. The ability of the examiner to control the accommodation demand is a unique feature of the design that commercial instruments are capable of only after modification. The pupil alignment channel is re-combined with the sensing channel in a parallel path and imaged on a single CCD. This makes the instrument more compact, less expensive, and it helps to synchronize the pupil center with the HS spot coordinate system. Another advantage of the optical design is telecentric re-imaging of the HS spots, increasing the robustness to small longitudinal alignment errors. The optical system has been optimized with a ray-tracing program and its prototype is being constructed. Design considerations together with a description of the optical components are presented. Difficulties and future work are outlined.

  7. A Versatile Nonlinear Method for Predictive Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Yao, Weigang

    2015-01-01

    As computational fluid dynamics techniques and tools become widely accepted for realworld practice today, it is intriguing to ask: what areas can it be utilized to its potential in the future. Some promising areas include design optimization and exploration of fluid dynamics phenomena (the concept of numerical wind tunnel), in which both have the common feature where some parameters are varied repeatedly and the computation can be costly. We are especially interested in the need for an accurate and efficient approach for handling these applications: (1) capturing complex nonlinear dynamics inherent in a system under consideration and (2) versatility (robustness) to encompass a range of parametric variations. In our previous paper, we proposed to use first-order Taylor expansion collected at numerous sampling points along a trajectory and assembled together via nonlinear weighting functions. The validity and performance of this approach was demonstrated for a number of problems with a vastly different input functions. In this study, we are especially interested in enhancing the method's accuracy; we extend it to include the second-orer Taylor expansion, which however requires a complicated evaluation of Hessian matrices for a system of equations, like in fluid dynamics. We propose a method to avoid these Hessian matrices, while maintaining the accuracy. Results based on the method are presented to confirm its validity.

  8. Buried nanoantenna arrays: versatile antireflection coating.

    PubMed

    Kabiri, Ali; Girgis, Emad; Capasso, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Reflection is usually a detrimental phenomenon in many applications such as flat-panel-displays, solar cells, photodetectors, infrared sensors, and lenses. Thus far, to control and suppress the reflection from a substrate, numerous techniques including dielectric interference coatings, surface texturing, adiabatic index matching, and scattering from plasmonic nanoparticles have been investigated. A new technique is demonstrated to manage and suppress reflection from lossless and lossy substrates. It provides a wider flexibility in design versus previous methods. Reflection from a surface can be suppressed over a narrowband, wideband, or multiband frequency range. The antireflection can be dependent or independent of the incident wave polarization. Moreover, antireflection at a very wide incidence angle can be attained. The reflection from a substrate is controlled by a buried nanoantenna array, a structure composed of (1) a subwavelength metallic array and (2) a dielectric cover layer referred to as a superstrate. The material properties and thickness of the superstrate and nanoantennas' geometry and periodicity control the phase and intensity of the wave circulating inside the superstrate cavity. A minimum reflectance of 0.02% is achieved in various experiments in the mid-infrared from a silicon substrate. The design can be integrated in straightforward way in optical devices. The proposed structure is a versatile AR coating to optically impedance matches any substrate to free space in selected any narrow and broadband spectral response across the entire visible and infrared spectrum. PMID:24266700

  9. Versatile mobile lidar system for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Weibring, Petter; Edner, Hans; Svanberg, Sune

    2003-06-20

    A mobile lidar (light detection and ranging) system for environmental monitoring is described. The optical and electronic systems are housed in a truck with a retractable rooftop transmission and receiving mirror, connected to a 40-cm-diameter vertically looking telescope. Two injection-seeded Nd:YAG lasers are employed in connection with an optical parametric oscillator-optical parametric amplification transmitter, allowing deep-UV to mid-IR wavelengths to be generated. Fast switching that employs piezoelectric drivers allows multiwavelength differential absorption lidar for simultaneous measurements of several spectrally overlapping atmospheric species. The system can also be used in an imaging multispectral laser-induced fluorescence mode on solid targets. Advanced LabVIEW computer control and multivariate data processing render the system versatile for a multitude of measuring tasks. We illustrate the monitoring of industrial atmospheric mercury and hydrocarbon emissions, volcanic sulfur dioxide plume mapping, fluorescence lidar probing of seawater, and multispectral fluorescence imaging of the facades of a historical monument. PMID:12833965

  10. Plasmonic Biofoam: A Versatile Optically Active Material.

    PubMed

    Tian, Limei; Luan, Jingyi; Liu, Keng-Ku; Jiang, Qisheng; Tadepalli, Sirimuvva; Gupta, Maneesh K; Naik, Rajesh R; Singamaneni, Srikanth

    2016-01-13

    Owing to their ability to confine and manipulate light at the nanoscale, plasmonic nanostructures are highly attractive for a broad range of applications. While tremendous progress has been made in the synthesis of size- and shape-controlled plasmonic nanostructures, their integration with other materials and application in solid-state is primarily through their assembly on rigid two-dimensional (2D) substrates, which limits the plasmonically active space to a few nanometers above the substrate. In this work, we demonstrate a simple method to create plasmonically active three-dimensional biofoams by integrating plasmonic nanostructures with highly porous biomaterial aerogels. We demonstrate that plasmonic biofoam is a versatile optically active platform that can be harnessed for numerous applications including (i) ultrasensitive chemical detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering; (ii) highly efficient energy harvesting and steam generation through plasmonic photothermal heating; and (iii) optical control of enzymatic activity by triggered release of biomolecules encapsulated within the aerogel. Our results demonstrate that 3D plasmonic biofoam exhibits significantly higher sensing, photothermal, and loading efficiency compared to conventional 2D counterparts. The design principles and processing methodology of plasmonic aerogels demonstrated here can be broadly applied in the fabrication of other functional foams. PMID:26630376

  11. Development of versatile multiaperture negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Cavenago, M.; Minarello, A.; Sattin, M.; Serianni, G.; Antoni, V.; Bigi, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Recchia, M.; Veltri, P.; Agostinetti, P.; Barbisan, M.; Baseggio, L.; Cervaro, V.; Degli Agostini, F.; Franchin, L.; Laterza, B.; Ravarotto, D.; Rossetto, F.; Zaniol, B.; Zucchetti, S.; and others

    2015-04-08

    Enhancement of negative ion sources for production of large ion beams is a very active research field nowadays, driven from demand of plasma heating in nuclear fusion devices and accelerator applications. As a versatile test bench, the ion source NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization 1) is being commissioned by Consorzio RFX and INFN. The nominal beam current of 135 mA at −60 kV is divided into 9 beamlets, with multiaperture extraction electrodes. The plasma is sustained by a 2 MHz radiofrequency power supply, with a standard matching box. A High Voltage Deck (HVD) placed inside the lead shielding surrounding NIO1 contains the radiofrequency generator, the gas control, electronics and power supplies for the ion source. An autonomous closed circuit water cooling system was installed for the whole system, with a branch towards the HVD, using carefully optimized helical tubing. Insulation transformer is installed in a nearby box. Tests of several magnetic configurations can be performed. Status of experiments, measured spectra and plasma luminosity are described. Upgrades of magnetic filter, beam calorimeter and extraction grid and related theoretical issues are reviewed.

  12. Bioactive Carbohydrates and Peptides in Foods: An Overview of Sources, Downstream Processing Steps and Associated Bioactivities

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Maria; Tiwari, Brijesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides and carbohydrates are sourced from a myriad of plant, animal and insects and have huge potential for use as food ingredients and pharmaceuticals. However, downstream processing bottlenecks hinder the potential use of these natural bioactive compounds and add cost to production processes. This review discusses the health benefits and bioactivities associated with peptides and carbohydrates of natural origin and downstream processing methodologies and novel processes which may be used to overcome these. PMID:26393573

  13. Bioactive Carbohydrates and Peptides in Foods: An Overview of Sources, Downstream Processing Steps and Associated Bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Maria; Tiwari, Brijesh K

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides and carbohydrates are sourced from a myriad of plant, animal and insects and have huge potential for use as food ingredients and pharmaceuticals. However, downstream processing bottlenecks hinder the potential use of these natural bioactive compounds and add cost to production processes. This review discusses the health benefits and bioactivities associated with peptides and carbohydrates of natural origin and downstream processing methodologies and novel processes which may be used to overcome these. PMID:26393573

  14. Natural bioactive compounds from winery by-products as health promoters: a review.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Ana; Baenas, Nieves; Dominguez-Perles, Raul; Barros, Ana; Rosa, Eduardo; Moreno, Diego A; Garcia-Viguera, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The relevance of food composition for human health has increased consumers' interest in the consumption of fruits and vegetables, as well as foods enriched in bioactive compounds and nutraceuticals. This fact has led to a growing attention of suppliers on reuse of agro-industrial wastes rich in healthy plant ingredients. On this matter, grape has been pointed out as a rich source of bioactive compounds. Currently, up to 210 million tons of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are produced annually, being the 15% of the produced grapes addressed to the wine-making industry. This socio-economic activity generates a large amount of solid waste (up to 30%, w/w of the material used). Winery wastes include biodegradable solids namely stems, skins, and seeds. Bioactive compounds from winery by-products have disclosed interesting health promoting activities both in vitro and in vivo. This is a comprehensive review on the phytochemicals present in winery by-products, extraction techniques, industrial uses, and biological activities demonstrated by their bioactive compounds concerning potential for human health. PMID:25192288

  15. Natural Bioactive Compounds from Winery By-Products as Health Promoters: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Ana; Baenas, Nieves; Dominguez-Perles, Raul; Barros, Ana; Rosa, Eduardo; Moreno, Diego A.; Garcia-Viguera, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The relevance of food composition for human health has increased consumers’ interest in the consumption of fruits and vegetables, as well as foods enriched in bioactive compounds and nutraceuticals. This fact has led to a growing attention of suppliers on reuse of agro-industrial wastes rich in healthy plant ingredients. On this matter, grape has been pointed out as a rich source of bioactive compounds. Currently, up to 210 million tons of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are produced annually, being the 15% of the produced grapes addressed to the wine-making industry. This socio-economic activity generates a large amount of solid waste (up to 30%, w/w of the material used). Winery wastes include biodegradable solids namely stems, skins, and seeds. Bioactive compounds from winery by-products have disclosed interesting health promoting activities both in vitro and in vivo. This is a comprehensive review on the phytochemicals present in winery by-products, extraction techniques, industrial uses, and biological activities demonstrated by their bioactive compounds concerning potential for human health. PMID:25192288

  16. Viral Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramdass, Priya; Mullick, Sahil; Farber, Harold F

    2015-12-01

    In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome. PMID:26612372

  17. Advances on Bioactive Polysaccharides from Medicinal Plants.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jian-Hua; Jin, Ming-Liang; Morris, Gordon A; Zha, Xue-Qiang; Chen, Han-Qing; Yi, Yang; Li, Jing-En; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Gao, Jie; Nie, Shao-Ping; Shang, Peng; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2016-07-29

    In recent decades, the polysaccharides from the medicinal plants have attracted a lot of attention due to their significant bioactivities, such as anti-tumor activity, antioxidant activity, anticoagulant activity, antidiabetic activity, radioprotection effect, anti-viral activity, hypolipidemic and immunomodulatory activities, which make them suitable for medicinal applications. Previous studies have also shown that medicinal plant polysaccharides are non-toxic and show no side effects. Based on these encouraging observations, most researches have been focusing on the isolation and identification of polysaccharides, as well as their bioactivities. A large number of bioactive polysaccharides with different structural features and biological effects from medicinal plants have been purified and characterized. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the most recent developments in physiochemical, structural features and biological activities of bioactive polysaccharides from a number of important medicinal plants, such as polysaccharides from Astragalus membranaceus, Dendrobium plants, Bupleurum, Cactus fruits, Acanthopanax senticosus, Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, Aloe barbadensis Miller, and Dimocarpus longan Lour. Moreover, the paper has also been focused on the applications of bioactive polysaccharides for medicinal applications. Recent studies have provided evidence that polysaccharides from medicinal plants can play a vital role in bioactivities. The contents and data will serve as a useful reference material for further investigation, production, and application of these polysaccharides in functional foods and therapeutic agents. PMID:26463231

  18. A Versatile Family of Galactic Wind Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustard, Chad; Zweibel, Ellen G.; D'Onghia, Elena

    2016-03-01

    We present a versatile family of model galactic outflows including non-uniform mass and energy source distributions, a gravitational potential from an extended mass source, and radiative losses. The model easily produces steady-state wind solutions for a range of mass-loading factors, energy-loading factors, galaxy mass, and galaxy radius. We find that, with radiative losses included, highly mass-loaded winds must be driven at high central temperatures, whereas low mass-loaded winds can be driven at low temperatures just above the peak of the cooling curve, meaning radiative losses can drastically affect the wind solution even for low mass-loading factors. By including radiative losses, we are able to show that subsonic flows can be ignored as a possible mechanism for expelling mass and energy from a galaxy compared to the more efficient transonic solutions. Specifically, the transonic solutions with low mass loading and high energy loading are the most efficient. Our model also produces low-temperature, high-velocity winds that could explain the prevalence of low-temperature material in observed outflows. Finally, we show that our model, unlike the well-known Chevalier & Clegg model, can reproduce the observed linear relationship between wind X-ray luminosity and star formation rate (SFR) over a large range of SFR from 1-1000 M⊙ yr-1 assuming the wind mass-loading factor is higher for low-mass, and hence, low-SFR galaxies. We also constrain the allowed mass-loading factors that can fit the observed X-ray luminosity versus SFR trend, further suggesting an inverse relationship between mass loading and SFR as explored in advanced numerical simulations.

  19. Metadata Authoring with Versatility and Extensibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, Janine; Olsen, Lola

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) assists the scientific community in the discovery of and linkage to Earth science data sets and related services. The GCMD holds over 13,800 data set descriptions in Directory Interchange Format (DIF) and 700 data service descriptions in Service Entry Resource Format (SERF), encompassing the disciplines of geology, hydrology, oceanography, meteorology, and ecology. Data descriptions also contain geographic coverage information and direct links to the data, thus allowing researchers to discover data pertaining to a geographic location of interest, then quickly acquire those data. The GCMD strives to be the preferred data locator for world-wide directory-level metadata. In this vein, scientists and data providers must have access to intuitive and efficient metadata authoring tools. Existing GCMD tools are attracting widespread usage; however, a need for tools that are portable, customizable and versatile still exists. With tool usage directly influencing metadata population, it has become apparent that new tools are needed to fill these voids. As a result, the GCMD has released a new authoring tool allowing for both web-based and stand-alone authoring of descriptions. Furthermore, this tool incorporates the ability to plug-and-play the metadata format of choice, offering users options of DIF, SERF, FGDC, ISO or any other defined standard. Allowing data holders to work with their preferred format, as well as an option of a stand-alone application or web-based environment, docBUlLDER will assist the scientific community in efficiently creating quality data and services metadata.

  20. The neural crest: a versatile organ system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongcheng; Ighaniyan, Samiramis; Stathopoulos, Lefteris; Rollo, Benjamin; Landman, Kerry; Hutson, John; Newgreen, Donald

    2014-09-01

    The neural crest is the name given to the strip of cells at the junction between neural and epidermal ectoderm in neurula-stage vertebrate embryos, which is later brought to the dorsal neural tube as the neural folds elevate. The neural crest is a heterogeneous and multipotent progenitor cell population whose cells undergo EMT then extensively and accurately migrate throughout the embryo. Neural crest cells contribute to nearly every organ system in the body, with derivatives of neuronal, glial, neuroendocrine, pigment, and also mesodermal lineages. This breadth of developmental capacity has led to the neural crest being termed the fourth germ layer. The neural crest has occupied a prominent place in developmental biology, due to its exaggerated migratory morphogenesis and its remarkably wide developmental potential. As such, neural crest cells have become an attractive model for developmental biologists for studying these processes. Problems in neural crest development cause a number of human syndromes and birth defects known collectively as neurocristopathies; these include Treacher Collins syndrome, Hirschsprung disease, and 22q11.2 deletion syndromes. Tumors in the neural crest lineage are also of clinical importance, including the aggressive melanoma and neuroblastoma types. These clinical aspects have drawn attention to the selection or creation of neural crest progenitor cells, particularly of human origin, for studying pathologies of the neural crest at the cellular level, and also for possible cell therapeutics. The versatility of the neural crest lends itself to interlinked research, spanning basic developmental biology, birth defect research, oncology, and stem/progenitor cell biology and therapy. PMID:25227568

  1. Versatile Membrane Deformation Potential of Activated Pacsin

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Laura J.; Sondermann, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Endocytosis is a fundamental process in signaling and membrane trafficking. The formation of vesicles at the plasma membrane is mediated by the G protein dynamin that catalyzes the final fission step, the actin cytoskeleton, and proteins that sense or induce membrane curvature. One such protein, the F-BAR domain-containing protein pacsin, contributes to this process and has been shown to induce a spectrum of membrane morphologies, including tubules and tube constrictions in vitro. Full-length pacsin isoform 1 (pacsin-1) has reduced activity compared to its isolated F-BAR domain, implicating an inhibitory role for its C-terminal Src homology 3 (SH3) domain. Here we show that the autoinhibitory, intramolecular interactions in pacsin-1 can be released upon binding to the entire proline-rich domain (PRD) of dynamin-1, resulting in potent membrane deformation activity that is distinct from the isolated F-BAR domain. Most strikingly, we observe the generation of small, homogenous vesicles with the activated protein complex under certain experimental conditions. In addition, liposomes prepared with different methods yield distinct membrane deformation morphologies of BAR domain proteins and apparent activation barriers to pacsin-1's activity. Theoretical free energy calculations suggest bimodality of the protein-membrane system as a possible source for the different outcomes, which could account for the coexistence of energetically equivalent membrane structures induced by BAR domain-containing proteins in vitro. Taken together, our results suggest a versatile role for pacsin-1 in sculpting cellular membranes that is likely dependent both on protein structure and membrane properties. PMID:23236520

  2. Pyrazoloquinazolines: Synthetic strategies and bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Garg, Mansi; Chauhan, Monika; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Alex, Jimi Marin; Kumar, Raj

    2015-06-01

    Numerous N-heterocycles are indisputably evidenced to exhibit myriad biological activities. In the recent past, attempts made to condense the various heterocycles have resulted in derivatives possessing better bioactivities. Among many such condensed heterocycles, pyrazoloquinazolines have managed to hold the attention of many researchers, owing to the broad spectrum of activities they portray. This review is the first of its kind to congregate the various pyrazoloquinazolines reported until now and categorizes these structurally isomeric classes into eleven different groups based on the fusion pattern of the ring such as [1,5-c], [5,1-b], [4,3-h], etc. Furthermore, this review is a concerted effort to highlight design, synthetic strategies as well as biological activities of each class of this condensed heterocycle. Structure-activity relationship studies and in silico approaches wherever reported have also been discussed. In addition, manuscript also offers scope for design, synthesis and generation of libraries of unreported classes of pyrazoloquinazolines for the biological evaluation. PMID:25438709

  3. The cilium secretes bioactive ectosomes.

    PubMed

    Wood, Christopher R; Huang, Kaiyao; Diener, Dennis R; Rosenbaum, Joel L

    2013-05-20

    The release of membrane vesicles from the surface of cells into their surrounding environment is now recognized as an important pathway for the delivery of proteins to extracellular sites of biological function. Membrane vesicles of this kind, termed exosomes and ectosomes, are the result of active processes and have been shown to carry a wide array of biological effector molecules that can play roles in cell-to-cell communication and remodeling of the extracellular space. Degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) through the regulated release of proteolytic enzymes is a key process for development, morphogenesis, and cell migration in animal and plant cells. Here we show that the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas achieves the timely degradation of its mother cell wall, a type of ECM, through the budding of ectosomes directly from the membranes of its flagella. Using a combination of immunoelectron microscopy, immunofluorescence microscopy, and functional analysis, we demonstrate that these vesicles, which we term ciliary ectosomes, act as carriers of the proteolytic enzyme necessary for the liberation of daughter cells following mitosis. Chlamydomonas has proven to be the key unicellular model for the highly conserved mechanisms of mammalian cilia, and our results suggest that cilia may be an underappreciated source of bioactive, extracellular membrane vesicles. PMID:23623554

  4. Scaly Skin (Ichthyosis Vulgaris)

    MedlinePlus

    ... should improve by restoring moisture (hydration) to the skin. Creams and ointments are better moisturizers than lotions, and ... Physician May Prescribe To treat the dry, scaly skin of ichthyosis ... cream or lotion containing the following: Prescription-strength alpha- ...

  5. Squamous cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cell; NMSC - squamous cell; Squamous cell skin cancer; Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin ... squamous cell cancer is called Bowen disease (or squamous cell carcinoma in situ). This type does not spread to ...

  6. CSD skin test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003385.htm CSD skin test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The cat scratch disease (CSD) skin test was once used to help ...

  7. Squamous cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. The earliest form of ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  8. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or unhealthy, it affects melanin production. Some pigmentation disorders affect just patches of ...

  9. Fungal Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fungal Skin Infections Overview of Fungal Skin Infections Candidiasis Overview of Dermatophytoses (Ringworm, Tinea) Athlete's Foot Jock ... are caused by yeasts (such as Candida —see Candidiasis ) or dermatophytes, such as Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton ( ...

  10. Skin color - patchy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Injury Exposure to radiation (such as from the sun) Exposure to heavy metals Changes in hormone levels Exposure ... example, lighter-skinned people are more sensitive to sun exposure and damage, which raises the risk of skin ...

  11. Components of skin

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... skin layers from the outside environment and contains cells that make keratin, a substance that waterproofs and strengthens the skin. The epidermis also has cells that contain melanin, the dark pigment that gives ...

  12. A versatile hardware platform for brain computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Pablo A; Haberman, Marcelo; Spinelli, Enrique M

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the development of a versatile hardware platform for brain computer interfaces (BCI). The aim of this work is to produce a small, autonomous and configurable BCI platform adaptable to the user's needs. PMID:21096891

  13. [Development and research advances of iridoids from Valeriana jatamansi and their bioactivity].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning-ning; Ding, Guang-zhi

    2015-05-01

    Valeriana jatamansi (syn. V. wallichii), a traditional Chinese medicine recorded in Chinese Pharmacopeia (1977 and 2010 edition), has been used for treatment of a variety of conditions including sleep problems, obesity, nervous disorders, epilepsy, insanity, snake poisoning, eye trouble, and skin diseases. Also, it was used as an important substitute for the European V. officinalis, whose root preparation, popularly known as valerian, has been employed as a mild sedative for a long time. In recent years, much attention has been draw to the iridoids, one of the major bioactive constituents of V. jatamansi, leading to the discovery of a series of new iridoids with anti-tumor and neuroprotective activities. Their action machnism also has been discussed. This paper summerized the iridoids and their bioactivities from V. jatamansi in recent years, which could provide basic foundation for development and research of V. jatamansi. PMID:26390643

  14. Enzymatic synthesis of bioactive compounds with high potential for cosmeceutical application.

    PubMed

    Antonopoulou, Io; Varriale, Simona; Topakas, Evangelos; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul; Faraco, Vincenza

    2016-08-01

    Cosmeceuticals are cosmetic products containing biologically active ingredients purporting to offer a pharmaceutical therapeutic benefit. The active ingredients can be extracted and purified from natural sources (botanicals, herbal extracts, or animals) but can also be obtained biotechnologically by fermentation and cell cultures or by enzymatic synthesis and modification of natural compounds. A cosmeceutical ingredient should possess an attractive property such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, skin whitening, anti-aging, anti-wrinkling, or photoprotective activity, among others. During the past years, there has been an increased interest on the enzymatic synthesis of bioactive esters and glycosides based on (trans)esterification, (trans)glycosylation, or oxidation reactions. Natural bioactive compounds with exceptional theurapeutic properties and low toxicity may offer a new insight into the design and development of potent and beneficial cosmetics. This review gives an overview of the enzymatic modifications which are performed currently for the synthesis of products with attractive properties for the cosmeceutical industry. PMID:27276911

  15. Bilayer Cryogel Wound Dressing and Skin Regeneration Grafts for the Treatment of Acute Skin Wounds.

    PubMed

    Priya, S Geetha; Gupta, Ankur; Jain, Era; Sarkar, Joyita; Damania, Apeksha; Jagdale, Pankaj R; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Gupta, Kailash C; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-06-22

    In this study, the potential of cryogel bilayer wound dressing and skin regenerating graft for the treatment of surgically created full thickness wounds was evaluated. The top layer was composed of polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine (PVP-I) cryogel and served as the antiseptic layer, while the bottom regenerative layer was made using gelatin cryogel. Both components of the bilayer showed typical features of a cryogel interconnected macropore network, rapid swelling, high water uptake capacity of about 90%. Both PVP and gelatin cryogel showed high tensile strength of 45 and 10 kPa, respectively. Gelatin cryogel sheets were essentially elastic and could be stretched without any visible deformation. The antiseptic PVP-I layer cryogel sheet showed sustained iodine release and suppressed microbial growth when tested with skin pathogens (zone of inhibition ∼2 cm for sheet of 0.9 cm diameter). The gelatin cryogel sheet degraded in vitro in weeks. The gelatin cryogel sheet supported cell infiltration, attachment, and proliferation of fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Microparticles loaded with bioactive molecules (mannose-6-phosphate and human fibrinogen) were also incorporated in the gelatin cryogel sheets for their role in enhancing skin regeneration and scar free wound healing. In vivo evaluation of healing capacity of the bilayer cryogel was checked in rabbits by creating full thickness wound defect (diameter 2 cm). Macroscopic and microscopic observation at regular time intervals for 4 weeks demonstrated better and faster skin regeneration in the wound treated with cryogel bilayer as compared to untreated defect and the repair was comparable to commercial skin regeneration scaffold Neuskin-F. Complete skin regeneration was observed after 4 weeks of implantation with no sign of inflammatory response. Defects implanted with cryogel having mannose-6-phosphate showed no scar formation, while the wound treated with bilayer incorporated with human fibrinogen microparticles showed

  16. Silk sericin: A versatile material for tissue engineering and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Lamboni, Lallepak; Gauthier, Mario; Yang, Guang; Wang, Qun

    2015-12-01

    Sericin is an inexpensive glycoprotein obtained as a by-product in the silk industry. Its variable amino acid composition and diverse functional groups confer upon it attractive bioactive properties, which are particularly interesting for biomedical applications. Because of its antioxidant character, moisturizing ability, and mitogenic effect on mammalian cells, sericin is useful in cell culture and tissue engineering. Its positive effects on keratinocytes and fibroblasts have led to the development of sericin-based biomaterials for skin tissue repair, mainly as wound dressings. Additionally, sericin can be used for bone tissue engineering owing to its ability to induce nucleation of bone-like hydroxyapatite. Stable silk sericin biomaterials, such as films, sponges, and hydrogels, are prepared by cross-linking, ethanol precipitation, or blending with other polymers. Sericin may also be employed for drug delivery because its chemical reactivity and pH-responsiveness facilitate the fabrication of nano- and microparticles, hydrogels, and conjugated molecules, improving the bioactivity of drugs. Here, we summarized the recent advancements in the study of silk sericin for application in tissue engineering and drug delivery. PMID:26523781

  17. OxaD: A Versatile Indolic Nitrone Synthase from the Marine-Derived Fungus Penicillium oxalicum F30.

    PubMed

    Newmister, Sean A; Gober, Claire M; Romminger, Stelamar; Yu, Fengan; Tripathi, Ashootosh; Parra, Lizbeth Lorena L; Williams, Robert M; Berlinck, Roberto G S; Joullié, Madeleine M; Sherman, David H

    2016-09-01

    Indole alkaloids are a diverse class of natural products known for their wide range of biological activities and complex chemical structures. Rarely observed in this class are indolic nitrones, such as avrainvillamide and waikialoid, which possess potent bioactivities. Herein the oxa gene cluster from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium oxalicum F30 is described along with the characterization of OxaD, a flavin-dependent oxidase that generates roquefortine L, a nitrone-bearing intermediate in the biosynthesis of oxaline. Nitrone functionality in roquefortine L was confirmed by spectroscopic methods and 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition with methyl acrylate. OxaD is a versatile biocatalyst that converts an array of semisynthetic roquefortine C derivatives bearing indoline systems to their respective nitrones. This work describes the first implementation of a nitrone synthase as a biocatalyst and establishes a novel platform for late-stage diversification of a range of complex natural products. PMID:27505044

  18. Friction induced skin tags.

    PubMed

    Allegue, Francisco; Fachal, Carmen; Pérez-Pérez, Lidia

    2008-01-01

    Skin tags are common benign neoplasm located predominantly in intertriginous skin. Generally of cosmetic concern, they can be easily treated with cryotherapy, electrodessication or snip-excision. Despite their high incidence data about their etiopathogenesis are scarce in the medical literature. We describe a patient who developed multiple skin tags arranged in a linear fashion suggesting an etiopathogenic role for friction. PMID:18627719

  19. Skin self-exam

    MedlinePlus

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... do not agree on whether or not skin self-exams should be performed. So there is no ...

  20. Psychoneuroimmunology and the Skin.

    PubMed

    Honeyman, Juan F

    2016-08-23

    The nervous, immune, endocrine and integumentary systems are closely related and interact in a number of normal and pathological conditions. Nervous system mediators may bring about direct changes to the skin or may induce the release of immunological or hormonal mediators that cause pathological changes to the skin. This article reviews the psychological mechanisms involved in the development of skin diseases. PMID:27282344

  1. Ultrasound skin imaging.

    PubMed

    Alfageme Roldán, F

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of high-frequency ultrasound waves with the skin provides the basis for noninvasive, fast, and accessible diagnostic imaging. This tool is increasingly used in skin cancer and inflammatory conditions as well as in cosmetic dermatology. This article reviews the basic principles of skin ultrasound and its applications in the different areas of dermatology. PMID:24838227

  2. Biology of Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Alain

    1983-01-01

    Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

  3. Skin self-exam

    MedlinePlus

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... Experts do not agree on whether or not skin self-exams should be performed. So there is ...

  4. Tissue viability imaging for quantification of skin erythema and blanching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Gert E.; Leahy, Martin J.

    2010-02-01

    Naked eye observation has up to recently been the main method of determining skin erythema (vasodilatation) and blanching (vasoconstriction) in skin testing. Since naked eye observation is a highly subjective and investigatordependent method, it is difficult to attain reproducibility and to compare results reported by different researchers performing their studies at different laboratories. Consequently there is a need for more objective, quantitative and versatile methods in the assessment of alterations in skin erythema and blanching caused by internal and external factors such as the intake of vasoactive drugs, application of agents on the skin surface and by constituents in the environment. Since skin microcirculation is sensitive to applied pressure and heat, such methods should preferably be noninvasive and designed for remote use without touching the skin. As skin microcirculation further possesses substantial spatial variability, imaging techniques are to be preferred before single point measurements. An emerging technology based on polarization digital camera spectroscopy - Tissue Viability Imaging (TiVi) - fulfills these requirements. The principles of TiVi (1) and some of its early applications (2-5) are addressed in this paper.

  5. Development of bioactive and biodegradable chitosan-based injectable systems containing bioactive glass nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Couto, Daniela S; Hong, Zhongkui; Mano, João F

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the development of new tissue engineering strategies to deliver cells and bioactive agents encapsulated in a biodegradable matrix through minimally invasive procedures. The present work proposes to combine chitosan-beta-glycerophosphate salt formulations with bioactive glass nanoparticles in order to conceive novel injectable thermo-responsive hydrogels for orthopaedic reconstructive and regenerative medicine applications. The initial rheological properties and the gelation points of the developed organic-inorganic in situ thermosetting systems were revealed to be adequate for intracorporal injection. In vitro bioactivity tests, using incubation protocols in simulated body fluid (SBF), allowed the observation of bone-like apatite formation in the hydrogel formulations containing bioactive nanoparticles. The density of the apatite formed increased with increasing bioactive glass content and soaking time in SBF. These results indicate that the stimuli-responsive hydrogels could potentially be used as temporary injectable scaffolds in bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:18835230

  6. Bioactive molecules from sea hares.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, H; Sakai, R; Jimbo, M

    2006-01-01

    Sea hares, belonging to the order Opisthobranchia, subclass Gastropoda, are mollusks that have attracted many researchers who are interested in the chemical defense mechanisms of these soft and "shell-less" snails. Numbers of small molecules of dietary origin have been isolated from sea hares and some have ecologically relevant activities, such as fish deterrent activity or toxicity. Recently, however, greater attention has been paid to biomedically interesting sea hare isolates such as dolastatins, a series of antitumor peptide/macrolides isolated from Dolabella auricularia. Another series of bioactive peptide/macrolides, as represented by aplyronines, have been isolated from sea hares in Japanese waters. Although earlier studies indicated the potent antitumor activity of aplyronines, their clinical development has never been conducted because of the minute amount of compound available from the natural source. Recent synthetic studies, however, have made it possible to prepare these compounds and analogs for a structure-activity relationship study, and started to uncover their unique action mechanism towards their putative targets, microfilaments. Here, recent findings of small antitumor molecules isolated from Japanese sea hares are reviewed. Sea hares are also known to produce cytotoxic and antimicrobial proteins. In contrast to the small molecules of dietary origin, proteins are the genetic products of sea hares and they are likely to have some primary physiological functions in addition to ecological roles in the sea hare. Based on the biochemical properties and phylogenetic analysis of these proteins, we propose that they belong to one family of molecule, the "Aplysianin A family," although their molecular weights are apparently divided into two groups. Interestingly, the active principles in Aplysia species and Dolabella auricularia were shown to be L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO), a flavin enzyme that oxidizes an alpha-amino group of the substrate with

  7. Urostomy - stoma and skin care

    MedlinePlus

    ... it well before you attach the pouch. Avoid skin care products that contain alcohol. These can make your ... the pouch to your skin. Use fewer special skin care products. This will make problems with your skin ...

