Sample records for versatile skin bioactive

  1. Tropoelastin - a versatile, bioactive assembly module

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Steven G.; Yeo, Giselle C.; Hiob, Matti A.; Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; Kaplan, David L.; Ng, Martin K. C.; Weiss, Anthony S.

    2013-01-01

    Elastin provides structural integrity, biological cues and persistent elasticity to a range of important tissues including the vasculature and lungs. Its critical importance to normal physiology makes it a desirable component of biomaterials that seek to repair or replace these tissues. The recent availability of large quantities of the highly purified elastin monomer, tropoelastin, have allowed for a thorough characterization of the mechanical and biological mechanisms underpinning the benefits of mature elastin. While tropoelastin is a flexible molecule, a combination of optical and structural analyses has defined key regions of the molecule that directly contribute to the elastomeric properties and control the cell interactions of the protein. Insights into the structure and behavior of tropoelastin have translated into increasingly sophisticated elastin-like biomaterials, evolving from classically manufactured hydrogels and fibers to new forms, stabilized in the absence of incorporated cross-linkers. Tropoelastin is also compatible with synthetic and natural co-polymers, expanding the applications of its potential use beyond traditional elastin-rich tissues and facilitating finer control of biomaterial properties and the design of next-generation tailored bioactive materials. PMID:23938199

  2. Tropoelastin: a versatile, bioactive assembly module.

    PubMed

    Wise, Steven G; Yeo, Giselle C; Hiob, Matti A; Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; Kaplan, David L; Ng, Martin K C; Weiss, Anthony S

    2014-04-01

    Elastin provides structural integrity, biological cues and persistent elasticity to a range of important tissues, including the vasculature and lungs. Its critical importance to normal physiology makes it a desirable component of biomaterials that seek to repair or replace these tissues. The recent availability of large quantities of the highly purified elastin monomer, tropoelastin, has allowed for a thorough characterization of the mechanical and biological mechanisms underpinning the benefits of mature elastin. While tropoelastin is a flexible molecule, a combination of optical and structural analyses has defined key regions of the molecule that directly contribute to the elastomeric properties and control the cell interactions of the protein. Insights into the structure and behavior of tropoelastin have translated into increasingly sophisticated elastin-like biomaterials, evolving from classically manufactured hydrogels and fibers to new forms, stabilized in the absence of incorporated cross-linkers. Tropoelastin is also compatible with synthetic and natural co-polymers, expanding the applications of its potential use beyond traditional elastin-rich tissues and facilitating finer control of biomaterial properties and the design of next-generation tailored bioactive materials. PMID:23938199

  3. Bioactive molecules from amphibian skin: their biological activities with reference to therapeutic potentials for possible drug development.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Antony; Giri, Biplab; Saha, Archita; Mishra, R; Dasgupta, Subir C; Debnath, A; Gomes, Aparna

    2007-07-01

    The amphibian skin contains various bioactive molecules (peptides, proteins, steroids, alkaloids, opiods) that possess potent therapeutic activities like antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antidiabetic, antineoplastic, analgesic and sleep inducing properties. Research on amphibian skin derived biomolecules can provide potential clue towards newer drug development to combat various pathophysiological conditions. An overview on the bioactive molecules of various amphibian skins has been discussed. PMID:17821852

  4. SKIN PERMEATION STUDY OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM GEL FORMULATION CONTAINING THE EXTRACT OF WHITE KWAO KRUA (Pueraria mirifica)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aranya Manosroi; Somsak Tharata; Pisit Jainonthee; Jiradej Manosroi

    The objective of this study was to study rat skin permeation of bioactive compounds in White Kwao Krua extract. These bioactive compounds were puerarin genistein, daidzein and miroestrol. Gel formulations containing 0.005, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.01% w\\/w of the extract and the 0.01% w\\/w solution of the extract in water were prepared. Skin from abdomen of Sprague-Dawley rats was freshly

  5. Influence of extraction techniques on antioxidant properties and bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracts

    PubMed Central

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracted by two extraction methods (solvent and ultrasound-assisted) with three solvents (ethanol, water and ethanol–water) were compared to supercritical fluid extraction. The antioxidant activities of skin and pulp extracts were evaluated and compared to tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH?) radical scavenging, ?-carotene bleaching, and the Rancimat assays. In DPPH assay solvent extracts of skin by ethanol (SSE) and ethanol–water (SSEW) showed strong inhibitory activity. The SSEW also showed the highest inhibition percentage of 85.58% by the ?-carotene bleaching assay and longest induction time of 4.78 h by the Rancimat method. The large amount of tocopherols and phenolics contained in the skin extract may cause its strong antioxidant ability. The results indicated that the solvent extraction with ethanol–water produced the maximum extraction yield of phenolic and tocopherol compounds from loquat fruit skin and pulp. Furthermore, solvent extraction was the most effective in antioxidant activity of the extracts compared to other extraction techniques. PMID:25987992

  6. Influence of extraction techniques on antioxidant properties and bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracts.

    PubMed

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracted by two extraction methods (solvent and ultrasound-assisted) with three solvents (ethanol, water and ethanol-water) were compared to supercritical fluid extraction. The antioxidant activities of skin and pulp extracts were evaluated and compared to tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH?) radical scavenging, ?-carotene bleaching, and the Rancimat assays. In DPPH assay solvent extracts of skin by ethanol (SSE) and ethanol-water (SSEW) showed strong inhibitory activity. The SSEW also showed the highest inhibition percentage of 85.58% by the ?-carotene bleaching assay and longest induction time of 4.78 h by the Rancimat method. The large amount of tocopherols and phenolics contained in the skin extract may cause its strong antioxidant ability. The results indicated that the solvent extraction with ethanol-water produced the maximum extraction yield of phenolic and tocopherol compounds from loquat fruit skin and pulp. Furthermore, solvent extraction was the most effective in antioxidant activity of the extracts compared to other extraction techniques. PMID:25987992

  7. The impact of grape skin bioactive functionality information on the acceptability of tea infusions made from wine by-products.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Vern Jou; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Sedcole, Richard; Hamid, Nazimah

    2010-05-01

    The effect of information on the health benefits of bio-active compounds on the acceptability of 5 tea infusions made from grape skins generated from wine processing waste (from Vitis vinifera var. Pinot Noir and Pinot Gris) was investigated. Samples of tea infusions with natural additives (PNHGT25 and PGGT50) and without additives (control PN, control PG, and PNPG50) were evaluated by 45 in-home consumer panels (30 female, 15 male) before and after information on the health benefits of grape skins were provided. Information significantly increased the overall acceptability, overall aroma, flavor, and aftertaste of the infusions. The results obtained showed a clear tendency toward increased purchase intention (by 29%) when information on the health benefits of the tea infusion samples was provided to consumers. Interactions existed between gender/infusion samples and stage of information on the purchase intention. Females recorded a significant increase (by 53%) in purchase intention, whereas no change in the males' purchase intention was found after information was provided. PMID:20546418

  8. A review on skin targeted delivery of bioactives as ultradeformable vesicles: overcoming the penetration problem.

    PubMed

    Priyanka, Karunanidhi; Singh, Sanjay

    2014-02-01

    Administration of drugs through skin via transdermal route is a non-invasive approach and applicable for systemic delivery but it is not suitable for drugs having higher molecular weight. Various approaches have been used to improve the efficacy of transdermal route such as vesicular system, iontophoresis, microneedles, use of permeation enhancers, etc. Among the several approaches, vesicular delivery is gaining importance in transdermal drug delivery. Transfersomes are one of the vesicular systems and they are best suited for the transdermal delivery of higher molecular weight compounds. Due to the deformable nature of transfersomes, they penetrate into deeper layers of skin, retain their original structure after penetration and finally enter into the systemic circulation. This review focuses mainly on the applications of transfersomes in the field of drug delivery i.e. delivery of analgesics, anti-cancers, proteins and peptides, immunomodulators, steroidal hormones and herbal drugs with increased penetration through skin. In addition, this review also deals with preparation methods available for preparing transfersomes, characterization, mechanism of penetration upon topical application and its kinetic aspects. PMID:24410447

  9. Permeation of bioactive constituents from Arnica montana preparations through human skin in-vitro.

    PubMed

    Tekko, I A; Bonner, M C; Bowen, R D; Williams, A C

    2006-09-01

    This study investigated and characterised transdermal permeation of bioactive agents from a topically applied Arnica montana tincture. Permeation experiments conducted over 48 h used polydimethylsiloxane (silastic) and human epidermal membranes mounted in Franz-type diffusion cells with a methanol-water (50:50 v/v) receptor fluid. A commercially available tincture of A. montana L. derived from dried Spanish flower heads was a donor solution. Further donor solutions prepared from this stock tincture concentrated the tincture constituents 1, 2 and 10 fold and its sesquiterpene lactones 10 fold. Permeants were assayed using a high-performance liquid chromatography method. Five components permeated through silastic membranes providing peaks with relative retention factors to an internal standard (santonin) of 0.28, 1.18, 1.45, 1.98 and 2.76, respectively. No permeant was detected within 12 h of applying the Arnica tincture onto human epidermal membranes. However, after 12 h, the first two of these components were detected. These were shown by Zimmermann reagent reaction to be sesquiterpene lactones and liquid chromatography/diode array detection/mass spectrometry indicated that these two permeants were 11,13-dihydrohelenalin (DH) analogues (methacrylate and tiglate esters). The same two components were also detected within 3 h of topical application of the 10-fold concentrated tincture and the concentrated sesquiterpene lactone extract. PMID:16945174

  10. Versatile strategy for the synthesis of biotin-labelled glycans, their immobilization to establish a bioactive surface and interaction studies with a lectin on a biochip

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Javier Muñoz; Ángel Rumbero; José V. Sinisterra; J. Ignacio Santos; Sabine André; Hans-J. Gabius; Jesús Jiménez-Barbero; María J. Hernáiz

    2008-01-01

    The emerging role of glycans as versatile biochemical signals in diverse aspects of cellular sociology calls for establishment\\u000a of sensitive methods to monitor carbohydrate recognition by receptors such as lectins. Most of these techniques involve the\\u000a immobilization of one of the binding partners on a surface, e.g. atomic force microscopy, glycan array and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR), hereby simulating cell

  11. Bioactive grape proanthocyanidins enhance immune reactivity in UV-irradiated skin through functional activation of dendritic cells in mice

    PubMed Central

    Vaid, Mudit; Singh, Tripti; Prasad, Ram; Elmets, Craig A.; Xu, Hui; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced immunosuppression has been implicated in skin carcinogenesis. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have anti-skin carcinogenic effects in mice and GSPs-fed mice exhibit a reduction in UV-induced suppression of allergic contact hypersensitivity (CHS), a prototypic T cell-mediated response. Here, we report that dietary GSPs did not inhibit UVB-induced suppression of CHS in xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XPA)-deficient mice, which lack nucleotide excision repair mechanisms. GSPs enhanced repair of UVB-induced DNA damage (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers) in wild-type, but not XPA-deficient, dendritic cells (DCs). Co-culture of CD4+ T cells with DCs from UVB-irradiated wild-type mice resulted in suppression of T-cell proliferation and secretion of Th-1 type cytokines that was ameliorated when the DCs were obtained from GSPs-fed mice; whereas, DCs obtained from GSPs-fed XPA-KO mice failed to restore T-cell proliferation. In adoptive transfer experiments, donor DCs were positively selected from the draining lymph nodes of UVB-exposed donor mice that were sensitized to 2,4, dinitrofluorobenzene were transferred into naïve recipient mice and the CHS response assessed. Naïve recipients that received DCs from UVB-exposed wild-type donors that had been fed GSPs exhibited a full CHS response, whereas no significant CHS was observed in mice that received DCs from XPA-KO mice fed GSPs. These results suggest that GSPs prevent UVB-induced immunosuppression through DNA repair-dependent functional activation of dendritic cells in mice. PMID:23321928

  12. Extracellular matrix formation in self-assembled minimalistic bioactive hydrogels based on aromatic peptide amphiphiles

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Mi; Ulijn, Rein V

    2014-01-01

    The hitherto inconsistency in clinical performance for engineered skin drives the current development of novel cell-scaffolding materials; one challenge is to only extract essential characteristics from the complex native ECM (extracellular matrix) and incorporate them into a scaffold with minimal complexity to support normal cell functions. This study involved small-molecule-based bioactive hydrogels produced by the co-assembly of two aromatic peptide amphiphiles: Fmoc-FF (Fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine) and Fmoc-RGD (arginine–glycine–aspartic acid). Three-dimensionally cultured human dermal fibroblasts deposited dense ECM networks including fibronectin and collagen I within the hydrogels in a 14-day culture. The fibroblasts organized the fibrous ECM and contracted the gel without differentiating into myofibroblasts. The stiffness of the cell-gel constructs increased dramatically due to ECM formation and gel contraction. This created an economical biomimetic model-scaffold to further understand skin reconstruction in vitro and supplied a design pathway to create versatile cell-scaffolds with varied bioactivities and simplicity. PMID:24812581

  13. Recent advances in research of natural and synthetic bioactive quinolines.

    PubMed

    Chung, Po-Yee; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Pun, Ho-Yuen; Chan, Dessy; Chan, Albert Sun-Chi; Chui, Chung-Hin; Tang, Johnny Cheuk-On; Lam, Kim-Hung

    2015-06-01

    Many natural products that consist of quinoline core are found to be bioactive and the versatility of quinoline and its derivatives have attracted great attention in the field of drug development. As a result, in recent years, many green and sustainable synthetic approaches for the synthesis of structurally diverse quinolines have been developed. This review covers four main aspects, namely bioactive quinoline alkaloids, the biological activity and mechanism of action of quinoline-based compounds as well as various quinoline syntheses. PMID:26061110

  14. Apigenin, a bioactive flavonoid from Lycopodium clavatum, stimulates nucleotide excision repair genes to protect skin keratinocytes from ultraviolet B-induced reactive oxygen species and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Das, Sreemanti; Das, Jayeeta; Paul, Avijit; Samadder, Asmita; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we examined the antioxidative and the DNA protective potentials of apigenin, a flavonoid polyphenol isolated from Lycopodium clavatum, in both in-vitro (HaCaT skin keratinocytes) and in-vivo (mice) models against UV-B radiation. We used DAPI staining in UV-B-irradiated HaCaT skin keratinocytes pre-treated with and without apigenin to assess DNA damage. We also used a flow-cytometric analysis in mice exposed to UV-B radiation with or without topical application of apigenin to assess, through a comet assay, chromosomal aberrations and quanta from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Data from the stability curves for the Gibb's free energy determined from a melting-temperature profile study indicated that apigenin increased the stability of calf thymus DNA. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that apigenin caused a reduction in the number of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) after 24 h, the time at which the nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes were activated. Thus, apigenin accelerated reversal of UV-B-induced CPDs through up-regulation of NER genes, removal of cyclobutane rings, inhibition of ROS generation, and down-regulation of NF-?B and MAPK, thereby revealing the precise mechanism of DNA repair. PMID:24139463

  15. Tops, bottoms and versatiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Moskowitz; Gerulf Rieger; Michael E. Roloff

    2008-01-01

    Amongst gay men, the self-label – top, bottom or versatile – reflects the sexual role preference during anal intercourse. This study explored whether this label could predict preferences for other sexual behaviors and the roles within those behaviors. First, the accuracy of the sexual self-label was tested. We confirmed that tops strongly preferred insertive anal intercourse; bottoms, receptive anal intercourse; and versatiles, both behaviors.