  8. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    No matter if your skin is light, dark, or somewhere in between, everyone is at risk for skin cancer. Learn what skin cancer looks like, how to find it early, and how to lower the chance of skin cancer.

  9. Increased levels of palmitoylethanolamide and other bioactive lipid mediators and enhanced local mast cell proliferation in canine atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the precise pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) is unknown, an immune dysregulation that causes Th2-predominant inflammation and an intrinsic defect in skin barrier function are currently the two major hypotheses, according to the so-called outside-inside-outside model. Mast cells (MCs) are involved in AD both by releasing Th2 polarizing cytokines and generating pruritus symptoms through release of histamine and tryptase. A link between MCs and skin barrier defects was recently uncovered, with histamine being found to profoundly contribute to the skin barrier defects. Palmitoylethanolamide and related lipid mediators are endogenous bioactive compounds, considered to play a protective homeostatic role in many tissues: evidence collected so far shows that the anti-inflammatory effect of palmitoylethanolamide depends on the down-modulation of MC degranulation. Based on this background, the purpose of the present study was twofold: (a) to determine if the endogenous levels of palmitoylethanolamide and other bioactive lipid mediators are changed in the skin of AD dogs compared to healthy animals; (b) to examine if MC number is increased in the skin of AD dogs and, if so, whether it depends on MC in-situ proliferation. Results The amount of lipid extract expressed as percent of biopsy tissue weight was significantly reduced in AD skin while the levels of all analyzed bioactive lipid mediators were significantly elevated, with palmitoylethanolamide showing the highest increase. In dogs with AD, the number of MCs was significantly increased in both the subepidermal and the perifollicular compartments and their granule content was significantly decreased in the latter. Also, in situ proliferation of MCs was documented. Conclusions The levels of palmitoylethanolamide and other bioactive lipid mediators were shown to increase in AD skin compared to healthy samples, leading to the hypothesis that they may be part of the body’s innate mechanisms to

  10. Skin, Reactive Oxygen Species, and Circadian Clocks

    PubMed Central

    Ndiaye, Mary A.; Nihal, Minakshi; Wood, Gary S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Skin, a complex organ and the body's first line of defense against environmental insults, plays a critical role in maintaining homeostasis in an organism. This balance is maintained through a complex network of cellular machinery and signaling events, including those regulating oxidative stress and circadian rhythms. These regulatory mechanisms have developed integral systems to protect skin cells and to signal to the rest of the body in the event of internal and environmental stresses. Recent Advances: Interestingly, several signaling pathways and many bioactive molecules have been found to be involved and even important in the regulation of oxidative stress and circadian rhythms, especially in the skin. It is becoming increasingly evident that these two regulatory systems may, in fact, be interconnected in the regulation of homeostasis. Important examples of molecules that connect the two systems include serotonin, melatonin, vitamin D, and vitamin A. Critical Issues: Excessive reactive oxygen species and/or dysregulation of antioxidant system and circadian rhythms can cause critical errors in maintaining proper barrier function and skin health, as well as overall homeostasis. Unfortunately, the modern lifestyle seems to contribute to increasing alterations in redox balance and circadian rhythms, thereby posing a critical problem for normal functioning of the living system. Future Directions: Since the oxidative stress and circadian rhythm systems seem to have areas of overlap, future research needs to be focused on defining the interactions between these two important systems. This may be especially important in the skin where both systems play critical roles in protecting the whole body. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2982–2996. PMID:24111846

  11. Enriching screening libraries with bioactive fragment space.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Zhao, Hongtao

    2016-08-01

    By deconvoluting 238,073 bioactive molecules in the ChEMBL library into extended Murcko ring systems, we identified a set of 2245 ring systems present in at least 10 molecules. These ring systems belong to 2221 clusters by ECFP4 fingerprints with a minimum intracluster similarity of 0.8. Their overlap with ring systems in commercial libraries was further quantified. Our findings suggest that success of a small fragment library is driven by the convergence of effective coverage of bioactive ring systems (e.g., 10% coverage by 1000 fragments vs. 40% by 2million HTS compounds), high enrichment of bioactive ring systems, and low molecular complexity enhancing the probability of a match with the protein targets. Reconciling with the previous studies, bioactive ring systems are underrepresented in screening libraries. As such, we propose a library of virtual fragments with key functionalities via fragmentation of bioactive molecules. Its utility is exemplified by a prospective application on protein kinase CK2, resulting in the discovery of a series of novel inhibitors with the most potent compound having an IC50 of 0.5μM and a ligand efficiency of 0.41kcal/mol per heavy atom. PMID:27311891

  12. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin.

    PubMed

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-09-01

    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals. PMID:27376685

  13. Skin Exposure and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Redlich, Carrie A.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous occupational and environmental exposures that increase asthma risk have been identified. Research and prevention have focused primarily on the respiratory tract. However, recent studies suggest that the skin may also be an important route of exposure and site of sensitization that contributes to asthma development. Factors that impair skin barrier function, such as filaggrin gene mutations or skin trauma, may facilitate allergen entry and promote Th2-like sensitization and subsequent asthma. Animal studies demonstrate that skin exposure to chemical and protein allergens is highly effective at inducing sensitization, with subsequent inhalation challenge eliciting asthmatic responses. A similar role for human skin exposure to certain sensitizing agents, such as isocyanates, is likely. Skin exposure methodologies are being developed to incorporate skin exposure assessment into epidemiology studies investigating asthma risk factors. PMID:20427586

  14. Polydopamine-Based Simple and Versatile Surface Modification of Polymeric Nano Drug Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joonyoung; Brust, Tarsis F.; Lee, Hong Jae; Lee, Sang Cheon; Watts, Val J.; Yeo, Yoon

    2014-01-01

    The surface of a polymeric nanoparticle (NP) is often functionalized with cell-interactive ligands and/or additional polymeric layers to control NP interaction with cells and proteins. However, such modification is not always straightforward when the surface is not chemically reactive. For this reason, most NP functionalization processes employ reactive linkers or coupling agents or involve pre-functionalization of the polymer, which are complicated and inefficient. Moreover, pre-functionalized polymers can lose the ability to encapsulate and retain a drug if the added ligands change chemical properties of the polymer. To overcome this challenge, we use dopamine polymerization as a way of functionalizing NP surfaces. This method includes brief incubation of the pre-formed NPs in a weak alkaline solution of dopamine, followed by secondary incubation with desired ligands. Using this method, we have functionalized poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs with three representative surface modifiers: a small molecule (folate), a peptide (Arg-Gly-Asp), and a polymer [poly(carboxybetaine methacrylate)]. We confirmed that the modified NPs showed the expected cellular interactions with no cytotoxicity or residual bioactivity of dopamine. The dopamine polymerization method is a simple and versatile surface modification method, applicable to a variety of NP drug carriers irrespective of their chemical reactivity and the types of ligands. PMID:24628245

  15. [Obtention of human skin sheets by means of tissue engineering].

    PubMed

    Arvelo, Francisco; Pérez, Pedro; Cotte, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this "in vitro" study was to develop a new system for keratinocyte culture on a dermal equivalent that enables treatment of different skin injuries. The keratinocyte where obtained from primary cell cultures derived from skin biopsies, seeded over a fibrin matrix enhanced with live human fibroblast. Cells growing over the dermal equivalent, rapidly confluences and a stratified epithelium was obtained within 20-25 days culture. Detachment of composite culture from flask is a simple and quick procedure with no need for chemical or enzyme treatments. The method described provides a number of advantages which include the large expansion of keratinocyte from the primary cell cultures without the need of a feeder layer, the availability of plasma from blood banks, and the versatile and safe manipulation of composite obtained "in vitro". All these facts allow to assure that this system could result very efficient for the treatment of all type of skin injuries. PMID:15916167

  16. Analytical investigations of poly(acrylic acid) coatings electrodeposited on titanium-based implants: a versatile approach to biocompatibility enhancement.

    PubMed

    De Giglio, E; Cometa, S; Cioffi, N; Torsi, L; Sabbatini, L

    2007-12-01

    A polyacrylic acid film was synthesized on titanium substrates from aqueous solutions via an electroreductive process for the first time. This work was done in order to develop a versatile coating for titanium-based orthopaedic implants that acts as both an effective bioactive surface and an effective anti-corrosion barrier. The chemical structure of the PAA coating was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to evaluate the effect of annealing treatment on the morphology of the coatings in terms of their uniformity and porosity. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to measure ion concentrations in ion release tests performed on Ti-6Al-4V sheets modified with PAA coatings (annealed and unannealed). Results indicate that the annealing process produces coatings that possess considerable anti-corrosion performance. Moreover, the availability and the reactivity of the surface carboxylic groups were exploited in order to graft biological molecules onto the PAA-modified titanium implants. The feasibility of the grafting reaction was tested using a single aminoacid residue. A fluorinated aminoacid was selected, and the grafting reaction was monitored both by XPS, using fluorine as a marker element, and via quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements. The success of the grafting reaction opens the door to the synthesis of a wide variety of PAA-based coatings that are functionalized with selected bioactive molecules and promote positive reactions with the biological system interfacing the implant while considerably reducing ion release into surrounding tissues. PMID:17516054

  17. Microbial biotransformation of bioactive flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hui; Chen, Xiaoqing; Jassbi, Amir Reza; Xiao, Jianbo

    2015-01-01

    The bioactive flavonoids are considered as the most important phytochemicals in food, which exert a wide range of biological benefits for human being. Microbial biotransformation strategies for production of flavonoids have attracted considerable interest because they allow yielding novel flavonoids, which do not exist in nature. In this review, we summarize the existing knowledge on the production and biotransformation of flavonoids by various microbes. The main reactions during microbial biotransformation are hydroxylation, dehydroxylation, O-methylation, O-demethylation, glycosylation, deglycosylation, dehydrogenation, hydrogenation, C ring cleavage of the benzo-γ-pyrone system, cyclization, and carbonyl reduction. Cunninghamella, Penicillium, and Aspergillus strains are very popular to biotransform flavonoids and they can perform almost all the reactions with excellent yields. Aspergillus niger is one of the most applied microorganisms in the flavonoids' biotransformation; for example, A. niger can transfer flavanone to flavan-4-ol, 2'-hydroxydihydrochalcone, flavone, 3-hydroxyflavone, 6-hydroxyflavanone, and 4'-hydroxyflavanone. The hydroxylation of flavones by microbes usually happens on the ortho position of hydroxyl group on the A ring and C-4' position of the B ring and microbes commonly hydroxylate flavonols at the C-8 position. The microorganisms tend to hydroxylate flavanones at the C-5, 6, and 4' positions; however, for prenylated flavanones, dihydroxylation often takes place on the C4α=C5α double bond on the prenyl group (the side chain of A ring). Isoflavones are usually hydroxylated at the C-3' position of the B ring by microorganisms. The microbes convert flavonoids to their 7-O-glycosides and 3-O-glycosides (when flavonoids have a hydroxyl moiety at the C-3 position). The demethylation of multimethoxyl flavonoids by microbes tends to happen at the C-3' and C-4' positions of the B ring. Multimethoxyl flavanones and isoflavone are demethylated at

  18. Tantalum—A bioactive metal for implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Bose, Susmita; Davies, Neal M.; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2010-07-01

    Metallic biomaterials currently in use for load-bearing orthopedic applications are mostly bioinert and therefore lack sufficient osseointegration. Although bioactive ceramics such as hydroxyapatite (HA) can spontaneously bond to living bone tissue, low fracture toughness of HA limits their use as a bone substitute for load-bearing applications. Surface modification techniques such as HA coating on metals are current options to improve osseointegration in load-bearing metal implants. Over the last few decades researchers have attempted to find a bioactive metal with high mechanical strength and excellent fatigue resistance that can bond chemically with surrounding bone for orthopedic applications. Recent in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies demonstrated that tantalum is a promising metal that is bioactive. However, tantalum applications in biomedical devices have been limited by processing challenges rather than biological performances. In this article, we provide an overview of processing aspects and biological properties of tantalum for load-bearing orthopedic applications.

  19. Enhanced bioactivity, biocompatibility and mechanical behavior of strontium substituted bioactive glasses.

    PubMed

    Arepalli, Sampath Kumar; Tripathi, Himanshu; Hira, Sumit Kumar; Manna, Partha Pratim; Pyare, Ram; S P Singh

    2016-12-01

    Strontium contained biomaterials have been reported as a potential bioactive material for bone regeneration, as it reduces bone resorption and stimulates bone formation. In the present investigation, the bioactive glasses were designed to partially substitute SrO for SiO2 in Na2O-CaO-SrO-P2O5-SiO2 system. This work demonstrates that the substitution of SrO for SiO2 has got significant benefit than substitution for CaO in the bioactive glass. Bioactivity was assessed by the immersion of the samples in simulated body fluid for different intervals. The formation of hydroxy carbonate apatite layer was identified by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The elastic modulus of the bioactive glasses was measured and found to increase with increasing SrO for SiO2. The blood compatibility of the samples was evaluated. In vitro cell culture studies of the samples were performed using human osteosarcoma U2-OS cell lines and found a significant improvement in cell viability and proliferation. The investigation showed enhancement in bioactivity, mechanical and biological properties of the strontia substituted for silica in glasses. Thus, these bioactive glasses would be highly potential for bone regeneration. PMID:27612694

  20. Aeroplysinin-1, a Sponge-Derived Multi-Targeted Bioactive Marine Drug

    PubMed Central

    García-Vilas, Javier A.; Martínez-Poveda, Beatriz; Quesada, Ana R.; Medina, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Organisms lacking external defense mechanisms have developed chemical defense strategies, particularly through the production of secondary metabolites with antibiotic or repellent effects. Secondary metabolites from marine organisms have proven to be an exceptionally rich source of small molecules with pharmacological activities potentially beneficial to human health. (+)-Aeroplysinin-1 is a secondary metabolite isolated from marine sponges with a wide spectrum of bio-activities. (+)-Aeroplysinin-1 has potent antibiotic effects on Gram-positive bacteria and several dinoflagellate microalgae causing toxic blooms. In preclinical studies, (+)-aeroplysinin-1 has been shown to have promising anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor effects. Due to its versatility, (+)-aeroplysinin-1 might have a pharmaceutical interest for the treatment of different pathologies. PMID:26703630

  1. Phytosynthesis and applications of bioactive SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Vidhu, V.K.; Philip, Daizy

    2015-03-15

    A facile, eco-friendly, cost effective and versatile synthesis of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles of size in the range 2.2–3.2 nm using fenugreek seeds is reported. The structural and morphological properties of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles have been studied using X-ray diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. UV–visible spectra show a blue shift of the absorption band arising from quantum size effect. Studies on thermal conductivity, viscosity, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of the synthesized SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles highlight the possible applications in nanofluids and biomedical field. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Bioactive SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles are synthesized using Fenugreek seeds. • Structural, morphological and optical characterizations have been done. • Thermal conductivity and rheological properties are reported. • Antioxidant and antibacterial activities are highlighted.

  2. No tradeoff between versatility and robustness in gene circuit motifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Joshua L.

    2016-05-01

    Circuit motifs are small directed subgraphs that appear in real-world networks significantly more often than in randomized networks. In the Boolean model of gene circuits, most motifs are realized by multiple circuit genotypes. Each of a motif's constituent circuit genotypes may have one or more functions, which are embodied in the expression patterns the circuit forms in response to specific initial conditions. Recent enumeration of a space of nearly 17 million three-gene circuit genotypes revealed that all circuit motifs have more than one function, with the number of functions per motif ranging from 12 to nearly 30,000. This indicates that some motifs are more functionally versatile than others. However, the individual circuit genotypes that constitute each motif are less robust to mutation if they have many functions, hinting that functionally versatile motifs may be less robust to mutation than motifs with few functions. Here, I explore the relationship between versatility and robustness in circuit motifs, demonstrating that functionally versatile motifs are robust to mutation despite the inherent tradeoff between versatility and robustness at the level of an individual circuit genotype.

  3. Assessing Antibacterial Potential of Components of Phyllomedusa distincta Skin and its Associated Dermal Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Brito de Assis, Ananda; Dos Santos, Cristiane; Dutra, Flávia Pereira; de Oliveira Motta, Ailla; Costa, Flávio Silva; Navas, Carlos Arturo; Magalhães, Beatriz Simas; Barreto, Cristine Chaves

    2016-02-01

    The granular glands of anuran skin secrete an array of bioactive molecules that protect a frog against pathogens and predators. The skin also harbors a microbial community. Although there is evidence to suggest that the microbiota complement the innate immune defense systems against pathogen infection, the effect of the frog bioactive molecules on its resident microbiota has not yet been fully investigated. In the present study, the skin microbiota of Phyllomedusa distincta obtained from two different geographical areas was evaluated with molecular and culture-based approaches. The antagonistic effects exhibited by the host's microbiota and by a novel dermaseptin peptide isolated from P. distincta skin were investigated. Four isolated bacterial colonies displayed antimicrobial activity against known frog pathogens. Our results were consistent with the hypothesis that microbiota from P. distincta may interact with pathogenic microorganisms to protect a frog's health. On the other hand, the novel dermaseptin peptide exhibited an antimicrobial effect on pathogens as well as on some of the bacteria obtained from the skin microbiota. The richness of bacteria on P. distincta skin was further investigated by 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, which revealed that the family Enterobacteriaceae was prevalent, but a high variability at the species level was observed among individual frogs. Differences observed on the microbiota of frogs from contrasting habitats indicated an influence of the environment on the structure of the skin microbiota of P. distincta. PMID:26826104

  4. Methods of Manufacturing Bioactive Gels from Extracellular Matrix Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kentner, Kimberly A. (Inventor); Stuart, Katherine A. (Inventor); Janis, Abram D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is directed to methods of manufacturing bioactive gels from ECM material, i.e., gels which retain bioactivity, and can serve as scaffolds for preclinical and clinical tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches to tissue reconstruction. The manufacturing methods take advantage of a new recognition that bioactive gels from ECM material can be created by digesting particularized ECM material in an alkaline environment and neutralizing to provide bioactive gels.

  5. Methods of Manufacturing Bioactive Gels from Extracellular Matrix Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kentner, Kimberly A. (Inventor); Stuart, Katherine A. (Inventor); Janis, Abram D. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention is directed to methods of manufacturing bioactive gels from ECM material, i.e., gels which retain bioactivity, and can serve as scaffolds for preclinical and clinical tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches to tissue reconstruction. The manufacturing methods take advantage of a new recognition that bioactive gels from ECM material can be created by digesting particularized ECM material in an alkaline environment and neutralizing to provide bioactive gels.

  6. Methods of Manufacturing Bioactive Gels from Extracellular Matrix Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kentner, Kimberly A. (Inventor); Stuart, Katherine A. (Inventor); Janis, Abram D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is directed to methods of manufacturing bioactive gels from ECM material, i.e., gels which retain bioactivity, and can serve as scaffolds for preclinical and clinical tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches to tissue reconstruction. The manufacturing methods take advantage of a new recognition that bioactive gels from ECM material can be created by digesting particularized ECM material in an alkaline environment and neutralizing to provide bioactive gels.

  7. Inhibition of TRPV1 for the treatment of sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Kueper, Thomas; Krohn, Michael; Haustedt, Lars Ole; Hatt, Hanns; Schmaus, Gerhard; Vielhaber, Gabriele

    2010-11-01

    During the past years, the topic sensitive skin became one of the most important fields in dermatology. The tremendous interest is based on several studies showing that about 50% of the population declares to have sensitive skin. The human thermoreceptor hTRPV1 was previously identified to contribute to this skin condition while facilitating neurogenic inflammation leading to hyperalgesia. Furthermore, skin sensitivity towards capsaicin, a natural activator of TRPV1, was shown to correlate with sensitive skin. In a screening campaign based on recombinant HEK293-cells stably transfected with hTRPV1, the selective antagonist trans-4-tert-butylcyclohexanol was identified. This antagonist is able to inhibit capsaicin-induced hTRPV1 activation with an IC(50) value of 34 ± 5 μm tested in HEK293-cells as well as in electrophysiological recordings performed in oocytes expressing hTRPV1. Strikingly, in a clinical study with 30 women using topical treatment with o/w emulsions containing 31.6 ppm capsaicin, we were able to show that 0.4% of this inhibitor significantly reduces capsaicin-induced burning (P < 0.0001) in vivo. Thus trans-4-tert-butylcyclohexanol has the potential as a novel bioactive for the treatment of sensitive skin. PMID:20626462

  8. Investigation of bioactivity and cell effects of nano-porous sol-gel derived bioactive glass film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhijun; Ji, Huijiao; Hu, Xiaomeng; Teng, Yu; Zhao, Guiyun; Mo, Lijuan; Zhao, Xiaoli; Chen, Weibo; Qiu, Jianrong; Zhang, Ming

    2013-11-01

    In orthopedic surgery, bioactive glass film coating is extensively studied to improve the synthetic performance of orthopedic implants. A lot of investigations have confirmed that nano-porous structure in bioactive glasses can remarkably improve their bioactivity. Nevertheless, researches on preparation of nano-porous bioactive glasses in the form of film coating and their cell response activities are scarce. Herein, we report the preparation of nano-porous bioactive glass film on commercial glass slide based on a sol-gel technique, together with the evaluation of its in vitro bioactivity through immersion in simulated body fluid and monitoring the precipitation of apatite-like layer. Cell responses of the samples, including attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, were also investigated using BMSCS (bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells) as a model. The results presented here provide some basic information on structural influence of bioactive glass film on the improvement of bioactivity and cellular effects.

  9. Bacterial Skin Infections.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Fadi; Khan, Tariq; Pujalte, George G A

    2015-12-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections account for 0.5% of outpatient visits to primary care. Skin and soft tissue infections can usually be managed in an outpatient setting. However, there are certain circumstances as discussed in this article that require more urgent care or inpatient management. Primary care providers should be able to diagnose, manage, and provide appropriate follow-up care for these frequently seen skin infections. This article provides family physicians with a comprehensive review of the assessment and management of common bacterial skin infections. PMID:26612370

  10. Immunohistochemistry of porcine skin.

    PubMed

    Wollina, U; Berger, U; Mahrle, G

    1991-01-01

    The present paper reports immunohistological findings in porcine skin, which were obtained by use of mono- and polyclonal antihuman antibodies and either alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase (APAAP) or peroxidase (POX) technique. Epidermal staining was observed with antibodies to keratins (K 8.12, RSKE 60), filaggrin, and calmodulin (ACAM). Staining of connective tissue and vessels was achieved using antibodies to vimentin (V9(1)), collagen type IV, and fibronectin. In general, these antibodies gave a staining pattern similar to that of normal human skin. The similarities of immunoreactivity to poly- and monoclonal antihuman antibodies in porcine and human skin render porcine skin a reliable model in biomedical research. PMID:1710864

  11. Ranking in interconnected multilayer networks reveals versatile nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Domenico, Manlio; Solé-Ribalta, Albert; Omodei, Elisa; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2015-04-01

    The determination of the most central agents in complex networks is important because they are responsible for a faster propagation of information, epidemics, failures and congestion, among others. A challenging problem is to identify them in networked systems characterized by different types of interactions, forming interconnected multilayer networks. Here we describe a mathematical framework that allows us to calculate centrality in such networks and rank nodes accordingly, finding the ones that play the most central roles in the cohesion of the whole structure, bridging together different types of relations. These nodes are the most versatile in the multilayer network. We investigate empirical interconnected multilayer networks and show that the approaches based on aggregating--or neglecting--the multilayer structure lead to a wrong identification of the most versatile nodes, overestimating the importance of more marginal agents and demonstrating the power of versatility in predicting their role in diffusive and congestion processes.

  12. Marine bioactives and potential application in sports.

    PubMed

    Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Gemello, Eugenio; Riccioni, Graziano; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2014-05-01

    An enriched diet with antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, β-carotene and phenolic compounds, has always been suggested to improve oxidative stress, preventing related diseases. In this respect, marine natural product (MNP), such as COX inhibitors, marine steroids, molecules interfering with factors involved in the modulation of gene expression (such as NF-κB), macrolides, many antioxidant agents, thermogenic substances and even substances that could help the immune system and that result in the protection of cartilage, have been recently gaining attention. The marine world represents a reserve of bioactive ingredients, with considerable potential as functional food. Substances, such as chitin, chitosan, n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive peptides, can provide several health benefits, such as the reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. In addition, new marine bioactive substances with potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and thermogenic capacity may provide health benefits and performance improvement, especially in those who practice physical activity, because of their increased free radical and Reacting Oxygen Species (ROS) production during exercise, and, particularly, in athletes. The aim of this review is to examine the potential pharmacological properties and application of many marine bioactive substances in sports. PMID:24796298

  13. Marine Bioactives and Potential Application in Sports

    PubMed Central

    Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Gemello, Eugenio; Riccioni, Graziano; D’Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2014-01-01

    An enriched diet with antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, β-carotene and phenolic compounds, has always been suggested to improve oxidative stress, preventing related diseases. In this respect, marine natural product (MNP), such as COX inhibitors, marine steroids, molecules interfering with factors involved in the modulation of gene expression (such as NF-κB), macrolides, many antioxidant agents, thermogenic substances and even substances that could help the immune system and that result in the protection of cartilage, have been recently gaining attention. The marine world represents a reserve of bioactive ingredients, with considerable potential as functional food. Substances, such as chitin, chitosan, n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive peptides, can provide several health benefits, such as the reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. In addition, new marine bioactive substances with potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and thermogenic capacity may provide health benefits and performance improvement, especially in those who practice physical activity, because of their increased free radical and Reacting Oxygen Species (ROS) production during exercise, and, particularly, in athletes. The aim of this review is to examine the potential pharmacological properties and application of many marine bioactive substances in sports. PMID:24796298

  14. Bioactive Terpenes from Marine-Derived Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Elissawy, Ahmed M.; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Ebada, Sherif S.; Singab, AbdelNasser B.; Proksch, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Marine-derived fungi continue to be a prolific source of secondary metabolites showing diverse bioactivities. Terpenoids from marine-derived fungi exhibit wide structural diversity including numerous compounds with pronounced biological activities. In this review, we survey the last five years’ reports on terpenoidal metabolites from marine-derived fungi with particular attention on those showing marked biological activities. PMID:25854644

  15. Modeling of the bioactivated nanopore devices.

    PubMed

    Talasaz, AmirAli H; Liu, Yang; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Davis, Ronald W

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling of the electrical properties of bioactivated nanopores, customized nanopore devices with a biological macromolecule attached in the pore as the probe. These devices are capable of detecting and analyzing interactions between the attached biomolecule and the molecules in the analyte at a single molecule level. PMID:17946483

  16. Five new bioactive compounds from Chenopodium ambrosioides.

    PubMed

    Song, Kun; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Hong-Qing; Liu, Chao; Li, Bao-Ming; Kang, Jie; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2015-05-01

    Five new bioactive compounds, chenopodiumamines A-D (1-4) and chenopodiumoside A (5), were isolated from the ethanol extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by various spectroscopic means (UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). Compounds 1-3 had moderate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26001043

  17. Nanochemoprevention by Bioactive Food Components: A Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Imtiaz A.

    2010-01-01

    Chemoprevention through the use of bioactive food components is a practical approach for cancer control. Despite abundant efficacy data under preclinical settings, this strategy has resulted in limited success for human cancer control. Amongst many reasons, inefficient systemic delivery and bioavailability of promising chemopreventive agents are considered to significantly contribute to such a disconnect. We recently introduced a novel concept in which we utilized nanotechnology for enhancing the outcome of chemoprevention (Cancer Res. 2009; 69:1712–6) and termed it nanochemoprevention. To establish the proof-of-principle of nanotechnology for cancer management, we determined the efficacy of a well-known chemopreventive agent epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) encapsulated in polylactic acid (PLA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) nanoparticles in preclinical settings and observed that, compared to non-encapsulated EGCG, nano-EGCG retained its biological efficacy with over 10-fold dose advantage both in cell culture system and in vivo settings in athymic nude mice implanted with human prostate cancer cells. This study laid the foundation of nanochemoprevention by bioactive food components. Since oral consumption is the most desirable and acceptable form of delivery of bioactive food components, it will be important to develop nanoparticles containing bioactive food components that are suitable for oral consumption for which experiments are underway in this laboratory. PMID:20221894

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF USDA'S DATABASES FOR BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is responsible for developing and maintaining composition databases for foods and supplements. Recent hypotheses concerning the possible roles of new bioactive dietary compounds in managing...

  19. Bioactive alkaloids in vertically transmitted fungal endophytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants form mutualistic symbioses with a variety of microorganisms, including endophytic fungi that live inside the plant and cause no symptoms of infection. Some endophytic fungi form defensive mutualisms based on the production of bioactive metabolites that protect the plant from herbivores in exc...

  20. Citrus Limonoids: Analysis, Bioactivity, and Biomedical Prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication is a review of the chemistry, biochemistry and bioactivity of limonoids occurring in citrus. The review chronologically relates the evolution of research in citrus limonoids beginning with their association with bitterness development in citrus juices. The chemical and biochemical...

  1. Preparation and bioactive properties of nano bioactive glass and segmented polyurethane composites.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Pérez, Fernando J; Vargas-Coronado, Rossana F; Cervantes-Uc, Jose M; Cauich-Rodríguez, Juan V; Covarrubias, Cristian; Pedram-Yazdani, Merhdad

    2016-04-01

    Composites of glutamine-based segmented polyurethanes with 5 to 25 wt.% bioactive glass nanoparticles were prepared, characterized, and their mineralization potential was evaluated in simulated body fluid. Biocompatibility with dental pulp stem cells was assessed by MTS to an extended range of compositions (1 to 25 wt.% of bioactive glass nanoparticles). Physicochemical characterization showed that composites retained many of the matrix properties, i.e. those corresponding to semicrystalline elastomeric polymers as they exhibited a glass transition temperature (Tg) between -41 and -36℃ and a melting temperature (Tm) between 46 and 49℃ in agreement with X-ray reflections at 23.6° and 21.3°. However, with bioactive glass nanoparticles addition, tensile strength and strain were reduced from 22.2 to 12.2 MPa and 667.2 to 457.8%, respectively with 25 wt.% of bioactive glass nanoparticles. Although Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy did not show evidence of mineralization after conditioning of these composites in simulated body fluid, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis showed the formation of an apatite layer on the surface which increased with higher bioactive glass concentrations and longer conditioning time. Dental pulp stem cells proliferation at day 5 was improved in bioactive glass nanoparticles composites containing lower amounts of the filler (1-2.5 wt.%) but it was compromised at day 9 in composites containing high contents of nBG (5, 15, 25 wt.%). However, Runx2 gene expression was particularly upregulated for the dental pulp stem cells cultured with composites loaded with 15 and 25 wt.% of bioactive glass nanoparticles. In conclusion, low content bioactive glass nanoparticles and segmented polyurethanes composites deserve further investigation for applications such as guided bone regeneration membranes, where osteoconductivity is desirable but not a demanding mechanical performance. PMID

  2. Cyanobacteria and microalgae: a renewable source of bioactive compounds and other chemicals.

    PubMed

    Encarnação, Telma; Pais, Alberto A C C; Campos, Maria G; Burrows, Hugh D

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae and cyanobacteria are rich sources of many valuable compounds, including important bioactive and biotechnologically relevant chemicals. Their enormous biodiversity, and the consequent variability in the respective biochemical composition, make microalgae cultivations a promising resource for many novel chemically and biologically active molecules and compounds of high commercial value such as lipids and dyes. The nature of the chemicals produced can be manipulated by changing the cultivation media and conditions. Algae are extremely versatile because they can be adapted to a variety of cell culture conditions. They do not require arable land, can be cultivated on saline water and wastewaters, and require much less water than plants. They possess an extremely high growth rate making these microorganisms very attractive for use in biofuel production--some species of algae can achieve around 100 times more oil than oil seeds. In addition, microalgae and cyanobacteria can accumulate various biotoxins and can contribute to mitigate greenhouse gases since they produce biomass through carbon dioxide fixation. In this review, we provide an overview of the application of microalgae in the production of bioactive and other chemicals. PMID:26288917

  3. Effect of nanoparticulate bioactive glass particles on bioactivity and cytocompatibility of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) composites

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Superb K.; Ansari, Tahera; Mohn, Dirk; Valappil, Sabeel P.; Brunner, Tobias J.; Stark, Wendelin J.; Roy, Ipsita; Knowles, Jonathan C.; Sibbons, Paul D.; Jones, Eugenia Valsami; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Salih, Vehid

    2010-01-01

    This work investigated the effect of adding nanoparticulate (29 nm) bioactive glass particles on the bioactivity, degradation and in vitro cytocompatibility of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB)) composites/nano-sized bioactive glass (n-BG). Two different concentrations (10 and 20 wt %) of nanoscale bioactive glass particles of 45S5 Bioglass composition were used to prepare composite films. Several techniques (Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray) were used to monitor their surface and bioreactivity over a 45-day period of immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). All results suggested the P(3HB)/n-BG composites to be highly bioactive, confirmed by the formation of hydroxyapatite on material surfaces upon immersion in SBF. The weight loss and water uptake were found to increase on increasing bioactive glass content. Cytocompatibility study (cell proliferation, cell attachment, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin production) using human MG-63 osteoblast-like cells in osteogenic and non-osteogenic medium showed that the composite substrates are suitable for cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation. PMID:19640877

  4. Thermal analysis and in vitro bioactivity of bioactive glass-alumina composites

    SciTech Connect

    Chatzistavrou, Xanthippi; Kantiranis, Nikolaos; Kontonasaki, Eleana; Chrissafis, Konstantinos; Papadopoulou, Labrini; Koidis, Petros; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Paraskevopoulos, Konstantinos M.

    2011-01-15

    Bioactive glass-alumina composite (BA) pellets were fabricated in the range 95/5-60/40 wt.% respectively and were heat-treated under a specific thermal treatment up to 950 {sup o}C. Control (unheated) and heat-treated pellets were immersed in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) for bioactivity testing. All pellets before and after immersion in SBF were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. All composite pellets presented bioactive response. On the surface of the heat-treated pellets the development of a rich biological hydroxyapatite (HAp) layer was delayed for one day, compared to the respective control pellets. Independent of the proportion of the two components, all composites of each group (control and heat-treated) presented the same bioactive response as a function of immersion time in SBF. It was found that by the applied methodology, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be successfully applied in bioactive glass composites without obstructing their bioactive response. - Research Highlights: {yields} Isostatically pressed glass-alumina composites presented apatite-forming ability. {yields} The interaction with SBF resulted in an aluminium phosphate phase formation. {yields} The formation of an aluminium phosphate phase enhanced the in vitro apatite growth.

  5. Bioactive macroporous titanium implants highly interconnected.

    PubMed

    Caparrós, Cristina; Ortiz-Hernandez, Mónica; Molmeneu, Meritxell; Punset, Miguel; Calero, José Antonio; Aparicio, Conrado; Fernández-Fairén, Mariano; Perez, Román; Gil, Francisco Javier

    2016-10-01

    Intervertebral implants should be designed with low load requirements, high friction coefficient and low elastic modulus in order to avoid the stress shielding effect on bone. Furthermore, the presence of a highly interconnected porous structure allows stimulating bone in-growth and enhancing implant-bone fixation. The aim of this study was to obtain bioactive porous titanium implants with highly interconnected pores with a total porosity of approximately 57 %. Porous Titanium implants were produced by powder sintering route using the space holder technique with a binder phase and were then evaluated in an in vivo study. The size of the interconnection diameter between the macropores was about 210 μm in order to guarantee bone in-growth through osteblastic cell penetration. Surface roughness and mechanical properties were analyzed. Stiffness was reduced as a result of the powder sintering technique which allowed the formation of a porous network. Compression and fatigue tests exhibited suitable properties in order to guarantee a proper compromise between mechanical properties and pore interconnectivity. Bioactivity treatment effect in novel sintered porous titanium materials was studied by thermo-chemical treatments and were compared with the same material that had undergone different bioactive treatments. Bioactive thermo-chemical treatment was confirmed by the presence of sodium titanates on the surface of the implants as well as inside the porous network. Raman spectroscopy results suggested that the identified titanate structures would enhance in vivo apatite formation by promoting ion exchange for the apatite formation process. In vivo results demonstrated that the bioactive titanium achieved over 75 % tissue colonization compared to the 40 % value for the untreated titanium. PMID:27582071

  6. About Skin: Your Body's Largest Organ

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ...

  7. Contribution to the Determination of In Vivo Mechanical Characteristics of Human Skin by Indentation Test

    PubMed Central

    Zahouani, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a triphasic model of intact skin in vivo based on a general phenomenological thermohydromechanical and physicochemical (THMPC) approach of heterogeneous media. The skin is seen here as a deforming stratified medium composed of four layers and made out of different fluid-saturated materials which contain also an ionic component. All the layers are treated as linear, isotropic materials described by their own behaviour law. The numerical simulations of in vivo indentation test performed on human skin are given. The numerical results correlate reasonably well with the typical observations of indented human skin. The discussion shows the versatility of this approach to obtain a better understanding on the mechanical behaviour of human skin layers separately. PMID:24324525

  8. Shark skin: function in locomotion.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, S A; Vosburgh, F; Hebrank, J H

    1978-11-17

    Hydrostatic pressure under the skin of sharks varies with swimming speed. Stress in the skin varies with the internal pressure, and the skin stress controls skin stiffness. Locomotory muscles attach to the skin which is thus a whole-body exotendon whose mechanical advantage in transmitting muscular contraction is greater than that of the endoskeleton. PMID:17807247

  9. Skin Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nevi Melanoma Merkel Cell Carcinoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Facts & Statistics Ask the Experts Early Detection ... About Us | Store The Skin Cancer ... prevention, early detection, and prompt treatment of the world’s most common cancer. Take your ...

  10. Skin Problems in Construction

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3 Keep skin clean Wash with soap and clean water if your skin comes in contact with hazardous ... caustics like wet cement. DO NOT use the water in the bucket used to clean your tools. DO NOT use hand sanitizers. Wash ...

  11. Complications of skin biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Abhishek, Kumar; Khunger, Niti

    2015-01-01

    Skin biopsy is the most commonly performed procedure by the dermatologist. Though it is a safe and easy procedure yet complications may arise. Post operative complications like wound infection and bleeding may occur. It is essential to keep the potential complications of skin biopsy in mind and be meticulous in the technique, for better patient outcomes. PMID:26865792

  12. Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is something as simple as ...

  13. Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is ...

  14. Alimentary 'green' proteins as electrospun scaffolds for skin regenerative engineering.

    PubMed

    Lin, Leko; Perets, Anat; Har-el, Yah-el; Varma, Devika; Li, Mengyan; Lazarovici, Philip; Woerdeman, Dara L; Lelkes, Peter I

    2013-12-01

    As a potential alternative to currently available skin substitutes and wound dressings, we explored the use of bioactive scaffolds made of plant-derived proteins. We hypothesized that 'green' materials, derived from renewable and biodegradable natural sources, may confer bioactive properties to enhance wound healing and tissue regeneration. We optimized and characterized fibrous scaffolds electrospun from soy protein isolate (SPI) with addition of 0.05% poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) dissolved in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol, and from corn zein dissolved in glacial acetic acid. Fibrous mats electrospun from either of these plant proteins remained intact without further cross-linking, possessing a skin-like pliability. Soy-derived scaffolds supported the adhesion and proliferation of cultured primary human dermal fibroblasts. Using targeted PCR arrays and qPCR validation, we found similar gene expression profiles of fibroblasts cultured for 2 and 24 h on SPI substrates and on collagen type I at both time points. On both substrates there was a pronounced time-dependent upregulation of several genes related to ECM deposition remodelling, including MMP-10, MMP-1, collagen VII, integrin-α2 and laminin-β3, indicating that both plant- and animal-derived materials induce similar responses from the cells after initial adhesion, degrading substrate proteins and depositing extracellular matrix in a 'normal' remodelling process. These results suggest that 'green' proteins, such as soy and zein, are promising as a platform for organotypic skin equivalent culture, as well as implantable scaffolds for skin regeneration. Future studies will determine specific mechanisms of their interaction with skin cells and their efficacy in wound-healing applications. PMID:22499248

  15. Male skin care needs.

    PubMed

    Weber, Stephen M; Ford, Kay

    2008-08-01

    Male skin care has undergone significant development over the past decade, with many companies now marketing skin care products directly to the male consumer. Despite the claims of many of these companies, few over-the-counter products have data to support their efficacy at a clinical level. A basic, effective regimen for preventive male skin care should include twice-daily facial cleansing and twice-daily moisturizer application, which should include sunscreen during the day. This article focuses on topical therapies directed at the maintenance and repair of photoaged male skin. The future holds promise for new developments in skin care. However, in the absence of significant scientific breakthroughs, the most cost-effective intervention will continue to be prevention. PMID:18620985

  16. Flexible macrocycles as versatile supports for catalytically active metal clusters.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Jason D; Gagnon, Kevin J; Teat, Simon J; McIntosh, Ruaraidh D

    2016-07-12

    Here we present three structurally diverse clusters stabilised by the same macrocyclic polyphenol; t-butylcalix[8]arene. This work demonstrates the range of conformations the flexible ligand is capable of adopting, highlighting its versatility in metal coordination. In addition, a Ti complex displays activity for the ring-opening polymerisation of lactide. PMID:26892948

  17. Room-temperature ionic liquids: a novel versatile lubricant.

    PubMed

    Ye, C; Liu, W; Chen, Y; Yu, L

    2001-11-01

    Alkylimidazolium tetrafluoroborates are promising versatile lubricants for the contact of steel/steel, steel/aluminium, steel/copper, steel/SiO2, Si3N4/SiO2, steel/Si(100), steel/sialon ceramics and Si3N4/sialon ceramics; they show excellent friction reduction, antiwear performance and high load-carrying capacity. PMID:12240132

  18. Criminal Careers and Cognitive Scripts: An Investigation into Criminal Versatility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, Helen; Hockey, David

    2010-01-01

    "Criminal careers" denotes ways in which offenders develop specialisms and versatility, but studies linking delinquency to social skills deficits have not attempted to explore cognitive, internalised processes by which such "careers" might be chosen. This study investigated criminal minds via script theory: "internal" scripts are used to guide…

  19. Versatile Desktop Experiment Module (DEMo) on Heat Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minerick, Adrienne R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines a new Desktop Experiment Module (DEMo) engineered for a chemical engineering junior-level Heat Transfer course. This new DEMo learning tool is versatile, fairly inexpensive, and portable such that it can be positioned on student desks throughout a classroom. The DEMo system can illustrate conduction of various materials,…

  20. Bread enriched in lycopene and other bioactive compounds by addition of dry tomato waste.

    PubMed

    Nour, Violeta; Ionica, Mira Elena; Trandafir, Ion

    2015-12-01

    The tomato processing industry generates high amounts of waste, mainly tomato skins and seeds, which create environmental problems. These residues are attractive sources of valuable bioactive components and pigments. A relatively simple recovery technology could consist of production of powders to be directly incorporated into foods. Tomato waste coming from a Romanian tomato processing unit were analyzed for the content of several bioactive compounds like ascorbic acid, β-carotene, lycopene, total phenolics, mineral and trace elements. In addition, its antioxidant capacity was assayed. Results revealed that tomato waste (skins and seeds) could be successfully utilized as functional ingredient for the formulation of antioxidant rich functional foods. Dry tomato processing waste were used to supplement wheat flour at 6 and 10 % levels (w/w flour basis) and the effects on the bread's physicochemical, baking and sensorial characteristics were studied. The following changes were observed: increase in moisture content, titratable acidity and bread crumb elasticity, reduction in specific volume and bread crumb porosity. The addition of dry tomato waste at 6 % resulted in bread with good sensory characteristics and overall acceptability but as the amount of dry tomato waste increased to 10 %, bread was less acceptable. PMID:26604402

  1. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  2. Occupational skin disease.

    PubMed

    Peate, W E

    2002-09-15

    Contact dermatitis, the most common occupational skin disease, is characterized by clearly demarcated areas of rash at sites of exposure. The rash improves on removal of the offending agent. In allergic contact dermatitis, even minute exposures to antigenic substances can lead to a skin rash. Common sensitizing agents include nickel and members of the Rhus genus (e.g., poison ivy, poison oak). Severe skin irritants tend to cause immediate red blisters or burns, whereas weaker irritants produce eczematous skin changes over time. An occupational cause should be suspected when rash occurs in areas that are in contact with oil, grease, or other substances. Direct skin testing (patch or scratch) or radioallergosorbent testing may help to identify a specific trigger. Skin cancer can have an occupational link in workers with prolonged exposure to sunlight and certain chemicals, although it can take decades for lesions to develop. In workers with occupational skin disease, workplace changes and protective measures are important to prevent future exposure. PMID:12358214

  3. Archaea on human skin.

    PubMed

    Probst, Alexander J; Auerbach, Anna K; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin. PMID:23776475

  4. The mixture of different parts of Nelumbo nucifera and two bioactive components inhibited tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jung, Su-Young; Jung, Won-Seok; Jung, Ho-Kyung; Lee, Gyeong-Hwan; Cho, Jung-Hee; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Choi, In-Young

    2014-01-01

    Melanin is the pigment responsible for the color of the eyes, hair, and skin in humans. Tyrosinase is well known to be the key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. JKTM-12 is composed of the flowers, roots, seeds, and receptacles of Nelumbo nucifera (lotus). In this study, JKTM-12 was investigated for its inhibitory effects on tyrosinase activity and melanin biosynthesis in B16F10 melanoma cells. Moreover, two main bioactive compounds (hyperoside and astragalin) were found from the receptacles of N. nucifera, which are used as the main material of JKTM-12. JKTM-12 was shown to inhibit tyrosinase activity and melanin biosynthesis in alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-stimulated B16F10 melanoma cells. Hyperoside and astragalin, which are the main bioactive compounds of JKTM-12, not only inhibited tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis but also tyrosinase-related protein 1 and tyrosinase-related protein 2 mRNA expression without cytotoxicity at various experiment doses (0.1, 1, and 10 μg/ml). These results suggest that JKTM-12 has the potential for skin whitening with hyperoside and astragalin as the main bioactive compounds. PMID:25898764

  5. Hiding the squid: patterns in artificial cephalopod skin

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, Aaron; Rossiter, Jonathan; Homer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Cephalopods employ their chromomorphic skins for rapid and versatile active camouflage and signalling effects. This is achieved using dense networks of pigmented, muscle-driven chromatophore cells which are neurally stimulated to actuate and affect local skin colouring. This allows cephalopods to adopt numerous dynamic and complex skin patterns, most commonly used to blend into the environment or to communicate with other animals. Our ultimate goal is to create an artificial skin that can mimic such pattern generation techniques, and that could produce a host of novel and compliant devices such as cloaking suits and dynamic illuminated clothing. This paper presents the design, mathematical modelling and analysis of a dynamic biomimetic pattern generation system using bioinspired artificial chromatophores. The artificial skin is made from electroactive dielectric elastomer: a soft, planar-actuating smart material that we show can be effective at mimicking the actuation of biological chromatophores. The proposed system achieves dynamic pattern generation by imposing simple local rules into the artificial chromatophore cells so that they can sense their surroundings in order to manipulate their actuation. By modelling sets of artificial chromatophores in linear arrays of cells, we explore the capability of the system to generate a variety of dynamic pattern types. We show that it is possible to mimic patterning seen in cephalopods, such as the passing cloud display, and other complex dynamic patterning. PMID:26063823

  6. Polyphenols from wolfberry and their bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zheng-Qun; Xiao, Jia; Fan, Hong-Xia; Yu, Yang; He, Rong-Rong; Feng, Xiao-Lin; Kurihara, Hiroshi; So, Kwok-Fai; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Gao, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Nine new phenylpropanoids, one new coumarin, and 43 known polyphenols were isolated from wolfberry. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses, chemical methods, and comparison of NMR data. Polyphenols, an important type of natural products, are notable constituents in wolfberry. 53 polyphenols, including 28 phenylpropanoids, four coumarins, eight lignans, five flavonoids, three isoflavonoids, two chlorogenic acid derivatives, and three other constituents, were identified from wolfberry. Lignans and isoflavonoids were firstly reported from wolfberry. 22 known polyphenols were the first isolates from the genus Lycium. This research presents a systematic study on wolfberry polyphenols, including their bioactivities. All these compounds exhibited oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and some compounds displayed DPPH radical scavenging activity. One compound had acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. The discovery of new polyphenols and their bioactivities is beneficial for understanding the scientific basis of the effects of wolfberry. PMID:27507521

  7. Bioactive Compounds from Marine Bacteria and Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Debbab, Abdessamad; Aly, Amal H.; Lin, Wen H.; Proksch, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Summary Marine bacteria and fungi are of considerable importance as new promising sources of a huge number of biologically active products. Some of these marine species live in a stressful habitat, under cold, lightless and high pressure conditions. Surprisingly, a large number of species with high diversity survive under such conditions and produce fascinating and structurally complex natural products. Up till now, only a small number of microorganisms have been investigated for bioactive metabolites, yet a huge number of active substances with some of them featuring unique structural skeletons have been isolated. This review covers new biologically active natural products published recently (2007–09) and highlights the chemical potential of marine microorganisms, with focus on bioactive products as well as on their mechanisms of action. PMID:21255352

  8. Microencapsulated Bioactive Agents and Method of Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The invention is directed to microcapsules encapsulating an aqueous solution of a protein, drug or other bioactive substance inside a semi-permeable membrane. The microcapsules are formed by interfacial coacervation where shear forces are limited to 0-100 dynes per square centimeter. The resulting uniform microcapsules can then be subjected to dewatering in order to cause the internal solution to become supersaturated with the dissolved substance. This dewatering allows controlled nucleation and crystallization of the dissolved substance. The crystal-filled microcapsules can be stored, keeping the encapsulated crystals in good condition for further direct use in x-ray crystallography or as injectable formulations of the dissolved drug, protein or other bioactive substance.

  9. Silks as scaffolds for skin reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Kerstin; Liebsch, Christina; Radtke, Christine; Kuhbier, Jörn W; Vogt, Peter M

    2015-11-01

    In this short review, we describe the use of high molecular weight proteins produced in the glands of several arthropods-commonly called silks-for the purpose to enhance human skin wound healing. To this end an extensive literature search has been performed, the publications have been categorized concerning silk preparation and application and summarized accordingly: Scaffolds to promote wound healing were prepared by processing the silks in different ways including solubilization of the protein fibers followed by casting or electrospinning. The silk scaffolds were additionally modified by coating or blending with the intention of further functionalization. In several approaches, the scaffolds were also vitalized with skin cells or stem cells. In vitro and in vivo models were implied to test for safety and efficiency. We conclude that silk scaffolds are characterized by an advantageous biocompatibility as well as an impressive versatility rendering them ideally suited for application in wounds. Nevertheless, further investigation is needed to exploit the full capacity of silk in different wound models and to achieve clinical transfer in time. PMID:25995140

  10. Thermal Skin fabrication technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced fabrication techniques applicable to Thermal Skin structures were investigated, including: (1) chemical machining; (2) braze bonding; (3) diffusion bonding; and (4) electron beam welding. Materials investigated were nickel and nickel alloys. Sample Thermal Skin panels were manufactured using the advanced fabrication techniques studied and were structurally tested. Results of the program included: (1) development of improved chemical machining processes for nickel and several nickel alloys; (2) identification of design geometry limits; (3) identification of diffusion bonding requirements; (4) development of a unique diffusion bonding tool; (5) identification of electron beam welding limits; and (6) identification of structural properties of Thermal Skin material.

  11. Skin disorders at sea.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Ray; Boniface, Keith; Hite, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the types of skin disorders occurring at sea requiring acute treatment. The case logs of a tele-medicine service for US flagged ships at sea were reviewed from March 1, 2006 until March 1, 2009. Of 1844 total cases, 10% (n = 183) were for skin disorders. Sixty-eight percent (n = 125) were infections, 14% (n = 25) were inflammatory, 7% (n = 13) were environmental, and 11% (n = 20) were non-specific rashes. Cutaneous abscesses and cellulitis (n = 84) were the most common acute skin disorders encountered. In some cases (n = 81), still digital photographs aided in the diagnosis. PMID:20496321

  12. Fluoride-containing bioactive glasses: Glass design, structure, bioactivity, cellular interactions, and recent developments.

    PubMed

    Shah, Furqan A

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive glasses (BGs) are known to bond to both hard and soft tissues. Upon exposure to an aqueous environment, BG undergoes ion exchange, hydrolysis, selective dissolution and precipitation of an apatite layer on their surface, which elicits an interfacial biological response resulting in bioactive fixation, inhibiting further dissolution of the glass, and preventing complete resorption of the material. Fluorine is considered one of the most effective in-vivo bone anabolic factors. In low concentrations, fluoride ions (F(-)) increase bone mass and mineral density, improve the resistance of the apatite structure to acid attack, and have well documented antibacterial properties. F(-) ions may be incorporated into the glass in the form of calcium fluoride (CaF2) either by part-substitution of network modifier oxides, or by maintaining the ratios of the other constituents relatively constant. Fluoride-containing bioactive glasses (FBGs) enhance and control osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and mineralisation. And with their ability to release fluoride locally, FBGs make interesting candidates for various clinical applications, dentinal tubule occlusion in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. This paper reviews the chemistry of FBGs and the influence of F(-) incorporation on the thermal properties, bioactivity, and cytotoxicity; and novel glass compositions for improved mechanical properties, processing, and bioactive potential. PMID:26478431

  13. Epitope topography controls bioactivity in supramolecular nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Sur, Shantanu; Tantakitti, Faifan; Matson, John B.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating bioactivity into artificial scaffolds using peptide epitopes present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a well-known approach. A common strategy has involved epitopes that provide cells with attachment points and external cues through interaction with integrin receptors. Although a variety of bioactive sequences have been identified so far, less is known about their optimal display in a scaffold. We report here on the use of self-assembled peptide amphiphile (PA) nanofiber matrices to investigate the impact of spatial presentation of the fibronectin derived epitope RGDS on cell response. Using one, three, or five glycine residues, RGDS epitopes were systematically spaced out from the surface of the rigid nanofibers. We found that cell morphology was strongly affected by the separation of the epitope from the nanofiber surface, with the longest distance yielding the most cell-spreading, bundling of actin filaments, and a round-to-polygonal transformation of cell shape. Cell response to this type of epitope display was also accompanied with activated integrin-mediated signaling and formation of stronger adhesions between cells and substrate. Interestingly, unlike length, changing the molecular flexibility of the linker had minimal influence on cell behavior on the substrate for reasons that remain poorly understood. The use in this study of high persistence length nanofibers rather than common flexible polymers allows us to conclude that epitope topography at the nanoscale structure of a scaffold influences its bioactive properties independent of epitope density and mechanical properties. PMID:25745558

  14. Phenolic compounds and bioactivities of pigmented rice.

    PubMed

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Dan; Gan, Ren-You; Li, Hua-Bin

    2013-01-01

    The pigmented rice has been consumed in China, Japan, and Korea for a long time. It has been used for strengthening kidney function, treating anemia, promoting blood circulation, removing blood stasis, treating diabetes, and ameliorating sight in traditional Chinese medicine. The extracts from pigmented rice are used as natural food colorants in bread, ice cream, and liquor as well as functional food. The pigmented rice is mainly black, red, and dark purple rice, and contains a variety of flavones, tannin, phenolics, sterols, tocols, γ-oryzanols, amino acids, and essential oils. Anthocyanins are thought as major functional components of pigmented rice. Several anthocyanins have been isolated and identified from the pigmented rice, including cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-galactoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, malvidin 3-galactoside, peonidin 3-glucoside, and pelargonidin 3,5-diglucoside. This review provides up-to-date coverage of pigmented rice in regard to bioactive constituents, extraction and analytical methods, and bioactivities. Special attention is paid to the bioactivities including antioxidant and free radical scavenging, antitumor, antiatherosclerosis, hypoglycemic, and antiallergic activities. PMID:23216001

  15. Novel sol-gel bioactive fibers.

    PubMed

    Oréfice, R L; Hench, L L; Clark, A E; Brennan, A B

    2001-06-15

    Bioactive fibers were produced using a sol-gel method. The rheological properties of two different sol compositions prepared from a mixture of TEOS, phosphorous alkoxide and calcium nitrate, or calcium chloride in a water-ethanol solution, are reported. The sols were extruded through a spinneret to produce continuous 10 microm-diameter fibers. Discontinuous fibers and fibrous mats were prepared by air-spraying the multicomponent sols. The sol-gel fibers were converted to the bioactive fibers by three different thermal treatments at either 600 degrees, 700 degrees, or 900 degrees C for 3 h. SEM, BET, EDX, and FTIR were used to characterize the morphology and structure of the fibers. The BET measured surface area of the fibers sintered at 900 degrees C was 0 m(2)/gm compared to a value of 200 m(2)/gm for a typical sol-gel-derived particle of similar composition. Both the continuous and discontinuous fibers exhibited in vitro bioactivity in a simulated body fluid. PMID:11288073

  16. [Multiple emulsions; bioactive compounds and functional foods].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The continued appearance of scientific evidence about the role of diet and/or its components in health and wellness, has favored the emergence of functional foods which currently constitute one of the chief factors driving the development of new products. The application of multiple emulsions opens new possibilities in the design and development of functional foods. Multiple emulsions can be used as an intermediate product (food ingredient) into technological strategies normally used in the optimization of the presence of bioactive compounds in healthy and functional foods. This paper presents a summary of the types, characteristics and formation of multiple emulsions, possible location of bioactive compounds and their potential application in the design and preparation of healthy and functional foods. Such applications are manifested particularly relevant in relation to quantitative and qualitative aspects of lipid material (reduced fat/calories and optimization of fatty acid profile), encapsulation of bioactive compounds mainly hydrophilic and sodium reduction. This strategy offers interesting possibilities regarding masking flavours and improving sensory characteristics of foods. PMID:24160194

  17. Human Milk Composition: Nutrients and Bioactive Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Olivia; Morrow, Ardythe L.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The composition of human milk is the biologic norm for infant nutrition. Human milk also contains many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization. Some of these molecules, e.g., lactoferrin, are being investigated as novel therapeutic agents. A dynamic, bioactive fluid, human milk changes in composition from colostrum to late lactation, and varies within feeds, diurnally, and between mothers. Feeding infants with expressed human milk is increasing. Pasteurized donor milk is now commonly provided to high risk infants and most mothers in the U.S. express and freeze their milk at some point in lactation for future infant feedings. Many milk proteins are degraded by heat treatment and freeze-thaw cycles may not have the same bioactivity after undergoing these treatments. This article provides an overview of the composition of human milk, sources of its variation, and its clinical relevance. PMID:23178060

  18. Plant bioactives for ruminant health and productivity.

    PubMed

    Rochfort, Simone; Parker, Anthony J; Dunshea, Frank R

    2008-01-01

    Plants have been used throughout history for their medicinal properties. This use has often focused on human health but plants have also been, and still are, applied in ethnoveterinary practice and animal health management. In recent times, the use of synthetic chemicals has become prevalent. Public awareness of the potential environmental and health risks associated with heavy chemical use has also increased. This has put pressure on regulatory bodies to reduce the use of chemicals in agriculture. The most striking example is the 2006 banning of antibiotics in animal feed by the European Union. Moves such as this have increased the drive to find alternatives to synthetic chemicals and research has again turned to the use of plant bioactives as a means of improving animal health. Current scientific evidence suggests there is significant potential to use plants to enhance animal health in general and that of ruminants (cattle, deer, sheep, etc.) in particular. Active areas of research for plant bioactives (particularly saponin and tannin containing plants) include reproductive efficiency, milk and meat quality improvement, foam production/bloat control and methane production. Nematode control is also a significant area of research and the evidence suggests a much broader range of phytochemicals may be effective. This review presents a summary of the literature and examines international research efforts towards the development of plant bioactives for animal health. PMID:17919666

  19. Are bioactive-rich fractions functionally richer?

    PubMed

    Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ismail, Maznah; Ooi, Der Jiun; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Sarega, Nadarajan; Chan, Kim Wei; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal

    2016-08-01

    Plant bioresources are relied upon as natural, inexpensive, and sustainable remedies for the management of several chronic diseases worldwide. Plants have historically been consumed for medicinal purposes based on traditional belief, but this trend is currently changing. The growing interest in the medicinal properties of plant bioresources stems from concerns of side effects and other adverse effects caused by synthetic drugs. This interest has yielded a better understanding of the roles of plant bioactive compounds in health promotion and disease prevention, including the underlying mechanisms involved in such functional effects. The desire to maximize the potential of phytochemicals has led to the development of "rich fractions," in which extracts contain bioactive compounds in addition to elevated levels of the primary compound. Although a rich fraction effectively increases the bioactivity of the extract, the standardization and quality assurance process can be challenging. However, the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) system is a promising green technology in this regard. Future clinical and pharmacological studies are needed to fully elucidate the implications of these preparations in the management of human diseases, thereby fostering a move toward evidence-based medicine. PMID:25641328

  20. Radiation therapy - skin care

    MedlinePlus

    ... red, peel, or itch. You should treat your skin with care while receiving radiation therapy. ... When you have radiation treatment, a health care provider draws ... they come off, do not redraw them. Tell your provider instead. ...

  1. Skin or nail culture

    MedlinePlus

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  2. Skin Conditions during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... during pregnancy? • What is pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP)? • What is prurigo of pregnancy? • ... itchy skin. What is pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP)? In this condition, small, red ...

  3. Components of skin

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... with immunity against foreign invaders like germs and bacteria. The very bottom layer of the skin is ... glands also helps to soften hair and kill bacteria that get in the skin’s pores. These oil ...

  4. CSD skin test

    MedlinePlus

    The cat scratch disease (CSD) skin test was once used to help diagnose CSD. The test is no longer used today. ... LN, Welch DF, Koehler JE. Bartonella, including cat-scratch disease. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, ...

  5. Skin Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at NCI (Intramural) ... is the body’s largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control ...

  6. Genetics and skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Bekou, Vassiliki; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is a complex process and underlies multiple influences with the probable involvement of heritable and various environmental factors. Several theories have been conducted regarding the pathomechanisms of aged skin, however fundamental mechanisms still remain poorly understood. This article addresses the influence of genetics on skin aging and in particular deals with the differences observed in ethnic populations and between both genders. Recent studies indicate that male and female aged skin differs as far as the type, the consistency and the sensitivity to external factors is concerned. The same has been also documented between elderly people of different origin. Consequently, the aging process taking place in both genders and in diverse ethnic groups should be examined separately and products specialized to each population should be developed in order to satisfy the special needs. PMID:23467395

  7. An elastic second skin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Gilchrest, Barbara A; Anderson, R Rox; Langer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, elastically recoiling with minimal strain-energy loss on repeated deformation. The application of XPL to the herniated lower eyelid fat pads of 12 subjects resulted in an average 2-grade decrease in herniation appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings. PMID:27159017

  8. Tuberculin Skin Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... perpendicular to the long axis). How Are TST Reactions Interpreted? Skin test interpretation depends on two factors: ... among high-risk groups. What Are False-Positive Reactions? Some persons may react to the TST even ...

  9. Aging changes in skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... hematomas ) may form after even a minor injury. Pressure ulcers can be caused by skin changes, loss of ... up to 4 times slower. This contributes to pressure ulcers and infections. Diabetes , blood vessel changes, lowered immunity, ...

  10. Skin tumors on squirrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Reilly, J.R.

    1955-01-01

    Skin tumors having the gross appearance of previously reported fibromas are reported on gray squirrels from N. Y., Md., Va., N. C., and W. Va. and from a fox squirrel from W. Va. and a porcupine from Pa.

  11. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... by medical conditions, such as atopic dermatitis and malnutrition. Dry skin develops due to a decrease in ... Diabetes Hypothyroidism Down syndrome Liver or kidney disease Malnutrition HIV/AIDS Lymphoma Signs and Symptoms The most ...

  12. Skin Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body's largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control body ... cancer risk factors include: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  13. Healthy Skin Matters

    MedlinePlus

    ... don’t offer a safe alternative to natural sunlight. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV ) (uhl-truh-VYE-uh- ... the exposure comes from tanning beds or natural sunlight. This damage increases the risk of skin cancer ...