  16. Managing Adaptive Versatile Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Michael Youngblood; Lawrence B. Holder; Diane J. Cook

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the MavHome project is to develop technologies to manage adaptive versatile environments. In this paper, we present a complete agent architecture for a single inhabitant intelligent environment and discuss the development, deployment, and techniques utilized in our working intelligent environments. Empirical evaluation of our approach has proven its effectiveness at reducing inhabitant interactions by 72.2%

  17. Bioactivation of particles

    DOEpatents

    Pinaud, Fabien (Berkeley, CA); King, David (San Francisco, CA); Weiss, Shimon (Los Angeles, CA)

    2011-08-16

    Particles are bioactivated by attaching bioactivation peptides to the particle surface. The bioactivation peptides are peptide-based compounds that impart one or more biologically important functions to the particles. Each bioactivation peptide includes a molecular or surface recognition part that binds with the surface of the particle and one or more functional parts. The surface recognition part includes an amino-end and a carboxy-end and is composed of one or more hydrophobic spacers and one or more binding clusters. The functional part(s) is attached to the surface recognition part at the amino-end and/or said carboxy-end.

  18. VAC: Versatile Advection Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Gábor; Keppens, Rony

    2012-07-01

    The Versatile Advection Code (VAC) is a freely available general hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic simulation software that works in 1, 2 or 3 dimensions on Cartesian and logically Cartesian grids. VAC runs on any Unix/Linux system with a Fortran 90 (or 77) compiler and Perl interpreter. VAC can run on parallel machines using either the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library or a High Performance Fortran (HPF) compiler.

  19. New Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecen...

  20. Electrostatic Control of Bioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberger, Joshua E.; Berns, Eric J.; Bitton, Ronit; Newcomb, Christina J.; Stupp, Samuel I. (NWU)

    2012-03-15

    The power of independence: When exhibited on the surface of self-assembling peptide-amphiphile nanofibers, the hydrophobic laminin-derived IKVAV epitope induced nanofiber bundling through interdigitation with neighboring fibers and thus decreased the bioactivity of the resulting materials. The inclusion of charged amino acids in the peptide amphiphiles disrupted the tendency to bundle and led to significantly enhanced neurite outgrowth.

  1. Porous bioactive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai

    Bioactive materials chemically bond to tissues through the development of biologically active apatite. Porous structures in biomaterials are designed to enhance bioactivity, grow artificial tissues and achieve better integration with host tissues in the body. The goal of this research is to design, fabricate and characterize novel porous bioactive materials. 3D ordered macroporous bioactive glasses (3DOM-BGs, pore size: 200--1000 nm) were prepared using a sol-gel process and colloidal crystal templates. 3DOM-BGs are more bioactive and degradable than mesoporous (pore size <50 nm) sol-gel BGs in simulated body fluid (SBF). Apatite formation and 3DOM-BG degradation rates increased with the decrease of soaking ratio. Apatite induction time in SBF increased with 3DOM-BG calcination temperature (600--800°C). Apatite formation and 3DOMBG degradation were slightly enhanced for a phosphate containing composition. Large 3DOM-BG particles formed less apatite and degraded less completely as compared with small particles. An increase in macropore size slowed down 3DOM-BG degradation and apatite formation processes. After heating the converted apatite at a temperature higher than 700°C, highly crystalline hydroxyapatite and a minor tri-calcium phosphate phase formed. 3DOM-BGs have potential applications as bone/periodontal fillers, and drugs and biological factors delivery agents. Anchoring artificial soft tissues (e.g., cartilage) to native bone presents a challenge. Porous polymer/bioactive glass composites are candidate materials for engineering artificial soft tissue/bone interfaces. Porous composites consisting of polymer matrices (e.g., polysulfone, polylactide, and polyurethane) and bioactive glass particles were prepared by polymer phase separation techniques adapted to include ceramic particles. Composites (thickness: 200--500 mum) have asymmetric structures with dense top layers and porous structures beneath. Porous structures consist of large pores (>100 mum) in a network of smaller (<10 mum) interconnected pores. Dense layers can be removed and large pores exposed by abrasion or salt leaching techniques. Composite modulus was enhanced with the increase of glass content, due to the change in composition and pore content. The growth of bone-like apatite on and inside composites after soaking in SBF demonstrated their potential for integration with bone. Cell culture studies revealed that composite surfaces were suitable for attachment, spreading and proliferation of chondrocytes.

  2. Bioactive glass in tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Day, Delbert E.; Bal, B. Sonny; Fu, Qiang; Jung, Steven B.; Bonewald, Lynda F.; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on recent advances in the development and use of bioactive glass for tissue engineering applications. Despite its inherent brittleness, bioactive glass has several appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. New bioactive glasses based on borate and borosilicate compositions have shown the ability to enhance new bone formation when compared to silicate bioactive glass. Borate-based bioactive glasses also have controllable degradation rates, so the degradation of the bioactive glass implant can be more closely matched to the rate of new bone formation. Bioactive glasses can be doped with trace quantities of elements such as Cu, Zn and Sr, which are known to be beneficial for healthy bone growth. In addition to the new bioactive glasses, recent advances in biomaterials processing have resulted in the creation of scaffold architectures with a range of mechanical properties suitable for the substitution of loaded as well as non-loaded bone. While bioactive glass has been extensively investigated for bone repair, there has been relatively little research on the application of bioactive glass to the repair of soft tissues. However, recent work has shown the ability of bioactive glass to promote angiogenesis, which is critical to numerous applications in tissue regeneration, such as neovascularization for bone regeneration and the healing of soft tissue wounds. Bioactive glass has also been shown to enhance neocartilage formation during in vitro culture of chondrocyte-seeded hydrogels, and to serve as a subchondral substrate for tissue-engineered osteochondral constructs. Methods used to manipulate the structure and performance of bioactive glass in these tissue engineering applications are analyzed. PMID:21421084

  3. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Skin Cancer: What is Skin Cancer? In This Topic What is Skin Cancer? Causes and Risk Factors ... for More Information National Institute on Aging Related Topics Life After Cancer Other Cancer Topics The information ...

  4. Skin graft

    MedlinePLUS

    ... caused a large amount of skin loss Burns Cosmetic reasons or reconstructive surgeries where there has been skin damage or skin ... anesthesia are: Reactions to medicines Problems with breathing ... surgery are: Bleeding Chronic pain (rarely) Infection Loss of ...

  5. Omega3 Fatty Acids and Skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne Margaret Pilkington; Lesley Elizabeth Rhodes

    \\u000a Using nutrients such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) for the promotion of skin health and treatment of\\u000a skin disorders is a novel concept. These bioactive fatty acids have a high safety profile and could potentially be used as\\u000a an adjuvant or alternative to traditional therapy. Evidence exists to suggest that n-3 PUFA exert their protective effects\\u000a in biological

  6. The Amazingly Versatile Titanocene Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Donald C.

    2006-05-01

    Derivatives of titanocene are remarkably versatile in their chemical applications. This article presents a brief review of the derivatives' uses in the fields of polymers, medical oncology, and organic synthesis. While exhaustive studies exist emphasizing a single field of application, this article shows the breadth of application existing with these complexes.

  7. Versatile solid-state relay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    Solid-state relay (SSR), containing multinode control logic, is operated as normally open, normally closed, or latched. Moreover several can be paralleled to form two-pole or double-throw relays. Versatile unit ends need to design custom control circuit for every relay application. Technique can be extended to incorporate selectable time delay, on operation or release, or pulsed output.

  8. TPR proteins: the versatile helix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luca D. D'Andrea; Lynne Regan

    2003-01-01

    Tetratrico peptide repeat (TPR) proteins have several interesting properties, including their folding characteristics, modular architecture and range of binding specificities. In the past five years, many 3D structures of TPR domains have been solved, revealing at a molecular level the versatility of this basic fold. Here, we discuss the structure of TPRs and highlight the diversity of arrangements and functions

  9. Broad spectrum bioactive sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Sarruf, Fernanda Daud; Salgado-Santos, Idalina Maria Nunes; Haroutiounian-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Baby, André Rolim

    2008-11-01

    The development of sunscreens containing reduced concentration of chemical UV filters, even though, possessing broad spectrum effectiveness with the use of natural raw materials that improve and infer UV absorption is of great interest. Due to the structural similarities between polyphenolic compounds and organic UV filters, they might exert photoprotection activity. The objective of the present research work was to develop bioactive sunscreen delivery systems containing rutin, Passiflora incarnata L. and Plantago lanceolata extracts associated or not with organic and inorganic UV filters. UV transmission of the sunscreen delivery system films was performed by using diffuse transmittance measurements coupling to an integrating sphere. In vitro photoprotection efficacy was evaluated according to the following parameters: estimated sun protection factor (SPF); Boot's Star Rating category; UVA/UVB ratio; and critical wavelength (lambda(c)). Sunscreen delivery systems obtained SPF values ranging from 0.972+/-0.004 to 28.064+/-2.429 and bioactive compounds interacted with the UV filters positive and negatively. This behavior may be attributed to: the composition of the delivery system; the presence of inorganic UV filter and quantitative composition of the organic UV filters; and the phytochemical composition of the P. incarnata L. and P. lanceolata extracts. Among all associations of bioactive compounds and UV filters, we found that the broad spectrum sunscreen was accomplished when 1.68% (w/w) P. incarnata L. dry extract was in the presence of 7.0% (w/w) ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, 2.0% (w/w) benzophenone-3 and 2.0% (w/w) TiO(2). It was demonstrated that this association generated estimated SPF of 20.072+/-0.906 and it has improved the protective defense against UVA radiation accompanying augmentation of the UVA/UVB ratio from 0.49 to 0.52 and lambda(c) from 364 to 368.6nm. PMID:18662760

  10. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... color or outline, or in any other way. Psoriasis © 2008 Logical Images, Inc. Psoriasis —A skin disease that causes scaling and swelling. Most psoriasis causes patches of thick, red skin with silvery ...

  11. Bioactivity in Organic Chemistry Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Lloyd N.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are three ways in which bioactivity of organic compounds has been introduced in organic chemistry courses. One is to point out a typical bioactivity of a given functional group. A second is to discuss biorganic mechanisms. A third is to draw structure-activity correlations (SAR). (Author/HM)

  12. A versatile scattering model for deciduous leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mostafa A. Karam; GenCorp Aerojet

    1998-01-01

    A versatile, multi-frequency scattering model is developed for deciduous leaves. The model gains its versatility from estimating the field inside the leaves, which are represented by elliptic discs, through employing a technique bridging the generalized Rayleigh-Gans (GRG) and the physical optics (PO) approximations. Analytic and numerical results are presented to illustrate the model versatility

  13. Skin lumps

    MedlinePLUS

    Lipomas, which are fatty lumps under the skin Enlarged lymph glands , usually in the armpits, neck, and groin Cyst , a closed sac in or under the skin that is lined with skin tissue and contains fluid or semisolid material Benign skin growths ...

  14. Bioactivity of certain Egyptian Ficus species.

    PubMed

    Mousa, O; Vuorela, P; Kiviranta, J; Wahab, S A; Hiltunen, R; Vuorela, H

    1994-01-01

    The fruit extracts of Ficus sycomorus L., F. benjamina L., F. bengalensis L. and F. religiosa L. were screened for bioactivity. F. bengalensis and F. religiosa demonstrated activity in the brine shrimp test (Artemia salina) which indicates toxicity, whereas F. sycomorus and F. benjamina showed no activity. All the fruit extracts exhibited antitumor activity in the potato disc bioassay. None of the tested extracts showed any marked inhibition on the uptake of calcium into rat pituitary cells GH4C1. The extracts of the four tested Ficus species had significant antibacterial activity, but no antifungal activity. The results of this preliminary investigation support the traditional use of these plants in folk medicine for respiratory disorders and certain skin diseases. PMID:8170162

  15. Versatile Wearable Computer for Drivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gyouhyung Kyung; Songyi Chae; Kyung Hyun Nam; Kyungmin Lee; Wanjae Shin

    \\u000a A versatile wearable computer for drivers (VWCD) was proposed that can extend in-vehicle multi-modal display spaces. In the\\u000a first development phase, LEDs, mini video displays, earphones, and vibrators were included as visual, auditory and tactile\\u000a displays, and were all attached to an eyeglass frame. One electrocardiographic electrode was attached to the VWCD to obtain\\u000a the driver’s heart rate signal at

  16. Skin Complications

    MedlinePLUS

    ... drugs that can help clear up this condition. Day-to-Day Skin Care See our tips for daily skin ... Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your ...

  17. Skin Size

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    Get all wrapped up in a lesson about skin! In this activity, learners measure and calculate the approximate surface area of skin on someone's body as well as the amount of atmospheric force pushing on their body.

  18. Skin flicks

    E-print Network

    Orth, Margaret A. (Margaret Ann), 1964-

    1993-01-01

    The written and artistic part of this thesis are both separated into the two categories of "SKIN" and "FLICKS". The Artistic part of my thesis consists of five artificial skins made on my body, and a series of video tapes ...

  19. Skin Protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rose Marie Faber; Erin L. Colvin

    \\u000a The skin has been established as one of the largest organs of the human body as the skin provides a multitude of protective\\u000a functions. Because the skin is easily accessible, assessing the integumentary system can provide a wealth of information.\\u000a Illness and internal organ dysfunction are apparent by assessing the appearance of the skin. Critically ill children with\\u000a cardiac disease

  20. Metabolically versatile large-genome prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Guieysse, Benoit; Wuertz, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    Although versatile microorganisms are critical in industrial applications where the ability to cope with change and carry out complex tasks is needed, very little is in fact known about the evolutionary and ecological meanings of versatility in prokaryotes. Testing the hypothesis that a large genome size is a prerequisite for versatility in prokaryotes, we found that putatively versatile prokaryotes are phylogenetically and ecologically diverse and indeed include many well known and commercially relevant versatile microorganisms. Despite individual differences in metabolic abilities, a common trait of large-genome prokaryotes appears that they have gained their large genomes as an evolutionary response to nutrient-scarce and/or variable environments. This insight seriously questions the ability of traditional microbiology methods to isolate versatile prokaryotes and casts doubt on the ecological relevance of knowledge based on the study of specialists. PMID:22226959

  1. Gamma radiation effects on peanut skin antioxidants.

    PubMed

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-D'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2012-01-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached-deodorized (RBD) soybean oil. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Oil Stability Index method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. All extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Oil Stability Index method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts' antioxidative properties when added to soybean oil. PMID:22489142

  2. Gamma Radiation Effects on Peanut Skin Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-D’Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2012-01-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached-deodorized (RBD) soybean oil. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Oil Stability Index method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. All extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Oil Stability Index method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts’ antioxidative properties when added to soybean oil. PMID:22489142

  3. A Versatile Genetic Algorithm for Network Planning

    E-print Network

    Riedl, Anton

    A Versatile Genetic Algorithm for Network Planning Anton Riedl Institute of Communication Networks, a new genetic algorithm is introduced which is used as a versatile tool for solving different types of optimization problems arising in the field of network planning. The genetic algorithm is applied to the minimum

  4. The versatility and universality of calcium signalling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Berridge; Peter Lipp; Martin D. Bootman

    2000-01-01

    The universality of calcium as an intracellular messenger depends on its enormous versatility. Cells have a calcium signalling toolkit with many components that can be mixed and matched to create a wide range of spatial and temporal signals. This versatility is exploited to control processes as diverse as fertilization, proliferation, development, learning and memory, contraction and secretion, and must be

  5. Skin Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Multiforme Pityriasis Rosea Paronychia A to Z: Pilonidal Cyst Molluscum Contagiosum Abscess Cellulitis Taking Care of Your Skin Impetigo Abscess Cellulitis Paronychia Impetigo Pityriasis Rosea Ringworm ...

  6. BIOCHEMISTRY: Versatile Collagens in Invertebrates

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jürgen Engel (Biozentrum of the University; Department of Biophysical Chemistry)

    1997-09-19

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. In his Perspective, Engel discusses the diverse structural features of collagens, a ubiquitous fibrillar protein that forms the main support of skin and tendons. A unique example is reported in this issue by Coyne et al., who describe the amino acid sequence of the specialized collagen that forms the byssal threads that anchor mussels to rocks.