  14. Allergy testing - skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... if you are allergic to bee venom or penicillin. Or it may be used if the skin ... sore, or swollen after contact with the substance Penicillin allergy Venom allergy Allergies to penicillin and closely ...

  15. Regionalisation of the skin.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jeanette A; Headon, Denis J

    2014-01-01

    The skin displays marked anatomical variation in thickness, colour and in the appendages that it carries. These regional distinctions arise in the embryo, likely founded on a combinatorial positional code of transcription factor expression. Throughout adult life, the skin's distinct anatomy is maintained through both cell autonomous epigenetic processes and by mesenchymal-epithelial induction. Despite the readily apparent anatomical differences in skin characteristics across the body, several fundamental questions regarding how such regional differences first arise and then persist are unresolved. However, it is clear that the skin's positional code is at the molecular level far more detailed than that discernible at the phenotypic level. This provides a latent reservoir of anatomical complexity ready to surface if perturbed by mutation, hormonal changes, ageing or experiment. PMID:24361971

  16. Skin lesion removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hair Small blood vessels in the skin Tattoos CRYOTHERAPY Cryotherapy is a method of super-freezing tissue in ... warts, actinic keratoses, solar keratoses, and molluscum contagiosum. Cryotherapy is done using a cotton swab that has ...

  17. PPD skin test

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a method used to diagnose silent (latent) tuberculosis (TB) infection. PPD stands for purified protein derivative. ... derivative test, Tb test, tuberculin skin test, TST, tuberculosis test) - diagnostic. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. ...

  18. [Skin-picking disorder].

    PubMed

    Niemeier, V; Peters, E; Gieler, U

    2015-10-01

    The disorder is characterized by compulsive repetitive skin-picking (SP), resulting in skin lesions. The patients must have undertaken several attempts to reduce or stop SP. The disorder must have led to clinically significant limitations in social, professional, or other important areas of life. The symptoms cannot be better explained by another emotional disorder or any other dermatological disease. In the new DSM-V, skin-picking disorder has been included in the diagnostic system as an independent disorder and describes the self-injury of the skin by picking or scratching with an underlying emotional disorder. SP is classified among the impulse-control disorders and is, thus, differentiated from compulsive disorders as such. There are often emotional comorbidities. In cases of pronounced psychosocial limitation, interdisciplinary cooperation with a psychotherapist and/or psychiatrist is indicated. PMID:26391325

  19. An elastic second skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G.; Sakamoto, Fernanda H.; Gilchrest, Barbara A.; Anderson, R. Rox; Langer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, elastically recoiling with minimal strain-energy loss on repeated deformation. The application of XPL to the herniated lower eyelid fat pads of 12 subjects resulted in an average 2-grade decrease in herniation appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings.

  20. Skin Care and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Age Spots and Skin Tags Click for more information Age spots, once called "liver spots," are flat, brown ... surface. They are a common occurrence as people age, especially for women. They are ... options, specific conditions, and related issues. ...

  1. Bleeding into the skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... under the tissue in larger flat areas (called purpura ), or in a very large bruised area (called ... in the newborn) Aging skin (ecchymosis) Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (petechiae and purpura) Henoch-Schonlein purpura (purpura) Leukemia ( ...

  2. Skin lesion KOH exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... is present. The fungus may be related to ringworm , athlete's foot , jock itch , or another fungal infection. ... foot Candida infection of the skin Jock itch Ringworm Tinea corporis Update Date 4/14/2015 Updated ...

  3. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... special types of cells: Melanocytes produce melanin, the pigment that gives skin its color. All people have ... the epidermis). Hair also contains a yellow-red pigment; people who have blonde or red hair have ...

  4. Lepromin skin test

    MedlinePlus

    ... the skin up. The lump indicates that the antigen has been injected at the correct depth. The ... When the antigen is injected, there may be a slight stinging or burning. There may also be mild itching at the ...

  5. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  6. Nicotinamide and the skin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L

    2014-08-01

    Nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3, boosts cellular energy and regulates poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1, an enzyme with important roles in DNA repair and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide shows promise for the treatment of a wide range of dermatological conditions, including autoimmune blistering disorders, acne, rosacea, ageing skin and atopic dermatitis. In particular, recent studies have also shown it to be a potential agent for reducing actinic keratoses and preventing skin cancers. PMID:24635573

  7. Ballistic skin simulant.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Jorma; Leppäniemi, Ari; Paronen, Mikael; Kulomäki, Erkki

    2005-05-28

    Hydrogels prepared from water solutions containing 10-20 mass% gelatine are generally accepted muscle tissue simulants in terminal ballistic research. They, however, do not have a surface layer which simulates the effect of human skin. The purpose of this research was to find a suitable skin simulant for enhancing the testing fidelity and the credibility of the results with gelatine-based materials when assessing the injury potential of not only high energy bullets, but also especially that of non-penetrating "less lethal" kinetic impact ammunition and relatively low energy ricochet fragments. A skin simulant also permits the simulation and assessment of exit wounds. The mechanical and ballistic properties of human skin and target simulant were established on the basis of results found in the literature. Some errors in these were found. The corrected values are included in this paper for comparison. The target values of the mechanical properties of the skin simulant were the following: threshold velocity v(th)=94+/-4 m/s, tensile strength 18+/-2 N/mm2 and elongation at break 65+/-5%. A selection of synthetic and natural materials was evaluated as skin simulants by analysing their mechanical and ballistic properties. The results were compared to literature values obtained with human cadavers. The tests showed that the best skin simulant of the ones evaluated was semi-finished chrome tanned upholstery "crust" cowhide of 0.9-1.1 mm nominal thickness. Its threshold velocity was 90.7 m/s, tensile strength 20.89+/-4.11 MPa and elongation at break 61+/-9%. These values are the same as the average values of human skin. Of the synthetic materials evaluated, 1mm thick natural rubber can be used on impact side as a threshold velocity filter with some reservations although its theoretical threshold velocity is only 82.9 m/s. PMID:15837009

  8. [Improvement of skin moisture and skin texture with urea therapy].

    PubMed

    Puschmann, M; Gogoll, K

    1989-01-01

    A significant increase in skin moisture and an improvement in skin smoothness after application of a urea-containing cream was noticed in a large number of volunteers with healthy skin and in neurodermitis patients compared with untreated skin and with vehicle. The effect was shown after one application (short-term test) as well as after repeated application (long-term test). Regular application of preparation containing urea increases the moisture of a the skin and improves the skin's smoothness compared with its previous condition, with untreated skin, and with placebo preparations. PMID:2807927

  9. Versatility of reverse sural fasciocutaneous flap for reconstruction of distal lower limb soft tissue defects.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hai-tao; Zheng, Qi-xin; Yang, Shu-hua; Wu, Bin; Liu, Jian-xiang

    2014-06-01

    In this study we present our experiences with the reverse sural fasciocutaneous flap to reconstruct the distal lower limb soft tissue defects caused by traumatic injuries. These flap graftings were carried out from Oct. 2010 to Dec. 2012 in our department. The series consisted of 36 patients, including 21 men and 15 women with an average age of 46.2 years (14-83 years) and with a medium follow-up period of 18 months (12-24 months). Of all the cases of acute trauma, there were 10 cases of trauma of distal tibia, 9 cases of trauma of perimalleolus, and 17 cases of trauma of midfoot and forefoot. Related risk factors in the patients were diabetes (2 cases), advanced age (>65 years, 3 cases) and cigarette smoking (6 cases). The reverse flow sural island flap irrigation depended on lower perforators of the peroneal artery. The fasciocutaneous pedicle was 3-4 cm in width and the anatomical structures consisted of the superficial and deep fascia, the sural nerve, short saphenous vein, superficial sural artery together with an islet of subcutaneous cellular tissue and skin. The most proximal border of the flap was only 1.5 cm away from the popliteal skin crease and the pivot point was 5-7 cm above the tip of the lateral malleolus. All the flaps survived. No arterial crisis occurred in any case. The venous congestion occurred in 2 cases and got better after raising the limbs and bloodletting. Only in an old man, 1.5 cm necrosis of distal margin of his flap occurred and finally healed after continuous dressing change. One-stage skin grafting was performed, and all the donor sites were sutured and successfully healed. It was concluded that the reverse sural fasciocutaneous flap is safe and reliable to extend to the proximal third even near the popliteal skin crease. We also concluded this flap can be safely and efficiently used to treat patients with large and far soft-tissue defects from the distal leg to the forefoot with more versatility and it is easier to reach the

  10. Skin penetration enhancers.

    PubMed

    Lane, Majella E

    2013-04-15

    The skin has evolved to prevent excessive water loss from the internal organs and to limit the ability of xenobiotics and hazardous substances to enter the body. Notwithstanding this barrier function, a number of strategies have been developed by scientists to deliver drugs to and through the skin. The aim of this review is to consider the various types of chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs) which have been investigated in the scientific literature. Potential pathways for CPEs to exert their action are examined with reference to the physical chemistry of passive skin transport. The emphasis is on those studies which have focussed on human and porcine skin because of the limitations associated with skin permeation data collated from other species. Where known, the mechanisms of action of these compounds are also discussed. Examples of enhancers used in commercial topical and transdermal formulations are provided. It is proposed that overall the effects of CPEs on the skin barrier may best be explained by a Diffusion-Partition-Solubility theory. Finally, some of the limitations of studies in the literature are considered and the importance of monitoring the fate of the penetration enhancer as well as the active is highlighted. PMID:23462366

  11. Pregnancy and Skin

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Rita V.; Gupta, Rajat; Mehta, Malay J.; Chaudhari, Arvind H.; Pilani, Abhishek P.; Patel, Nidhi

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with complex of endocrinological, immunological, metabolic, and vascular changes that may influence the skin and other organs in various ways. Pregnancy is a period in which more than 90% women have significant and complex skin changes that may have great impact on the woman's life. The dermatoses of pregnancy represent a heterogeneous group of skin diseases related to pregnancy and/or the postpartum period. The dermatoses of pregnancy can be classified into the following three groups: Physiologic skin changes in pregnancy, pre-existing dermatoses affected by pregnancy, and specific dermatoses of pregnancy. Though most of these skin dermatoses are benign and resolve in postpartum period, a few can risk fetal life and require antenatal surveillance. Most of the dermatoses of pregnancy can be treated conservatively but a few require intervention in the form of termination of pregnancy. Correct diagnosis is essential for the treatment of these disorders. This article discusses the current knowledge of various skin changes during pregnancy and the evaluation of the patient with pregnancy dermatoses with special emphasis on clinical features, diagnostic tests, maternal and fetal prognosis, therapy, and management. PMID:25657937

  12. Ultraflexible organic photonic skin

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Tomoyuki; Zalar, Peter; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Jinno, Hiroaki; Matsuhisa, Naoji; Kitanosako, Hiroki; Tachibana, Yutaro; Yukita, Wakako; Koizumi, Mari; Someya, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Thin-film electronics intimately laminated onto the skin imperceptibly equip the human body with electronic components for health-monitoring and information technologies. When electronic devices are worn, the mechanical flexibility and/or stretchability of thin-film devices helps to minimize the stress and discomfort associated with wear because of their conformability and softness. For industrial applications, it is important to fabricate wearable devices using processing methods that maximize throughput and minimize cost. We demonstrate ultraflexible and conformable three-color, highly efficient polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) and organic photodetectors (OPDs) to realize optoelectronic skins (oe-skins) that introduce multiple electronic functionalities such as sensing and displays on the surface of human skin. The total thickness of the devices, including the substrate and encapsulation layer, is only 3 μm, which is one order of magnitude thinner than the epidermal layer of human skin. By integrating green and red PLEDs with OPDs, we fabricate an ultraflexible reflective pulse oximeter. The device unobtrusively measures the oxygen concentration of blood when laminated on a finger. On-skin seven-segment digital displays and color indicators can visualize data directly on the body. PMID:27152354

  13. Miniaturized Bioaffinity Assessment Coupled to Mass Spectrometry for Guided Purification of Bioactives from Toad and Cone Snail

    PubMed Central

    Heus, Ferry; Otvos, Reka A.; Aspers, Ruud L. E. G.; van Elk, Rene; Halff, Jenny I.; Ehlers, Andreas W.; Dutertre, Sébastien; Lewis, Richard J.; Wijmenga, Sybren; Smit, August B.; Niessen, Wilfried M. A.; Kool, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    A nano-flow high-resolution screening platform, featuring a parallel chip-based microfluidic bioassay and mass spectrometry coupled to nano-liquid chromatography, was applied to screen animal venoms for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor like (nAChR) affinity by using the acetylcholine binding protein, a mimic of the nAChR. The potential of this microfluidic platform is demonstrated by profiling the Conus textile venom proteome, consisting of over 1,000 peptides. Within one analysis (<90 min, 500 ng venom injected), ligands are detected and identified. To show applicability for non-peptides, small molecular ligands such as steroidal ligands were identified in skin secretions from two toad species (Bufo alvarius and Bufo marinus). Bioactives from the toad samples were subsequently isolated by MS-guided fractionation. The fractions analyzed by NMR and a radioligand binding assay with α7-nAChR confirmed the identity and bioactivity of several new ligands. PMID:24833338

  14. Versatile matrix for constructing enzyme-based biosensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaohao; Luo, Xi; Wan, Qijin; Wu, Kangbing; Yang, Nianjun

    2014-10-01

    A versatile matrix was fabricated and utilized as a universal interface for the construction of enzyme-based biosensors. This matrix was formed on the gold electrode via combining self-assembled monolayer of 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid with gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles were electrochemically deposited. Electrochemistry of three redox enzymes (catalase, glucose oxidase, and horseradish peroxidase) was investigated on such a matrix. The electrocatalytic monitoring of hydrogen peroxide and glucose was conducted on this matrix after being coated with those enzymes. On them the monitoring of hydrogen peroxide and glucose shows rapid response times, wide linear working ranges, low detection limits, and high enzymatic affinities. This matrix is thus a versatile and suitable platform to develop highly sensitive enzyme-based biosensors. PMID:25208242

  15. Magnetoliposomes: versatile innovative nanocolloids for use in biotechnology and biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Soenen, Stefaan J H; Hodenius, Michael; De Cuyper, Marcel

    2009-02-01

    The high biocompatibility and versatile nature of liposomes have made these particles keystone components in many hot-topic biomedical research areas. Liposomes can be combined with a large variety of nanomaterials, such as superparamagnetic iron oxide nanocores. Because the unique features of both the magnetizable colloid and the versatile lipid bilayer can be joined, the resulting so-called magnetoliposomes can be exploited in a great array of biotechnological and biomedical applications. In this article, we highlight the use of magnetoliposomes in immobilizing enzymes, both water-soluble and hydrophobic ones, as well as their potential in several biomedical applications, including MRI, hyperthermia cancer treatment and drug delivery. The goal of this article is not to list all known uses of magnetoliposomes but rather to present some conspicuous applications in comparison to other currently used nanoparticles. PMID:19193184

  16. Versatile module for experiments with focussing neutron guides

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.; Pfleiderer, C.; Böni, P.; Brandl, G.; Chacon, A.; Wagner, J. N.; Rahn, M.; Mühlbauer, S.; Georgii, R.

    2014-09-22

    We report the development of a versatile module that permits fast and reliable use of focussing neutron guides under varying scattering angles. A simple procedure for setting up the module and neutron guides is illustrated by typical intensity patterns to highlight operational aspects as well as typical parasitic artefacts. Combining a high-precision alignment table with separate housings for the neutron guides on kinematic mounts, the change-over between neutron guides with different focussing characteristics requires no readjustments of the experimental setup. Exploiting substantial gain factors, we demonstrate the performance of this versatile neutron scattering module in a study of the effects of uniaxial stress on the domain populations in the transverse spin density wave phase of single crystal Cr.

  17. Research and development of a versatile portable speech prosthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Versatile Portable Speech Prosthesis (VPSP), a synthetic speech output communication aid for non-speaking people is described. It was intended initially for severely physically limited people with cerebral palsy who are in electric wheelchairs. Hence, it was designed to be placed on a wheelchair and powered from a wheelchair battery. It can easily be separated from the wheelchair. The VPSP is versatile because it is designed to accept any means of single switch, multiple switch, or keyboard control which physically limited people have the ability to use. It is portable because it is mounted on and can go with the electric wheelchair. It is a speech prosthesis, obviously, because it speaks with a synthetic voice for people unable to speak with their own voices. Both hardware and software are described.

  18. Versatile prototyping platform for Data Processing Boards for CBM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabolotny, W. M.; Kasprowicz, G.; Byszuk, A. P.; Emschermann, D.; Gumiński, M.; Juszczyk, B.; Lehnert, J.; Müller, W. F. J.; Poźniak, K.; Romaniuk, R.

    2016-02-01

    The CBM experiment is one of the experiments prepared at the FAIR Facility in Darmstadt. The Data Processing Boards (DPB) are an important component of the CBM readout chain. Before the final, production versions of DPB may be designed, it is important to create a prototyping platform, to test and select appropriate hardware and firmware solutions. The Kintex based AMC FMC Carrier (AFCK) board is a versatile and open solution fulfilling those requirements, offering configurable high-speed (up to 10 Gbps) connectivity. The paper describes the AFCK hardware, the firmware architecture, and the IP cores developed for different DPB prototyping tasks. Due to its versatility and openness the AFCK may be reused in other experiments.

  19. Development of a versatile SMOKE system with electrochemical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampton, Jennifer R.; Martínez-Albertos, José-Luis; Abruña, Héctor D.

    2002-08-01

    We describe the design, construction, and implementation of a simple and inexpensive, yet versatile surface magneto-optic Kerr effect (SMOKE) setup designed to operate in conjunction with the electrodeposition of magnetic layers both in situ and ex situ. The system is based on a homemade electromagnet and commercially available components. The sensitivity of the system is demonstrated by measuring ex situ SMOKE hysteresis loops of Co thin films (down to three monolayers thick) electrodeposited onto a Au(111) electrode substrate.

  20. Versatility of the hatchet flap in facial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Gargano, F; Alfano, C

    2005-01-01

    The hatchet flap, well known for repair of the nasal pyramid, laterofacial defects and pressure sores, is used to reconstruct different aesthetic units of the face. The authors describe the surgical technique and its clinical applications to the different face subunits in 38 patients, highlighting the easy learning curve, the versatility of the flap and the good aesthetic results when the principles of the facial units are respected. No previous detailed report has been described in the literature. PMID:16173514

  1. Chemical and medicinal versatility of dithiocarbamates: an overview.

    PubMed

    Bala, Veenu; Gupta, Gopal; Sharma, Vishnu L

    2014-01-01

    Dithiocarbamates are considered as the simplest occurring organosulfur compounds exhibiting diverse chemical and medicinal versatility. Dithiocarbamates have been used as pesticide in the 20(th) century but thereafter they have attracted the interest of medicinal chemists due to their metal binding capacity. Recently a variety of chemical and medicinal properties of dithiocarbamates have been explored other than metal binding capacity. This review collectively describes the most significant chemical and medicinal properties of dithiocarbamate derivatives reported over the last decade. PMID:25373849

  2. Bioactive coating with low-fouling polymers for the development of biocompatible vascular implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalla, Pradeep Kumar

    The replacement of occluded blood vessels and endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) are performed with the use of synthetic vascular grafts and stent grafts, respectively. Both implants lead to frequent clinical complications that are different but due to a similar problem, namely the inadequate surface properties of the polymeric biomaterials used (generally polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE)). Therefore the general objective of this thesis was to create a versatile bioactive coating on vascular biomaterials that reduce material-induced thrombosis and promote desired cell interactions favorable to tissue healing around implants. The use of low-fouling backgrounds was decided in order to reduce platelet adhesion as well as the non-specific protein adsorption and thus increase the bioactivity of immobilized biomolecules. As part of the preliminary objective, a multi-arm polyethylene glycol (PEG) was chosen to create a versatile low-fouling surface, since the current coating methods are far from being versatile and rely on the availability of compatible functional groups on both PEG and the host surface. This PEG coating method was developed by taking advantage of novel primary amine-rich plasma polymerized coatings (LP). As demonstrated by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), fluorescence measurements and platelet adhesion assays, our PEG coatings exhibited low protein adsorption and almost no platelet adhesion after 15 min perfusion in whole blood. Although protein adsorption was not completely abrogated and short-term platelet adhesion assay was clearly insufficient to draw conclusions for long-term prevention of thrombosis in vivo, the low-fouling properties of this PEG coating were sufficient to be exploited for further coupling of bioactive molecules to create bioactive coatings. Therefore, as a part of the second objective, an innovative and versatile bioactive coating was developed on PEG and

  3. Bioactive Peptides from Muscle Sources: Meat and Fish

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Joseph Thomas; Ross, Reynolds Paul; Bolton, Declan; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Stanton, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive peptides have been identified in a range of foods, including plant, milk and muscle, e.g., beef, chicken, pork and fish muscle proteins. Bioactive peptides from food proteins offer major potential for incorporation into functional foods and nutraceuticals. The aim of this paper is to present an outline of the bioactive peptides identified in the muscle protein of meat to date, with a focus on muscle protein from domestic animals and fish. The majority of research on bioactives from meat sources has focused on angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antioxidant peptides. PMID:22254123

  4. Electrospinning of Bioactive Dex-PAA Hydrogel Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louie, Katherine Boyook

    In this work, a novel method is developed for making nano- and micro-fibrous hydrogels capable of preventing the rejection of implanted materials. This is achieved by either (1) mimicking the native cellular environment, to exert fine control over the cellular response or (2) acting as a protective barrier, to camouflage the foreign nature of a material and evade recognition by the immune system. Comprehensive characterization and in vitro studies described here provide a foundation for developing substrates for use in clinical applications. Hydrogel dextran and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) fibers are formed via electrospinning, in sizes ranging from nanometers to microns in diameter. While "as-electrospun" fibers are continuous in length, sonication is used to fragment fibers into short fiber "bristles" and generate nano- and micro- fibrous surface coatings over a wide range of topographies. Dex-PAA fibrous surfaces are chemically modified, and then optimized and characterized for non-fouling and ECM-mimetic properties. The non-fouling nature of fibers is verified, and cell culture studies show differential responses dependent upon chemical, topographical and mechanical properties. Dex-PAA fibers are advantageously unique in that (1) a fine degree of control is possible over three significant parameters critical for modifying cellular response: topography, chemistry and mechanical properties, over a range emulating that of native cellular environments, (2) the innate nature of the material is non-fouling, providing an inert background for adding back specific bioactive functionality, and (3) the fibers can be applied as a surface coating or comprise the scaffold itself. This is the first reported work of dex-PAA hydrogel fibers formed via electrospinning and thermal cross-linking, and unique to this method, no toxic solvents or cross-linking agents are needed to create hydrogels or for surface attachment. This is also the first reported work of using sonication to

  5. Cutaneous and Labyrinthine Tolerance of Bioactive Glass S53P4 in Mastoid and Epitympanic Obliteration Surgery: Prospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Bernardeschi, Daniele; Nguyen, Yann; Russo, Francesca Yoshie; Mosnier, Isabelle; Ferrary, Evelyne; Sterkers, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the cutaneous and the inner ear tolerance of bioactive glass S53P4 when used in the mastoid and epitympanic obliteration for chronic otitis surgery. Material and Methods. Forty-one cases have been included in this prospective study. Cutaneous tolerance was clinically evaluated 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after surgery with a physical examination of the retroauricular and external auditory canal (EAC) skin and the presence of otalgia; the inner ear tolerance was assessed by bone-conduction hearing threshold 1 day after surgery and by the presence of vertigo or imbalance. Results. All surgeries but 1 were uneventful: all patients maintained the preoperative bone-conduction hearing threshold except for one case in which the round window membrane was opened during the dissection of the cholesteatoma in the hypotympanum and this led to a dead ear. No dizziness or vertigo was reported. Three months after surgery, healing was achieved in all cases with a healthy painless skin. No cases of revision surgery for removal of the granules occurred in this study. Conclusion. The bioactive glass S53P4 is a well-tolerated biomaterial for primary or revision chronic otitis surgery, as shown by the local skin reaction which lasted less than 3 months and by the absence of labyrinthine complications. PMID:26504792

  6. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

    2014-01-01

    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, “goose bumps”, redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  7. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

    2014-01-01

    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  8. The Influence of Phase Separation on Bioactivity of Spray Pyrolyzed Bioactive Glass.

    PubMed

    Shih, Shao-ju; Tzeng, Wei-lung; Chou, Yu-jen; Chen, Chin-yi; Chen, Yu-ju

    2015-06-01

    In this study, bioactive glass (BG) particles were synthesized directly using spray pyrolysis (SP). Since the bioactivity of glass particles is well correlated with their chemical composition, how to obtain homogenous bioactive glass becomes an important issue. For SP, the main reason for chemical inhomogeneity was considered to be caused by the difference in the precipitation speed of each precursor. So, two Si-containing precursors of BG, namely tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and silicon acetate (SiA), have been applied to prepare BG particles. The bioglasses were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy to examine their phase composition, and surface structures, inner morphologies and chemical compositions. It was observed that, under the calcination temperature of 700 degrees C, TEOS-derived powder contained Si-rich nanoparticles and Si-deficit submicron particles as inhomogeneity, whereas the SiA-derived powder was homogenous. The reason of inhomogeneity is that TEOS dissolves in "volatile" ethanol more readily than in water via the SP mechanism of "gas-to-particle-conversion" to form Si-rich nanoparticles. The presence of Si-rich nanoparticles causes Si-deficit "wollastonite submicron particles" to form, which impairs the bioactivity. Finally, BG particle formation mechanisms from different precursors have been proposed. PMID:26369098

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Bioactive Composites of Pcl/bioactive Fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Cheah, Chi Mun; Chang, Hengky; Loh, Leonard; Kum, Adeline

    A variety of bioactive composites have been invested over the last two decades as substitute materials for diseased or damaged tissues in the human body. In this paper, bioactive composites were prepared using polycaprolactone (PCL) and hydroxyapatite (HA). The influence of micro-sized and nano-sized HA on composite properties was investigated. The nano-HA was prepared by wet chemical co-precipitation reaction method. Studies of biocomposite specimen morphology were performed by Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) and DSC (Differential scanning calorimetry) were used to assess the crystal structure of HA and thermal properties of the composites, respectively. The synthesized nano-HA is found to be of high purity HA structure. The relationship between composition, structure and properties was studied. Different methods to prepare uniform composites were tried, and the outcome of this work suggests that by proper manipulation of biodegradable polymers and bioactive ceramics through material design, bioactive composites with controlled properties might be achievable.

  10. Physicochemical properties and bioactivity of freeze-cast chitosan nanocomposite scaffolds reinforced with bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Pourhaghgouy, Masoud; Zamanian, Ali; Shahrezaee, Mostafa; Masouleh, Milad Pourbaghi

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan based nanocomposite scaffolds were prepared by freeze casting method through blending constant chitosan concentration with different portions of synthesized bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGNPs). Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) image showed that the particles size of bioactive glass (64SiO2.28CaO.8P2O5) prepared by sol-gel method was approximately less than 20 nm. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis showed proper interfacial bonding between BGNPs and chitosan polymers. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images depicted a unidirectional structure with homogenous distribution of BGNPs among chitosan matrix associated with the absence of pure chitosan scaffold's wall pores after addition of only 10 wt.% BGNPs. As the BGNP content increased from 0 to 50 wt.%, the compressive strength and compressive module values increased from 0.034 to 0.419 MPa and 0.41 to 10.77 MPa, respectively. Biodegradation study showed that increase in BGNP content leads to growth of weight loss amount. The in vitro biomineralization studies confirmed the bioactive nature of all nanocomposites. Amount of 30 wt.% BGNPs represented the best concentration for absorption capacity and bioactivity behaviors. PMID:26478301

  11. Versatile new ion source for the analysis of materials in open air under ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Cody, Robert B; Laramée, James A; Durst, H Dupont

    2005-04-15

    A new ion source has been developed for rapid, noncontact analysis of materials at ambient pressure and at ground potential. The new source, termed DART (for "Direct Analysis in Real Time"), is based on the reactions of electronic or vibronic excited-state species with reagent molecules and polar or nonpolar analytes. DART has been installed on a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) that provides improved selectivity and accurate elemental composition assignment through exact mass measurements. Although DART has been applied to the analysis of gases, liquids, and solids, a unique application is the direct detection of chemicals on surfaces without requiring sample preparation, such as wiping or solvent extraction. DART has demonstrated success in sampling hundreds of chemicals, including chemical agents and their signatures, pharmaceutics, metabolites, peptides and oligosaccharides, synthetic organics, organometallics, drugs of abuse, explosives, and toxic industrial chemicals. These species were detected on various surfaces, such as concrete, asphalt, human skin, currency, airline boarding passes, business cards, fruits, vegetables, spices, beverages, body fluids, horticultural leaves, cocktail glasses, and clothing. DART employs no radioactive components and is more versatile than devices using radioisotope-based ionization. Because its response is instantaneous, DART provides real-time information, a critical requirement for screening or high throughput. PMID:15828760

  12. Elastin fibers display a versatile microfibril network in articular cartilage depending on the mechanical microenvironments.

    PubMed

    He, Bo; Wu, Jian Ping; Chen, Hong Hui; Kirk, Thomas Brett; Xu, Jiake

    2013-09-01

    Elastin fibers are major extracellular matrix macromolecules that are critical in maintaining the elasticity and resilience of tissues such as blood vessels, lungs and skins. However, the role of elastin in articular cartilage is poorly defined. The present study investigated the organization of elastin fiber in articular cartilage, its relationship to collagen fibers and the architecture of elastin fibers from different mechanical environments by using a kangaroo model. Five morphologies of elastin fibers were identified: Straight fiber, straight fiber with branches, branching fibers directly associated with chondrocyte, wave fiber and fine elastin. The architecture of the elastin network varied significantly with cartilage depth. In the most superficial layer of tibial plateau articular cartilage, dense elastin fibers formed a distinctive cobweb-like meshwork which was parallel to the cartilage surface. In the superficial zone, elastin fibers were well organized in a preferred orientation which was parallel to collagen fibers. In the deep zone, no detectable elastin fiber was found. Moreover, differences in the organization of elastin fibers were also observed between articular cartilage from the tibial plateau, femoral condyle, and distal humerus. This study unravels the detailed microarchitecture of elastin fibers which display a well-organized three-dimensional versatile network in articular cartilage. Our findings imply that elastin fibers may play a crucial role in maintaining the integrity, elasticity, and the mechanical properties of articular cartilage, and that the local mechanical environment affects the architectural development of elastin fibers. PMID:23649803

  13. Skin conditions: common skin rashes in infants.

    PubMed

    Zuniga, Ramiro; Nguyen, Tam

    2013-04-01

    Infants exhibit many skin rashes. Erythema toxicum neonatorum presents as erythematous macules, papules, and pustules on the face, trunk, and extremities; it typically resolves spontaneously within 1 week. Neonatal acne presents as comedones or erythematous papules on the face, scalp, chest, and back. Infantile acne is similar but starts after the neonatal period. Both conditions typically resolve spontaneously; failure to resolve within 1 year warrants evaluation for androgen excess. Neonatal cephalic pustulosis is an acne variant caused by hypersensitivity to Malassezia furfur. It is typically self-limited, but severe cases are managed with topical ketoconazole. Miliaria and milia are caused by sweat retention and present as tiny vesicles or papules; they resolve spontaneously. Contact diaper dermatitis is managed by keeping the diaper area clean and with open air exposure. Diaper dermatitis due to Candida albicans is managed with topical antifungals. Seborrheic dermatitis causes scaling on the scalp. Management involves shampooing and removing scales with a soft brush after applying mineral oil or petrolatum; severe cases are managed with tar or ketoconazole shampoo. Atopic dermatitis is related to food allergy in approximately one-third of children. Food allergy can be confirmed with oral food challenges or skin prick tests. Management includes elimination of irritants and triggers and use of low-potency topical steroids. PMID:23600337

  14. Marine Nucleosides: Structure, Bioactivity, Synthesis and Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ri-Ming; Chen, Yin-Ning; Zeng, Ziyu; Gao, Cheng-Hai; Su, Xiangdong; Peng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Nucleosides are glycosylamines that structurally form part of nucleotide molecules, the building block of DNA and RNA. Both nucleosides and nucleotides are vital components of all living cells and involved in several key biological processes. Some of these nucleosides have been obtained from a variety of marine resources. Because of the biological importance of these compounds, this review covers 68 marine originated nucleosides and their synthetic analogs published up to June 2014. The review will focus on the structures, bioactivities, synthesis and biosynthetic processes of these compounds. PMID:25474189

  15. Non-nutrient bioactive substances of pulses.

    PubMed

    Champ, Martine M-J

    2002-12-01

    Pulses supply many bioactive substances found in minor amounts in food, but which may have significant metabolic and/or physiological effects. These compounds have long been classified as antinutritional factors, but many studies have reconsidered their impact on health. Some could play a role in the prevention of the major diseases of affluent societies. As these compounds can be beneficial or adverse, depending on conditions, an assessment of their various physiological effects is necessary to determine whether they should be preserved or eliminated in each main nutritional situation. PMID:12498631

  16. Effect of nitrogen and fluorine on mechanical properties and bioactivity in two series of bioactive glasses.

    PubMed

    Bachar, Ahmed; Mercier, Cyrille; Tricoteaux, Arnaud; Hampshire, Stuart; Leriche, Anne; Follet, Claudine

    2013-07-01

    Bioactive glasses are able to bond to bone through formation of carbonated hydroxyapatite in body fluids, and fluoride-releasing bioactive glasses are of interest for both orthopaedic and, in particular, dental applications for caries inhibition. However, because of their poor strength their use is restricted to non-load-bearing applications. In order to increase their mechanical properties, doping with nitrogen has been performed on two series of bioactive glasses: series (I) was a "bioglass" composition (without P2O5) within the quaternary system SiO2-Na2O-CaO-Si3N4 and series (II) was a simple substitution of CaF2 for CaO in series (I) glasses keeping the Na:Ca ratio constant. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the variation in nitrogen and fluorine content on the properties of these glasses. The density, glass transition temperature, hardness and elastic modulus all increased linearly with nitrogen content which indicates that the incorporation of nitrogen stiffens the glass network because N is mainly in 3-fold coordination with Si atoms. Fluorine addition significantly decreases the thermal property values but the mechanical properties of these glasses remain unchanged with fluorine. The combination of both nitrogen and fluorine in oxyfluoronitride glasses gives better mechanical properties at much lower melting temperatures since fluorine reduces the melting point, allows higher solubility of nitrogen and does not affect the higher mechanical properties arising from incorporation of nitrogen. The characterization of these N and F substituted bioactive glasses using (29)Si MAS NMR has shown that the increase in rigidity of the glass network can be explained by the formation of SiO3N, SiO2N2 tetrahedra and Q(4) units with extra bridging anions at the expense of Q(3) units. Bioactivity of the glasses was investigated in vitro by examining apatite formation on the surface of glasses treated in acellular simulated body fluid (SBF) with ion

  17. Draft genome sequence of Micrococcus luteus strain O'Kane implicates metabolic versatility and the potential to degrade polyhydroxybutyrates.