  7. Mushroom Lectins: Specificity, Structure and Bioactivity Relevant to Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Mohamed Ali Abol; Rouf, Razina; Tiralongo, Evelin; May, Tom W.; Tiralongo, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Lectins are non-immunoglobulin proteins that bind diverse sugar structures with a high degree of selectivity. Lectins play crucial role in various biological processes such as cellular signaling, scavenging of glycoproteins from the circulatory system, cell–cell interactions in the immune system, differentiation and protein targeting to cellular compartments, as well as in host defence mechanisms, inflammation, and cancer. Among all the sources of lectins, plants have been most extensively studied. However, more recently fungal lectins have attracted considerable attention due to their antitumor, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. Given that only 10% of mushroom species are known and have been taxonomically classified, mushrooms represent an enormous unexplored source of potentially useful and novel lectins. In this review we provide an up-to-date summary on the biochemical, molecular and structural properties of mushroom lectins, as well as their versatile applications specifically focusing on mushroom lectin bioactivity. PMID:25856678

  8. Preparation and Properties of Bioactive Composite Based on Bioactive Glass and Poly-L-Lactide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhou Zhihua; Ruan Jianming; Zhou Zhongcheng; Zou Jianpeng; Chen Lianglong

    2008-01-01

    Bioactive and bioresorbable composite was fabricated based on poly-L-lactide (PLLA) and bioactive glass (average particle size: 4.24 µm) by the combination of solvent evaporation technique and hot pressing. Bioactive glass granules are distributed homogeneously in the composite. With the increasing of the amount of bioactive glass, the bending strength and shearing strength of composite decrease while the bending modulus increases. PLLA\\/bioactive

  9. Dry Skin

    MedlinePLUS

    ... warm baths or showers. They do not remove skin oils as completely as hot water. • Use gentle bars ( ... some cooking oils such as safflower oil, Canola® oil and Crisco®). • “Drag” moisture into your skin by using products that contain chemicals such as ...

  10. Antimicrobial Peptides: Versatile Biological Properties

    PubMed Central

    Pushpanathan, Muthuirulan; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are diverse group of biologically active molecules with multidimensional properties. In recent past, a wide variety of AMPs with diverse structures have been reported from different sources such as plants, animals, mammals, and microorganisms. The presence of unusual amino acids and structural motifs in AMPs confers unique structural properties to the peptide that attribute for their specific mode of action. The ability of these active AMPs to act as multifunctional effector molecules such as signalling molecule, immune modulators, mitogen, antitumor, and contraceptive agent makes it an interesting candidate to study every aspect of their structural and biological properties for prophylactic and therapeutic applications. In addition, easy cloning and recombinant expression of AMPs in heterologous plant host systems provided a pipeline for production of disease resistant transgenic plants. Besides these properties, AMPs were also used as drug delivery vectors to deliver cell impermeable drugs to cell interior. The present review focuses on the diversity and broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of AMPs along with its multidimensional properties that could be exploited for the application of these bioactive peptides as a potential and promising drug candidate in pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23935642

  11. Skin Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Nicole; Cohen, George

    2014-01-01

    In a relatively short timespan, a wealth of new skin substitutes made of synthetic and biologically derived materials have arisen for the purpose of wound healing of various etiologies. This review article focuses on providing an overview of skin substitutes including their indications, contraindications, benefits, and limitations. The result of this overview was an appreciation of the vast array of options available for clinicians, many of which did not exist a short time ago. Yet, despite the rapid expansion this field has undergone, no ideal skin substitute is currently available. More research in the field of skin substitutes and wound healing is required not only for the development of new products made of increasingly complex biomolecular material, but also to compare the existing skin substitutes. PMID:25371771

  12. Bare Bones of Bioactive Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Paul Ducheyne, a principal investigator in the microgravity materials science program and head of the University of Pernsylvania's Center for Bioactive Materials and Tissue Engineering, is leading the trio as they use simulated microgravity to determine the optimal characteristics of tiny glass particles for growing bone tissue. The result could make possible a much broader range of synthetic bone-grafting applications. Even in normal gravity, bioactive glass particles enhance bone growth in laboratory tests with flat tissue cultures. Ducheyne and his team believe that using the bioactive microcarriers in a rotating bioreactor in microgravity will produce improved, three-dimensional tissue cultures. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and University of Pennsylvania Center for Bioactive Materials and Tissue Engineering.

  13. The Versatile Transceiver: towards production readiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soós, C.; Barros Marin, M.; Détraz, S.; Olanterä, L.; Sigaud, C.; Storey, S.; Troska, J.; Vasey, F.; Vichoudis, P.

    2013-03-01

    Detectors involved in the upgrade programme of the LHC will need high-speed optical links to transfer readout and control data. The link front-end will be based on a radiation tolerant opto-electronic module, the Versatile Transceiver (VTRx), developed under the Versatile Link project. In this contribution we present a test system and protocol to be used to verify the compliance of the VTRx modules to the specifications, and a Versatile Link demonstrator based on the VTRx and the Gigabit Link Interface Board. Finally, we introduce the Small Footprint VTRx which is being designed for the CMS Tracker upgrade.

  14. Skin Care.

    PubMed

    Clark, Amelia; Hessler, Jill L

    2015-08-01

    Aging skin is among the most common patient concerns in a facial plastic surgery practice. Ultraviolet (UV)-induced damage expedites the pace of intrinsic aging, resulting in many of the visible signs of aging, such as rough skin texture, pigmentation irregularities, fine and deep wrinkling, and inelasticity. Primary prevention of UV and environmental damage with proper skin care and the use of sunscreen are critical. There is great interest in topically applied products to reverse or delay the visible signs of photoaging. We discuss the most common topically applied agents for photoaging, reviewing their mechanisms and supporting evidence. PMID:26208767

  15. Methanol: A Versatile Fuel for Immediate Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, T. B.; Lerner, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Advocates the large-scale production and use of methanol as a substitute for the diminishing reserves of low-cost petroleum resources. Describes the manufacturing process and advantages of the versatile fuel. (JR)

  16. Geppetto: Versatile Verifiable Computation Craig Costello

    E-print Network

    Geppetto: Versatile Verifiable Computation Craig Costello craigco@microsoft.com Microsoft Research@virginia.edu University of Virginia Michael Naehrig mnaerig@microsoft.co Microsoft Research Bryan Parno parno

  17. Skin turgor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... health care workers to assess fluid loss or dehydration . Fluid loss can occur from common conditions, such ... Decreased skin turgor is a late sign in dehydration. It occurs with moderate to severe dehydration. Fluid ...

  18. Stem cells in embryonic skin development.

    PubMed

    Forni, Maria F; Trombetta-Lima, Marina; Sogayar, Mari C

    2012-01-01

    The skin is a complex stratified organ which acts not only as a permeability barrier and defense against external agents, but also has essential thermoregulatory, sensory and metabolic functions. Due to its high versatility and activity, the skin undergoes continuous self-renewal to repair damaged tissue and replace old cells. Consequently, the skin is a reservoir for adult stem cells of different embryonic origins. Skin stem cell populations reside in the adult hair follicle, sebaceous gland, dermis and epidermis. However, the origin of most of the stem cell populations found in the adult epidermis is still unknown. Far more unknown is the embryonic origin of other stem cells that populate the other layers of this tissue. In this review we attempt to clarify the emergence, structure, markers and embryonic development of diverse populations of stem cells from the epidermis, dermis and related appendages such as the sebaceous gland and hair follicle. PMID:23283431

  19. Senescent Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kushniruk, William

    1974-01-01

    The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067

  20. Skin Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roderick Hay; Sandra E. Bendeck; Suephy Chen; Roberto Estrada; Anne Haddix; Tonya McLeod; Antoine Mahé

    In assigning health priorities, skin diseases are sometimes thought of, in planning terms, as small-time players in the global league of illness compared with diseases that cause signif- icant mortality, such as HIV\\/AIDS, community-acquired pneu- monias, and tuberculosis. However, skin problems are generally among the most common diseases seen in primary care settings in tropical areas, and in some regions

  1. Skin care and incontinence

    MedlinePLUS

    Incontinence - skin care ... in a wheelchair, regular chair, or bed TAKING CARE OF THE SKIN Using diapers and other products ... skin. Over time, the skin breaks down. Special care must be taken to keep the skin clean ...

  2. Skin Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Skin Cancer Research Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®) What is prevention? Cancer prevention is ... keep cancer from starting. General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  3. Skin Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Skin Cancer Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®) What is screening? Screening is looking ... are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  4. Bare Bones of Bioactive Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Paul Ducheyne, a principal investigator in the microgravity materials science program and head of the University of Pernsylvania's Center for Bioactive Materials and Tissue Engineering, is leading the trio as they use simulated microgravity to determine the optimal characteristics of tiny glass particles for growing bone tissue. The result could make possible a much broader range of synthetic bone-grafting applications. Bioactive glass particles (left) with a microporous surface (right) are widely accepted as a synthetic material for periodontal procedures. Using the particles to grow three-dimensional tissue cultures may one day result in developing an improved, more rugged bone tissue that may be used to correct skeletal disorders and bone defects. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research.

  5. Stem Cells and Bioactive Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Bielby; Julia M. Polak

    Major advances in biological and materials research have created the possibilities for tissue engineering and regenerative\\u000a medicine. Finding the most effective ways of utilising stem cells, of several types, and triggering their differentiatoin\\u000a in a controlled manner will provide cell sources for cell replacement therapy. Materials will be bioresorbable in vivo and bioactive, contributing to differentiation, implantation and long-term engraftment

  6. Flavanols: digestion, absorption and bioactivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert M. Hackman; John A. Polagruto; Qin Yan Zhu; Buxiang Sun; Hajime Fujii; Carl L. Keen

    2008-01-01

    Flavanols, or flavan-3-ols, are a family of bioactive compounds present in cocoa, red wine, green tea, red grapes, berries\\u000a and apples. With a basic monomer unit of (?)-epicatechin or (+)-catechin, flavanols can be present in foods and beverages\\u000a as monomers or oligomers (procyanidins). Most, but not all, procyanidins are degraded into monomer or dimer units prior to\\u000a absorption. The bioavailability

  7. Chelating Tendencies of Bioactive Aminophosphonates

    PubMed Central

    Lázár, István; Kafarski, Pawel

    1994-01-01

    The metal-binding abilities of a wide variety of bioactive aminophosphonates, from the simple aminoethanephosphonic acids to the rather large macrocyclic polyaza derivatives, are discussed with special emphasis on a comparison of the analogous carboxylic acid and phosphonic acid systems. Examples are given of the biological importance of metal ion – aminophosphonate interactions in living systems, and also of their actual and potential applicability in medicine. PMID:18476237

  8. A miniaturized and flexible optoelectronic sensing system for tactile skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Ascari; P. Corradi; L. Beccai; C. Laschi

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a hybrid sensing module consisting of a general purpose electro-optical converter and three MEMS force sensors integrated into flexible substrates for tactile skin applications. The features of the converter, namely its flexible and thin substrate and small dimensions, programmability, optical coding and transmission of the information allow this versatile device to host different sensors,

  9. Bioactive glass-coated silicone for percutaneous devices with improved tissue interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marotta, James Scott

    The discovery of bioactive glasses, in the early 1970s, has produced a material that develops a strong adherent bond with soft tissue. Many medical applications currently use silicone as an implant material, but are hindered by the formation of fibrous scar tissue surrounding the device. This fibrous scar tissue can lead to pain, infection, and/or extrusion of these devices. Bioactive ceramic materials are inherently brittle and can not be used in applications where a flexible material is needed. Therefore, the coating of existing flexible silicone medical devices, like catheters, with a bioactive glass material would give the advantages of both. The research presented here is of methods used to coat silicone with a bioactive glass powder (Bioglass°ler) and the in vitro testing of those coatings. The bioactivity of these coatings was measured using scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It was observed that hydroxyapatite, a bonelike apatite, was formed in vitro on both the bioactive glass particles and the silicone surface between these particles. From these results a new theory was developed that related the distance between particles on a surface with the formation of an apatite layer. A critical distance between particles for the formation of an apatite layer on the substrate exists. This critical distance is a function of both the particle size and composition. In addition, a method to coat silicone catheters with bioactive glass powder is also discussed. This coated catheter could ultimately be used for improved percutaneous access in peritoneal dialysis. The one barrier to greater peritoneal dialysis use and the reason many patients switch from peritoneal to hemodialysis is recurrent exit-site infections and subsequent peritonitis. These infections are caused by the lack of a tight seal and downgrowth of epidermal tissue around the catheter at the catheter-skin interface.

  10. Functional and Bioactive Components from Mackerel (Scomber scombrus) and Blue Whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) Processing Waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zied Khiari

    2010-01-01

    The use of fish processing waste from an oily fish model (mackerel, Scomberscombrus) and a white fish model (blue whiting, Micromesistius poutassou) as a source of functional and bioactive compounds was investigated.Gelatines were extracted from fish heads and skins using pre-treatment withdifferent organic acids (acetic, citric, lactic, tartaric and malic acids). Gelatines from fish bones were extracted after pre-treating the

  11. Skin to skin care:heat balance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Karlsson

    1996-01-01

    Skin to skin care has been practised in primitive and high technology cultures for body temperature preservation in neonates. Regional skin temperature and heat flow was measured in moderately hypothermic term neonates to quantitate the heat transfer occurring during one hour of skin to skin care. Nine healthy newborns with a mean rectal temperature of 36.3 degrees C were placed

  12. Bioactive borosilicate glass scaffolds: in vitro degradation and bioactivity behaviors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Huang, Wenhai; Fu, Hailuo; Yao, Aihua; Wang, Deping; Pan, Haobo; Lu, William W; Jiang, Xinquan; Zhang, Xiuli

    2009-06-01

    Bioactive borosilicate glass scaffolds with the pores of several hundred micrometers and a competent compressive strength were prepared through replication method. The in vitro degradation and bioactivity behaviors of the scaffolds have been investigated by immersing the scaffolds statically in diluted phosphate solution at 37 degrees C, up to 360 h. To monitor the degradation progress of the scaffolds, the amount of leaching elements from the scaffolds were determined by ICP-AES. The XRD and SEM results reveal that, during the degradation of scaffolds, the borosilicate scaffolds converted to hydroxyapatite. The compressive strength of the scaffolds decreased during degradation, in the way that can be well predicted by the degradation products, or the leachates, from the scaffolds. MTT assay results demonstrate that the degradation products have little, if any, inhibition effect on the cell proliferation, when diluted to a certain concentration ([B] <2.690 and pH value at neutral level). The study shows that borosilicate glass scaffold could be a promising candidate for bone tissue engineering material. PMID:19184371

  13. Bioartificial skin.

    PubMed

    Machens, H G; Berger, A C; Mailaender, P

    2000-01-01

    The loss of skin has been one of the oldest, yet most frequent and costly problems in our health care system. To restore functional and esthetic integrity in patients with unstable or hypertrophic scars, in burn patients and after skin loss for hereditary, traumatic or oncological reasons, an armamentarium of reconstructive surgical procedures including autogenous, allogenous and xenogenous tissue transfer as well as implantation of alloplastic materials has been favored. For several decades there has been increasing interest focused on 'tissue engineering' of dermal, epidermal and full thickness skin substitutes by both biological and synthetic matrices. At our institution (Hannover Medical School), a collagen/glycosaminoglycan dermal regeneration matrix has been used for immediate dermal coverage after escharectomy in burn injuries as well as for dermal replacement in chronically unstable scars. This article gives an overview on the current state of the art in bioartificial skin as well as our personal experience with the collagen/glycosaminoglycan matrix for dermal replacement in different clinical situations. PMID:10971033

  14. Skin Deep

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-12-13

    In this activity, learners explore how to protect their skin while applying pesticides to plants. Learners conduct a series of simulation experiments and discover that some clothing fabrics provide only minimal protection from the dangers of pesticides. Learners work in groups during this activity and use a data table to record their observations.