    PubMed

    Hanafy, Radwa A; Couger, M B; Baker, Kristina; Murphy, Chelsea; O'Kane, Shannon D; Budd, Connie; French, Donald P; Hoff, Wouter D; Youssef, Noha

    2016-09-01

    Micrococcus luteus is a predominant member of skin microbiome. We here report on the genomic analysis of Micrococcus luteus strain O'Kane that was isolated from an elevator. The partial genome assembly of Micrococcus luteus strain O'Kane is 2.5 Mb with 2256 protein-coding genes and 62 RNA genes. Genomic analysis revealed metabolic versatility with genes involved in the metabolism and transport of glucose, galactose, fructose, mannose, alanine, aspartate, asparagine, glutamate, glutamine, glycine, serine, cysteine, methionine, arginine, proline, histidine, phenylalanine, and fatty acids. Genomic comparison to other M. luteus representatives identified the potential to degrade polyhydroxybutyrates, as well as several antibiotic resistance genes absent from other genomes. PMID:27583205

  18. Bioactive Compounds of Aristotelia chilensis Stuntz and their Pharmacological Effects.

    PubMed

    Romanucci, Valeria; D'Alonzo, Daniele; Guaragna, Annalisa; Di Marino, Cinzia; Davinelli, Sergio; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Aristotelia chilensis ([Molina], Stuntz) a member of the family Eleocarpaceae, is a plant native to Chile that is distributed in tropical and temperate Asia, Australia, the Pacific Area, and South America. The juice of its berries has important medicinal properties, as an astringent, tonic, and antidiarrhoeal. Its many qualities make the maqui berry the undisputed sovereign of the family of so-called "superfruits", as well as a valuable tool to combat cellular inflammation of bones and joints. Recently, it is discovered that the leaves of the maqui berry have important antibacterial and antitumour activities. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the traditional use, phytochemistry, and biological activity of A. chilensis using information collected from scientific journals, books, and electronic searches. Anthocyanins, other flavonoids, alkaloids, cinnamic acid derivatives, benzoic acid derivatives, other bioactive molecules, and mineral elements are summarized. A broad range of activities of plant extracts and fractions are presented, including antioxidant activity, inhibition of visible light-induced damage of photoreceptor cells, inhibition of α-glucosidase, inhibition of pancreatic lipase, anti-diabetic effects, anti-inflammatory effects, analgesic effects, anti-diabetes, effective prevention of atherosclerosis, promotion of hair growth, anti-photo ageing of the skin, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Although some ethnobotanical uses have been supported in in vitro experiments, further studies of the individual compounds or chemical classes of compounds responsible for the pharmacological effects and the mechanisms of action are necessary. In addition, the toxicity and the side effects from the use of A. chilensis, as well as clinical trials, require attention. PMID:26778456

  19. Environment and the skin

    SciTech Connect

    Suskind, R.R. )

    1990-03-01

    The skin is an important organ of defense adaptation and a portal of entry for xenobiotics. It is vulnerable to physical, chemical, and biologic agents and capable of expressing responses to these agents in a variety of pathologic patterns. These patterns are characterized by morphologic and functional features which are elicited by careful examination and test procedures. Cutaneous cancer may result from exposure to nonionizing as well as ionizing radiation, to specific identifiable chemical hazards, and may be enhanced by trauma. Cutaneous hazards of chemical sources are largely found in the workplace and among consumer products, including drugs and toilet goods. Environmental skin diseases and injuries are preventable. Prior to use assessment for safety and for possible risks from exposure to an agent, product, or process is of primary importance in the prevention and control of environmental skin disease and injury.

  20. Epidermal skin grafting.

    PubMed

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Hughes, Olivia B; Macquhae, Flor; Rakosi, Adele; Kirsner, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Autologous skin grafts, such as full- and split-thickness, have long been part of the reconstructive ladder as an option to close skin defects. Although they are effective in providing coverage, they require the need for a trained surgeon, use of anaesthesia and operating room and creation of a wound at the donor site. These drawbacks can be overcome with the use of epidermal skin grafts (ESGs), which can be harvested without the use of anaesthesia in an office setting and with minimal to no scarring at the donor site. ESGs consist only of the epidermal layer and have emerged as an appealing alternative to other autologous grafts for the treatment of acute and chronic wounds. In this article, we provide an overview of epidermal grafting and its role in wound management. PMID:27547964

  1. Sprayed skin turbine component

    DOEpatents

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  2. Skin friction balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ping, Tcheng (Inventor); Supplee, Frank H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A skin friction balance uses a parallel linkage mechanism to avoid inaccuracies in skin friction measurement attributable to off-center normal forces. The parallel linkage mechanism includes a stationary plate mounted in a cage, and an upper and lower movable plate which are linked to each other and to the stationary plate throught three vertical links. Flexure pivots are provided for pivotally connecting the links and the plates. A sensing element connected to the upper plate moves in response to skin friction, and the lower plate moves in the opposite direction of the upper plate. A force motor maintains a null position of the sensing element by exerting a restoring force in response to a signal generated by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).

  3. Composite bone cements loaded with a bioactive and ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic: Leaching, bioactivity and cytocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Verné, Enrica; Bruno, Matteo; Miola, Marta; Maina, Giovanni; Bianco, Carlotta; Cochis, Andrea; Rimondini, Lia

    2015-08-01

    In this work, composite bone cements, based on a commercial polymethylmethacrylate matrix (Palamed®) loaded with ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic particles (SC45), were produced and characterized in vitro. The ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic belongs to the system SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5-FeO-Fe2O3 and contains magnetite (Fe3O4) crystals into a residual amorphous bioactive phase. Three different formulations (containing 10, 15 and 20 wt.% of glass-ceramic particles respectively) have been investigated. These materials are intended to be applied as bone fillers for the hyperthermic treatment of bone tumors. The morphological, compositional, calorimetric and mechanical properties of each formulation have been already discussed in a previous paper. The in vitro properties of the composite bone cements described in the present paper are related to iron ion leaching test (by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer), bioactivity (i.e. the ability to stimulate the formation of a hydroxyapatite - HAp - layer on their surface after soaking in simulated body fluid SBF) and cytocompatibility toward human osteosarcoma cells (ATCC CRL-1427, Mg63). Morphological and chemical characterizations by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion spectrometry have been performed on the composite samples after each test. The iron release was negligible and all the tested samples showed the growth of HAp on their surface after 28 days of immersion in a simulated body fluid (SBF). Cells showed good viability, morphology, adhesion, density and the ability to develop bridge-like structures on all investigated samples. A synergistic effect between bioactivity and cell mineralization was also evidenced. PMID:26042695

  4. [Skin and hand disinfection].

    PubMed

    Mathis, U

    1991-04-01

    In modern medicine, hygiene has become an issue of ever increasing importance. Disinfection of hands is crucial, since hands are the main vector of bacteria. Successful disinfection depends not only on the appropriate choice of an active agent, but equally so on proper techniques and skin care. The spectre and the time profile of activity as well as the skin-protecting properties of the chosen disinfectant must be known. Basic knowledge of disinfection is necessary for a rational interpretation of the information given in the glossy printed material of advertisement. PMID:1858061

  5. Neck skin rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Duplechain, J Kevin

    2014-05-01

    The author of this article uses the pulsed ablative CO2 laser for resurfacing of the neck and face, based on the gold standard status of the CO2 laser and a novel post-treatment plan that greatly reduces adverse effects traditionally associated with fully ablative resurfacing. The croton oil peel is an inexpensive and effective modality for rejuvenating neck skin. The use of either technique as an adjunct to neck lift surgery, with or without facelift surgery, permits surgeons to fulfill the expectations of patients who want the skin of their face and neck to be homogeneous and more attractive. PMID:24745383

  6. Skin disorders during menopause.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Gleison V; Trigo, Ana Cm; Paim de Oliveira, Mária de Fátima

    2016-02-01

    Menopause is the cessation of menstrual periods due to the loss of ovarian function. Among the various phases of a woman's life, menopause has the greatest impact on health and has been one of the most neglected areas of research. Hormonal changes caused by menopause can lead to problems in the skin and its annexes, and despite the high frequency of dermatologic signs and symptoms, studies on this topic are limited. In this article, we review the skin disorders that result from the hormonal changes of menopause and other common dermatoses observed during this period and assess possible therapeutic approaches. PMID:26919507

  7. Study of surfactant-skin interactions by skin impedance measurements.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guojin; Moore, David J

    2012-02-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) plays a very critical physiological role as skin barrier in regulating water loss through the skin and protects the body from a wide range of physical and chemical exogenous insults. Surfactant-containing formulations can induce skin damage and irritation owing to surfactant absorption and penetration. It is generally accepted that reduction in skin barrier properties occurs only after surfactants have penetrated/permeated into the skin barrier. To mitigate the harshness of surfactant-based cleansing products, penetration/permeation of surfactants should be reduced. Skin impedance measurements have been taken in vitro on porcine skin using vertical Franz diffusion cells to investigate the impact of surfactants, temperature and pH on skin barrier integrity. These skin impedance results demonstrate excellent correlation with other published methods for assessing skin damage and irritation from different surfactant chemistry, concentration, pH, time of exposure and temperature. This study demonstrates that skin impedance can be utilized as a routine approach to screen surfactant-containing formulations for their propensity to compromise the skin barrier and hence likely lead to skin irritation. PMID:21923733

  8. Mechanisms of human erythrocytic bioactivation of nitrite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Wajih, Nadeem; Liu, Xiaohua; Basu, Swati; Janes, John; Marvel, Madison; Keggi, Christian; Helms, Christine C; Lee, Amber N; Belanger, Andrea M; Diz, Debra I; Laurienti, Paul J; Caudell, David L; Wang, Jun; Gladwin, Mark T; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B

    2015-01-01

    Nitrite signaling likely occurs through its reduction to nitric oxide (NO). Several reports support a role of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in nitrite reduction, but this remains controversial, and alternative reductive pathways have been proposed. In this work we determined whether the primary human erythrocytic nitrite reductase is hemoglobin as opposed to other erythrocytic proteins that have been suggested to be the major source of nitrite reduction. We employed several different assays to determine NO production from nitrite in erythrocytes including electron paramagnetic resonance detection of nitrosyl hemoglobin, chemiluminescent detection of NO, and inhibition of platelet activation and aggregation. Our studies show that NO is formed by red blood cells and inhibits platelet activation. Nitric oxide formation and signaling can be recapitulated with isolated deoxyhemoglobin. Importantly, there is limited NO production from erythrocytic xanthine oxidoreductase and nitric-oxide synthase. Under certain conditions we find dorzolamide (an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase) results in diminished nitrite bioactivation, but the role of carbonic anhydrase is abrogated when physiological concentrations of CO2 are present. Importantly, carbon monoxide, which inhibits hemoglobin function as a nitrite reductase, abolishes nitrite bioactivation. Overall our data suggest that deoxyhemoglobin is the primary erythrocytic nitrite reductase operating under physiological conditions and accounts for nitrite-mediated NO signaling in blood. PMID:25471374

  9. Discovering new bioactive molecules from microbial sources

    PubMed Central

    Monciardini, Paolo; Iorio, Marianna; Maffioli, Sonia; Sosio, Margherita; Donadio, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    There is an increased need for new drug leads to treat diseases in humans, animals and plants. A dramatic example is represented by the need for novel and more effective antibiotics to combat multidrug-resistant microbial pathogens. Natural products represent a major source of approved drugs and still play an important role in supplying chemical diversity, despite a decreased interest by large pharmaceutical companies. Novel approaches must be implemented to decrease the chances of rediscovering the tens of thousands of known natural products. In this review, we present an overview of natural product screening, focusing particularly on microbial products. Different approaches can be implemented to increase the probability of finding new bioactive molecules. We thus present the rationale and selected examples of the use of hypersensitive assays; of accessing unexplored microorganisms, including the metagenome; and of genome mining. We then focus our attention on the technology platform that we are currently using, consisting of approximately 70 000 microbial strains, mostly actinomycetes and filamentous fungi, and discuss about high-quality screening in the search for bioactive molecules. Finally, two case studies are discussed, including the spark that arose interest in the compound: in the case of orthoformimycin, the novel mechanism of action predicted a novel structural class; in the case of NAI-112, structural similarity pointed out to a possible in vivo activity. Both predictions were then experimentally confirmed. PMID:24661414

  10. Bioavailability of bioactive food compounds: a challenging journey to bioefficacy

    PubMed Central

    Rein, Maarit J.; Renouf, Mathieu; Cruz‐Hernandez, Cristina; Actis‐Goretta, Lucas; Thakkar, Sagar K.; da Silva Pinto, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    Bioavailability is a key step in ensuring bioefficacy of bioactive food compounds or oral drugs. Bioavailability is a complex process involving several different stages: liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination phases (LADME). Bioactive food compounds, whether derived from various plant or animal sources, need to be bioavailable in order to exert any beneficial effects. Through a better understanding of the digestive fate of bioactive food compounds we can impact the promotion of health and improvement of performance. Many varying factors affect bioavailability, such as bioaccessibility, food matrix effect, transporters, molecular structures and metabolizing enzymes. Bioefficacy may be improved through enhanced bioavailability. Therefore, several technologies have been developed to improve the bioavailability of xenobiotics, including structural modifications, nanotechnology and colloidal systems. Due to the complex nature of food bioactive compounds and also to the different mechanisms of absorption of hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactive compounds, unravelling the bioavailability of food constituents is challenging. Among the food sources discussed during this review, coffee, tea, citrus fruit and fish oil were included as sources of food bioactive compounds (e.g. (poly)phenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)) since they are examples of important ingredients for the food industry. Although there are many studies reporting on bioavailability and bioefficacy of these bioactive food components, understanding their interactions, metabolism and mechanism of action still requires extensive work. This review focuses on some of the major factors affecting the bioavailability of the aforementioned bioactive food compounds. PMID:22897361

  11. Clinical applications of skin substitutes.

    PubMed

    Nyame, Theodore T; Chiang, H Abraham; Orgill, Dennis P

    2014-08-01

    A unique understanding of the components of mammalian skin has led to the development of numerous skin substitutes. These skin substitutes attempt to compensate for functional and physiologic deficits present in damaged tissue. Skin substitutes, when appropriately applied in optimized settings, offer a promising solution to difficult wound management. The body of literature on skin substitutes increases as the understanding of tissue engineering and molecular biology expands. Given the high cost of these products, future randomized large prospective studies are needed to guide the clinical applications of skin substitutes. PMID:25085091

  12. About Skin-to-Skin Care (Kangaroo Care)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share About Skin-to-Skin Care Page Content Article Body You may be able ... care, also called kangaroo care. What is Kangaroo Care? Kangaroo care was developed in South America as ...

  13. Bioactive glasses: Importance of structure and properties in bone regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hench, Larry L.; Roki, Niksa; Fenn, Michael B.

    2014-09-01

    This review provides a brief background on the applications, mechanisms and genetics involved with use of bioactive glass to stimulate regeneration of bone. The emphasis is on the role of structural changes of the bioactive glasses, in particular Bioglass, which result in controlled release of osteostimulative ions. The review also summarizes the use of Raman spectroscopy, referred to hereto forward as bio-Raman spectroscopy, to obtain rapid, real time in vitro analysis of human cells in contact with bioactive glasses, and the osteostimulative dissolution ions that lead to osteogenesis. The bio-Raman studies support the results obtained from in vivo studies of bioactive glasses, as well as extensive cell and molecular biology studies, and thus offers an innovative means for rapid screening of new bioactive materials while reducing the need for animal testing.

  14. Noninvasive Skin Tightening Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive skin tightening has become one of the most common cosmetic aesthetic procedures being performed today. The use of radiofrequency devices for these procedures has been at the forefront of this trend for the past several years. Newer and more sophisticated radiofrequency devices are being brought to the market and presented here are the Venus Freeze and Venus Legacy. PMID:26155322

  15. Flexible electronics: Sophisticated skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Siegfried

    2013-10-01

    Advances in materials science and layout design have enabled the realization of flexible and multifunctional electronic devices. Two demonstrations of electronic skins, which combine temperature and pressure sensing with integrated thermal actuators and organic displays, unveil the potential of these devices for robotics and clinical applications.

  16. Chemokines and skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Chemokines are small molecules that induce chemotaxis and activation of certain subsets of leukocytes. The expression patterns of chemokines and chemokine receptors are specific to certain organs and cells. Therefore, chemokines are important to elucidate the mechanism of organ-specific human diseases. CCL17 expressed by Langerhans cells, blood endothelial cells, and fibroblasts plays a key role in attracting Th2 cells and tumor cells of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and mycosis fungoides/Sézary syndrome into the skin, developing various Th2-type inflammatory skin diseases as well as cutaneous lymphoma. CCL11 and CCL26 expressed by skin-resident cells, such as fibroblasts, blood endothelial cells, and keratinocytes, induce infiltration of CCR3-expressing cells such as Th2 cells and eosinophils. CCL11 may also serve as an autocrine as well as a paracrine in anaplastic large cell lymphoma. CX3CL1 expressed on blood endothelial cells leads to infiltration of CX3CR1(+) immune cells, such as mast cells, neutrophils, and macrophages, playing important roles in wound healing, tumor immunity, and vasculitis. Biologics targeting chemokines and their receptors are promising strategies for various skin diseases that are resistant to the current therapy. PMID:25182982

  17. Versatile cold atom source for multi-species experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris-Mandoki, A.; Jones, M. D.; Nute, J.; Wu, J.; Warriar, S.; Hackermüller, L.

    2014-11-01

    We present a dual-species oven and Zeeman slower setup capable of producing slow, high-flux atomic beams for loading magneto-optical traps. Our compact and versatile system is based on electronic switching between different magnetic field profiles and is applicable to a wide range of multi-species experiments. We give details of the vacuum setup, coils, and simple electronic circuitry. In addition, we demonstrate the performance of our system by optimized, sequential loading of magneto-optical traps of lithium-6 and cesium-133.

  18. Versatile cold atom source for multi-species experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Paris-Mandoki, A.; Jones, M. D.; Nute, J.; Warriar, S.; Hackermüller, L.; Wu, J.

    2014-11-15

    We present a dual-species oven and Zeeman slower setup capable of producing slow, high-flux atomic beams for loading magneto-optical traps. Our compact and versatile system is based on electronic switching between different magnetic field profiles and is applicable to a wide range of multi-species experiments. We give details of the vacuum setup, coils, and simple electronic circuitry. In addition, we demonstrate the performance of our system by optimized, sequential loading of magneto-optical traps of lithium-6 and cesium-133.

  19. Ferrimagnetic nanocrystal assemblies as versatile magnetic particle hyperthermia mediators.

    PubMed

    Sakellari, D; Brintakis, K; Kostopoulou, A; Myrovali, E; Simeonidis, K; Lappas, A; Angelakeris, M

    2016-01-01

    Colloidal nanocrystal assemblies (nanoclusters), consisting of 13 nm iron oxide nanocrystals, were synthesized in various sizes (45-98 nm), and were investigated as heating mediators for magnetic particle hyperthermia. The colloidal nanocrystal clusters show enhanced heating efficiency in comparison with their constituent primary iron oxide nanocrystals due to collective magnetic features. The fine tuning of intra-cluster magnetic interactions results to the domination of the hysteresis losses mechanism over the relaxation loss heating contributions and eventually to a versatile magnetic particle hyperthermia mediator. PMID:26478302

  20. A Versatile and Scalable Strategy to Discrete Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Jimmy; Lee, Sang-Ho; Abdilla, Allison; Nothling, Mitchell D; Ren, Jing M; Knight, Abigail S; Fleischmann, Carolin; Li, Youli; Abrams, Austin S; Schmidt, Bernhard V K J; Hawker, Michael C; Connal, Luke A; McGrath, Alaina J; Clark, Paul G; Gutekunst, Will R; Hawker, Craig J

    2016-05-18

    A versatile strategy is reported for the multigram synthesis of discrete oligomers from commercially available monomer families, e.g., acrylates, styrenics, and siloxanes. Central to this strategy is the identification of reproducible procedures for the separation of oligomer mixtures using automated flash chromatography systems with the effectiveness of this approach demonstrated through the multigram preparation of discrete oligomer libraries (Đ = 1.0). Synthetic availability, coupled with accurate structural control, allows these functional building blocks to be harnessed for both fundamental studies as well as targeted technological applications. PMID:27152711

  1. Eugenol: a natural compound with versatile pharmacological actions.

    PubMed

    Pramod, Kannissery; Ansari, Shahid H; Ali, Javed

    2010-12-01

    Eugenol, the major constituent of clove oil, has been widely used for its anesthetic and analgesic action in dentistry. Eugenol exhibits pharmacological effects on almost all systems and our aim is to review the research work that has identified these pharmacological actions. Eugenol possesses significant antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cardiovascular properties, in addition to analgesic and local anesthetic activity. The metabolism and pharmacokinetics of the compound in humans have been studied. Eugenol has also been used as a penetration enhancer. The compound is a very promising candidate for versatile applications, and the design of new drugs based on the pharmacological effects of eugenol could be beneficial. PMID:21299140

  2. Versatile transmission ellipsometry to study linear ferrofluid magneto-optics.

    PubMed

    Kooij, E S; Gâlcă, A C; Poelsema, B

    2006-12-01

    Linear birefringence and dichroism of magnetite ferrofluids are studied simultaneously using spectroscopic ellipsometry in transmission mode. It is shown that this versatile technique enables highly accurate characterisation of magneto-optical phenomena. Magnetic field-dependent linear birefringence and dichroism as well as the spectral dependence are shown to be in line with previous results. Despite the qualitative agreement with established models for magneto-optical phenomena, these fail to provide an accurate, quantitative description of our experimental results using the bulk dielectric function of magnetite. We discuss the results in relation to these models, and indicate how the modified dielectric function of the magnetite nanoparticles can be obtained. PMID:16997315

  3. Parallel optics technology assessment for the versatile link project

    SciTech Connect

    Chramowicz, J.; Kwan, S.; Rivera, R.; Prosser, A.; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    This poster describes the assessment of commercially available and prototype parallel optics modules for possible use as back end components for the Versatile Link common project. The assessment covers SNAP12 transmitter and receiver modules as well as optical engine technologies in dense packaging options. Tests were performed using vendor evaluation boards (SNAP12) as well as custom evaluation boards (optical engines). The measurements obtained were used to compare the performance of these components with single channel SFP+ components operating at a transmission wavelength of 850 nm over multimode fibers.

  4. A new versatile underground gamma-ray spectrometry system.

    PubMed

    Lutter, Guillaume; Hult, Mikael; Marissens, Gerd; Andreotti, Erica; Rosengård, Ulf; Misiaszek, Marcin; Yüksel, Ayhan; Sahin, Namik

    2013-11-01

    The newest development in IRMM's underground analytical facility is a large lead shield lined with copper that is versatile and can host several detectors of different types. The characteristics and the background performance of the shield are described for four different detector configurations involving HPGe-detectors and NaI-detectors. The shield has been designed to swap detectors, while still maintaining a low background. This enables testing of detectors for other experiments and optimisation of detection limits for specific radionuclides in different projects. PMID:23743483

  5. A Versatile Approach Towards Nucleobase-Modified Aptamers.

    PubMed

    Tolle, Fabian; Brändle, Gerhard M; Matzner, Daniel; Mayer, Günter

    2015-09-01

    A novel and versatile method has been developed for modular expansion of the chemical space of nucleic acid libraries, thus enabling the generation of nucleobase-modified aptamers with unprecedented recognition properties. Reintroduction of the modification after enzymatic replication gives broad access to many chemical modifications. This wide applicability, which is not limited to a single modification, will rapidly advance the application of in vitro selection approaches beyond what is currently feasible and enable the generation of aptamers to many targets that have so far not been addressable. PMID:26224087

  6. A versatile FACTS device model for powerflow and stability simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Arabi, S.; Kundur, P.

    1996-11-01

    While early FACTs devices consisted mainly of thyristor-controlled/switched RLC/transformer components, the newer generation is based on the self-commutated voltage-sourced converter. The variety of devices and applications, and the changing nature of the technology, call for versatile modelling capabilities at different levels of detail. This paper describes a model conceived as a coordinated and interconnected set of controllable shunt and series elements. For each device, functional characteristics, typical settings and controls, and simulation examples are presented. The model is capable of representing virtually any FACTS device for powerflow and all types of stability simulations.

  7. The acoustic vector sensor: a versatile battlefield acoustics sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bree, Hans-Elias; Wind, Jelmer W.

    2011-06-01

    The invention of the Microflown sensor has made it possible to measure acoustic particle velocity directly. An acoustic vector sensor (AVS) measures the particle velocity in three directions (the source direction) and the pressure. The sensor is a uniquely versatile battlefield sensor because its size is a few millimeters and it is sensitive to sound from 10Hz to 10kHz. This article shows field tests results of acoustic vector sensors, measuring rifles, heavy artillery, fixed wing aircraft and helicopters. Experimental data shows that the sensor is suitable as a ground sensor, mounted on a vehicle and on a UAV.

  8. A versatile detector for total fluorescence and electron yield experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Thielemann, N.; Hoffmann, P.; Foehlisch, A.

    2012-09-15

    The combination of a non-coated silicon photodiode with electron repelling meshes makes a versatile detector for total fluorescence yield and electron yield techniques highly suitable for x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In particular, a copper mesh with a bias voltage allows to suppress or transmit the electron yield signal. The performance of this detection scheme has been characterized by near edge x-ray absorption fine structure studies of thermal oxidized silicon and sapphire. The results show that the new detector probes both electron yield and for a bias voltage exceeding the maximum photon energy the total fluorescence yield.

  9. Surface plasmon resonance-enabled antibacterial digital versatile discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Xuan; Chung, Pei-Yu; Jiang, Peng; Dai, Jianli

    2012-02-01

    We report the achievement of effective sterilization of exemplary bacteria including Escherichia coli and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on a digital versatile disc (DVD). The spiral arrangement of aluminum-covered pits generates strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption of near-infrared light, leading to high surface temperature that could even damage the DVD plastics. Localized protein denaturation and high sterilization efficiency have been demonstrated by using a fluorescence microscope and cell cultures. Numerical simulations have also been conducted to model the SPR properties and the surface temperature distribution of DVDs under laser illumination. The theoretical predictions agree reasonably well with the experimental results.

  10. ICAN: A versatile code for predicting composite properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginty, C. A.; Chamis, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    The Integrated Composites ANalyzer (ICAN), a stand-alone computer code, incorporates micromechanics equations and laminate theory to analyze/design multilayered fiber composite structures. Procedures for both the implementation of new data in ICAN and the selection of appropriate measured data are summarized for: (1) composite systems subject to severe thermal environments; (2) woven fabric/cloth composites; and (3) the selection of new composite systems including those made from high strain-to-fracture fibers. The comparisons demonstrate the versatility of ICAN as a reliable method for determining composite properties suitable for preliminary design.

  11. P450 2C18 catalyzes the metabolic bioactivation of phenytoin.

    PubMed

    Kinobe, Robert T; Parkinson, Oliver T; Mitchell, Deanne J; Gillam, Elizabeth M J

    2005-12-01

    The safe clinical use of phenytoin (PHT) is compromised by a drug hypersensitivity reaction, hypothesized to be due to bioactivation of the drug to a protein-reactive metabolite. Previous studies have shown PHT is metabolized to the primary phenol metabolite, HPPH, then converted to a catechol which then autoxidizes to produce reactive quinone. PHT is known to be metabolized to HPPH by cytochromes P450 (P450s) 2C9 and 2C19 and then to the catechol by P450s 2C9, 2C19, 3A4, 3A5, and 3A7. However, the role of many poorly expressed or extrahepatic P450s in the metabolism and/or bioactivation of PHT is not known. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of other human P450s to catalyze PHT metabolism. P450 2C18 catalyzed the primary hydroxylation of PHT with a kcat (2.46 +/- 0.09 min-1) more than an order of magnitude higher than that of P450 2C9 (0.051 +/- 0.004 min-1) and P450 2C19 (0.054 +/- 0.002 min-1) and Km (45 +/- 5 microM) slightly greater than those of P450 2C9 (12 +/- 4 microM) and P450 2C19 (29 +/- 4 microM). P450 2C18 also efficiently catalyzed the secondary hydroxylation of PHT as well as covalent drug-protein adduct formation from both PHT and HPPH in vitro. While P450 2C18 is expressed poorly in the liver, significant expression has been reported in the skin. Thus, P450 2C18 may be important for the extrahepatic tissue-specific bioactivation of PHT in vivo. PMID:16359177

  12. A novel quantum dot nanocluster as versatile probe for electrochemiluminescence and electrochemical assays of DNA and cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jie, Guifen; Zhang, Jian; Jie, Guixia; Wang, Lei

    2014-02-15

    A novel dendritic quantum dot (QD) nanocluster was constructed and used as versatile electrochemiluminescence (ECL) and electrochemical probe for the detection of DNA and cancer cells. Owing to the many functional groups present in the nanoclusters, a large number of QDs were assembled on the nanoclusters, which could greatly amplify both the ECL and electrochemical signals of QDs. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/gold nanoparticles' (NPs) hybrids were used as amplified platform for assembling large numbers of DNA on the electrode, which also improve the bioactivity and stability of the electrode. After the QD-DNA signal probe was recognized with target DNA (t-DNA), the amplified ECL signal for the detection of target DNA was obtained. Furthermore, magnetic nanoparticles were employed for cell aptamers immobilization, the same QD nanocluster-DNA probe was also extended for electrochemical detection of cancer cells using sensitive anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) method, which simplified the separation procedures and improved the sensitivity. It is anticipated that the assays could provide promising and cost effective approach for the early and accurate detection of DNA and cancer cells. PMID:24021658

  13. Nitrogen-Based Diazeniumdiolates: Versatile Nitric Oxide-Releasing Compounds for Biomedical Research and Potential Clinical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra, Joseph E.; Keefer, Larry K.

    2002-12-01

    Nitric oxide-generating ions of the nitrogen-diazeniumdiolate class with the general structure R1R2N-[N(O)NO]1 have been prepared by exposing primary, secondary, and polyamines to nitric oxide (NO). The resulting complexes regenerate bioactive NO at physiological pH with half-lives ranging from 2 seconds to 20 hours. An important goal in our research is to deliver NO to a specific organ or cell type where it is needed without affecting other NO-sensitive parts of the anatomy. By taking advantage of the remarkable chemical versatility of diazeniumdiolates, we have developed general strategies to prepare either tissue-selective NO donor drugs or materials containing NO delivery agents that can be physically placed near the target sites. Inhibition of blood coagulation, induction of penile erection, relief of pulmonary hypertension, and reversal of cerebral vasospasm are a few examples of their potential clinical applications.