  15. Quinazoline derivatives: synthesis and bioactivities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the significant biological activities, quinazoline derivatives have drawn more and more attention in the synthesis and bioactivities research. This review summarizes the recent advances in the synthesis and biological activities investigations of quinazoline derivatives. According to the main method the authors adopted in their research design, those synthetic methods were divided into five main classifications, including Aza-reaction, Microwave-assisted reaction, Metal-mediated reaction, Ultrasound-promoted reaction and Phase-transfer catalysis reaction. The biological activities of the synthesized quinazoline derivatives also are discussed. PMID:23731671

  16. Bioactivation of biomorphous silicon carbide bone implants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Will; Alexander Hoppe; Frank A. Müller; Carmen T. Raya; Julián M. Fernández; Peter Greil

    2010-01-01

    Wood-derived silicon carbide (SiC) offers a specific biomorphous microstructure similar to the cellular pore microstructure of bone. Compared with bioactive ceramics such as calcium phosphate, however, silicon carbide is considered not to induce spontaneous interface bonding to living bone. Bioactivation by chemical treatment of biomorphous silicon carbide was investigated in order to accelerate osseointegration and improve bone bonding ability. Biomorphous

  17. Skin Allergy Quiz

    MedlinePLUS

    Share | Skin Allergy Quiz Skin irritations can be very frustrating. Identifying the cause of a skin ailment is essential in order ... can be caused by several things including an allergy, infection or skin problem like eczema or psoriasis. ...

  18. Skin Tag (Acrochordon)

    MedlinePLUS

    newsletter | contact Share | Skin Tag (Acrochordon) Information for adults A A A Skin tags are common benign (non-cancerous) skin polyps. Overview A skin tag (acrochordon) is a common, possibly inherited condition that ...

  19. Skin Complications of IBD

    MedlinePLUS

    ... depends on the location and severity of fistulas. SKIN TAGS Skin tags are fairly common in people with Crohn’s disease. ... into small flaps. Fecal matter may attach to skin tags, irritating the skin. Practicing good hygiene will help ...

  20. Bioactive Components in Fish Venoms

    PubMed Central

    Ziegman, Rebekah; Alewood, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Animal venoms are widely recognized excellent resources for the discovery of novel drug leads and physiological tools. Most are comprised of a large number of components, of which the enzymes, small peptides, and proteins are studied for their important bioactivities. However, in spite of there being over 2000 venomous fish species, piscine venoms have been relatively underrepresented in the literature thus far. Most studies have explored whole or partially fractioned venom, revealing broad pharmacology, which includes cardiovascular, neuromuscular, cytotoxic, inflammatory, and nociceptive activities. Several large proteinaceous toxins, such as stonustoxin, verrucotoxin, and Sp-CTx, have been isolated from scorpaenoid fish. These form pores in cell membranes, resulting in cell death and creating a cascade of reactions that result in many, but not all, of the physiological symptoms observed from envenomation. Additionally, Natterins, a novel family of toxins possessing kininogenase activity have been found in toadfish venom. A variety of smaller protein toxins, as well as a small number of peptides, enzymes, and non-proteinaceous molecules have also been isolated from a range of fish venoms, but most remain poorly characterized. Many other bioactive fish venom components remain to be discovered and investigated. These represent an untapped treasure of potentially useful molecules. PMID:25941767

  1. Healthy Skin Matters Normal Skin

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    to help you remove it. Acne Most teenagers get a skin disease called acne (AK- nee). The blackheads everyone gets them at some point. Acne isn't usually serious, but severe cases can cause scars that will last for years. Acne is caused by bacteria (Propionibacterium acnes, often shortened to P. acnes

  2. Versatile Battery Chargers for New Age Batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Himesh Joshi; Maryam Shojaei Baghini

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes two designs for a versatile charger capable of charging a range of batteries ranging from the conventional Li ion and Ni-Cd batteries to the more recent thin film batteries. The charger is equipped with a low power micro controller which enables the user to specify the kind of battery to be charged as well as calibrate the

  3. Nanoscale Surface Modification ALD --A Versatile Tool

    E-print Network

    George, Steven M.

    such as Al2O3 and TiN. For example, Al2O3 ALD is usually performed using Al(CH3)3 (TMA, Aldrich Prod. NoNanoscale Surface Modification ALD -- A Versatile Tool for Nanostructuring Molecular Layer Atomic layer deposition (ALD) techniques have emerged in the last ten years to meet various needs

  4. A new, versatile Stirling energy conversion unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Meijer; B. Ziph

    1982-01-01

    A new concept in Stirling engine technology is embodied in the ''Base Engine'' now being developed at Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc. This is a versatile energy conversion unit suitable for many different applications and heat sources. The Base Engine, rated at 40 kw at 2800 rpm, is a four cylinder, double acting, variable displacement Stirling engine. It incorporates remote-heating technology

  5. Weighted Inverse Gaussian -a Versatile Lifetime Model

    E-print Network

    Kundu, Debasis

    -parameter generalized inverse Gaussian distribution, which is a mixture of the inverse Gaussian distribution and lengthWeighted Inverse Gaussian - a Versatile Lifetime Model Ramesh C. Gupta1 & Debasis Kundu2 Abstract biased inverse Gaussian distri- bution. Also Birnbaum-Saunders distribution is a special case for p = 1

  6. Versatile FPGA Architecture for Skein Hashing Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Webster; Marcin Lukowiak

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design and analysis of a versatile Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) hardware for the Skein hashing algorithm. A single design capable of processing individual messages sequentially, multiple messages using pipelined architecture, or executing Skein's tree hashing mode using the same pipelined architecture was developed for the Skein-256 version of the algorithm. Emphasis was placed on

  7. Functional versatility supports coral reef biodiversity

    E-print Network

    Wainwright, Peter C.

    Functional versatility supports coral reef biodiversity D. R. Bellwood1,*, P. C. Wainwright2 , C. J. Fulton1 and A. S. Hoey1 1 Department of Marine Biology, Centre for Coral Reef Biodiversity, James Cook of high biodiversity on coral reefs. Keywords: coral reef fishes; specialist; generalist; functional

  8. Guinea Pigs: Versatile Animals for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.

    1977-01-01

    Guinea pigs are presented as versatile classroom animals. Suggestions for animal behavior and genetics studies are given. Also included is information concerning sex determination and the breeding of guinea pigs, and hints on keeping these animals in the classroom. References and illustrations complete the article. (MA)

  9. The Science Inside Skin

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kirstin Fearnley (AAAS; )

    2009-01-01

    The Science Inside Skin, created as part of the Skin Deep Project, offers readers a closer peek at the body's surface. Inside they'll find information about the three layers of skin, how skin changes during a lifetime, various skin ailments (ranging from acne to the three types of skin cancer), and sun safety.

  10. Tribometrology of Skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norm Gitis; Raja Sivamani

    2004-01-01

    The quantitative assessment of both skin health and skin care products is suggested based on skin tribological properties. Simultaneous multi-sensor measurements of both coefficient of friction and contact electrical impedance allow for fast and quantitative evaluation of skin conditions such as dryness and moisturization, and early diagnosis of skin diseases or of the deterioration in skin functions at a stage

  11. Nutritional compositions and bioactivities of Dacryodes species: a review.

    PubMed

    Tee, Lee Hong; Yang, Bao; Nagendra, Krishnamurthy Prasad; Ramanan, Ramakrishnan Nagasundara; Sun, Jian; Chan, Eng-Seng; Tey, Beng Ti; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Lau, Cheng Yuon; Jiang, Yueming

    2014-12-15

    Dacryodes species are evergreen, perennial trees with fleshy fruits and belong to the family Buseraseae. Many Dacryodes species are underutilized but are widely applied in traditional folk medicine to treat malaria, fever and skin diseases. The nutritional compositions, phytochemicals and biological activities of Dacryodes edulis, Dacryodes rostrata, Dacryodes buettneri, Dacryodes klaineana and Dacryodes hexandra are presented. The edible fruits of D. edulis are rich in lipids, proteins, vitamins, fatty acids and amino acids. Its extracts (leaf, fruit and resin) exhibit antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-carcinogenic and other bioactivities. D. rostrata fruit has significant nutrient content, and is rich in proteins, lipids and minerals. These fruits are also highly rich in polyphenols, anthocyanins and antioxidant activities. This comprehensive review will assist the reader in understanding the nutritional benefits of Dacryodes species and in identifying current research needs. PMID:25038673

  12. Bioactive coating with low-fouling polymers for the development of biocompatible vascular implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalla, Pradeep Kumar

    The replacement of occluded blood vessels and endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) are performed with the use of synthetic vascular grafts and stent grafts, respectively. Both implants lead to frequent clinical complications that are different but due to a similar problem, namely the inadequate surface properties of the polymeric biomaterials used (generally polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE)). Therefore the general objective of this thesis was to create a versatile bioactive coating on vascular biomaterials that reduce material-induced thrombosis and promote desired cell interactions favorable to tissue healing around implants. The use of low-fouling backgrounds was decided in order to reduce platelet adhesion as well as the non-specific protein adsorption and thus increase the bioactivity of immobilized biomolecules. As part of the preliminary objective, a multi-arm polyethylene glycol (PEG) was chosen to create a versatile low-fouling surface, since the current coating methods are far from being versatile and rely on the availability of compatible functional groups on both PEG and the host surface. This PEG coating method was developed by taking advantage of novel primary amine-rich plasma polymerized coatings (LP). As demonstrated by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), fluorescence measurements and platelet adhesion assays, our PEG coatings exhibited low protein adsorption and almost no platelet adhesion after 15 min perfusion in whole blood. Although protein adsorption was not completely abrogated and short-term platelet adhesion assay was clearly insufficient to draw conclusions for long-term prevention of thrombosis in vivo, the low-fouling properties of this PEG coating were sufficient to be exploited for further coupling of bioactive molecules to create bioactive coatings. Therefore, as a part of the second objective, an innovative and versatile bioactive coating was developed on PEG and carboxymethylated dextran (CMD), using the combination of an adhesive peptide (KQAGDV/RGD) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). CMD was chosen as an alternative to PEG due to its better low-fouling properties and the presence of abundant carboxyl terminal groups. Although the QCM-D technique enabled us to optimize the combined immobilization of KQAGDV/RGD and EGF, cell adhesion assay results did not show improvement of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) adhesion on peptide-modified PEG or CMD surfaces. Among the reasons explaining low cell adhesion on peptides grafted low-fouling surfaces is the difficulty of preventing protein adsorption/platelet adhesion without significantly reducing cell adhesion. Preliminary data in our laboratory indicated that CS could be an ideal substrate to find this compromise. For that reason, the final objective of this PhD consisted in evaluating the potential of chondroitin sulfate (CS) coating by comparing its properties with well-known low-fouling polymers such as PEG and CMD. It was shown that CS presents selective low-fouling properties, low-platelet adhesion and pro-endothelial cell (EC) adhesive properties As demonstrated by QCM-D and fluorescence measurements, CS was as effective as PEG in reducing fibrinogen adsorption, but it reduced adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) to a lower extent than PEG and CMD surfaces. Whole blood perfusion assays indicated that all three surfaces drastically decreased platelet adhesion and activation to levels significantly lower than PET surfaces. However, while EC adhesion and growth were found to be very limited on PEG and CMD, cell attachment on CS was strong, with focal adhesion points and resistance to shear stress. CS coatings therefore form a low-thrombogenic background promoting the formation of a confluent endothelium layer, which may then act as an active anti-thrombogenic surface. CS coating can also be used to further graft biomolecules. Combination of LP, CS coating followed by GF immobilization shows great promise as a bioactive coating to optimize the bio

  13. Copper complexes with bioactive ligands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Dudová; D. Hudecová; R. Pokorný; M. Mi?ková; M. Palicová; P. Segl'a; M. Melník

    2002-01-01

    Antifungal activity of new copper(II) complexes of 2-methylthionicotinate (2-MeSNic) of the composition Cu(2-MeSNic)2(MeNia)2·4H2O (where MeNia isN-methylnicotinamide), and Cu(2-MeSNic)2(Nia)2·2H2O (where Nia is nicotinamide) and Cu(2-MeSNic)2L2 (where L is isonicotinamide, iNia, or ethyl nicotinate, EtNic) were tested on various strains of filamentous fungi by the\\u000a macrodilution method. Most sensitive against copper(II) adducts with bioactive ligands wereRhizopus oryzae andMicrosporum gypseum (IC50 1.5–2.3 mmol\\/L).

  14. Bioactive factor delivery strategies from engineered polymer hydrogels for therapeutic medicine

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Minh Khanh; Alsberg, Eben

    2014-01-01

    Polymer hydrogels have been widely explored as therapeutic delivery matrices because of their ability to present sustained, localized and controlled release of bioactive factors. Bioactive factor delivery from injectable biopolymer hydrogels provides a versatile approach to treat a wide variety of diseases, to direct cell function and to enhance tissue regeneration. The innovative development and modification of both natural-(e.g., alginate (ALG), chitosan, hyaluronic acid (HA), gelatin, heparin (HEP), etc.) and synthetic-(e.g., polyesters, polyethyleneimine (PEI), etc.) based polymers has resulted in a variety of approaches to design drug delivery hydrogel systems from which loaded therapeutics are released. This review presents the state-of-the-art in a wide range of hydrogels that are formed though self-assembly of polymers and peptides, chemical crosslinking, ionic crosslinking and biomolecule recognition. Hydrogel design for bioactive factor delivery is the focus of the first section. The second section then thoroughly discusses release strategies of payloads from hydrogels for therapeutic medicine, such as physical incorporation, covalent tethering, affinity interactions, on demand release and/or use of hybrid polymer scaffolds, with an emphasis on the last 5 years. PMID:25242831

  15. Sol-gel derived porous bioactive nanocomposites: Synthesis and in vitro bioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankhwar, Nisha; Kothiyal, G. P.; Srinivasan, A.

    2013-06-01

    Porous bioactive composites consisting of SiO2-CaO-Na2O-P2O5 bioactive glass-ceramic and synthetic water soluble polymer Polyvinylpyrrolidone [PVP (C6H9NO)n, MW˜40000 g/mol] have been synthesized by sol-gel route. As-prepared polymeric composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Two major bone mineral phases, viz., hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] and wollastonite [calcium silicate (CaSiO3)] have been identified in the XRD patterns of the composites. Presence of these bone minerals indicates the bioactive nature of the composites. In vitro bioactivity tests confirm bioactivity in the porous composites. The flexibility offered by these bioactive polymer composites is advantageous for its application as implant material.