    See Featured Molecules.

  14. Sun Safety: Save Your Skin

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... all types of skin damage caused by sunlight water resistance—sunscreen that stays on your skin longer, even if it gets wet. Reapply water-resistant sunscreens as instructed on the label back ...

  15. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer This page lists cancer ... in skin cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Basal Cell Carcinoma Aldara (Imiquimod) Efudex ( ...

  16. Methodologies in creating skin substitutes.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Mathew N; Jeschke, Marc G; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2016-09-01

    The creation of skin substitutes has significantly decreased morbidity and mortality of skin wounds. Although there are still a number of disadvantages of currently available skin substitutes, there has been a significant decline in research advances over the past several years in improving these skin substitutes. Clinically most skin substitutes used are acellular and do not use growth factors to assist wound healing, key areas of potential in this field of research. This article discusses the five necessary attributes of an ideal skin substitute. It comprehensively discusses the three major basic components of currently available skin substitutes: scaffold materials, growth factors, and cells, comparing and contrasting what has been used so far. It then examines a variety of techniques in how to incorporate these basic components together to act as a guide for further research in the field to create cellular skin substitutes with better clinical results. PMID:27154041

  17. Skin Cancers of the Feet

    MedlinePlus

    ... common cancers of the feet are: Basal Cell Carcinoma : Basal cell carcinoma frequently is seen on sun-exposed skin surfaces. ... damage but only rarely spreads beyond the skin. Basal cell cancers may appear as pearly white bumps or patches ...

  18. Dry skin - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... or showers frequently Washing your hands often Some soaps and detergents Skin conditions, such as eczema and ... apply your moisturizer. Avoid skin care products and soaps that contain alcohol, fragrances, dyes, or other chemicals. ...

  19. What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... that can become melanoma. They make a brown pigment called melanin , which gives the skin its tan ... to the sun, melanocytes make more of the pigment, causing the skin to tan or darken. Melanoma ...

  20. Aspergillus antigen skin test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The aspergillus antigen skin test determines whether or not a person has been exposed to the mold aspergillus. It is performed by injecting an aspergillus antigen under the skin with a needle. After 48 ...

  1. Polygonum cuspidatum extracts as bioactive antioxidaion, anti-tyrosinase, immune stimulation and anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Chen; Chen, Yen-Ting; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Liao, Wei-Ting; Liu, Yung-Chuan; David Wang, Hui-Min

    2015-04-01

    In our study, it was applied for the technology of supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction to achieve biological constitutes from a Taiwan native plant, Polygonum cuspidatum. We developed bioactive effects of P. cuspidatum extracts via multiple examinations that established bio-purposes at a range of dosage ranges. The research of P. cuspidatum extracts indicated that they possessed anti-oxidative properties on radical-scavenging abilities, reducing activities and metal chelating powers in dose-dependant manners. The extracts also had minor in vitro mushroom tyrosinase suppression and decreased cellular tyrosinase activities and melanin production in B16-F10 cells. Immunologically, P. cuspidatum extracts enhanced the release of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) induced by THP-1 macrophage cell line. In addition, the cell proliferation showed anti-proliferation in dose-dependent manner on human skin melanoma cells, A375 and A375.S2, of the extracts suggesting biological constitutes employed the anti-cancer possessions. This is the first statement presenting bioactivities on P. cuspidatum extracts including anti-oxidation, immune stimulation, anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanoma as far as we know. PMID:25311751

  2. Antidiabetic Properties, Bioactive Constituents, and Other Therapeutic Effects of Scoparia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Pamunuwa, Geethi; Karunaratne, D Nedra; Waisundara, Viduranga Y

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the antidiabetic activities of Scoparia dulcis as well as its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in relation to the diabetes and its complications. Ethnomedical applications of the herb have been identified as treatment for jaundice, stomach problems, skin disease, fever, and kidney stones, reproductory issues, and piles. Evidence has been demonstrated through scientific studies as to the antidiabetic effects of crude extracts of S. dulcis as well as its bioactive constituents. The primary mechanisms of action of antidiabetic activity of the plant and its bioactive constituents are through α-glucosidase inhibition, curbing of PPAR-γ and increased secretion of insulin. Scoparic acid A, scoparic acid D, scutellarein, apigenin, luteolin, coixol, and glutinol are some of the compounds which have been identified as responsible for these mechanisms of action. S. dulcis has also been shown to exhibit analgesic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective, sedative, hypnotic, antiulcer, antisickling, and antimicrobial activities. Given this evidence, it may be concluded that S. dulcis could be promoted among the masses as an alternative and complementary therapy for diabetes, provided further scientific studies on the toxicological and pharmacological aspects are carried out through either in vivo or clinical means. PMID:27594892

  3. Characterization and bioactivity of nano-submicro octacalcium phosphate/gelatin composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Kei-ichiro; Anada, Takahisa; Honda, Yoshitomo; Shiwaku, Yukari; Kawai, Tadashi; Echigo, Seishi; Takahashi, Tetsu; Suzuki, Osamu

    2013-10-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the physicochemical and bioactive properties of a nano-submicro sized octacalcium phosphate (OCP)-dispersed gelatin (Gel) composite (nano-submicro OCP/Gel) used as a bone substitute material in various bone defects. Well-grown, synthesized OCP was mechanically ground from 100 to 300 μm-sieved granules to particles that were approximately 500 nm in size. Then, 50 wt% of the nano-submicro OCP was mixed with porcine skin-derived acid extracted gelatin. The mixture was molded and lyophilized and then subjected to dehydrothermal crosslinking. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that the structure of OCP was retained even after mechanical grinding to a nano-submicro scale level as well as inclusion in the Gel matrix. The bioactivity of nano-submicro OCP/Gel was examined by immersing the composite in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 days and by implanting it in rat critical-sized calvaria defects for 8 weeks. The nano-submicro OCP tended to convert to low crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) in SBF as assessed by XRD. The nano-submicro OCP/Gel exhibited osteoconductivity in vivo, yielding new bone formation that was closely associated with the implanted composite. These results suggest that the nano-submicro OCP/Gel composite exhibits similar osteoconductivity as observed in other OCP-based materials previously reported and could be used as a bone substitute material for repairing various defects in bone.

  4. Antidiabetic Properties, Bioactive Constituents, and Other Therapeutic Effects of Scoparia dulcis

    PubMed Central

    Karunaratne, D. Nedra

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the antidiabetic activities of Scoparia dulcis as well as its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in relation to the diabetes and its complications. Ethnomedical applications of the herb have been identified as treatment for jaundice, stomach problems, skin disease, fever, and kidney stones, reproductory issues, and piles. Evidence has been demonstrated through scientific studies as to the antidiabetic effects of crude extracts of S. dulcis as well as its bioactive constituents. The primary mechanisms of action of antidiabetic activity of the plant and its bioactive constituents are through α-glucosidase inhibition, curbing of PPAR-γ and increased secretion of insulin. Scoparic acid A, scoparic acid D, scutellarein, apigenin, luteolin, coixol, and glutinol are some of the compounds which have been identified as responsible for these mechanisms of action. S. dulcis has also been shown to exhibit analgesic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective, sedative, hypnotic, antiulcer, antisickling, and antimicrobial activities. Given this evidence, it may be concluded that S. dulcis could be promoted among the masses as an alternative and complementary therapy for diabetes, provided further scientific studies on the toxicological and pharmacological aspects are carried out through either in vivo or clinical means. PMID:27594892

  5. Versatile optical coherence tomography for imaging the human eye.

    PubMed

    Tao, Aizhu; Shao, Yilei; Zhong, Jianguang; Jiang, Hong; Shen, Meixiao; Wang, Jianhua

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrated the feasibility of a CMOS-based spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) for versatile ophthalmic applications of imaging the corneal epithelium, limbus, ocular surface, contact lens, crystalline lens, retina, and full eye in vivo. The system was based on a single spectrometer and an alternating reference arm with four mirrors. A galvanometer scanner was used to switch the reference beam among the four mirrors, depending on the imaging application. An axial resolution of 7.7 μm in air, a scan depth of up to 37.7 mm in air, and a scan speed of up to 70,000 A-lines per second were achieved. The approach has the capability to provide high-resolution imaging of the corneal epithelium, contact lens, ocular surface, and tear meniscus. Using two reference mirrors, the zero delay lines were alternatively placed on the front cornea or on the back lens. The entire ocular anterior segment was imaged by registering and overlapping the two images. The full eye through the pupil was measured when the reference arm was switched among the four reference mirrors. After mounting a 60 D lens in the sample arm, this SD-OCT was used to image the retina, including the macula and optical nerve head. This system demonstrates versatility and simplicity for multi-purpose ophthalmic applications. PMID:23847729

  6. Versatile Supramolecular Gene Vector Based on Host-Guest Interaction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Hennink, Wim E; van Steenbergen, Mies J; Zhuo, Renxi; Jiang, Xulin

    2016-04-20

    It is a great challenge to arrange multiple functional components into one gene vector system to overcome the extra- and intracellular obstacles for gene therapy. In this study, we developed a supramolecular approach for constructing a versatile gene delivery system composed of adamantyl-terminated functional polymers and a β-cyclodextrin based polymer. Adamantyl-functionalized low molecular weight PEIs (PEI-Ad) and PEG (Ad-PEG) as well as poly(β-cyclodextrin) (PCD) were synthesized by one-step chemical reactions. The supramolecular inclusion complex formed from PCD to assemble LMW PEI-Ad4 via host-guest interactions can condense plasmid DNA to form nanopolyplexes by electrostatic interactions. The supramolecular polyplexes can be further PEGylated with Ad-PEG to form inclusion complexes, which showed increased salt and serum stability. In vitro experiments revealed that these supramolecular assembly polyplexes had good cytocompatibility and showed high transfection activity close to that of the commercial ExGen 500 at high dose of DNA. Also, the supramolecular vector system exhibited about 60% silencing efficiency as a siRNA vector. Thus, a versatile effective supramolecular gene vector based on host-guest complexes was fabricated with good cytocompatbility and transfection activity. PMID:27019340

  7. Versatile clinical information system design for emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Amouh, Teh; Gemo, Monica; Macq, Benoît; Vanderdonckt, Jean; El Gariani, Abdul Wahed; Reynaert, Marc S; Stamatakis, Lambert; Thys, Frédéric

    2005-06-01

    Compared to other hospital units, the emergency department presents some distinguishing characteristics of its own. Emergency health-care delivery is a collaborative process involving the contribution of several individuals who accomplish their tasks while working autonomously under pressure and sometimes with limited resources. Effective computerization of the emergency department information system presents a real challenge due to the complexity of the scenario. Current computerized support suffers from several problems, including inadequate data models, clumsy user interfaces, and poor integration with other clinical information systems. To tackle such complexity, we propose an approach combining three points of view, namely the transactions (in and out of the department), the (mono and multi) user interfaces and data management. Unlike current systems, we pay particular attention to the user-friendliness and versatility of our system. This means that intuitive user interfaces have been conceived and specific software modeling methodologies have been applied to provide our system with the flexibility and adaptability necessary for the individual and group coordinated tasks. Our approach has been implemented by prototyping a web-based, multiplatform, multiuser, and versatile clinical information system built upon multitier software architecture, using the Java programming language. PMID:16138534

  8. A versatile optoelectronic aid for low vision patients.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Coca, María Dolores; Vargas-Martín, Fernando; Mota, Sonia; Díaz, Javier; Ros-Vidal, Eduardo

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to describe a versatile optoelectronic aid for low vision rehabilitation based on reconfigurable hardware. This aid is easily adaptable to diverse pathologies (with different associated processing tasks) and to the progression of the visual impairment. This platform has a mobile configuration that uses a see-through head-mounted display (Nomad). We have implemented different types of vision enhancement on this versatile platform, and briefly summarize here their computational costs (in terms of hardware resource requirements). We have evaluated two representative capabilities of this aid (Augmented View and digital zoom) with measurements of visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and visual field. We have tested the Nomad head-mounted display and the Augmented View modality, in eight subjects with retinitis pigmentosa: the digital zoom was tested in six low vision subjects and nine normally-sighted subjects. We show that the Nomad display with Augmented View configuration does not impair the residual vision; and that there is an increase in visual acuity (VA) with the digital zoom configuration. The major advantage of this platform is that it can easily embed different image processing tasks and since it is based on a FPGA device, it can be specifically configured to tasks requiring real-time processing. PMID:19689551

  9. Graphene Emerges as a Versatile Template for Materials Preparation.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengjie; Wu, Sida; Lv, Wei; Shao, Jiao-Jing; Kang, Feiyu; Yang, Quan-Hong

    2016-05-01

    Graphene and its derivatives are emerging as a class of novel but versatile templates for the controlled preparation and functionalization of materials. In this paper a conceptual review on graphene-based templates is given, highlighting their versatile roles in materials preparation. Graphene is capable of acting as a low-dimensional hard template, where its two-dimensional morphology directs the formation of novel nanostructures. Graphene oxide and other functionalized graphenes are amphiphilic and may be seen as soft templates for formatting the growth or inducing the controlled assembly of nanostructures. In addition, nanospaces in restacked graphene can be used for confining the growth of sheet-like nanostructures, and assemblies of interlinked graphenes can behave either as skeletons for the formation of composite materials or as sacrificial templates for novel materials with a controlled network structure. In summary, flexible graphene and its derivatives together with an increasing number of assembled structures show great potentials as templates for materials production. Many challenges remain, for example precise structural control of such novel templates and the removal of the non-functional remaining templates. PMID:27059262

  10. Versatile Low Level RF System For Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, James M.

    2011-06-01

    The Low Level RF (LLRF) system is the source of all of the rf signals required for an rf linear accelerator. These signals are amplified to drive accelerator and buncher cavities. It can even provide the synchronizing signal for the rf power for a synchrotron. The use of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) techniques results in a versatile system that can provide multiple coherent signals at the same or different frequencies with adjustable amplitudes and phase relations. Pulsing the DDS allows rf switching with an essentially infinite on/off ratio. The LLRF system includes a versatile phase detector that allows phase-locking the rf frequency to a cavity at any phase angle over the full 360 deg. range. With the use of stepper motor driven slug tuners multiple cavity resonant frequencies can be phase locked to the rf source frequency. No external phase shifters are required and there is no feedback loop phase setup required. All that is needed is to turn the frequency feedback on. The use of Digital Signal Processing (DSP) allows amplitude and phase control over the entire rf pulse. This paper describes the basic principles of a LLRF system that has been used for both proton accelerators and electron accelerators, including multiple tank accelerators, sub-harmonic and fundamental bunchers, and synchrotrons.

  11. Robust and versatile pectin-based drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Marras-Marquez, T; Peña, J; Veiga-Ochoa, M D

    2015-02-20

    Pectin-based resistant, interactive and versatile hydrogel vehicles for oral administration have been prepared. These systems are thought to be versatile enough to allow the inclusion of substances (such as the surfactants tested: Pluronic, Tween, Na Lauryl sulphate) that may contribute to tailor the drug release patterns. Tolbutamide, that shows a discrete and pH-dependent solubility in water, has been employed as a model drug to test the capability of these matrices to overcome such drug-imposed restraints. The incorporation of different surfactants produced pectin-based hydrogels of difficult manipulation. In order to improve this drawback, two different strategies have been developed: blending with agarose or freeze-drying. The presence of agarose yields robust systems that can be handled and tested as prepared, in the fresh state. Freeze-drying not only allows to shape pure pectin and blend systems, but also generates a porous structure whose microstructure, determined by the different components included, influences on the drug release behavior. Tolbutamide release kinetics from freshly prepared matrices can be fitted to the Higuchi model while the freeze-dried ones adjust to the Korsmeyer-Peppas model; hence the hydrogel chains rearrangement processes rule the release during the rehydration process. PMID:25542990

  12. Versatile optical coherence tomography for imaging the human eye

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Aizhu; Shao, Yilei; Zhong, Jianguang; Jiang, Hong; Shen, Meixiao; Wang, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrated the feasibility of a CMOS-based spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) for versatile ophthalmic applications of imaging the corneal epithelium, limbus, ocular surface, contact lens, crystalline lens, retina, and full eye in vivo. The system was based on a single spectrometer and an alternating reference arm with four mirrors. A galvanometer scanner was used to switch the reference beam among the four mirrors, depending on the imaging application. An axial resolution of 7.7 μm in air, a scan depth of up to 37.7 mm in air, and a scan speed of up to 70,000 A-lines per second were achieved. The approach has the capability to provide high-resolution imaging of the corneal epithelium, contact lens, ocular surface, and tear meniscus. Using two reference mirrors, the zero delay lines were alternatively placed on the front cornea or on the back lens. The entire ocular anterior segment was imaged by registering and overlapping the two images. The full eye through the pupil was measured when the reference arm was switched among the four reference mirrors. After mounting a 60 D lens in the sample arm, this SD-OCT was used to image the retina, including the macula and optical nerve head. This system demonstrates versatility and simplicity for multi-purpose ophthalmic applications. PMID:23847729

  13. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester exhibiting distinctive binding interaction with human serum albumin implies the pharmacokinetic basis of propolis bioactive components.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongliang; Wu, Fan; Tan, Jing; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Cuiping; Zheng, Huoqing; Hu, Fuliang

    2016-04-15

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), as one of the major bioactive components present in propolis, exhibits versatile bioactivities, especially for its potent cytotoxic effects on several cancer cell models. To understand the pharmacokinetic characteristics of CAPE, the binding interaction between CAPE and human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated in vitro using multiple spectroscopic methods and molecular docking. The results reveal that CAPE exhibits a distinctive binding interaction with HSA comparing with other propolis components. The association constant K(A) (L mol(-1)) of the binding reaches 10(6) order of magnitude, which is significantly stronger than the other components of propolis. Based on the theory of fluorescence resonance energy transfer, the binding distance was calculated as 5.7 nm, which is longer than that of the other components of propolis. The thermodynamic results indicate that the binding is mainly driven by hydrogen bonds and van der Waals force. The docking and drugs (warfarin and ibuprofen) competitive results show that CAPE is located in the subdomain IIA (Sudlow's site I, FA7) of HSA, and Gln196 and Lys199 contribute to the hydrogen bonds. Circular dichroism spectra suggest an alteration of the secondary structure of HSA due to its partial unfolding in the presence of CAPE. PMID:26829518

  14. [Skin manifestations of monoclonal gammopathies].

    PubMed

    Hello, M; Barbarot, S; Néel, A; Connault, J; Graveleau, J; Durant, C; Decaux, O; Hamidou, M

    2014-01-01

    Whatever their aetiology, monoclonal gammopathies can be associated to several clinical features. Mechanisms are various and sometimes unknown. Skin is frequently involved and may represent a challenging diagnosis. Indeed, skin manifestations are either the presenting features and isolated, or at the background of a systemic syndrome. Our objective was to review the various skin manifestations that have been associated with monoclonal gammopathies. PMID:24070793

  15. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... doesn't matter whether you consider your skin light, dark, or somewhere in between. You are at risk for skin cancer. Being in the sun can damage your skin. Sunlight causes damage through ultraviolet, or UV rays, (they make up just one part of ...

  16. Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the…

  17. Polyamines and nonmelanoma skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, Susan K.

    2007-11-01

    Elevated levels of polyamines have long been associated with skin tumorigenesis. Tightly regulated metabolism of polyamines is critical for cell survival and normal skin homeostasis, and these controls are dysregulated in skin tumorigenesis. A key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is upregulated in skin tumors compared to normal skin. Use of transgenic mouse models has demonstrated that polyamines play an essential role in the early promotional phase of skin tumorigenesis. The formation of skin tumors in these transgenic mice is dependent upon polyamine biosynthesis, especially putrescine, since treatment with inhibitors of ODC activity blocks the formation of skin tumors and causes the rapid regression of existing tumors. Although the mechanism by which polyamines promote skin tumorigenesis are not well understood, elevated levels of polyamines have been shown to stimulate epidermal proliferation, alter keratinocyte differentiation status, increase neovascularization, and increase synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins in a manner similar to that seen in wound healing. It is becoming increasingly apparent that elevated polyamine levels activate not only epidermal cells but also underlying stromal cells in the skin to promote the development and progression of skin tumors. The inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis has potential to be an effective chemoprevention strategy for nonmelanoma skin cancer.

  18. Three-dimensional chemical imaging of skin using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drutis, Dane M.; Hancewicz, Thomas M.; Pashkovski, Eugene; Feng, Lin; Mihalov, Dawn; Holtom, Gary; Ananthapadmanabhan, Kavssery P.; Xie, X. Sunney; Misra, Manoj

    2014-11-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy is used to generate structural and chemical three-dimensional images of native skin. We employed SRS microscopy to investigate the microanatomical features of skin and penetration of topically applied materials. Image depth stacks are collected at distinct wavelengths corresponding to vibrational modes of proteins, lipids, and water in the skin. We observed that corneocytes in stratum corneum are grouped together in clusters, 100 to 250 μm in diameter, separated by 10- to 25-μm-wide microanatomical skin-folds called canyons. These canyons occasionally extend down to depths comparable to that of the dermal-epidermal junction below the flat surface regions in porcine and human skin. SRS imaging shows the distribution of chemical species within cell clusters and canyons. Water is predominately located within the cell clusters, and its concentration rapidly increases at the transition from stratum corneum to viable epidermis. Canyons do not contain detectable levels of water and are rich in lipid material. Oleic acid-d34 applied to the skin surface lines the canyons down to a depth of 50 μm below the surface of the skin. This observation could have implications on the evaluation of penetration profiles of bioactive materials measured using traditional methods, such as tape-stripping.

  19. Laser microporation of the skin: prospects for painless application of protective and therapeutic vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Thalhamer, Josef; Weiss, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In contrast to muscle and subcutaneous tissue, the skin is easily accessible and provides unique immunological properties. Increasing knowledge about the complex interplay of skin-associated cell types in the development of cutaneous immune responses has fueled efforts to target the skin for vaccination as well as for immunotherapy. Areas covered: This review provides an overview on skin layers and their resident immunocompetent cell types. Advantages and shortcomings of standard methods and innovative technologies to circumvent the outermost skin barrier are addressed. Studies employing fractional skin ablation by infrared lasers for cutaneous delivery of drugs, as well as high molecular weight molecules such as protein antigens or antibodies, are reviewed, and laserporation is introduced as a versatile transcutaneous vaccination platform. Specific targeting of the epidermis or the dermis by different laser settings, the resulting kinetics of uptake and transport and the immune response types elicited are discussed, and the potential of this transcutaneous delivery platform for allergen-specific immunotherapy is demonstrated. Expert opinion: Needle-free and painless vaccination approaches have the potential to replace standard methods due to their improved safety and optimal patient compliance. The use of fractional laser devices for stepwise ablation of skin layers might be advantageous for both vaccination against microbial pathogens, as well as immunotherapeutic approaches, such as allergen-specific immunotherapy. Thorough investigation of the underlying immunological mechanisms will help to provide the knowledge for a rational design of transcutaneous protective/therapeutic vaccines. PMID:23425032

  20. [Natural bioactive agents in liver therapy].

    PubMed

    Blázovics, Anna

    2015-11-22

    Medical science alongside with other sciences, aiming to preserve health and combat diseases, has evolved significantly since the late 1930s. It has reached incredible results and opened up unpredicted perspectives for future generations to come. From the 1980s significant results also emerged from researching natural plant active ingredients for the prevention of damage from free radicals which were discovered in different symptoms. One of the important areas of research is the recognition of significant bioactive molecules from the aspects of food consumption, alongside the detection of their effect in the context of their structure. It is also important that by possessing these data it is possible to develop correct food consumption habits, especially for people who are suffering from diseases. Through the decades we came a long way from folk medicine observations to molecular, biological justification of effect mechanisms. PMID:26568101

  1. Bioactive glass coatings for orthopedic metallic implants

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Saiz, Eduardo; Fujino, Sigheru; Oku, Takeo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2003-06-30

    The objective of this work is to develop bioactive glass coatings for metallic orthopedic implants. A new family of glasses in the SiO2-Na2O-K2O-CaO-MgO-P2O5 system has been synthesized and characterized. The glass properties (thermal expansion, softening and transformation temperatures, density and hardness) are in line with the predictions of established empirical models. The optimized firing conditions to fabricate coatings on Ti-based and Co-Cr alloys have been determined and related to the glass properties and the interfacial reactions. Excellent adhesion to alloys has been achieved through the formation of 100-200 nm thick interfacial layers (Ti5Si3 on Ti-based alloys and CrOx on Co-Cr). Finally, glass coatings, approximately 100 mu m thick, have been fabricated onto commercial Ti alloy-based dental implants.

  2. New Bioactive Compounds from Korean Native Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Eun; Hwang, Byung Soon; Song, Ja-Gyeong; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, In-Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms are ubiquitous in nature and have high nutritional attributes. They have demonstrated diverse biological effects and therefore have been used in treatments of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, bacterial and viral infections, and ulcer. In particular, polysaccharides, including β-glucan, are considered as the major constituents responsible for the biological activity of mushrooms. Although an overwhelming number of reports have been published on the importance of polysaccharides as immunomodulating agents, not all of the healing properties found in these mushrooms could be fully accounted for. Recently, many research groups have begun investigations on biologically active small-molecular weight compounds in wild mushrooms. In this mini-review, both structural diversity and biological activities of novel bioactive substances from Korean native mushrooms are described. PMID:24493936

  3. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits.

    PubMed

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here. PMID:26473827

  4. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here. PMID:26473827

  5. Bioactive properties of honey with propolis.

    PubMed

    Osés, S M; Pascual-Maté, A; Fernández-Muiño, M A; López-Díaz, T M; Sancho, M T

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, propolis is used as an innovative preservative and as a bioactive food supplement. Due to its bitter and astringent flavour, propolis is hardly accepted by consumers. The aim of this study was to obtain a likeable food product made with honey and propolis, whose antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties were enhanced in comparison with those of the base honeys used. 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5% soft propolis extracts were added to honeys and the products that most appealed to the users were subjected to further research. Total phenolics, flavonoids, ABTS free radical and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities increased in all mixtures. Antimicrobial activity of the combined products showed synergic effects, resulting in higher results than those of the base honeys and propolis extracts. Therefore, honeys enriched with small amounts of propolis extracts are promising functional foods. PMID:26593609

  6. Secondary metabolites and bioactivities of Albizia anthelmintica

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Tahia K.; Nassar, Mahmoud I.; Gaara, Ahmed H.; El-Kashak, Walaa A.; Brouard, Iñaki; El-Toumy, Sayed A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Albizia species are rich in phenolics and terpenes in the different plant organs. They are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. So this study investigated the phytochemical and biological activities of Albizia Anthelmintica. Materials and Methods: Column chromatography has been performed for the isolation of compounds. Bioactivity studies of A. anthelmintica leaves were carried out on aqueous ethanol extract and some pure compounds were tested for their antioxidant activities. Results: Eight compounds have been isolated for the first time from A. anthelmintica. The aqueous ethanol extract of A. anthelmintica showed moderate anti-inflammatory activity and significant for both analgesic and antioxidant activities. Quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-(6β-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside and quercetin-3-O-(6β-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside) exhibited potent antioxidant scavenging activity towards diphenyl-picrylhydrazine. PMID:23798881

  7. Fluorescent Bioactive Corrole Grafted-Chitosan Films.

    PubMed

    Barata, Joana F B; Pinto, Ricardo J B; Vaz Serra, Vanda I R C; Silvestre, Armando J D; Trindade, Tito; Neves, Maria Graça P M S; Cavaleiro, José A S; Daina, Sara; Sadocco, Patrizia; Freire, Carmen S R

    2016-04-11

    Transparent corrole grafted-chitosan films were prepared by chemical modification of chitosan with a corrole macrocycle, namely, 5,10,15-tris(pentafluorophenyl)corrole (TPFC), followed by solvent casting. The obtained films were characterized in terms of absorption spectra (UV-vis), FLIM (fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy), structure (FTIR, XPS), thermal stability (TGA), thermomechanical properties (DMA), and antibacterial activity. The results showed that the chemical grafting of chitosan with corrole units did not affect its film-forming ability and that the grafting yield increased with the reaction time. The obtained transparent films presented fluorescence which increases with the amount of grafted corrole units. Additionally, all films showed bacteriostatic effect against S. aureus, as well as good thermomechanical properties and thermal stability. Considering these features, promising applications may be envisaged for these corrole-chitosan films, such as biosensors, bioimaging agents, and bioactive optical devices. PMID:26899016

  8. Bioactivity improvement of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) membrane with the addition of nanofibrous bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-Hyoung; Yu, Hye-Sun; Jang, Jun-Hyeog; Kim, Hae-Won

    2008-05-01

    Nanofibrous glass with a bioactive composition was added to a degradable polymer poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) to produce a nanocomposite in thin membrane form ( approximately 260 microm). The bioactivity and osteoblastic responses of the nanocomposite membrane were examined and compared with those of a pure PCL membrane. Glass nanofibers with diameters in the range of hundreds of nanometers were added to a PCL solution at 20 wt.%, and the mixture was stirred vigorously and air dried. The obtained nanocomposite membrane showed that many chopped glass nanofibers formed by the mixing step were embedded uniformly into the PCL matrix. The nanocomposite membrane induced the rapid formation of apatite-like minerals on the surface when immersed in a simulated body fluid. Murine-derived osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1) grew actively over the nanocomposite membrane with cell viability significantly improved compared with those on the pure PCL membrane. Moreover, the osteoblastic activity, as assessed by the expression of alkaline phosphatase, was significantly higher on the nanocomposite membrane than on the pure PCL membrane. The currently developed nanocomposite of the bioactive glass-added PCL might find applications in the bone regeneration areas such as the guided bone regeneration (GBR) membrane. PMID:18171636

  9. A review of the bioactivity of hydraulic calcium silicate cements

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Li-na; Jiao, Kai; Wang, Tian-da; Zhang, Wei; Camilleri, Josette; Bergeron, Brian E.; Feng, Hai-lan; Mao, Jing; Chen, Ji-hua; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In tissue regeneration research, the term “bioactivity” was initially used to describe the resistance to removal of a biomaterial from host tissues after intraosseous implantation. Hydraulic calcium silicate cements (HCSCs) are putatively accepted as bioactive materials, as exemplified by the increasing number of publications reporting that these cements produce an apatite-rich surface layer after they contact simulated body fluids. Methods In this review, the same definitions employed for establishing in vitro and in vivo bioactivity in glass–ceramics, and the proposed mechanisms involved in these phenomena are used as blueprints for investigating whether HCSCs are bioactive. Results The literature abounds with evidence that HCSCs exhibit in vitro bioactivity; however, there is a general lack of stringent methodologies for characterizing the calcium phosphate phases precipitated on HCSCs. Although in vivo bioactivity has been demonstrated for some HCSCs, a fibrous connective tissue layer is frequently identified along the bone–cement interface that is reminiscent of the responses observed in bioinert materials, without accompanying clarifications to account for such observations. Conclusions As bone-bonding is not predictably achieved, there is insufficient scientific evidence to substantiate that HCSCs are indeed bioactive. Objective appraisal criteria should be developed for more accurately defining the bioactivity profiles of HCSCs designed for clinical use. PMID:24440449

  10. Ablative skin resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Nidhi; Smith, Greg; Heffelfinger, Ryan

    2014-02-01

    Ablative laser resurfacing has evolved as a safe and effective treatment for skin rejuvenation. Although traditional lasers were associated with significant thermal damage and lengthy recovery, advances in laser technology have improved safety profiles and reduced social downtime. CO2 lasers remain the gold standard of treatment, and fractional ablative devices capable of achieving remarkable clinical improvement with fewer side effects and shorter recovery times have made it a more practical option for patients. Although ablative resurfacing has become safer, careful patient selection and choice of suitable laser parameters are essential to minimize complications and optimize outcomes. This article describes the current modalities used in ablative laser skin resurfacing and examines their efficacy, indications, and possible side effects. PMID:24488638

  11. Skin barrier in rosacea.

    PubMed

    Addor, Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies about the cutaneous barrier demonstrated consistent evidence that the stratum corneum is a metabolically active structure and also has adaptive functions, may play a regulatory role in the inflammatory response with activation of keratinocytes, angiogenesis and fibroplasia, whose intensity depends primarily on the intensity the stimulus. There are few studies investigating the abnormalities of the skin barrier in rosacea, but the existing data already show that there are changes resulting from inflammation, which can generate a vicious circle caused a prolongation of flare-ups and worsening of symptoms. This article aims to gather the most relevant literature data about the characteristics and effects of the state of the skin barrier in rosacea. PMID:26982780

  12. Skin barrier in rosacea*

    PubMed Central

    Addor, Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies about the cutaneous barrier demonstrated consistent evidence that the stratum corneum is a metabolically active structure and also has adaptive functions, may play a regulatory role in the inflammatory response with activation of keratinocytes, angiogenesis and fibroplasia, whose intensity depends primarily on the intensity the stimulus. There are few studies investigating the abnormalities of the skin barrier in rosacea, but the existing data already show that there are changes resulting from inflammation, which can generate a vicious circle caused a prolongation of flare-ups and worsening of symptoms. This article aims to gather the most relevant literature data about the characteristics and effects of the state of the skin barrier in rosacea. PMID:26982780

  13. Skin contamination dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Hamby, David M.; Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Cazalas, Edward

    2011-06-21

    A technique and device provides absolute skin dosimetry in real time at multiple tissue depths simultaneously. The device uses a phoswich detector which has multiple scintillators embedded at different depths within a non-scintillating material. A digital pulse processor connected to the phoswich detector measures a differential distribution (dN/dH) of count rate N as function of pulse height H for signals from each of the multiple scintillators. A digital processor computes in real time from the differential count-rate distribution for each of multiple scintillators an estimate of an ionizing radiation dose delivered to each of multiple depths of skin tissue corresponding to the multiple scintillators embedded at multiple corresponding depths within the non-scintillating material.