  16. Novel bioresorbable and bioactive composites based on bioactive glass and polylactide foams for bone tissue engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Roether; J. E. Gough; A. R. Boccaccini; L. L. Hench; V. Maquet; R. Jérôme

    2002-01-01

    Bioresorbable and bioactive tissue engineering scaffolds based on bioactive glass (45S5 Bioglass®) particles and macroporous poly(DL-lactide) (PDLLA) foams were fabricated. A slurry dipping technique in conjunction with pretreatment in ethanol was used to achieve reproducible and well adhering bioactive glass coatings of uniform thickness on the internal and external surfaces of the foams. In vitro studies in simulated body fluid

  17. Ursa Minor: Versatile Cluster-based Storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Abd-el-malek; William V. Courtright II; Chuck Cranor; Gregory R. Ganger; James Hendricks; Andrew J. Klosterman; Michael P. Mesnier; Manish Prasad; Brandon Salmon; Raja R. Sambasivan; Shafeeq Sinnamohideen; John D. Strunk; Eno Thereska; Matthew Wachs; Jay J. Wylie

    2005-01-01

    No single encoding scheme or fault model is optimal for all data. A versatile storage system allows them to be matched to access patterns, reliability requirements, and cost goals on a per-data item basis. Ursa Minor is a cluster-based storage system that allows data-specific selection of, and on-line changes to, encoding schemes and fault models. Thus, different data types can

  18. Natural bioactive compounds from winery by-products as health promoters: a review.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Ana; Baenas, Nieves; Dominguez-Perles, Raul; Barros, Ana; Rosa, Eduardo; Moreno, Diego A; Garcia-Viguera, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The relevance of food composition for human health has increased consumers' interest in the consumption of fruits and vegetables, as well as foods enriched in bioactive compounds and nutraceuticals. This fact has led to a growing attention of suppliers on reuse of agro-industrial wastes rich in healthy plant ingredients. On this matter, grape has been pointed out as a rich source of bioactive compounds. Currently, up to 210 million tons of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are produced annually, being the 15% of the produced grapes addressed to the wine-making industry. This socio-economic activity generates a large amount of solid waste (up to 30%, w/w of the material used). Winery wastes include biodegradable solids namely stems, skins, and seeds. Bioactive compounds from winery by-products have disclosed interesting health promoting activities both in vitro and in vivo. This is a comprehensive review on the phytochemicals present in winery by-products, extraction techniques, industrial uses, and biological activities demonstrated by their bioactive compounds concerning potential for human health. PMID:25192288

  19. Natural Bioactive Compounds from Winery By-Products as Health Promoters: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Ana; Baenas, Nieves; Dominguez-Perles, Raul; Barros, Ana; Rosa, Eduardo; Moreno, Diego A.; Garcia-Viguera, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The relevance of food composition for human health has increased consumers’ interest in the consumption of fruits and vegetables, as well as foods enriched in bioactive compounds and nutraceuticals. This fact has led to a growing attention of suppliers on reuse of agro-industrial wastes rich in healthy plant ingredients. On this matter, grape has been pointed out as a rich source of bioactive compounds. Currently, up to 210 million tons of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are produced annually, being the 15% of the produced grapes addressed to the wine-making industry. This socio-economic activity generates a large amount of solid waste (up to 30%, w/w of the material used). Winery wastes include biodegradable solids namely stems, skins, and seeds. Bioactive compounds from winery by-products have disclosed interesting health promoting activities both in vitro and in vivo. This is a comprehensive review on the phytochemicals present in winery by-products, extraction techniques, industrial uses, and biological activities demonstrated by their bioactive compounds concerning potential for human health. PMID:25192288

  20. The inhibitory effect of natural bioactives on the growth of pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Sun

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory activity of natural products, against growth of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Salmonella typhimurium (KCCM 11862). Chitosan, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and garlic were used as natural bioactives for antibacterial activity. The testing method was carried out according to the disk diffusion method. All of chitosan, EGCG, and garlic showed inhibitory effect against the growth of E. coli and Salmonella typhi. To evaluate the antibacterial activity of natural products during storage, chicken skins were inoculated with 106 of E. coli or Salmonella typhi. The inoculated chicken skins, treated with 0.5, 1, or 2% natural bioactives, were stored during 8 day at 4?. The numbers of microorganisms were measured at 8 day. Both chitosan and EGCG showed significant decrease in the number of E. coli and Salmonella typhi in dose dependent manner (P < 0.05). These results suggest that natural bioactives such as chitosan, EGCG may be possible to be used as antimicrobial agents for the improvement of food safety. PMID:20368950

  1. Investigating the protective properties of milk phospholipids against ultraviolet light exposure in a skin equivalent model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Ashley; Laubscher, Andrea; Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Laiho, Lily H.

    2010-02-01

    Current research on bioactive molecules in milk has documented health advantages of bovine milk and its components. Milk Phospholipids, selected for this study, represent molecules with great potential benefit in human health and nutrition. In this study we used confocal reflectance and multiphoton microscopy to monitor changes in skin morphology upon skin exposure to ultraviolet light and evaluate the potential of milk phospholipids in preventing photodamage to skin equivalent models. The results suggest that milk phospholipids act upon skin cells in a protective manner against the effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Similar results were obtained from MTT tissue viability assay and histology.

  2. Novel bioactive materials with different mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Kokubo, Tadashi; Kim, Hyun-Min; Kawashita, Masakazu

    2003-06-01

    Some ceramics, such as Bioglass, sintered hydroxyapatite, and glass-ceramic A-W, spontaneously bond to living bone. They are called bioactive materials and are already clinically used as important bone substitutes. However, compared with human cortical bone, they have lower fracture toughness and higher elastic moduli. Therefore, it is desirable to develop bioactive materials with improved mechanical properties. All the bioactive materials mentioned above form a bone-like apatite layer on their surfaces in the living body, and bond to bone through this apatite layer. The formation of bone-like apatite on artificial material is induced by functional groups, such as Si-OH, Ti-OH, Zr-OH, Nb-OH, Ta-OH, -COOH, and PO(4)H(2). These groups have specific structures revealing negatively charge, and induce apatite formation via formations of an amorphous calcium compound, e.g., calcium silicate, calcium titanate, and amorphous calcium phosphate. These fundamental findings provide methods for preparing new bioactive materials with different mechanical properties. Tough bioactive materials can be prepared by the chemical treatment of metals and ceramics that have high fracture toughness, e.g., by the NaOH and heat treatments of titanium metal, titanium alloys, and tantalum metal, and by H(3)PO(4) treatment of tetragonal zirconia. Soft bioactive materials can be synthesized by the sol-gel process, in which the bioactive silica or titania is polymerized with a flexible polymer, such as polydimethylsiloxane or polytetramethyloxide, at the molecular level to form an inorganic-organic nano-hybrid. The biomimetic process has been used to deposit nano-sized bone-like apatite on fine polymer fibers, which were textured into a three-dimensional knit framework. This strategy is expected to ultimately lead to bioactive composites that have a bone-like structure and, hence, bone-like mechanical properties. PMID:12699652

  3. SCI: Skin Cancer Investigation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

    2010-05-26

    Skin Care Investigations offers students the chance to learn more about skin and skin cancer before entering the virtual world of Glowell Clinic, where they will spend time at the helpdesk answering callers' questions about skin protection and in the laboratory assessing whether skin abnormalities are cancerous or not. An interactive assessment allows students and teachers to gauge understanding at this level.

  4. Skin manifestations in acromegaly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anat Ben-Shlomo; Shlomo Melmed

    2006-01-01

    Cutaneous changes in acromegaly result from excess GH and IGF-1 action on skin cells and adnexae. Skin puffiness due to dermal glycosaminoglycan accumulation and edema are most prominent in the face, hands and feet. Oily skin with large pores, hypertrichosis, and excessive sweating are common features. Pigmented skin tags, acanthosis nigricans, and psoriasis are also encountered. Alteration in skin capillaries

  5. Biomolecule immobilization techniques for bioactive paper fabrication.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fanzhi; Hu, Yim Fun

    2012-04-01

    Research into paper-based sensors or functional materials that can perform analytical functions with active recognition capabilities is rapidly expanding, and significant research effort has been made into the design and fabrication of bioactive paper at the biosensor level to detect potential health hazards. A key step in the fabrication of bioactive paper is the design of the experimental and operational procedures for the immobilization of biomolecules such as antibodies, enzymes, phages, cells, proteins, synthetic polymers and DNA aptamers on a suitably prepared paper membrane. The immobilization methods are concisely categorized into physical absorption, bioactive ink entrapment, bioaffinity attachment and covalent chemical bonding immobilization. Each method has individual immobilization characteristics. Although every biomolecule-paper combination has to be optimized before use, the bioactive ink entrapment method is the most commonly used approach owing to its general applicability and biocompatibility. Currently, there are four common applications of bioactive paper: (1) paper-based bioassay or paper-based analytical devices for sample conditioning; (2) counterfeiting and countertempering in the packaging and construction industries; (3) pathogen detection for food and water quality monitoring; and (4) deactivation of pathogenic bacteria using antimicrobial paper. This article reviews and compares the different biomolecule immobilization techniques and discusses current trends. Current, emerging and future applications of bioactive paper are also discussed. PMID:22367243

  6. Bioactivity-guided study of antiproliferative activities of Salvia extracts.

    PubMed

    Janicsák, Gábor; Zupkó, István; Nikolovac, Milena T; Forgo, Peter; Vasas, Andrea; Mathé, Imre; Blunden, Gerald; Hohmann, Judit

    2011-05-01

    The cytotoxic activities of the n-hexane, chloroform and aqueous methanolic fractions prepared from the methanolic extract of the leaves of 23 Salvia taxa were studied for their cell growth-inhibitory activity against human cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), skin carcinoma (A431) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) cells using the MTT assay. The n-hexane fractions of six Salvia taxa (S. hispanica, S. nemorosa, S. nemorosa 1. albiflora, S. pratensis, S. recognita and S. ringens) and the chloroform fraction ofS. officinalis 1. albiflora produced over 50% growth inhibition of the skin carcinoma cell line. None of the tested extracts showed substantial (above 50%) antiproliferative effects against HeLa and MCF7 cells. S. ringens was the most powerful among the studied Salvia species with a 61.8% cell growth inhibitory activity on A431 cells. In the case of S. ringens, other plant parts were also tested for antiproliferative effect, and the highest activities were recorded for the root extract. This was subjected to bioactivity-guided fractionation, which yielded four abietane diterpenes (royleanone, horminone, 7-O-methyl-horminone and 7-acetyl-horminone), one triterpene (erythrodiol-3-acetate) and beta-sitosterol. Horminone, 7-acetyl-horminone and erythrodiol-3-acetate displayed marked concentration-dependent antiproliferative effects, while royleanone and 7-O-methyl-horminone produced weaker activities. PMID:21615011

  7. Learning about Skin Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Why Deadly Skin Cancers Spread 2000 News Release Learning About Skin Cancer What are the most common ... skin surface. When a melanoma becomes thick and deep, the disease often spreads to other parts of ...

  8. Skin Care and Aging

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you are worried about wrinkles. Age Spots And Skin Tags Age spots, once called "liver spots," are flat, ... sunscreen or sunblock may prevent more sun damage. Skin tags are small, usually flesh-colored growths of skin ...

  9. Skin Care and Aging

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you are worried about wrinkles. Age Spots and Skin Tags Click for more information Age spots, once called " ... Also, a sunscreen may prevent more sun damage. Skin tags are small, usually flesh-colored growths of skin ...

  10. Dry Skin Relief

    MedlinePLUS

    ... public Diseases and treatments Health and beauty General skin care Avoiding allergic reaction from acne products Bug bites ... treat sunburn Proper wound care: Minimize a scar Skin care on a budget Skin care products Sun protection ...

  11. Bioactive constituents of Indigofera spicata.

    PubMed

    Bueno Pérez, Lynette; Li, Jie; Lantvit, Daniel D; Pan, Li; Ninh, Tran Ngoc; Chai, Hee-Byung; Soejarto, Djaja Djendoel; Swanson, Steven M; Lucas, David M; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2013-08-23

    Four new flavanones, designated as (+)-5?-deacetylpurpurin (1), (+)-5-methoxypurpurin (2), (2S)-2,3-dihydrotephroglabrin (3), and (2S)-2,3-dihydrotephroapollin C (4), together with two known flavanones (5 and 6), three known rotenoids (7-9), and one known chalcone (10) were isolated from a chloroform-soluble partition of a methanol extract from the combined flowers, fruits, leaves, and twigs of Indigofera spicata, collected in Vietnam. The compounds were obtained by bioactivity-guided isolation using the HT-29 human colon cancer, 697 human acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and Raji human Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines. The structures of 1-4 were established by extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, and the absolute configurations were determined by the measurement of specific rotations and CD spectra. The cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds were tested against the HT-29, 697, Raji, and CCD-112CoN human normal colon cells. Also, the quinone reductase induction activities of the isolates were determined using the Hepa 1c1c7 murine hepatoma cell line. In addition, cis-(6a?,12a?)-hydroxyrotenone (7) was evaluated in an in vivo hollow fiber bioassay using HT-29, MCF-7 human breast cancer, and MDA-MB-435 human melanoma cells. PMID:23895019

  12. A compact, robust and versatile moiré interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollenhauer, D. H.; Ifju, P. G.; Han, B.

    A moiré interferometer was designed and constructed based on a general system design using a reflective crossed-line diffraction grating to produce the four beams of light necessary for moiré interferometry. The design concept, basic design and tuning procedures are discussed. The important features of the interferometer, i.e. compactness, versatility, polarization insensitivity, relaxed collimation requirements, low laser power and remote optics, are addressed. Several such interferometers have been constructed and successfully applied to engineering problems. These include examining the displacement fields surrounding drilled and preformed holes in composite laminates loaded in tension, and the evaluation of nonhomogeneous behavior in textile composites.

  13. Elements of the granular gland peptidome and transcriptome persist in air-dried skin of the South American orange-legged leaf frog, Phyllomedusa hypocondrialis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tianbao Chen; Mei Zhou; Ron Gagliardo; Brian Walker; Chris Shaw

    2006-01-01

    The defensive strategy of amphibians against predator attack relies heavily on the secretion of noxious\\/toxic chemical cocktails from specialized skin granular glands. Bioactive peptides constitute a major component of secretions in many species and the most complex are produced by neotropical leaf frogs of the sub-family Phyllomedusinae. We recently reported that these skin secretions contain elements of both the granular

  14. Bioactive molecules from sea hares.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, H; Sakai, R; Jimbo, M

    2006-01-01

    Sea hares, belonging to the order Opisthobranchia, subclass Gastropoda, are mollusks that have attracted many researchers who are interested in the chemical defense mechanisms of these soft and "shell-less" snails. Numbers of small molecules of dietary origin have been isolated from sea hares and some have ecologically relevant activities, such as fish deterrent activity or toxicity. Recently, however, greater attention has been paid to biomedically interesting sea hare isolates such as dolastatins, a series of antitumor peptide/macrolides isolated from Dolabella auricularia. Another series of bioactive peptide/macrolides, as represented by aplyronines, have been isolated from sea hares in Japanese waters. Although earlier studies indicated the potent antitumor activity of aplyronines, their clinical development has never been conducted because of the minute amount of compound available from the natural source. Recent synthetic studies, however, have made it possible to prepare these compounds and analogs for a structure-activity relationship study, and started to uncover their unique action mechanism towards their putative targets, microfilaments. Here, recent findings of small antitumor molecules isolated from Japanese sea hares are reviewed. Sea hares are also known to produce cytotoxic and antimicrobial proteins. In contrast to the small molecules of dietary origin, proteins are the genetic products of sea hares and they are likely to have some primary physiological functions in addition to ecological roles in the sea hare. Based on the biochemical properties and phylogenetic analysis of these proteins, we propose that they belong to one family of molecule, the "Aplysianin A family," although their molecular weights are apparently divided into two groups. Interestingly, the active principles in Aplysia species and Dolabella auricularia were shown to be L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO), a flavin enzyme that oxidizes an alpha-amino group of the substrate with molecular oxygen and liberates hydrogen peroxide, with a sequence similar to other known LAAOs, including snake venom. Possible antibacterial activity and cytotoxic activity mechanisms of these proteins are also discussed. PMID:17153345

  15. Increased levels of palmitoylethanolamide and other bioactive lipid mediators and enhanced local mast cell proliferation in canine atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the precise pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) is unknown, an immune dysregulation that causes Th2-predominant inflammation and an intrinsic defect in skin barrier function are currently the two major hypotheses, according to the so-called outside-inside-outside model. Mast cells (MCs) are involved in AD both by releasing Th2 polarizing cytokines and generating pruritus symptoms through release of histamine and tryptase. A link between MCs and skin barrier defects was recently uncovered, with histamine being found to profoundly contribute to the skin barrier defects. Palmitoylethanolamide and related lipid mediators are endogenous bioactive compounds, considered to play a protective homeostatic role in many tissues: evidence collected so far shows that the anti-inflammatory effect of palmitoylethanolamide depends on the down-modulation of MC degranulation. Based on this background, the purpose of the present study was twofold: (a) to determine if the endogenous levels of palmitoylethanolamide and other bioactive lipid mediators are changed in the skin of AD dogs compared to healthy animals; (b) to examine if MC number is increased in the skin of AD dogs and, if so, whether it depends on MC in-situ proliferation. Results The amount of lipid extract expressed as percent of biopsy tissue weight was significantly reduced in AD skin while the levels of all analyzed bioactive lipid mediators were significantly elevated, with palmitoylethanolamide showing the highest increase. In dogs with AD, the number of MCs was significantly increased in both the subepidermal and the perifollicular compartments and their granule content was significantly decreased in the latter. Also, in situ proliferation of MCs was documented. Conclusions The levels of palmitoylethanolamide and other bioactive lipid mediators were shown to increase in AD skin compared to healthy samples, leading to the hypothesis that they may be part of the body’s innate mechanisms to maintain cellular homeostasis when faced with AD-related inflammation. In particular, the increase may be considered a temptative response to down-regulating the observed elevation in the number, functionality and proliferative state of MCs in the skin of AD dogs. Further studies are warranted to confirm the hypothesis. PMID:24423192

  16. Composite surgical sutures with bioactive glass coating.

    PubMed

    Boccaccini, Aldo R; Stamboulis, Artemis G; Rashid, Azrina; Roether, Judith A

    2003-10-15

    A processing method was developed to coat polyglactin 910 (Vicryl) sutures with bioactive glass powder (45S5 Bioglass). High reproducibility and homogeneity of the coating in terms of microstructure and thickness along the suture length were achieved. Bioglass-coated sutures exhibited a high level of chemical reactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF), indicating their bioactive behavior. This was evident by the prompt formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals on the surface after only 7 days of immersion in SBF. These crystals grew to form a thick HA layer (15 microm thickness) after 3 weeks in SBF. The tensile strength of the sutures was tested before and after immersion in SBF in order to assess the effect of the bioactive glass coating on suture degradation. The tensile strength of composite sutures was lower than that of as-received Vicryl sutures, 385 and 467 MPa, respectively. However, after 28 days of immersion in SBF the residual tensile strengths of coated and uncoated sutures were similar (83 and 88 MPa, respectively), indicating no negative effect of the HA layer formation on the suture strength. The effect of bioactive glass coating on the polymer degradation is discussed. The developed bioactive sutures represent interesting materials for applications in wound healing, fabrication of fibrous three-dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering, and reinforcement elements for calcium-phosphate temporary implants. PMID:14528459

  17. Exploring versatile applications of cyclodextrins: an overview.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neha; Baldi, Ashish

    2014-07-22

    Abstract Context: Ever since the discovery of cyclodextrins, a family of cyclic oligosaccharides based on ? (1???4) linkage among glucopyranose subunits, these versatile supramolecular hosts have received tremendous attention for scientific explorations. Due to their property of forming host-guest type inclusion complex, cyclodextrins and their synthetic derivatives exhibit wide range of utilities in different areas viz. pharmaceuticals, drug delivery systems, cosmetics, food and nutrition, textile and chemical industry etc. Objective: The purpose of this review is to highlight properties, advantages, recent studies and versatile benefits of cyclodextrins and to re-strengthen their prospective applications in novel directions for future research. Methods: This article summarizes a variety of applications of cyclodextrins in various industrial products, technologies, analytical and chemical processes and recent industrial advancements by extensively literature search on various scientific databases, Google and websites of various associated pharmaceutical industries and patenting authorities across the world. Results and conclusion: Due to possibility of multidimensional changes in physical and chemical properties of molecules upon inclusion complexation in cyclodextrins, these compounds are of great commercial interest and may offer solution to many of the scientific problems of the current world. PMID:25051096

  18. A Versatile Ion Injector at KACST

    SciTech Connect

    El Ghazaly, M. O. A. [NCMP, KACST, 11442 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, Faculty of science, King Khalid University, PO Box 9003 Abha (Saudi Arabia); Behery, S. A.; Almuqhim, A. A. [NCMP, KACST, 11442 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Papash, A. I. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Welsch, C. P. [Cockcroft Institute and University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-27

    A versatile ion-beam injector is presently being constructed at the National Centre for Mathematics and Physics (NCMP) at the King Abdul-Aziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Saudi Arabia. This versatile injector will provide an electrostatic storage ring with high-quality ion beams of energies up to 30 keV per charge q. It will also allow for crossed-beams experiments in single-pass setups. The injector has been designed to include beams from two different ion sources, switched by a 90 deg. deflection setup, and to allow for matching of the beam parameters to the Twiss parameters of the ring. The injector is equipped with two crossed beam-lines (inlets), with duplicated beam extraction and acceleration systems. As part of the initial setup, a simple electric discharge ion source has been developed for commissioning of the whole injector. In this paper, we report on the ion optics layout and the design parameters of the injector.

  19. [Chemical principles and bioactivities of blueberry].

    PubMed

    Chen, Chieh-fu; Li, Ya-dong; Xu, Zhe

    2010-04-01

    The bioactive principles contained in blueberries (Vaccinium) are various kind of anthocyanins (anthocyanidins, or phenolic aglycone, conjugated with sugar), chlorogenic acid, flavonids, alpha-linolenic acid, pterostilbene, resveratrol, and vitamins. After oral administration, anthocyanins can pass through blood-brain barrier and thus appear in various organs and brain. Improve visual function by increasing rhodopsin regeneration and ocular health is the earliest reported bioactivities of anthocyanin. Recent studies demonstrated the benefit of blueberries to prevent the age-related chronic diseases such as cancer, diabeties, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, neurodegeneration, obesity, and osteoporosis through its apoptosis, antioxidant, antiinflammation, and antiangiogenesis effects. Blueberries can eradicate microorganisms for the prevention of symptomatic urinary tract infections in women. Thus, blueberries are recognized as one of the most nutritious foods and cultivated worldwide. However, how to prolong the shelving time of fresh fruit, well utilize the leaf and stem to isolate the bioactive chemicals, improve quality consistency of juicy and dry products, all should be further concerned. PMID:21355205

  20. Bioactive proteins and peptides in foods.

    PubMed

    Walther, Barbara; Sieber, Robert

    2011-03-01

    Increasing amounts of data demonstrate a bioactive role of proteins and peptides above and beyond their nutritional impact. The focus of the investigations has mainly been on vitamin- and mineral-binding proteins, on antimicrobial, immunosuppressing/-modulatory proteins, and on proteins with enzyme inhibitory activity as well as on hormones and growth factors from different food proteins; most research has been performed on milk proteins. Because of their molecular size, intact absorption of proteins in the human gastrointestinal tract is limited. Therefore, most of the proteins with biological functions show physiological activity in the gastrointestinal tract by enhancing nutrient absorption, inhibiting enzymes, and modulating the immune system to defend against pathogens. Peptides are released during fermentation or digestion from food proteins by proteolytic enzymes; such peptides have been found mainly in milk. Some of these released peptides exert biological activities such as opiate-like, antihypertensive, mineral-binding, antioxidative, antimicrobial, immuno-, and cytomodulating activity. Intact absorption of these smaller peptides is more likely than that of the larger proteins. Consequently, other organs than the gastrointestinal tract are possible targets for their biological functions. Bioactive proteins as well as bioactive peptides are part of a balanced diet. It is possible to accumulate bioactive peptides in food, for example by using specific microorganisms in fermented dairy products. Although bioactive peptides have been the subject of several studies in vitro and in vivo, their health potential is still under investigation. Up to now, the Commission of European Communities has not (yet) authorized any health claims for bioactive proteins and peptides from food. PMID:22139569

  1. Investigation of bioactivity and cell effects of nano-porous sol-gel derived bioactive glass film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhijun; Ji, Huijiao; Hu, Xiaomeng; Teng, Yu; Zhao, Guiyun; Mo, Lijuan; Zhao, Xiaoli; Chen, Weibo; Qiu, Jianrong; Zhang, Ming

    2013-11-01

    In orthopedic surgery, bioactive glass film coating is extensively studied to improve the synthetic performance of orthopedic implants. A lot of investigations have confirmed that nano-porous structure in bioactive glasses can remarkably improve their bioactivity. Nevertheless, researches on preparation of nano-porous bioactive glasses in the form of film coating and their cell response activities are scarce. Herein, we report the preparation of nano-porous bioactive glass film on commercial glass slide based on a sol-gel technique, together with the evaluation of its in vitro bioactivity through immersion in simulated body fluid and monitoring the precipitation of apatite-like layer. Cell responses of the samples, including attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, were also investigated using BMSCS (bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells) as a model. The results presented here provide some basic information on structural influence of bioactive glass film on the improvement of bioactivity and cellular effects.

  2. A new, versatile Stirling energy conversion unit

    SciTech Connect

    Meijer, R.J.; Ziph, B.

    1982-08-01

    A new concept in Stirling engine technology is embodied in the ''Base Engine'' now being developed at Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc. This is a versatile energy conversion unit suitable for many different applications and heat sources. The Base Engine, rated at 40 kw at 2800 rpm, is a four cylinder, double acting, variable displacement Stirling engine. It incorporates remote-heating technology with a stacked-heat-exchanger configuration and a liquid metal heat pipe connected to a distinctly separate combustor or other heat source. It specifically emphasizes high efficiency over a wide range of operating conditions, long life, low manufacturing cost and low material cost. This paper describes the Base Engine, its design philosophy and approach, its projected performance, and some of its more attractive applications.

  3. How versatile are inositol phosphate kinases?

    PubMed Central

    Shears, Stephen B

    2004-01-01

    This review assesses the extent and the significance of catalytic versatility shown by several inositol phosphate kinases: the inositol phosphate multikinase, the reversible Ins(1,3,4) P (3)/Ins(3,4,5,6) P (4) kinase, and the kinases that synthesize diphosphoinositol polyphosphates. Particular emphasis is placed upon data that are relevant to the situation in vivo. It will be shown that catalytic promiscuity towards different inositol phosphates is not typically an evolutionary compromise, but instead is sometimes exploited to facilitate tight regulation of physiological processes. This multifunctionality can add to the complexity with which inositol signalling pathways interact. This review also assesses some proposed additional functions for the catalytic domains, including transcriptional regulation, protein kinase activity and control by molecular 'switching', all in the context of growing interest in 'moonlighting' (gene-sharing) proteins. PMID:14567754

  4. Versatile aluminum alloy surface with various wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Baiping; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Various geometric microstructures on aluminum alloy surfaces were fabricated simply through SiC paper rubbing, and the wettability of the obtained surfaces was investigated thoroughly. The water contact angle increased firstly with the increasing particle size of the sandpaper, and then declined with further increase of the grits size, exhibiting a hydrophilic-hydrophobic-hydrophilic transition. The effect of surface geometric microstructure on the wetting behavior of aluminum alloy can be well rationalized in terms of the Cassie-Baxter model by considering the surface energy gradient. The present results not only enhance the in-depth understanding of the mechanism for the significant role of surface microstructure on the wettability of aluminum alloy, but also explore promising applications of versatile metallic surface in industries.

  5. Versatile microcomputer-based temperature controller

    SciTech Connect

    Yarberry, V.R.

    1980-09-01

    The wide range of thermal responses required in laboratory and scientific equipment requires a temperature controller with a great deal of flexibility. While a number of analog temperature controllers are commercially available, they have certain limitations, such as inflexible parameter control or insufficient precision. Most lack digital interface capabilities--a necessity when the temperature controller is part of a computer-controlled automatic data acquisition system. We have developed an extremely versatile microcomputer-based temperature controller to fulfill this need in a variety of equipment. The control algorithm used allows optimal tailoring of parameters to control overshoot, response time, and accuracy. This microcomputer-based temperature controller can be used as a standalone instrument (with a teletype used to enter para-meters), or it can be integrated into a data acquisition system (with a computer used to pass parameters by way of an IEE-488 instrumentation bus).

  6. Bioactive borosilicate glass scaffolds: in vitro degradation and bioactivity behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Liu; Wenhai Huang; Hailuo Fu; Aihua Yao; Deping Wang; Haobo Pan; William W. Lu; Xinquan Jiang; Xiuli Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Bioactive borosilicate glass scaffolds with the pores of several hundred micrometers and a competent compressive strength\\u000a were prepared through replication method. The in vitro degradation and bioactivity behaviors of the scaffolds have been investigated by immersing the scaffolds statically in diluted\\u000a phosphate solution at 37°C, up to 360 h. To monitor the degradation progress of the scaffolds, the amount of leaching elements

  7. Characterization and in vitro Bioactivity of Zinc-containing Bioactive Glass and Glass-ceramics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui Lin Du; Jiang Chang; Si Yu Ni; Wan Yin Zhai; Jun Ying Wang

    2006-01-01

    Zinc-containing glass is prepared by the substitution of CaO in 58S bioactive glass with 0.5 and 4 wt% ZnO, and glass-ceramics are obtained by heat-treating the glass at 1200 C. The bending strength and in vitro bioactivity of the glass and glass-ceramics are evaluated. The results indicate that Zn promotes the crystallization of SiO2 and wollastonite in glass-ceramics, and proper

  8. Bromophenols in Marine Algae and Their Bioactivities

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming; Hansen, Poul Erik; Lin, Xiukun

    2011-01-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols that have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-thrombotic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress of these marine algal biomaterials, with respect to structure, bioactivities, and their potential application as pharmaceuticals. PMID:21822416

  9. Marine Bioactives and Potential Application in Sports

    PubMed Central

    Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Gemello, Eugenio; Riccioni, Graziano; D’Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2014-01-01

    An enriched diet with antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, ?-carotene and phenolic compounds, has always been suggested to improve oxidative stress, preventing related diseases. In this respect, marine natural product (MNP), such as COX inhibitors, marine steroids, molecules interfering with factors involved in the modulation of gene expression (such as NF-?B), macrolides, many antioxidant agents, thermogenic substances and even substances that could help the immune system and that result in the protection of cartilage, have been recently gaining attention. The marine world represents a reserve of bioactive ingredients, with considerable potential as functional food. Substances, such as chitin, chitosan, n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive peptides, can provide several health benefits, such as the reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. In addition, new marine bioactive substances with potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and thermogenic capacity may provide health benefits and performance improvement, especially in those who practice physical activity, because of their increased free radical and Reacting Oxygen Species (ROS) production during exercise, and, particularly, in athletes. The aim of this review is to examine the potential pharmacological properties and application of many marine bioactive substances in sports. PMID:24796298

  10. Versatile hemidesmosomal linker proteins: structure and function.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Pratik R; Vaidya, Milind M

    2015-04-01

    Hemidesmosomes are anchoring junctions which connect basal epidermal cells to the extracellular matrix. In complex epithelia like skin, hemidesmosomes are composed of transmembrane proteins like ?6?4 integrin, BP180, CD151 and cytoplasmic proteins like BPAG1e and plectin. BPAG1e and plectin are plakin family cytolinker proteins which anchor intermediate filament proteins i.e. keratins to the hemidesmosomal transmembrane proteins. Mutations in BPAG1e and plectin lead to severe skin blistering disorders. Recent reports indicate that these hemidesmosomal linker proteins play a role in various cellular processes like cell motility and cytoskeleton dynamics apart from their known anchoring function. In this review, we will discuss their role in structural and signaling functions. PMID:25421866

  11. Self-reinforced composites of bioabsorbable polymer and bioactive glass with different bioactive glass contents. Part I: Initial mechanical properties and bioactivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Niemelä; H. Niiranen; M. Kellomäki; P. Törmälä

    2005-01-01

    Spherical bioactive glass 13–93 particles, with a particle size distribution of 50–125?m, were combined with bioabsorbable poly-l,dl-lactide 70\\/30 using twin-screw extrusion. The composite rods containing 0, 20, 30, 40 and 50wt% of bioactive glass were further self-reinforced by drawing to a diameter of approximately 3mm. The bioactive glass spheres were well dispersed and the open pores were formed on the

  12. Skin, Reactive Oxygen Species, and Circadian Clocks

    PubMed Central

    Ndiaye, Mary A.; Nihal, Minakshi; Wood, Gary S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Skin, a complex organ and the body's first line of defense against environmental insults, plays a critical role in maintaining homeostasis in an organism. This balance is maintained through a complex network of cellular machinery and signaling events, including those regulating oxidative stress and circadian rhythms. These regulatory mechanisms have developed integral systems to protect skin cells and to signal to the rest of the body in the event of internal and environmental stresses. Recent Advances: Interestingly, several signaling pathways and many bioactive molecules have been found to be involved and even important in the regulation of oxidative stress and circadian rhythms, especially in the skin. It is becoming increasingly evident that these two regulatory systems may, in fact, be interconnected in the regulation of homeostasis. Important examples of molecules that connect the two systems include serotonin, melatonin, vitamin D, and vitamin A. Critical Issues: Excessive reactive oxygen species and/or dysregulation of antioxidant system and circadian rhythms can cause critical errors in maintaining proper barrier function and skin health, as well as overall homeostasis. Unfortunately, the modern lifestyle seems to contribute to increasing alterations in redox balance and circadian rhythms, thereby posing a critical problem for normal functioning of the living system. Future Directions: Since the oxidative stress and circadian rhythm systems seem to have areas of overlap, future research needs to be focused on defining the interactions between these two important systems. This may be especially important in the skin where both systems play critical roles in protecting the whole body. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2982–2996. PMID:24111846

  13. Examine Your Skin

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Finding ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Finding ...