  14. For Some Skin Cancers, Targeted Drug Hits the Mark

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Types Skin Cancer Research Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer ...

  15. Skin care in ethnic populations.

    PubMed

    Cole, Patrick D; Hatef, Daniel A; Taylor, Susan; Bullocks, Jamal M

    2009-08-01

    Use of over-the-counter cosmetics, approaches to hygiene, and many basic dermatologic principles differ between individuals with Caucasian skin and ethnic skin. Still, comparatively few publications highlight these variations or discuss appropriate management. Among many ethnic patients, issues related to skin hydration, restoration of even pigmentation, hair removal, and acne care remain problematic yet not fully addressed. As well, there are some dermatologic conditions that may be rare in Caucasian skin but are much more common in the ethnic patient. Here, we discuss various aspects of skin hydration, dyschromia, sunscreen use, and chemical depilatories in the ethnic population. PMID:20676310

  16. Reprint of: Review of bioactive glass: From Hench to hybrids.

    PubMed

    Jones, Julian R

    2015-09-01

    Bioactive glasses are reported to be able to stimulate more bone regeneration than other bioactive ceramics but they lag behind other bioactive ceramics in terms of commercial success. Bioactive glass has not yet reached its potential but research activity is growing. This paper reviews the current state of the art, starting with current products and moving onto recent developments. Larry Hench's 45S5 Bioglass® was the first artificial material that was found to form a chemical bond with bone, launching the field of bioactive ceramics. In vivo studies have shown that bioactive glasses bond with bone more rapidly than other bioceramics, and in vitro studies indicate that their osteogenic properties are due to their dissolution products stimulating osteoprogenitor cells at the genetic level. However, calcium phosphates such as tricalcium phosphate and synthetic hydroxyapatite are more widely used in the clinic. Some of the reasons are commercial, but others are due to the scientific limitations of the original Bioglass 45S5. An example is that it is difficult to produce porous bioactive glass templates (scaffolds) for bone regeneration from Bioglass 45S5 because it crystallizes during sintering. Recently, this has been overcome by understanding how the glass composition can be tailored to prevent crystallization. The sintering problems can also be avoided by synthesizing sol-gel glass, where the silica network is assembled at room temperature. Process developments in foaming, solid freeform fabrication and nanofibre spinning have now allowed the production of porous bioactive glass scaffolds from both melt- and sol-gel-derived glasses. An ideal scaffold for bone regeneration would share load with bone. Bioceramics cannot do this when the bone defect is subjected to cyclic loads, as they are brittle. To overcome this, bioactive glass polymer hybrids are being synthesized that have the potential to be tough, with congruent degradation of the bioactive inorganic and

  17. Ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Deevya L; Saladi, Rao N; Fox, Joshua L

    2010-09-01

    Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in fair-skinned populations in many parts of the world. The incidence, morbidity and mortality rates of skin cancers are increasing and, therefore, pose a significant public health concern. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the major etiologic agent in the development of skin cancers. UVR causes DNA damage and genetic mutations, which subsequently lead to skin cancer. A clearer understanding of UVR is crucial in the prevention of skin cancer. This article reviews UVR, its damaging effects on the skin and its relationship to UV immunosuppression and skin cancer. Several factors influence the amount of UVR reaching the earth's surface, including ozone depletion, UV light elevation, latitude, altitude, and weather conditions. The current treatment modalities utilizing UVR (i.e. phototherapy) can also predispose to skin cancers. Unnecessary exposure to the sun and artificial UVR (tanning lamps) are important personal attributable risks. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of skin cancer with an emphasis on carefully evaluated statistics, the epidemiology of UVR-induced skin cancers, incidence rates, risk factors, and preventative behaviors & strategies, including personal behavioral modifications and public educational initiatives. PMID:20883261

  18. In Vitro Bioactivity and Antimicrobial Tuning of Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles Added with Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaf Powder

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, M.; Ruby Priscilla, S.; Kavitha, K.; Manivasakan, P.; Rajendran, V.; Kulandaivelu, P.

    2014-01-01

    Silica and phosphate based bioactive glass nanoparticles (58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5) with doping of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder and silver nanoparticles were prepared and characterised. Bioactive glass nanoparticles were produced using sol-gel technique. In vitro bioactivity of the prepared samples was investigated using simulated body fluid. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of prepared glass particles reveals amorphous phase and spherical morphology with a particle size of less than 50 nm. When compared to neem doped glass, better bioactivity was attained in silver doped glass through formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface, which was confirmed through XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. However, neem leaf powder doped bioactive glass nanoparticles show good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and less bioactivity compared with silver doped glass particles. In addition, the biocompatibility of the prepared nanocomposites reveals better results for neem doped and silver doped glasses at lower concentration. Therefore, neem doped bioactive glass may act as a potent antimicrobial agent for preventing microbial infection in tissue engineering applications. PMID:25276834

  19. Sequence-defined bioactive macrocycles via an acid-catalysed cascade reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porel, Mintu; Thornlow, Dana N.; Phan, Ngoc N.; Alabi, Christopher A.

    2016-06-01

    Synthetic macrocycles derived from sequence-defined oligomers are a unique structural class whose ring size, sequence and structure can be tuned via precise organization of the primary sequence. Similar to peptides and other peptidomimetics, these well-defined synthetic macromolecules become pharmacologically relevant when bioactive side chains are incorporated into their primary sequence. In this article, we report the synthesis of oligothioetheramide (oligoTEA) macrocycles via a one-pot acid-catalysed cascade reaction. The versatility of the cyclization chemistry and modularity of the assembly process was demonstrated via the synthesis of >20 diverse oligoTEA macrocycles. Structural characterization via NMR spectroscopy revealed the presence of conformational isomers, which enabled the determination of local chain dynamics within the macromolecular structure. Finally, we demonstrate the biological activity of oligoTEA macrocycles designed to mimic facially amphiphilic antimicrobial peptides. The preliminary results indicate that macrocyclic oligoTEAs with just two-to-three cationic charge centres can elicit potent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  20. Structural characterization and thermal and chemical stability of bioactive molecule-hydrotalcite (LDH) nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Conterosito, Eleonora; Croce, Gianluca; Palin, Luca; Pagano, Cinzia; Perioli, Luana; Viterbo, Davide; Boccaleri, Enrico; Paul, Geo; Milanesio, Marco

    2013-08-28

    Layered double hydroxides (LDH) are versatile materials used for intercalating bioactive molecules, both in pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields, with the purpose of protecting them from degradation, enhancing their water solubility to increase bioavailability, and/or obtaining modified release properties. The properties of the intercalation compounds of Mg/Al_LDH and Zn/Al_LDH with different drugs and sunscreens, namely diclofenac, ketoprofen, gliclazide, retinoic acid, furosemide, para-aminobenzoic acid and 2-phenylbenzimidazolsulfonic (Eusolex) acid, have been studied by crystallographic, spectroscopic and thermogravimetric techniques and by solid state NMR, to shed light on their structure, their molecular interactions and their stability from the thermal and chemical viewpoint. The structural features were described with particular attention to the interaction between the organic and inorganic components and to the stability of the intercalation products. For the first time two synchrotron radiation powder diffraction patterns of organic-containing LDH were solved and refined by Rietveld methods to obtain an experimental crystal structure. PMID:23873340

  1. Enzyme release of phenolics from muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) skins and seeds.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changmou; Yagiz, Yavuz; Borejsza-Wysocki, Wlodzimierz; Lu, Jiang; Gu, Liwei; Ramírez-Rodrigues, Milena M; Marshall, Maurice R

    2014-08-15

    Enzyme degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides can potentially enhance the release of bioactive phenolics. The aim of this study was to evaluate various combinations of solvent and enzyme, enzyme type (cellulase, pectinase, ß-glucosidase), and hydrolysis time (1, 4, 8, 24 h) on the release of muscadine grape skin and seed phenolics, and their antioxidant activities. Results showed that pre-treated muscadine skins and seeds with enzymes decreased total phenolic yield compared with solvent (50% ethanol) alone. Enzyme release of phenolics from skins of different muscadine varieties was significantly different while release from seeds was similar. Enzyme hydrolysis was found to shorten extraction time. Most importantly, enzyme hydrolysis modified the galloylated form of polyphenols to low molecular weight phenolics, releasing phenolic acids (especially gallic acid), and enhancing antioxidant activity. PMID:24679747

  2. Endogenous N-acyl taurines regulate skin wound healing.

    PubMed

    Sasso, Oscar; Pontis, Silvia; Armirotti, Andrea; Cardinali, Giorgia; Kovacs, Daniela; Migliore, Marco; Summa, Maria; Moreno-Sanz, Guillermo; Picardo, Mauro; Piomelli, Daniele

    2016-07-26

    The intracellular serine amidase, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), degrades a heterogeneous family of lipid-derived bioactive molecules that include amides of long-chain fatty acids with taurine [N-acyl-taurines (NATs)]. The physiological functions of the NATs are unknown. Here we show that genetic or pharmacological disruption of FAAH activity accelerates skin wound healing in mice and stimulates motogenesis of human keratinocytes and differentiation of human fibroblasts in primary cultures. Using untargeted and targeted lipidomics strategies, we identify two long-chain saturated NATs-N-tetracosanoyl-taurine [NAT(24:0)] and N-eicosanoyl-taurine [NAT(20:0)]-as primary substrates for FAAH in mouse skin, and show that the levels of these substances sharply decrease at the margins of a freshly inflicted wound to increase again as healing begins. Additionally, we demonstrate that local administration of synthetic NATs accelerates wound closure in mice and stimulates repair-associated responses in primary cultures of human keratinocytes and fibroblasts, through a mechanism that involves tyrosine phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and an increase in intracellular calcium levels, under the permissive control of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 receptors. The results point to FAAH-regulated NAT signaling as an unprecedented lipid-based mechanism of wound-healing control in mammalian skin, which might be targeted for chronic wound therapy. PMID:27412859

  3. Development of a versatile laser light scattering instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Ansari, Rafat R.

    1990-01-01

    A versatile laser light scattering (LLS) instrument is developed for use in microgravity to measure microscopic particles of 30 A to above 3 microns. Since it is an optical technique, LLS does not affect the sample being studied. A LLS instrument built from modules allows several configurations, each optimized for a particular experiment. The multiangle LLS instrument can be mounted in the rack in the Space Shuttle and on Space Station Freedom. It is possible that a Space Shuttle glove-box and a lap-top computer containing a correlator card can be used to perform a number of experiments and to demonstrate the technology needed for more elaborate investigations. This offers simple means of flying a great number of experiments without the additional requirements of full-scale flight hardware experiments.

  4. Versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing magnetic properties of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, J. F. D. F.; Bruno, A. C.; Louro, S. R. W.

    2015-10-01

    We constructed a versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing iron oxide nanoparticles. The magnetometer can be operated at room temperature or inside a cryocooler at temperatures as low as 6 K. The magnetometer's sensor can be easily exchanged and different detection electronics can be used. We tested the assembly with a non-cryogenic commercial Hall sensor and a benchtop multimeter in a four-wire resistance measurement scheme. A magnetic moment sensitivity of 8.5 × 10-8 Am2 was obtained with this configuration. To illustrate the capability of the assembly, we synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles coated with different amounts of a triblock copolymer, Pluronic F-127, and characterized their magnetic properties. We determined that the polymer coating does not affect the magnetization of the particles at room temperature and demonstrates that it is possible to estimate the average size of coating layers from measurements of the magnetic field of the sample.

  5. FLUTE: A versatile linac-based THz source

    SciTech Connect

    Nasse, M. J.; Schuh, M.; Schwarz, M.; Naknaimueang, S.; Mathis, Y.-L.; Rossmanith, R.; Wesolowski, P.; Huttel, E.; Plech, A.; Schmelling, M.; Mueller, A.-S.

    2013-02-15

    A new compact versatile linear accelerator named FLUTE is currently being designed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. This paper presents the status of this 42 MeV machine. It will be used to generate strong (several 100 MV/m) ultra-short ({approx}1 ps) THz pulses (up to {approx}4-25 THz) for photon science experiments, as well as to conduct a variety of accelerator studies. The latter range from comparing different coherent THz radiation generation schemes to compressing electron bunches and studying the electron beam stability. The bunch charge will cover a wide range ({approx}100 pC-3 nC). Later we plan to also produce ultra-short x-ray pulses from the electron bunches, which, for example, could then be combined for THz pump-x-ray probe experiments.

  6. FLUTE: a versatile linac-based THz source.

    PubMed

    Nasse, M J; Schuh, M; Naknaimueang, S; Schwarz, M; Plech, A; Mathis, Y-L; Rossmanith, R; Wesolowski, P; Huttel, E; Schmelling, M; Müller, A-S

    2013-02-01

    A new compact versatile linear accelerator named FLUTE is currently being designed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. This paper presents the status of this 42 MeV machine. It will be used to generate strong (several 100 MV/m) ultra-short (~1 ps) THz pulses (up to ~4-25 THz) for photon science experiments, as well as to conduct a variety of accelerator studies. The latter range from comparing different coherent THz radiation generation schemes to compressing electron bunches and studying the electron beam stability. The bunch charge will cover a wide range (~100 pC-3 nC). Later we plan to also produce ultra-short x-ray pulses from the electron bunches, which, for example, could then be combined for THz pump-x-ray probe experiments. PMID:23464187

  7. Isoforms, structures, and functions of versatile spectraplakin MACF1

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Lifang; Su, Peihong; Li, Runzhi; Yin, Chong; Zhang, Yan; Shang, Peng; Yang, Tuanmin; Qian, Airong

    2016-01-01

    Spectraplakins are crucially important communicators, linking cytoskeletal components to each other and cellular junctions. Microtubule actin crosslinking factor 1 (MACF1), also known as actin crosslinking family 7 (ACF7), is a member of the spectraplakin family. It is expressed in numerous tissues and cells as one extensively studied spectraplakin. MACF1 has several isoforms with unique structures and well-known function to be able to crosslink F-actin and microtubules. MACF1 is one versatile spectraplakin with various functions in cell processes, embryo development, tissue-specific functions, and human diseases. The importance of MACF1 has become more apparent in recent years. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the presence and function of MACF1 and provide perspectives on future research of MACF1 based on our studies and others. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(1): 37-44] PMID:26521939

  8. Limestone - A Crucial and Versatile Industrial Mineral Commodity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bliss, James D.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Orris, Greta J.

    2008-01-01

    Limestone, as used by the minerals industry, is any rock composed mostly of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Although limestone is common in many parts of the United States, it is critically absent from some. Limestone is used to produce Portland cement, as aggregate in concrete and asphalt, and in an enormous array of other products, making it a truly versatile commodity. Portland cement is essential to the building industry, but despite our Nation's abundance of limestone, there have been cement shortages in recent years. These have been caused in part by a need to find new areas suitable for quarrying operations. To help manage our Nation's resources of such essential mineral commodities, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides crucial data and scientific information to industry, policymakers, and the public.

  9. Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brullot, W.; Reddy, N. K.; Wouters, J.; Valev, V. K.; Goderis, B.; Vermant, J.; Verbiest, T.

    2012-06-01

    Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained by a facile protocol and thoroughly characterized. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized using a modified forced hydrolysis method were functionalized with polyethylene glycol silane (PEG silane), precipitated and dried. These functionalized particles are dispersable in a range of solvents and concentrations depending on the desired properties. Examples of tunable properties are magnetic behavior, optical and magneto-optical response, thermal features and rheological behavior. As such, PEG silane functionalized particles represent a platform for the development of new materials that have broad applicability in e.g. biomedical, industrial or photonic environments. Magnetic, optical, magneto-optical, thermal and rheological properties of several ferrofluids based on PEG coated particles with different concentrations of particles dispersed in low molecular mass polyethylene glycol were investigated, establishing the applicability of such materials.

  10. A versatile photoelectron spectrometer for pressures up to 30 mbar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, Susanna K.; Hahlin, Maria; Kahk, Juhan Matthias; Villar-Garcia, Ignacio J.; Webb, Matthew J.; Grennberg, Helena; Yakimova, Rositza; Rensmo, Hâkan; Edström, Kristina; Hagfeldt, Anders; Siegbahn, Hans; Edwards, Mârten O. M.; Karlsson, Patrik G.; Backlund, Klas; Åhlund, John; Payne, David J.

    2014-07-01

    High-pressure photoelectron spectroscopy is a rapidly developing technique with applications in a wide range of fields ranging from fundamental surface science and catalysis to energy materials, environmental science, and biology. At present the majority of the high-pressure photoelectron spectrometers are situated at synchrotron end stations, but recently a small number of laboratory-based setups have also emerged. In this paper we discuss the design and performance of a new laboratory based high pressure photoelectron spectrometer equipped with an Al Kα X-ray anode and a hemispherical electron energy analyzer combined with a differentially pumped electrostatic lens. The instrument is demonstrated to be capable of measuring core level spectra at pressures up to 30 mbar. Moreover, valence band spectra of a silver sample as well as a carbon-coated surface (graphene) recorded under a 2 mbar nitrogen atmosphere are presented, demonstrating the versatility of this laboratory-based spectrometer.

  11. A versatile photoelectron spectrometer for pressures up to 30 mbar

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, Susanna K.; Edström, Kristina; Hagfeldt, Anders; Hahlin, Maria; Rensmo, Håkan; Siegbahn, Hans; Kahk, Juhan Matthias; Villar-Garcia, Ignacio J.; Payne, David J.; Webb, Matthew J.; Grennberg, Helena; Yakimova, Rositza; Edwards, Mårten O. M.; Karlsson, Patrik G.; Backlund, Klas; Åhlund, John

    2014-07-15

    High-pressure photoelectron spectroscopy is a rapidly developing technique with applications in a wide range of fields ranging from fundamental surface science and catalysis to energy materials, environmental science, and biology. At present the majority of the high-pressure photoelectron spectrometers are situated at synchrotron end stations, but recently a small number of laboratory-based setups have also emerged. In this paper we discuss the design and performance of a new laboratory based high pressure photoelectron spectrometer equipped with an Al Kα X-ray anode and a hemispherical electron energy analyzer combined with a differentially pumped electrostatic lens. The instrument is demonstrated to be capable of measuring core level spectra at pressures up to 30 mbar. Moreover, valence band spectra of a silver sample as well as a carbon-coated surface (graphene) recorded under a 2 mbar nitrogen atmosphere are presented, demonstrating the versatility of this laboratory-based spectrometer.

  12. A Versatile Microarray Platform for Capturing Rare Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkmann, Falko; Hirtz, Michael; Haller, Anna; Gorges, Tobias M.; Vellekoop, Michael J.; Riethdorf, Sabine; Müller, Volkmar; Pantel, Klaus; Fuchs, Harald

    2015-10-01

    Analyses of rare events occurring at extremely low frequencies in body fluids are still challenging. We established a versatile microarray-based platform able to capture single target cells from large background populations. As use case we chose the challenging application of detecting circulating tumor cells (CTCs) - about one cell in a billion normal blood cells. After incubation with an antibody cocktail, targeted cells are extracted on a microarray in a microfluidic chip. The accessibility of our platform allows for subsequent recovery of targets for further analysis. The microarray facilitates exclusion of false positive capture events by co-localization allowing for detection without fluorescent labelling. Analyzing blood samples from cancer patients with our platform reached and partly outreached gold standard performance, demonstrating feasibility for clinical application. Clinical researchers free choice of antibody cocktail without need for altered chip manufacturing or incubation protocol, allows virtual arbitrary targeting of capture species and therefore wide spread applications in biomedical sciences.

  13. A small low-power networked and versatile sensor interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Peter S.; McMahon, Phillip J.; Muscat, Richard F.; Zeve, Ladislav; Wilson, Alan R.

    2007-01-01

    Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) has developed a low power RS485 sensor network that can be hardware configured at design time from a number of modules, depending on its final application. The core predesigned module includes network communications, microprocessor control and digital input/output. A number of analogue sensor interface modules can easily be added to this core. In addition, the software is also of modular design consisting of a set of core operating routines and a set of routines for controlling sensor operations that can be downloaded or upgraded in the field. Prime consideration in this development has been given to the need for small size, low weight, low power and versatility of operation. The hardware is based around the Texas Instruments MSP430® micro-controller. This paper will present some of the considerations leading to the design and examples of applications of the sensor network.

  14. Oriented mesoporous nanopyramids as versatile plasmon-enhanced interfaces.

    PubMed

    Kong, Biao; Tang, Jing; Selomulya, Cordelia; Li, Wei; Wei, Jing; Fang, Yin; Wang, Yongcheng; Zheng, Gengfeng; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2014-05-14

    We developed a facile interfacial oriented growth and self-assembly process to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) aligned mesoporous iron oxide nanopyramid arrays (NPAs). The unique NPAs possess a 3D mesostructure with multiple features, including high surface area (~175 m(2)/g), large pore size (~20 nm), excellent flexibility (bent over 150 times), and scalability at the foot scale for practical applications. More importantly, these NPAs structures enable versatile enhancement of localized surface plasmon resonance and photoelectrochemical conversion. The integration of plasmonic gold with 3D NPAs remarkably improves the performance of photoelectrochemical conversion, leading to ~6- and 83-fold increases of the photocurrent under simulated solar and visible-light illumination, respectively. The fabrication and investigation of NPAs provide a new paradigm for preparing unconventional mesoporous oriented thin films and further suggest a new strategy for designing plasmonic metal/semiconductor systems for effective solar energy harvesting. PMID:24786963

  15. Metagenome of a versatile chemolithoautotroph from expanding oceanic dead zones.

    PubMed

    Walsh, David A; Zaikova, Elena; Howes, Charles G; Song, Young C; Wright, Jody J; Tringe, Susannah G; Tortell, Philippe D; Hallam, Steven J

    2009-10-23

    Oxygen minimum zones, also known as oceanic "dead zones," are widespread oceanographic features currently expanding because of global warming. Although inhospitable to metazoan life, they support a cryptic microbiota whose metabolic activities affect nutrient and trace gas cycling within the global ocean. Here, we report metagenomic analyses of a ubiquitous and abundant but uncultivated oxygen minimum zone microbe (SUP05) related to chemoautotrophic gill symbionts of deep-sea clams and mussels. The SUP05 metagenome harbors a versatile repertoire of genes mediating autotrophic carbon assimilation, sulfur oxidation, and nitrate respiration responsive to a wide range of water-column redox states. Our analysis provides a genomic foundation for understanding the ecological and biogeochemical role of pelagic SUP05 in oxygen-deficient oceanic waters and its potential sensitivity to environmental changes. PMID:19900896

  16. Sorghum - a versatile, multi-purpose biomass crop

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.W.; Jolts, E.J.; Miller, F.R.

    1981-01-01

    Sorghums are versatile, energy-efficient plants that exhibit excellent potentials for multi-product use. Grain sorghum, although already a major feed and food crop, offers promise as a source of starch and sugar for fermentation alcohol, as well as a number of fiber products. Sweet sorghum, a variety rich in extractable fermentable sugars, is now in limited production, but can be a major sugar, grain, forage, fuel and industrial products raw material. Sorghums can be grown in virtually every state. The need for multi-product crops to improve agricultural land productivities and to offset increasing cultural costs is detailed. Results of continuing plant breeding work to enhance sorghum varieties for multiple uses are discussed.

  17. A highly versatile optical fibre vacuum feed-through

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Ian A.; Azzouz, Hatim; Hueck, Klaus; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    Coupling light into a vacuum system is a non-trivial problem, requiring the use of a specialized feed-through. This feed-through must be both leak tight and offer a low optical loss if it is to be suitable for general use. In this paper, we report on the development of an extremely simple yet versatile, low cost, demountable optical fiber vacuum feed-through based on the modification of a standard optical fiber bulkhead connector. The modified connector was found to have a leak rate of 6.6 ± 2.1 × 10-6 mbar l/s and an optical loss of -0.41 ± 0.28 dB, making it suitable for use in high vacuum applications.

  18. A versatile nano display platform from bacterial spore coat proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wu, I-Lin; Narayan, Kedar; Castaing, Jean-Philippe; Tian, Fang; Subramaniam, Sriram; Ramamurthi, Kumaran S.

    2015-01-01

    Dormant bacterial spores are encased in a thick protein shell, the ‘coat', which contains ∼70 different proteins. The coat protects the spore from environmental insults, and is among the most durable static structures in biology. Owing to extensive cross-linking among coat proteins, this structure has been recalcitrant to detailed biochemical analysis, so molecular details of how it assembles are largely unknown. Here, we reconstitute the basement layer of the coat atop spherical membranes supported by silica beads to create artificial spore-like particles. We report that these synthetic spore husk-encased lipid bilayers (SSHELs) assemble and polymerize into a static structure, mimicking in vivo basement layer assembly during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. In addition, we demonstrate that SSHELs may be easily covalently modified with small molecules and proteins. We propose that SSHELs may be versatile display platforms for drugs and vaccines in clinical settings, or for enzymes that neutralize pollutants for environmental remediation. PMID:25854653

  19. Bacterial Type IV Secretion Systems: Versatile Virulence Machines

    PubMed Central

    Voth, Daniel E.; Broederdorf, Laura J.; Graham, Joseph G.

    2013-01-01

    Many bacterial pathogens employ multicomponent protein complexes to deliver macromolecules directly into their eukaryotic host cell to promote infection. Some Gram-negative pathogens use a versatile type IV secretion system (T4SS) that can translocate DNA or proteins into host cells. T4SSs represent major bacterial virulence determinants and have recently been the focus of intense research efforts designed to better understand and combat infectious diseases. Interestingly, although the two major classes of T4SSs function in a similar manner to secrete proteins, the translocated “effectors” vary substantially from one organism to another. In fact, differing effector repertoires likely contribute to organism-specific host cell interactions and disease outcomes. In this review, we discuss the current state of T4SS research, with an emphasis on intracellular bacterial pathogens of humans and the diverse array of translocated effectors used to manipulate host cells. PMID:22324993

  20. Advanced Sorbents as a Versatile Platform for Gas Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Neil Stephenson

    2003-09-30

    The program objective was to develop materials and processes for industrial gas separations to reduce energy use and enable waste reduction. The approach chosen combined novel oxygen selective adsorbents and pressure swing adsorption (PSA) processes. Preliminary materials development and process simulation results indicated that oxygen selective adsorbents could provide a versatile platform for industrial gas separations. If fully successful, this new technology offered the potential for reducing the cost of producing nitrogen/oxygen co-products, high purity nitrogen, argon, and possibly oxygen. The potential energy savings for the gas separations are appreciable, but the end users are the main beneficiaries. Lowering the cost of industrial gases expands their use in applications that can employ them for reducing energy consumption and emissions.

  1. A versatile waveform generator for testing neuroelectric signal processors.

    PubMed

    Kohn, A F

    1989-08-01

    A multi-channel waveform generator was designed for testing neuroelectric signal processors. Smooth transient signals that resemble action potentials or evoked potentials are generated by a second order switched capacitor filter excited by brief rectangular pulses. The choice of an integrated circuit switched capacitor filter simplified the design by circumventing some of the disadvantages of conventional active filters. The waveform generator is versatile, with several signal parameters being independently adjustable from front panel controls: duration, waveshape, latency, amplitude and signal-to-noise ratio. The generator has been used for testing evoked potential acquisition and processing systems, for evaluating the effects of analog filters on evoked potentials and for testing systems designed to detect and classify trains of multi-unit action potentials. PMID:2770339

  2. Bioluminescence: a versatile technique for imaging cellular and molecular features

    PubMed Central

    Paley, Miranda A.

    2016-01-01

    Bioluminescence is a ubiquitous imaging modality for visualizing biological processes in vivo. This technique employs visible light and interfaces readily with most cell and tissue types, making it a versatile technology for preclinical studies. Here we review basic bioluminescence imaging principles, along with applications of the technology that are relevant to the medicinal chemistry community. These include noninvasive cell tracking experiments, analyses of protein function, and methods to visualize small molecule metabolites. In each section, we also discuss how bioluminescent tools have revealed insights into experimental therapies and aided drug discovery. Last, we highlight the development of new bioluminescent tools that will enable more sensitive and multi-component imaging experiments and, thus, expand our broader understanding of living systems.

  3. The versatility of spandex photographic retractor for transoral surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Tauro, David P; Uppada, Uday Kiran

    2016-01-01

    The trend toward transoral access, be it for pathology or facial cosmetic surgery, has become increasingly popular over the last two decades with facial incisions being used more and more sporadically than otherwise. Transoral access because of its inherent limitations, retraction of the oral and perioral tissues without inducing physical or thermal injury makes it a daunting task for the operating surgeon. The use of conventional retractors in conjunction with surgical instruments can lead to inadvertent injury to the perioral tissues resulting in untoward postoperative sequelae leading to patient discomfort and delayed recovery. This article elucidates the versatility of a simple photographic retractor (spandex) as a useful adjunctive tool in the retraction and protection of the perioral tissues for almost all transoral surgical procedures. PMID:26937374

  4. VERSATILE TWO-AXIS OPEN-LOOP SOLAR TRACKER CONTROLLER*

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Christina D; Maxey, L Curt; Evans III, Boyd Mccutchen; Lapsa, Melissa Voss

    2008-01-01

    A versatile single-board controller for two-axis solar tracking applications has been developed and tested on operating solar tracking systems with over two years of field experience. The operating experience gained from the two systems and associated modifications are discussed as representative examples of the practical issues associated with implementing a new two-axis solar tracker design. In this research, open and closed loop control methods were evaluated; however, only the open loop method met the 0.125 tracking accuracy requirement and the requirement to maintain pointing accuracy in hazy and scattered cloudy skies. The open loop algorithm was finally implemented in a microcontroller-based tracking system. Methods of applying this controller hardware to different tracker geometries and hardware are discussed along with the experience gained to date.

  5. Versatile robotic probe calibration for position tracking in ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eirik Bø, Lars; Fagertun Hofstad, Erlend; Lindseth, Frank; Hernes, Toril A. N.

    2015-05-01

    Within the field of ultrasound-guided procedures, there are a number of methods for ultrasound probe calibration. While these methods are usually developed for a specific probe, they are in principle easily adapted to other probes. In practice, however, the adaptation often proves tedious and this is impractical in a research setting, where new probes are tested regularly. Therefore, we developed a method which can be applied to a large variety of probes without adaptation. The method used a robot arm to move a plastic sphere submerged in water through the ultrasound image plane, providing a slow and precise movement. The sphere was then segmented from the recorded ultrasound images using a MATLAB programme and the calibration matrix was computed based on this segmentation in combination with tracking information. The method was tested on three very different probes demonstrating both great versatility and high accuracy.