  14. Polymer photonic sensing skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Zhang, C.; Webb, D. J.; Van Hoe, B.; Van Steenberge, G.; Kalli, K.; Berghmans, F.; Thienpont, H.; Urbanczyk, W.; Sugden, K.; Peng, G.-D.

    2010-09-01

    A highly flexible sensing skin with embedded polymer optical fibre Bragg gratings is characterised The response to pressure and strain compare favourably to a similar skin instrumented with silica fibre Bragg grating sensors.

  15. Healthy Skin Matters

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or itchy, try a moisturizing cream or lotion. Enjoy being in the sun—but protect your skin Your skin produces vitamin D when it is exposed to sunshine. Vitamin D helps keep your bones and other body systems healthy. However, too much sun can damage your skin and increase your ...

  16. [Dermatology and skin color].

    PubMed

    Petit, Antoine

    2010-09-01

    Melanin is the pigment that is responsible for skin, hair and eye colours. Genetics and sun exposure are the two key factors that determine skin pigmentation. In dermatology, skin colours is significant, not only for semiology and diagnosis, but also for epidemiology and wounds healing. PMID:20963977

  17. Biology of Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Alain

    1983-01-01

    Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

  18. Skin Care and Aging

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you, see your doctor. For More Information About Skin Care and Aging American Academy of Dermatology 1-866- ... Shingles Can We Prevent Aging? Also of Interest Skin Care and Aging - NIHSeniorHealth Skin Cancer - NIHSeniorHealth Sun Safety - ...

  19. Buried nanoantenna arrays: versatile antireflection coating.

    PubMed

    Kabiri, Ali; Girgis, Emad; Capasso, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Reflection is usually a detrimental phenomenon in many applications such as flat-panel-displays, solar cells, photodetectors, infrared sensors, and lenses. Thus far, to control and suppress the reflection from a substrate, numerous techniques including dielectric interference coatings, surface texturing, adiabatic index matching, and scattering from plasmonic nanoparticles have been investigated. A new technique is demonstrated to manage and suppress reflection from lossless and lossy substrates. It provides a wider flexibility in design versus previous methods. Reflection from a surface can be suppressed over a narrowband, wideband, or multiband frequency range. The antireflection can be dependent or independent of the incident wave polarization. Moreover, antireflection at a very wide incidence angle can be attained. The reflection from a substrate is controlled by a buried nanoantenna array, a structure composed of (1) a subwavelength metallic array and (2) a dielectric cover layer referred to as a superstrate. The material properties and thickness of the superstrate and nanoantennas' geometry and periodicity control the phase and intensity of the wave circulating inside the superstrate cavity. A minimum reflectance of 0.02% is achieved in various experiments in the mid-infrared from a silicon substrate. The design can be integrated in straightforward way in optical devices. The proposed structure is a versatile AR coating to optically impedance matches any substrate to free space in selected any narrow and broadband spectral response across the entire visible and infrared spectrum. PMID:24266700

  20. Roller presses -- Versatile equipment for mineral processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pietsch, W. [Koppern Equipment, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Roller presses were first invented in the middle of the 19th century for the economical size enlargement of coal fines as fuels. In addition to contemporary coal briquetting, in fields such as smokeless fuel and form-coke, it was found that redesigned and modernized roller presses, which are now capable of exerting high forces, are versatile machines for many tasks in mineral processing. Today they are used for: the classic pressure agglomeration and the new high pressure comminution. In pressure agglomeration, the characteristics of fine minerals are improved by forming briquettes or granulated products from compacts. During size enlargement with roller presses briquettes are directly obtained while granular materials are produced by crushing and sizing of compacted sheets. A relatively new application of roller presses in mineral processing is the utilization of the crushing effect when brittle materials pass the nip area between the rollers. It was found that this crushing mechanism is very efficient thus saving energy, particularly in grinding circuits handling large capacities. The paper introduces the fundamentals of the process and describes the design as well as applications of modern roller presses in mineral processing.

  1. Versatile SERS sensing based on black silicon.

    PubMed

    Seniutinas, Gediminas; Gervinskas, Gediminas; Verma, Roli; Gupta, Banshi D; Lapierre, Florian; Stoddart, Paul R; Clark, Felix; McArthur, Sally L; Juodkazis, Saulius

    2015-03-01

    Black Si (b-Si) with gold or silver metal coating has been shown to be an extremely effective substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Here, we demonstrate that it is also a highly versatile SERS platform, as it supports a wide range of surface functionalizations. In particular, we report the use of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) coating and a hydrophobic coating on b-Si to establish two different sensing modalities. First, using a MIP layer on Au-coated b-Si, we show selective sensing of two closely related varieties of tetracycline. Second, a hydrophobic coating was used to concentrate the analyte adsorbed on gold colloidal nanoparticles, thus increasing the sensitivity of the measurement by an order of magnitude. In this experiment, Au nanoparticles and analyte were mixed just before SERS measurements and were concentrated by drop-drying on the super-hydrophobic b-Si. These approaches are promising for SERS measurements that are sensitive to the aging of bare plasmonic metal-coated substrates. PMID:25836894

  2. Applications of a versatile new instrument module

    SciTech Connect

    Brunson, G.S.; Arnone, G.J.

    1997-03-01

    The authors have found a number of interesting applications for the Pulse Arrival Time Recording Module (PATRM). This CAMAC module is capable of recording the arrival time of up to 4 million pulses. The result is a list of 32-bit binary numbers in which each number represents the arrival time of a single pulse expressed in terms of the number of {open_quotes}ticks{close_quotes} of a 10MHz clock which have elapsed since the beginning of the count. The versatility arises from the fact that the data list can be analyzed by whatever algorithm the authors can put into software, and that they can {open_quotes}play it back{close_quotes} as many times as desired. The authors already have the following applications: (1) Neutron multiplicity counting in waste assay. (2) Study of dead-time recovery and double pulsing in individual channels. (3) Auto-correlation analysis for Rossi-{alpha} measurements in critical systems. (4) Variable channel width multichannel scaler for delayed neutron counting. (5) Cross-correlation analysis and conventional multi-scaling. (6) Time dependent multiplicity measurements during neutron interrogation. The authors expect in the coming year to test an updated version of the PATRM which will incorporate a 100MH clock and label each pulse with the channel from which it came. The device will be configured as a single PC card installable in any high performance IBM type computer.

  3. Development of versatile multiaperture negative ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavenago, M.; Serianni, G.; Antoni, V.; Bigi, M.; De Muri, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Recchia, M.; Veltri, P.; Agostinetti, P.; Barbisan, M.; Baseggio, L.; Cervaro, V.; Cazzador, M.; Degli Agostini, F.; Franchin, L.; Kulevoy, T.; Laterza, B.; Mimo, A.; Minarello, A.; Petrenko, S.; Ravarotto, D.; Rossetto, F.; Sattin, M.; Zaniol, B.; Zucchetti, S.

    2015-04-01

    Enhancement of negative ion sources for production of large ion beams is a very active research field nowadays, driven from demand of plasma heating in nuclear fusion devices and accelerator applications. As a versatile test bench, the ion source NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization 1) is being commissioned by Consorzio RFX and INFN. The nominal beam current of 135 mA at -60 kV is divided into 9 beamlets, with multiaperture extraction electrodes. The plasma is sustained by a 2 MHz radiofrequency power supply, with a standard matching box. A High Voltage Deck (HVD) placed inside the lead shielding surrounding NIO1 contains the radiofrequency generator, the gas control, electronics and power supplies for the ion source. An autonomous closed circuit water cooling system was installed for the whole system, with a branch towards the HVD, using carefully optimized helical tubing. Insulation transformer is installed in a nearby box. Tests of several magnetic configurations can be performed. Status of experiments, measured spectra and plasma luminosity are described. Upgrades of magnetic filter, beam calorimeter and extraction grid and related theoretical issues are reviewed.

  4. The mixture of different parts of Nelumbo nucifera and two bioactive components inhibited tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jung, Su-Young; Jung, Won-Seok; Jung, Ho-Kyung; Lee, Gyeong-Hwan; Cho, Jung-Hee; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Choi, In-Young

    2014-01-01

    Melanin is the pigment responsible for the color of the eyes, hair, and skin in humans. Tyrosinase is well known to be the key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. JKTM-12 is composed of the flowers, roots, seeds, and receptacles of Nelumbo nucifera (lotus). In this study, JKTM-12 was investigated for its inhibitory effects on tyrosinase activity and melanin biosynthesis in B16F10 melanoma cells. Moreover, two main bioactive compounds (hyperoside and astragalin) were found from the receptacles of N. nucifera, which are used as the main material of JKTM-12. JKTM-12 was shown to inhibit tyrosinase activity and melanin biosynthesis in alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-stimulated B16F10 melanoma cells. Hyperoside and astragalin, which are the main bioactive compounds of JKTM-12, not only inhibited tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis but also tyrosinase-related protein 1 and tyrosinase-related protein 2 mRNA expression without cytotoxicity at various experiment doses (0.1, 1, and 10 ?g/ml). These results suggest that JKTM-12 has the potential for skin whitening with hyperoside and astragalin as the main bioactive compounds. PMID:25898764

  5. Urostomy - stoma and skin care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... it well before you attach the pouch. Avoid skin care products that contain alcohol. These can make your ... the pouch to your skin. Use fewer special skin care products. This will make problems with your skin ...

  6. A potential wound-healing-promoting peptide from salamander skin.

    PubMed

    Mu, Lixian; Tang, Jing; Liu, Han; Shen, Chuanbin; Rong, Mingqiang; Zhang, Zhiye; Lai, Ren

    2014-09-01

    Although it is well known that wound healing proceeds incredibly quickly in urodele amphibians, such as newts and salamanders, little is known about skin-wound healing, and no bioactive/effector substance that contributes to wound healing has been identified from these animals. As a step toward understanding salamander wound healing and skin regeneration, a potential wound-healing-promoting peptide (tylotoin; KCVRQNNKRVCK) was identified from salamander skin of Tylototriton verrucosus. It shows comparable wound-healing-promoting ability (EC50=11.14 ?g/ml) with epidermal growth factor (EGF; NSDSECPLSHDGYCLHDGVCMYIEALDKYACNCVVGYIGERCQYRDLKWWELR) in a murine model of full-thickness dermal wound. Tylotoin directly enhances the motility and proliferation of keratinocytes, vascular endothelial cells, and fibroblasts, resulting in accelerated reepithelialization and granulation tissue formation in the wound site. Tylotoin also promotes the release of transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), which are essential in the wound healing response. Gene-encoded tylotoin secreted in salamander skin is possibly an effector molecule for skin wound healing. This study may facilitate understanding of the cellular and molecular events that underlie quick wound healing in salamanders.-Mu, L., Tang, J., Liu, H., Shen, C., Rong, M., Zhang, Z., Lai, R. A potential wound-healing-promoting peptide from salamander skin. PMID:24868009

  7. Microencapsulated Bioactive Agents and Method of Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The invention is directed to microcapsules encapsulating an aqueous solution of a protein, drug or other bioactive substance inside a semi-permeable membrane. The microcapsules are formed by interfacial coacervation where shear forces are limited to 0-100 dynes per square centimeter. The resulting uniform microcapsules can then be subjected to dewatering in order to cause the internal solution to become supersaturated with the dissolved substance. This dewatering allows controlled nucleation and crystallization of the dissolved substance. The crystal-filled microcapsules can be stored, keeping the encapsulated crystals in good condition for further direct use in x-ray crystallography or as injectable formulations of the dissolved drug, protein or other bioactive substance.

  8. Bioactive Foods and Ingredients for Health12

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Connie M.

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive compounds in foods have been gaining interest, and processes to consider them for public health recommendations are being discussed. However, the evidence base is difficult to assemble. It is difficult to demonstrate causality, and there often is not a single compound–single effect relation. Furthermore, health benefits may be due to metabolites produced by the host or gut microbiome rather than the food constituent per se. Properties that can be measured in a food may not translate to in vivo health effects. Compounds that are being pursued may increase gut microbial diversity, improve endothelial function, improve cognitive function, reduce bone loss, and so forth. A new type of bioactive component is emerging from epigenetic modifications by our diet, including microRNA transfer from our diet, which can regulate expression of human genes. Policy processes are needed to establish the level of evidence needed to determine dietary advice and policy recommendations and to set research agendas. PMID:24829482

  9. Designing Bioactive Delivery Systems for Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Hillary E.

    2010-01-01

    The direct infusion of macromolecules into defect sites generally does not impart adequate physiological responses. Without the protection of delivery systems, inductive molecules may likely redistribute away from their desired locale and are vulnerable to degradation. In order to achieve efficacy, large doses supplied at interval time periods are necessary, often at great expense and ensuing detrimental side effects. The selection of a delivery system plays an important role in the rate of re-growth and functionality of regenerating tissue: not only do the release kinetics of inductive molecules and their consequent bioactivities need to be considered, but also how the delivery system interacts and integrates with its surrounding host environment. In the current review, we describe the means of release of macromolecules from hydrogels, polymeric microspheres, and porous scaffolds along with the selection and utilization of bioactive delivery systems in a variety of tissue-engineering strategies. PMID:20676773

  10. Enhancing orthopedic implant bioactivity: refining the nanotopography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guocheng; Moya, Sergio; Lu, ZuFu; Gregurec, Danijela; Zreiqat, Hala

    2015-04-01

    Advances in nanotechnology open up new possibilities to produce biomimetic surfaces that resemble the cell in vivo growth environment at a nanoscale level. Nanotopographical changes of biomaterials surfaces can positively impact the bioactivity and ossointegration properties of orthopedic and dental implants. This review introduces nanofabrication techniques currently used or those with high potential for use as surface modification of biomedical implants. The interactions of nanotopography with water, proteins and cells are also discussed, as they largely determine the final success of the implants. Due to the well-documented effects of surface chemistry and microtopography on the bioactivity of the implant, we here elaborate on the ability of the nanofabrication techniques to combine the dual (multi) modification of surface chemistry and/or microtopography. PMID:25955126

  11. Bioactive calcium silicate ceramics and coatings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuanyong; Morra, Marco; Carpi, Angelo; Li, Baoe

    2008-10-01

    CaO-SiO2 based ceramics have been regarded as potential candidates for artificial bone due to their excellent bone bioactivity and biocompatibility. However, they cannot be used as implants under a heavy load because of their poor mechanical properties, in particular low fracture toughness. Plasma spraying CaO-SiO2 based ceramic coatings onto titanium alloys can expand their application to the hard tissue replacement under a heavy load. Plasma sprayed wollastonite, dicalcium silicate and diopside coatings have excellent bone bioactivity and high bonding strength to titanium alloys. It is possible that these plasma sprayed CaO-SiO2 based ceramic coatings will be applied in clinic after they are widely and systematically researched. PMID:18771893

  12. The Skin Deep Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) (AAAS; )

    2010-05-26

    From blemishes to suntans, young people are naturally fascinated by skin. The Skin Deep Project takes advantage of this curiosity, introducing students in grades 6 through 12 to the science of skin, including its role in protecting the body from invading microbes, maintaining temperature, and sensing the environment. As they learn how their skin protects them, they also learn how they can protect their skinâ??from the sunâ??s ultraviolet rays and from germs that can cause acne and other blemishes. With skin cancer cases increasing and more young people being affected, it is imperative that students understand what tools they have to protect themselves.