  6. A versatile technology for droplet-based microfluidics: thermomechanical actuation.

    PubMed

    Miralles, Vincent; Huerre, Axel; Williams, Hannah; Fournié, Bastien; Jullien, Marie-Caroline

    2015-05-01

    We report on a versatile technique for microfluidic droplet manipulation that proves effective at every step: from droplet generation to propulsion to sorting, rearrangement or break-up. Non-wetting droplets are thermomechanically actuated in a microfluidic chip using local heating resistors. Controlled temperature variation induces local dilation of the PDMS wall above the resistor, which drives the droplet away from the hot (i.e. constricted) region (B. Selva, I. Cantat and M.-C. Jullien, Phys. Fluids, 2011, 23, 052002). Adapted placing and actuation of such resistors thus allow us to push forward, stop, store and release, or even break up droplets, at the price of low electric power consumption (<150 mW). We believe this technically accessible method to provide a useful tool for droplet microfluidics. PMID:25849442

  7. Extraordinary phylogenetic diversity and metabolic versatility in aquifer sediment

    PubMed Central

    Castelle, Cindy J.; Hug, Laura A.; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Thomas, Brian C.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Wu, Dongying; Tringe, Susannah G.; Singer, Steven W.; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms in the subsurface represent a substantial but poorly understood component of the Earth’s biosphere. Subsurface environments are complex and difficult to characterize; thus, their microbiota have remained as a ‘dark matter’ of the carbon and other biogeochemical cycles. Here we deeply sequence two sediment-hosted microbial communities from an aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River, CO, USA. No single organism represents more than ~1% of either community. Remarkably, many bacteria and archaea in these communities are novel at the phylum level or belong to phyla lacking a sequenced representative. The dominant organism in deeper sediment, RBG-1, is a member of a new phylum. On the basis of its reconstructed complete genome, RBG-1 is metabolically versatile. Its wide respiration-based repertoire may enable it to respond to the fluctuating redox environment close to the water table. We document extraordinary microbial novelty and the importance of previously unknown lineages in sediment biogeochemical transformations. PMID:23979677

  8. Metagenome of a Versatile Chemolithoautotroph from Expanding Oceanic Dead Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, David A.; Zaikova, Elena; Howes, Charles L.; Song, Young; Wright, Jody; Tringe, Susannah G.; Tortell, Philippe D.; Hallam, Steven J.

    2009-07-15

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), also known as oceanic"dead zones", are widespread oceanographic features currently expanding due to global warming and coastal eutrophication. Although inhospitable to metazoan life, OMZs support a thriving but cryptic microbiota whose combined metabolic activity is intimately connected to nutrient and trace gas cycling within the global ocean. Here we report time-resolved metagenomic analyses of a ubiquitous and abundant but uncultivated OMZ microbe (SUP05) closely related to chemoautotrophic gill symbionts of deep-sea clams and mussels. The SUP05 metagenome harbors a versatile repertoire of genes mediating autotrophic carbon assimilation, sulfur-oxidation and nitrate respiration responsive to a wide range of water column redox states. Thus, SUP05 plays integral roles in shaping nutrient and energy flow within oxygen-deficient oceanic waters via carbon sequestration, sulfide detoxification and biological nitrogen loss with important implications for marine productivity and atmospheric greenhouse control.

  9. A versatile platform for magnetostriction measurements in thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernpeintner, M.; Holländer, R. B.; Seitner, M. J.; Weig, E. M.; Gross, R.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.; Huebl, H.

    2016-03-01

    We present a versatile nanomechanical sensing platform for the investigation of magnetostriction in thin films. It is based on a doubly clamped silicon nitride nanobeam resonator covered with a thin magnetostrictive film. Changing the magnetization direction within the film plane by an applied magnetic field generates a magnetoelastic stress and thus changes the resonance frequency of the nanobeam. A measurement of the resulting resonance frequency shift, e.g., by optical interferometry, allows to quantitatively determine the magnetostriction constants of the thin film. In a proof-of-principle experiment, we determine the magnetostriction constants of a 10 nm thick polycrystalline cobalt film, showing very good agreement with literature values. The presented technique aims, in particular, for the precise measurement of magnetostriction in a variety of (conducting and insulating) thin films, which can be deposited by, e.g., electron beam deposition, thermal evaporation, or sputtering.

  10. NIFTY: A versatile Python library for signal inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selig, Marco; Bell, Michael R.; Junklewitz, Henrik; Oppermann, Niels; Reinecke, Martin; Greiner, Maksim; Pachajoa, Carlos; Enßlin, Torsten A.

    2013-02-01

    NIFTY (Numerical Information Field TheorY) is a versatile library enables the development of signal inference algorithms that operate regardless of the underlying spatial grid and its resolution. Its object-oriented framework is written in Python, although it accesses libraries written in Cython, C++, and C for efficiency. NIFTY offers a toolkit that abstracts discretized representations of continuous spaces, fields in these spaces, and operators acting on fields into classes. Thereby, the correct normalization of operations on fields is taken care of automatically. This allows for an abstract formulation and programming of inference algorithms, including those derived within information field theory. Thus, NIFTY permits rapid prototyping of algorithms in 1D and then the application of the developed code in higher-dimensional settings of real world problems. NIFTY operates on point sets, n-dimensional regular grids, spherical spaces, their harmonic counterparts, and product spaces constructed as combinations of those.

  11. FLUTE: A versatile linac-based THz source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasse, M. J.; Schuh, M.; Naknaimueang, S.; Schwarz, M.; Plech, A.; Mathis, Y.-L.; Rossmanith, R.; Wesolowski, P.; Huttel, E.; Schmelling, M.; Müller, A.-S.

    2013-02-01

    A new compact versatile linear accelerator named FLUTE is currently being designed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. This paper presents the status of this 42 MeV machine. It will be used to generate strong (several 100 MV/m) ultra-short (˜1 ps) THz pulses (up to ˜4-25 THz) for photon science experiments, as well as to conduct a variety of accelerator studies. The latter range from comparing different coherent THz radiation generation schemes to compressing electron bunches and studying the electron beam stability. The bunch charge will cover a wide range (˜100 pC-3 nC). Later we plan to also produce ultra-short x-ray pulses from the electron bunches, which, for example, could then be combined for THz pump-x-ray probe experiments.

  12. Versatile spectrophotometric method for the determination of silicon.

    PubMed

    Duce, F A; Yamamura, S S

    1970-02-01

    A versatile spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of microgram levels of silicon, as molybdenum blue. It combines the desirable features of existing spectrophotometric methods with three pretreatment procedures, namely (a) the removal of cations with a cation-exchange resin in the H(+)-form, (b) the conversion of all silicon species into the reactive monomer with an alkaline treatment, and (c) the decomposition of silicon fluoride with boric acid in the presence of cation-exchange resin. These pretreatments coupled with the colour development provide five procedures which are applicable to a wide variety of samples including natural and industrial waters and solutions of various nuclear reactor fuels and components. Provisions are included for the selective determination of total silicon. PMID:18960708

  13. Versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing magnetic properties of nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo, J. F. D. F.; Bruno, A. C.; Louro, S. R. W.

    2015-10-15

    We constructed a versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing iron oxide nanoparticles. The magnetometer can be operated at room temperature or inside a cryocooler at temperatures as low as 6 K. The magnetometer’s sensor can be easily exchanged and different detection electronics can be used. We tested the assembly with a non-cryogenic commercial Hall sensor and a benchtop multimeter in a four-wire resistance measurement scheme. A magnetic moment sensitivity of 8.5 × 10{sup −8} Am{sup 2} was obtained with this configuration. To illustrate the capability of the assembly, we synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles coated with different amounts of a triblock copolymer, Pluronic F-127, and characterized their magnetic properties. We determined that the polymer coating does not affect the magnetization of the particles at room temperature and demonstrates that it is possible to estimate the average size of coating layers from measurements of the magnetic field of the sample.

  14. Benzotriazole: An overview on its versatile biological behavior.

    PubMed

    Briguglio, I; Piras, S; Corona, P; Gavini, E; Nieddu, M; Boatto, G; Carta, A

    2015-06-01

    Discovered in late 1960, azoles are heterocyclic compounds class which constitute the largest group of available antifungal drugs. Particularly, the imidazole ring is the chemical component that confers activity to azoles. Triazoles are obtained by a slight modification of this ring and similar or improved activities as well as less adverse effects are reported for triazole derivatives. Consequently, it is not surprising that benzimidazole/benzotriazole derivatives have been found to be biologically active. Since benzimidazole has been widely investigated, this review is focused on defining the place of benzotriazole derivatives in biomedical research, highlighting their versatile biological properties, the mode of action and Structure Activity Relationship (SAR) studies for a variety of antimicrobial, antiparasitic, and even antitumor, choleretic, cholesterol-lowering agents. PMID:25293580

  15. Versatile hydrothermal synthesis of one-dimensional composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yonglan

    2008-12-01

    In this paper we report on a versatile hydrothermal approach developed to fabricate one-dimensional (1D) composite structures. Sulfur and selenium formed liquid and adsorbed onto microrods as droplets and subsequently reacted with metallic ion in solution to produce nanoparticles-decorated composite microrods. 1D composites including ZnO/CdS, ZnO/MnS, ZnO/CuS, ZnO/CdSe, and FeOOH/CdS were successfully made using this hydrothermal strategy and the growth mechanism was also discussed. This hydrothermal strategy is simple and green, and can be extended to the synthesis of various 1D composite structures. Moreover, the interaction between the shell nanoparticles and the one-dimensional nanomaterials were confirmed by photoluminescence investigation of ZnO/CdS.

  16. Configuration assistant for versatile vision-based inspection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huesser, Olivier; Huegli, Heinz

    2001-01-01

    Nowadays, vision-based inspection systems are present in many stages of the industrial manufacturing process. Their versatility, which permits us to accommodate a broad range of inspection requirements, is, however, limited by the time consuming system setup performed at each production change. This work aims at providing a configuration assistant that helps to speed up this system setup, considering the peculiarities of industrial vision systems. The pursued principle, which is to maximize the discriminating power of the features involved in the inspection decision, leads to an optimization problem based on a high-dimensional objective function. Several objective functions based on various metrics are proposed, their optimization being performed with the help of various search heuristics such as genetic methods and simulated annealing methods. The experimental results obtained with an industrial inspection system are presented. They show the effectiveness of the presented approach, and validate the configuration assistant as well.

  17. The versatility and adaptation of bacteria from the genus Stenotrophomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, R.P.; van der Lelie, D.; Monchy, S.; Cardinale, M.; Taghavi, S.; Crossman, L.; Avison, M. B.; Berg, G.; Dow, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    The genus Stenotrophomonas comprises at least eight species. These bacteria are found throughout the environment, particularly in close association with plants. Strains of the most predominant species, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, have an extraordinary range of activities that include beneficial effects for plant growth and health, the breakdown of natural and man-made pollutants that are central to bioremediation and phytoremediation strategies and the production of biomolecules of economic value, as well as detrimental effects, such as multidrug resistance, in human pathogenic strains. Here, we discuss the versatility of the bacteria in the genus Stenotrophomonas and the insight that comparative genomic analysis of clinical and endophytic isolates of S. maltophilia has brought to our understanding of the adaptation of this genus to various niches.

  18. Versatile minimized system - a step towards safe perfusion.

    PubMed

    Ganushchak, Y M; Körver, E P J; Yamamoto, Y; Weerwind, P W

    2016-05-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates the superiority of minimized cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) systems compared to conventional systems in terms of inflammatory reactions and transfusion requirements. Evident benefits of minimized CPB systems, however, do not come without consequences. Kinetic-assisted drainage, as used in these circuits, can result in severe fluctuations of venous line pressures and, consequently, fluctuation of the blood flow delivered to the patient. Furthermore, subatmospheric venous line pressures can cause gaseous microemboli. Another limitation is the absence of cardiotomy suction, which can lead to excessive blood loss via a cell saver. The most serious limitation of minimized circuits is that these circuits are very constrained in the case of complications or changing of the surgery plan. We developed a versatile minimized system (VMS) with a priming volume of about 600 ml. A compliance chamber in the venous line decreases peaks of pressure fluctuations. This chamber also acts as a bubble trap. Additionally, the open venous reservoir is connected parallel to the venous line and excluded from the circulation during an uncomplicated CPB. This reservoir can be included in the circulation via a roller pump and be used as a cardiotomy reservoir. The amount and rate of returned blood in the circulation is regulated by a movable level detector. Further, the circuit can easily be converted to an open system with vacuum-assisted venous drainage in the case of unexpected complications. The VMS combines the benefits of minimized circuits with the versatility and safety of a conventional CPB system. Perfusionists familiar with this system can secure an adequate and timely response at expected and unexpected intraoperative complications. PMID:26354746

  19. The Versatility of Perforator-Based Propeller Flap for Reconstruction of Distal Leg and Ankle Defects

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Durga; Narayan, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Soft tissue coverage of distal leg and ankle region represents a challenge and such defect usually requires a free flap. However, this may lead to considerable donor site morbidity, is time consuming, and needs facility of microsurgery. With the introduction of perforator flap, management of small- and medium-size defects of distal leg and ankle region is convenient, less time consuming, and with minimal donor site morbidity. When local perforator flap is designed as propeller and rotated to 180 degree, donor site is closed primarily and increases reach of flap, thus increasing versatility. Material and Methods. From June 2008 to May 2011, 20 patients were treated with perforator-based propeller flap for distal leg and ankle defects. Flap was based on single perforator of posterior tibial and peroneal artery rotated to 180 degrees. Defect size was from 4 cm × 3.5 cm to 7 cm × 5 cm. Results. One patient developed partial flap necrosis, which was managed with skin grafting. Two patients developed venous congestion, which subsided spontaneously without complications. Small wound dehiscence was present in one patient. Donor site was closed primarily in all patients. Rest of the flaps survived well with good aesthetic results. Conclusion. The perforator-based propeller flap for distal leg and ankle defects is a good option. This flap design is safe and reliable in achieving goals of reconstruction. The technique is convenient, less time consuming, and with minimal donor site morbidity. It provides aesthetically good result. PMID:22567253

  20. Role of bioactive fatty acids in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Hernández, Eva; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C; Uribe, Misael; Barbero-Becerra, Varenka J

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by fat deposition in hepatocytes, and a strong association with nutritional factors. Dietary fatty acids are classified according to their biochemical properties, which confer their bioactive roles. Monounsaturated fatty acids have a dual role in various human and murine models. In contrast, polyunsaturated fatty acids exhibit antiobesity, anti steatosic and anti-inflammatory effects. The combination of these forms of fatty acids-according to dietary type, daily intake and the proportion of n-6 to n-3 fats-can compromise hepatic lipid metabolism. A chemosensory rather than a nutritional role makes bioactive fatty acids possible biomarkers for NAFLD. Bioactive fatty acids provide health benefits through modification of fatty acid composition and modulating the activity of liver cells during liver fibrosis. More and better evidence is necessary to elucidate the role of bioactive fatty acids in nutritional and clinical treatment strategies for patients with NAFLD. PMID:27485440

  1. Bioactive phytochemicals in wheat: Extraction, analysis, processing, and functional properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole wheat provides a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals namely, phenolic acids, carotenoids, tocopherols, alkylresorcinols, arabinoxylans, benzoxazinoids, phytosterols, and lignans. This review provides information on the distribution, extractability, analysis, and nutraceutical properties of...

  2. Bioactive ceramic-reinforced composites for bone augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    Biomaterials have been used to repair the human body for millennia, but it is only since the 1970s that man-made composites have been used. Hydroxyapatite (HA)-reinforced polyethylene (PE) is the first of the ‘second-generation’ biomaterials that have been developed to be bioactive rather than bioinert. The mechanical properties have been characterized using quasi-static, fatigue, creep and fracture toughness testing, and these studies have allowed optimization of the production method. The in vitro and in vivo biological properties have been investigated with a range of filler content and have shown that the presence of sufficient bioactive filler leads to a bioactive composite. Finally, the material has been applied clinically, initially in the orbital floor and later in the middle ear. From this initial combination of HA in PE other bioactive ceramic polymer composites have been developed. PMID:20591846

  3. Identifying bioactive components in natural products through chromatographic fingerprint.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Xu, Qing-Song; Chan, Chi-On; Mok, Daniel Kam-Wah; Yi, Lun-Zhao; Chau, Foo-Tim

    2015-04-22

    Bioactive component identification is a crucial issue in search for new drug leads. We provide a new strategy to search for bioactive components based on Sure Independence Screening (SIS) and interval PLS (iPLS). The method, which is termed as SIS-iPLS, is not only able to find out the chief bioactive components, but also able to judge how many components should be there responsible for the total bioactivity. The method is totally "data-driven" with no need for prior knowledge about the unknown mixture analyzed, therefore especially suitable for effect-directed work like bioassay-guided fractionation. Two data sets, a synthetic mixture system of twelve components and a suite of Radix Puerariae Lobatae extracts samples, are used to test the identification ability of the SIS-iPLS method. PMID:25819786

  4. Bioactive and Biodegradable Nanocomposites and Hybrid Biomaterials for Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Allo, Bedilu A.; Costa, Daniel O.; Dixon, S. Jeffrey; Mequanint, Kibret; Rizkalla, Amin S.

    2012-01-01

    Strategies for bone tissue engineering and regeneration rely on bioactive scaffolds to mimic the natural extracellular matrix and act as templates onto which cells attach, multiply, migrate and function. Of particular interest are nanocomposites and organic-inorganic (O/I) hybrid biomaterials based on selective combinations of biodegradable polymers and bioactive inorganic materials. In this paper, we review the current state of bioactive and biodegradable nanocomposite and O/I hybrid biomaterials and their applications in bone regeneration. We focus specifically on nanocomposites based on nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HA) and bioactive glass (BG) fillers in combination with biodegradable polyesters and their hybrid counterparts. Topics include 3D scaffold design, materials that are widely used in bone regeneration, and recent trends in next generation biomaterials. We conclude with a perspective on the future application of nanocomposites and O/I hybrid biomaterials for regeneration of bone. PMID:24955542

  5. Current Strategies to Improve the Bioactivity of PEEK

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rui; Tang, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    The synthetic thermoplastic polymer polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is becoming a popular component of clinical orthopedic and spinal applications, but its practical use suffers from several limitations. Although PEEK is biocompatible, chemically stable, radiolucent and has an elastic modulus similar to that of normal human bone, it is biologically inert, preventing good integration with adjacent bone tissues upon implantation. Recent efforts have focused on increasing the bioactivity of PEEK to improve the bone-implant interface. Two main strategies have been used to overcome the inert character of PEEK. One approach is surface modification to activate PEEK through surface treatment alone or in combination with a surface coating. Another strategy is to prepare bioactive PEEK composites by impregnating bioactive materials into PEEK substrate. Researchers believe that modified bioactive PEEK will have a wide range of orthopedic applications. PMID:24686515

  6. Bioactive composites consisting of PEEK and calcium silicate powders.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ill Yong; Sugino, Atsushi; Kikuta, Koichi; Ohtsuki, Chikara; Cho, Sung Baek

    2009-08-01

    Bioactive bone-repairing materials with mechanical properties analogous to those of natural bone can be obtained through the combination of bioactive ceramic fillers with organic polymers. Previously, we developed novel bioactive microspheres in a binary CaO-SiO2 system produced through a sol-gel process as filler for the fabrication of composites. In this study, we fabricate bioactive composites in which polyetheretherketone is reinforced with 0-50 vol% 30CaO x 70SiO2 (CS) microspheres. The prepared composites reinforced with CS particles form hydroxyapatite on their surfaces in simulated body fluid. The induction periods of hydroxyapatite formation on the composites decrease with increasing amount of CS particles. The mechanical properties of the composites are evaluated by three-point bending test. The composites reinforced with 20 vol% CS particles show 123.5 MPa and 6.43 GPa in bending strength and Young's modulus, respectively. PMID:18757493

  7. History and trends of bioactive glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Montazerian, Maziar; Dutra Zanotto, Edgar

    2016-05-01

    The interest around bioactive glass-ceramics (GCs) has grown significantly over the last two decades due to their appropriate biochemical and mechanical properties. The intense research effort in this field has led to some new commercial products for biomedical applications. This review article begins with the basic concepts of GC processing and development via controlled heat treatments of monolithic pieces or sinter-crystallization of powdered glasses. We then go on to describe the processing, properties, and applications of some commercial bioactive GCs and discuss selected valuable reported researches on several promising types of bioactive GCs. The article finishes with a section on open relevant research directions for bioactive GC development. PMID:26707951

  8. [Dry skin and black skin: what are the facts?].

    PubMed

    Mahé, A

    2002-01-01

    We present a review of the data in the literature on the potential specificities of the stratum corneum of so-called "black" skin, together with the afferent cutaneous hydration regulation process. The methodology of the studies is often debatable, not only for basic (absence of definition of "black skin") but also for technical reasons. Their results are often contradicting. Other than certain subtle differences, related to potentially enhanced preservation of the epidermis of dark skin from heliodermal xerosis, we conclude in the similarity of the physicochemical characteristics of the stratum corneum in the different color of skin. Moreover, the data available do not suggest a predisposition of certain skin colors to the occurrence of pathological states involving the stratum corneum. However, dark skin is characterized by its semiologic capacity of taking on a "ashy" aspect related to a better assessment of normal or xerotic stratum corneum because of melanic pigmentation. PMID:11976544

  9. Enzymatic induction of supramolecular order and bioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chengbiao; Ren, Xinrui; Ding, Dan; Wang, Ling; Yang, Zhimou

    2016-05-01

    We showed in this study that enzymatic triggering is a totally different pathway for the preparation of self-assembling nanomaterials to the heating-cooling process. Because the molecules were under lower energy levels and the molecular conformation was more ordered during the enzymatic triggeration under mild conditions, nanomaterials with higher supramolecular order could be obtained through biocatalytic control. In this study, nanoparticles were obtained by an enzymatic reaction and nanofibers were observed through the heating-cooling process. We observed a distinct trough at 318 nm from the CD spectrum of a particle sample but not a fiber sample, suggesting the long range arrangement of molecules and helicity in the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles with higher supramolecular order possessed much better potency as a protein vaccine adjuvant because it accelerated the DC maturation and elicited stronger T-cells cytokine production than the nanofibers. Our study demonstrated that biocatalytic triggering is a useful method for preparing supramolecular nanomaterials with higher supramolecular order and probably better bioactivity.We showed in this study that enzymatic triggering is a totally different pathway for the preparation of self-assembling nanomaterials to the heating-cooling process. Because the molecules were under lower energy levels and the molecular conformation was more ordered during the enzymatic triggeration under mild conditions, nanomaterials with higher supramolecular order could be obtained through biocatalytic control. In this study, nanoparticles were obtained by an enzymatic reaction and nanofibers were observed through the heating-cooling process. We observed a distinct trough at 318 nm from the CD spectrum of a particle sample but not a fiber sample, suggesting the long range arrangement of molecules and helicity in the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles with higher supramolecular order possessed much better potency as a protein vaccine

  10. Bioactivation of myelotoxic xenobiotics by human neutrophil myeloperoxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Many environmental pollutants and drugs are toxic to the bone marrow. Some of these xenobiotics may initiate toxicity after undergoing bioactivation to free radicals and/or other reactive electrophiles. Peroxidases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the one-electron oxidative bioactivation of a variety of xenobiotics in vitro. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a peroxidative enzyme found in very high concentration in the neutrophils of human bone marrow. In this study, human MPO was evaluated to determine its ability to catalyze the in vitro bioactivation of known bone marrow toxicants that contain the aromatic hydroxyl (Ar-OH), aromatic amine (Ar-N-R{sub 2}), or heterocyclic tertiary amine ({double bond}N-R) moieties. The formation of free radical metabolites during the MPO-catalyzed bioactivation of hydroquinone and catechol (benzene metabolites), mitoxantrone and ametantrone (antitumor drugs), and chlorpromazine and promazine (antipsychotic drugs) was demonstrated by EPR spectroscopy. The reactivity of the products formed during the MPO catalyzed bioactivation of ({sup 14}C)hydroquinone and ({sup 14}C)catechol was shown by their covalent binding to protein and DNA in vitro. The covalently binding metabolite in each case is postulated to be the quinone form of the xenobiotic. In addition, both GSH and NADH were oxidized by the reactive intermediate(s) formed during the MPO-catalyzed bioactivation of many of the bone marrow toxicants tested. It was also shown that p,p-biphenol stimulated the MPO catalyzed bioactivation of both hydroquinone and catechol, while p-cresol stimulated the MPO-catalyzed bioactivation of catechol.

  11. Climate change and skin.

    PubMed

    Balato, N; Ayala, F; Megna, M; Balato, A; Patruno, C

    2013-02-01

    Global climate appears to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Climate change can be caused by several factors that include variations in solar radiation received by earth, oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions, as well as human-induced alterations of the natural world. Many human activities, such as the use of fossil fuel and the consequent accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, land consumption, deforestation, industrial processes, as well as some agriculture practices are contributing to global climate change. Indeed, many authors have reported on the current trend towards global warming (average surface temperature has augmented by 0.6 °C over the past 100 years), decreased precipitation, atmospheric humidity changes, and global rise in extreme climatic events. The magnitude and cause of these changes and their impact on human activity have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing climate change as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Although many articles have been written based on observations and various predictive models of how climate change could affect social, economic and health systems, only few studies exist about the effects of this change on skin physiology and diseases. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to climate. For example, global warming, deforestation and changes in precipitation have been linked to variations in the geographical distribution of vectors of some infectious diseases (leishmaniasis, lyme disease, etc) by changing their spread, whereas warm and humid environment can also encourage the colonization of the skin by bacteria and fungi. The present review focuses on the wide and complex relationship between climate change and dermatology, showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence and the clinical pattern of many

  12. Epidemiology of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas; Garbe, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are now the most common types of cancer in white populations. Both tumor entities show an increasing incidence rate worldwide but a stable or decreasing mortality rate. NMSC is the most common cancer in white-skinned individuals with a worldwide increasing incidence. NMSC is an increasing problem for health care services worldwide which causes significant morbidity. The rising incidence rates of NMSC are probably caused by a combination of increased exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or sun light, increased outdoor activities, changes in clothing style, increased longevity, ozone depletion, genetics and in some cases, immune suppression. An intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence was causative for the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) whereas for the etiology of SCC a chronic UV exposure in the earlier decades was accused. Cutaneous melanoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in white populations, in the last 3 decades incidence rates have risen up to 5-fold. In 2008 melanoma was on place 5 in women and on place 8 in men of the most common solid tumor entities in Germany. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin, and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 50 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show a stabilization in the USA, Australia and also in European countries. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk seems to be associated with an intermittent exposure to sunlight. Prevention campaigns aim on reducing incidence and achieving earlier diagnosis, which resulted in an ongoing trend toward thin melanoma since the last two decades. However, the impact of primary prevention measures on incidence rates of melanoma is unlikely to be seen in the near future, rather increasing incidence rates to 40-50/100,000 inhabitants/year should be expected in

  13. Alkalis and Skin.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, John E; Tan, Jin Lin; Ming, Justin Choong Tzen; Abell, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this editorial is to provide an overview of the chemical interactions occurring in the skin of our patients on contact with alkaline agents. Strongly basic alkali is highly aggressive and will readily hydrolyze (or cleave) key biological molecules such as lipids and proteins. This phenomenon is known as saponification in the case of lipids and liquefactive denaturation for peptides and proteins. A short section on current first-aid concepts is included. A better understanding of the basic science behind alkali burns will make us better teachers and provide an insight into the urgency needed in treating these common and dangerous chemical injuries. PMID:26182072

  14. Skin disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Soutou, Boutros; Aractingi, Sélim

    2015-07-01

    Skin manifestations during pregnancy are common and diversified. This review will focus on the most important entities to be recognized by obstetricians. These are, on the one hand, physiological changes, where unnecessary investigations should be avoided, and on the other, the specific dermatoses of pregnancy. These develop electively in pregnancy, and they are currently grouped into three disorders: polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, atopic eczema of pregnancy, and pemphigoid gestationis. Arguments for recognition of these are presented including detection of anti-BP180 antibodies. Follow-up and treatment depend on the precise diagnosis. Risks in fetal prognosis may occur in rare pemphigoid gestationis cases. PMID:25862358

  15. [Skin problems in joggers].

    PubMed

    Itin, P; Rufli, T

    1986-08-30

    Reports on skin problems in joggers are rare in medical literature. Jogger dermatoses are caused by repeated trauma, mechanic overuse, thermic effects, allergic-toxic reactions and infectious processes. Most common are bullosis mechanica, piezogenic papules, hyperkeratosis haemorrhagica and subungual haematomas. Contact allergies and infections such as athlete's foot, pitted keratolysis and pyoderma are well-known complications in joggers. Frostbite and actinic damage, abrasions of the nipples, collisions with vehicles and injuries by buzzards are further possible incidents to be reckoned with occasionally. In most cases, prophylaxis is possible by training adaptation and use of adequate footwear. Jogger dermatoses usually clear after a suitable jogging-free interval. PMID:3764389

  16. Memristance in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinsen, Ø. G.; Grimnes, S.; Lütken, C. A.; Johnsen, G. K.

    2010-04-01

    The memristor is basically a resistor with memory, so that the resistance is dependent on the net amount of charge having passed through the device. It is the regarded the fourth fundamental component, in addition to the resistor, capacitor and inductor, that can be deduced from the four basic circuit variables; current, voltage, charge and magnetic flux. We show that memristors can be used for modelling electrical properties of human skin. In particular is electro-osmosis in human sweat ducts of memristive nature.

  17. Improved Skin Friction Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, R. V.; Bachalo, W. D.; Houser, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    An improved system for measuring aerodynamic skin friction which uses a dual-laser-beam oil-film interferometer was developed. Improvements in the optical hardware provided equal signal characteristics for each beam and reduced the cost and complexity of the system by replacing polarization rotation by a mirrored prism for separation of the two signals. An automated, objective, data-reduction procedure was implemented to eliminate tedious manual manipulation of the interferometry data records. The present system was intended for use in two-dimensional, incompressible flows over a smooth, level surface without pressure gradient, but the improvements discussed are not limited to this application.

  18. Feasibility of skin surface elastography by tracking skin surface topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutts, Louise V.; Miller, Naomi R.; Harland, Christopher C.; Bamber, Jeffrey C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances have led to a multitude of image modalities being used for visualization of tissue stiffness. High-resolution images of tissue stiffness are desirable, as they have the potential to provide useful diagnostic information. A noncontact optical imaging method has the attractions of low cost, simplicity, and utility when skin contact is undesirable. However, previous optical techniques have required the application of paint or ink to the surface of the skin and so have required contact. Therefore, the present study assessed the feasibility of tracking skin surface topography to produce elastograms. The study showed, by analyzing a variety of silicone skin surface replicas from various body sites of subjects of different ages, that skin surface elastography by tracking surface topography would be feasible. The study further showed that the quality of the strain images can be optimized by measuring skin line pattern frequency. Skin samples with high skin line frequency will achieve best spatial resolution, in the order of 1 mm, comparable to contact techniques reported previously. A mechanically inhomogeneous silicone replica was then imaged, illustrating the technique's ability to detect strain contrast. Finally, the feasibility of implementing the technique in vivo was illustrated using a single pigmented skin lesion.

  19. Biofunctionalized electrospun silk mats as a topical bioactive dressing for accelerated wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, A.; Wang, X.Y.; Kaplan, D.L.; Garlick, J.A.; Egles, C.

    2010-01-01

    Materials able to deliver topically bioactive molecules represent a new generation of biomaterials. In this article, we describe the use of silk mats, made of electrospun nanoscale silk fibers containing epidermal growth factor (EGF), for the promotion of wound healing processes. In our experiments, we demonstrated that EGF is incorporated into the silk mats and slowly released in a time-dependent manner (25% EGF release in 170 h). We tested these materials using a new model of wounded human skin-equivalents displaying the same structure as human skin and able to heal using the same molecular and cellular mechanisms found in vivo. This human three-dimensional model allows us to demonstrate that the biofunctionalized silk mats, when placed on the wounds as a dressing, aid the healing by increasing the time of wound closure by the epidermal tongue by 90%. The preservation of the structure of the mats during the healing period as demonstrated by electronic microscopy, the biological action of the dressing, as well as the biocompatibility of the silk demonstrate that this biomaterial is a new and very promising material for medical applications, especially for patients suffering from chronic wounds. PMID:19162575

  20. Bioactivity of Mg-ion-implanted zirconia and titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, H.; Wan, Y. Z.; He, F.; Huang, Y.; Xu, J. D.; Li, J. M.; Wang, Y. L.; Zhao, Z. G.

    2007-01-01

    Titanium and zirconia are bioinert materials lacking bioactivity. In this work, surface modification of the two typical biomaterials is conducted by Mg-ion-implantation using a MEVVA ion source in an attempt to increase their bioactivity. Mg ions were implanted into zirconia and titanium with fluences ranging from 1 × 10 17 to 3 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 at 40 keV. The Mg-implanted samples, as well as control (unimplanted) samples, were immersed in SBF for 7 days and then removed to identify the presence of calcium and phosphate (Ca-P) coatings and to characterize their morphology and structure by SEM, XRD, and FT-IR. SEM observations confirm that globular aggregates are formed on the surfaces of the Mg-implanted zirconia and titanium while no precipitates are observed on the control samples. XRD and FT-IR analyses reveal that the deposits are carbonated hydroxyapatite (HAp). Our experimental results demonstrate that Mg-implantation improves the bioactivity of zirconia and titanium. Further, it is found that the degree of bioactivity is adjustable by the ion dose. Mechanisms are proposed to interpret the improvement of bioactivity as a result of Mg implantation and the difference in bioactivity between zirconia and titanium.