  13. Bioactive polar triterpenoids from Melilotus messanensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco A. Macías; Ana M. Simonet; Juan Carlos G. Galindo; Pedro C. Pacheco; Jose A. Sánchez

    1998-01-01

    In addition to the known 3-oxoplatanic acid, melilotigenin and soyasapogenol E, two new lupane (messagenic acids F, G), two nor-lupane triterpenic acids (messagenic acids H, I), and three new oleanane triterpenes (melilotigenins B-D) were isolated and characterized from the polar bioactive fractions of Melilotus messanensis. The synthesis of messagenic acids D, F, G, betulonic acid and 3,29-dioxolup-20(30)-en-28-oic acid has been

  14. [Multiple emulsions; bioactive compounds and functional foods].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The continued appearance of scientific evidence about the role of diet and/or its components in health and wellness, has favored the emergence of functional foods which currently constitute one of the chief factors driving the development of new products. The application of multiple emulsions opens new possibilities in the design and development of functional foods. Multiple emulsions can be used as an intermediate product (food ingredient) into technological strategies normally used in the optimization of the presence of bioactive compounds in healthy and functional foods. This paper presents a summary of the types, characteristics and formation of multiple emulsions, possible location of bioactive compounds and their potential application in the design and preparation of healthy and functional foods. Such applications are manifested particularly relevant in relation to quantitative and qualitative aspects of lipid material (reduced fat/calories and optimization of fatty acid profile), encapsulation of bioactive compounds mainly hydrophilic and sodium reduction. This strategy offers interesting possibilities regarding masking flavours and improving sensory characteristics of foods. PMID:24160194

  15. Promiscuity progression of bioactive compounds over time

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ye; Jasial, Swarit; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    In the context of polypharmacology, compound promiscuity is rationalized as the ability of small molecules to specifically interact with multiple targets. To study promiscuity progression of bioactive compounds in detail, nearly 1 million compounds and more than 5.2 million activity records were analyzed. Compound sets were assembled by applying different data confidence criteria and selecting compounds with activity histories over many years. On the basis of release dates, compounds and activity records were organized on a time course, which ultimately enabled monitoring data growth and promiscuity progression over nearly 40 years, beginning in 1976. Surprisingly low degrees of promiscuity were consistently detected for all compound sets and there were only small increases in promiscuity over time. In fact, most compounds had a constant degree of promiscuity, including compounds with an activity history of 10 or 20 years. Moreover, during periods of massive data growth, beginning in 2007, promiscuity degrees also remained constant or displayed only minor increases, depending on the activity data confidence levels. Considering high-confidence data, bioactive compounds currently interact with 1.5 targets on average, regardless of their origins, and display essentially constant degrees of promiscuity over time. Taken together, our findings provide expectation values for promiscuity progression and magnitudes among bioactive compounds as activity data further grow.

  16. Polydopamine-Based Simple and Versatile Surface Modification of Polymeric Nano Drug Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joonyoung; Brust, Tarsis F.; Lee, Hong Jae; Lee, Sang Cheon; Watts, Val J.; Yeo, Yoon

    2014-01-01

    The surface of a polymeric nanoparticle (NP) is often functionalized with cell-interactive ligands and/or additional polymeric layers to control NP interaction with cells and proteins. However, such modification is not always straightforward when the surface is not chemically reactive. For this reason, most NP functionalization processes employ reactive linkers or coupling agents or involve pre-functionalization of the polymer, which are complicated and inefficient. Moreover, pre-functionalized polymers can lose the ability to encapsulate and retain a drug if the added ligands change chemical properties of the polymer. To overcome this challenge, we use dopamine polymerization as a way of functionalizing NP surfaces. This method includes brief incubation of the pre-formed NPs in a weak alkaline solution of dopamine, followed by secondary incubation with desired ligands. Using this method, we have functionalized poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs with three representative surface modifiers: a small molecule (folate), a peptide (Arg-Gly-Asp), and a polymer [poly(carboxybetaine methacrylate)]. We confirmed that the modified NPs showed the expected cellular interactions with no cytotoxicity or residual bioactivity of dopamine. The dopamine polymerization method is a simple and versatile surface modification method, applicable to a variety of NP drug carriers irrespective of their chemical reactivity and the types of ligands. PMID:24628245

  17. Metadata Authoring with Versatility and Extensibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, Janine; Olsen, Lola

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) assists the scientific community in the discovery of and linkage to Earth science data sets and related services. The GCMD holds over 13,800 data set descriptions in Directory Interchange Format (DIF) and 700 data service descriptions in Service Entry Resource Format (SERF), encompassing the disciplines of geology, hydrology, oceanography, meteorology, and ecology. Data descriptions also contain geographic coverage information and direct links to the data, thus allowing researchers to discover data pertaining to a geographic location of interest, then quickly acquire those data. The GCMD strives to be the preferred data locator for world-wide directory-level metadata. In this vein, scientists and data providers must have access to intuitive and efficient metadata authoring tools. Existing GCMD tools are attracting widespread usage; however, a need for tools that are portable, customizable and versatile still exists. With tool usage directly influencing metadata population, it has become apparent that new tools are needed to fill these voids. As a result, the GCMD has released a new authoring tool allowing for both web-based and stand-alone authoring of descriptions. Furthermore, this tool incorporates the ability to plug-and-play the metadata format of choice, offering users options of DIF, SERF, FGDC, ISO or any other defined standard. Allowing data holders to work with their preferred format, as well as an option of a stand-alone application or web-based environment, docBUlLDER will assist the scientific community in efficiently creating quality data and services metadata.

  18. Putting microbes to work: dairy fermentation, cell factories and bioactive peptides. Part II: bioactive peptide functions.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Maria; Stanton, Catherine; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Ross, R Paul

    2007-04-01

    A variety of milk-derived biologically active peptides have been shown to exert both functional and physiological roles in vitro and in vivo, and because of this are of particular interest for food science and nutrition applications. Biological activities associated with such peptides include immunomodulatory, antibacterial, anti-hypertensive and opioid-like properties. Milk proteins are recognized as a primary source of bioactive peptides, which can be encrypted within the amino acid sequence of dairy proteins, requiring proteolysis for release and activation. Fermentation of milk proteins using the proteolytic systems of lactic acid bacteria is an attractive approach for generation of functional foods enriched in bioactive peptides given the low cost and positive nutritional image associated with fermented milk drinks and yoghurt. In Part II of this review, we focus on examples of milk-derived bioactive peptides and their associated health benefits, to illustrate the potential of this area for the design and improvement of future functional foods. PMID:17407211

  19. Skin Bacteria and Skin Disinfection Reconsidered

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sydney Selwyn; Harold Ellis

    1972-01-01

    Large discrepancies in the available data on skin microbiology stimulated investigations of the number, interactions, and location of commensals and the true efficiency of disinfection by using skin biopsy, culture of frozen sections, and other methods.Most current procedures were less than 0·5% as sensitive as the biopsy method described. This gave mean bacterial counts ranging from 4,400\\/cm2 on the breast

  20. A Versatile Medium for Cultivating Methanogenic Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Khelaifia, Saber; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Background Methanobrevibacter smithii, Methanobrevibacter oralis, Methanosphaera stadtmanae, Methanomassilicoccus luminyensis and Methanobrevibacter arboriphilicus have been cultured from human digestive microbiota. Each one of these fastidious methanogenic archaea requires a specific medium for its growth, hampering their routine isolation and the culture. Methodology/Principal Findings A new culture medium here referred as SAB medium was optimized and tested to cultivate methanogens associated with human microbiota, as well as two mesophile methanogens Methanobacterium beijingense and Methanosaeta concilii. It was further tested for the isolation of archaea from 20 human stool specimens including 10 specimens testing positive for PCR detection of M. smithii. After inoculating 105 colony-forming-unit archaea/mL or 1 g stool specimen in parallel in SAB medium and reference DSMZ medium in the presence of negative controls, growth of archaea was determined by optical microscopy and the measurement of methane production by gas chromatography. While the negative controls remained sterile, all tested archaea grew significantly more rapidly in SAB medium than in reference medium in 1–3 days (P<0.05, Student test). Among PCR-positive stool specimens, 10/10 grew in the SAB medium, 6/10 in DSMZ 119 medium, 5/10 in DSMZ 322 medium and 3/10 in DSMZ 334 c medium. Four out of ten PCR-negative stool specimens grew after a 3-week incubation in the SAB-medium whereas no growth was detected in any of the reference media. 16S rRNA gene sequencing yielded 99–100% sequence similarity with reference M. smithii except for one specimen that yielded 99–100% sequence similarity with reference Methanobrevibacter millerae. Conclusions/Significance SAB medium allows for the versatile isolation and growth of methanogenic archaea associated with human gut microbiota including the archaea missed by inoculation of reference media. Implementation of the SAB medium in veterinary and medical microbiology laboratories will ease the routine culture-based detection of methanogenic archaea in clinical and environmental specimens. PMID:23613876

  1. Skin protection for hairdressers.

    PubMed

    Skudlik, Christoph; John, Swen Malte

    2007-01-01

    The application of protective creams in the hairdressing trade forms part of a complex concept for the prevention of occupational skin disorders. To date, no comparative controlled intervention studies have been carried out using different skin-protective creams. Previously published skin protection plans concerning barrier creams for the hairdressing trade are fairly general or rudimentary, reflecting our still limited knowledge on the subject. Bioengineering studies have even demonstrated a paradoxical effect of a certain skin-protective foam designed for hairdressers. Regarding other barrier creams, a certain protective effect could however be shown in studies concerning exposure to wetness and detergents. Pre-exposition skin protection seems to be of particular relevance. Thus, in principle, the regular application of adequate skin protection creams can be recommended in the hairdressing trade, although the protective effect should not be overvalued. PMID:17312363

  2. The skin microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Grice, Elizabeth A.; Segre, Julia A.

    2012-01-01

    The skin is the human body’s largest organ, colonized by a diverse milieu of microorganisms, most of which are harmless or even beneficial to their host. Colonization is driven by the ecology of the skin surface, which is highly variable depending on topographical location, endogenous host factors and exogenous environmental factors. The cutaneous innate and adaptive immune responses can modulate the skin microbiota, but the microbiota also functions in educating the immune system. The development of molecular methods to identify microorganisms has led to an emerging view of the resident skin bacteria as highly diverse and variable. An enhanced understanding of the skin microbiome is necessary to gain insight into microbial involvement in human skin disorders and to enable novel promicrobial and antimicrobial therapeutic approaches for their treatment. PMID:21407241

  3. Skin Immune System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan D. Bos; Rosalie M. Luiten

    The skin is, in weight, the largest organ of the human body. Its primary role is that of a physical and biological barrier.\\u000a This principal function is most apparent in the skin’s relative lack of permeability for agents from outside, including microbes\\u000a and parasites, but also for water and water-soluble compounds. The resistance to exogenous influences is mainly the result

  4. Electrospinning of Bioactive Dex-PAA Hydrogel Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louie, Katherine Boyook

    In this work, a novel method is developed for making nano- and micro-fibrous hydrogels capable of preventing the rejection of implanted materials. This is achieved by either (1) mimicking the native cellular environment, to exert fine control over the cellular response or (2) acting as a protective barrier, to camouflage the foreign nature of a material and evade recognition by the immune system. Comprehensive characterization and in vitro studies described here provide a foundation for developing substrates for use in clinical applications. Hydrogel dextran and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) fibers are formed via electrospinning, in sizes ranging from nanometers to microns in diameter. While "as-electrospun" fibers are continuous in length, sonication is used to fragment fibers into short fiber "bristles" and generate nano- and micro- fibrous surface coatings over a wide range of topographies. Dex-PAA fibrous surfaces are chemically modified, and then optimized and characterized for non-fouling and ECM-mimetic properties. The non-fouling nature of fibers is verified, and cell culture studies show differential responses dependent upon chemical, topographical and mechanical properties. Dex-PAA fibers are advantageously unique in that (1) a fine degree of control is possible over three significant parameters critical for modifying cellular response: topography, chemistry and mechanical properties, over a range emulating that of native cellular environments, (2) the innate nature of the material is non-fouling, providing an inert background for adding back specific bioactive functionality, and (3) the fibers can be applied as a surface coating or comprise the scaffold itself. This is the first reported work of dex-PAA hydrogel fibers formed via electrospinning and thermal cross-linking, and unique to this method, no toxic solvents or cross-linking agents are needed to create hydrogels or for surface attachment. This is also the first reported work of using sonication to fragment electrospun hydrogel fibers, and in which surface coatings were made via simple electrostatic interaction and dehydration. These versatile features enable fibrous surface coatings to be applied to virtually any material. Results of this research broadly impact the design of biomaterials which contact cells in the body by directing the consequent cell-material interaction.

  5. Skin tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Bannasch, H; Föhn, M; Unterberg, T; Bach, A D; Weyand, B; Stark, G B

    2003-10-01

    The coverage of extensive wounds with viable autologous keratinocytes remains the only option of treatment if autologous donor skin is not obtainable. There is evidence that proliferating keratinocytes, as suspended cells or as a single layer, are adequate for wound closure. Understanding keratinocyte-matrix interactions not only allows us to influence keratinocyte outgrowth, adhesion, and migration, but may also guide us to modify matrix molecules for enhancing keratinocyte take. Further approaches may include the generation of genetically manipulated keratinocytes, which allow the use of an off-the-shelf epidermal replacement. As surgeons, our goal is to help burn patients with the best quality of skin in the shortest time possible. As tissue engineers, we have not achieved the goal of a universal skin product. By continually reviewing the options and using them, we can at least use the proper material in the adequate situation. Because of the limited resources, the need for comparisons of clinical effectiveness and cost are ever more important. As anatomy and physiology of engineered skin substitutes improve, they will become more similar to native skin autografts. Improvement of skin substitutes will result from inclusion of additional cell types (eg, melanocytes) and from modifications of culture media and scaffolds. Skin-substitute materials may be able to stimulate regeneration rather than repair, and tissue-engineered skin may match the quality of split-skin autografts, our present gold standard. PMID:14621305

  6. [Skin and eyes].

    PubMed

    Kohl, E; Hillenkamp, J; Landthaler, M; Szeimies, R-M

    2010-03-01

    Numerous diseases affect both skin and eyes due to similar ontogenetic origin. The eye is the second most common site of melanoma after the skin. The eyelids are predisposed for development of toxic and allergic dermatitis as the skin in this region is four times thinner than the other facial skin. The differential diagnosis must include atopic and seborrhoeic eyelid dermatitis. Atopic and vernal keratoconjunctivitis are associated with atopic eczema. Various immunobullous disorders involve the conjunctiva with varying severity. Side effects of dermatologic treatments with glucocorticoids, antimalarials, psoralens, retinoids, or tetracyclines may involve the eye. PMID:20309669

  7. [Skin and eyes].

    PubMed

    Kohl, E; Hillenkamp, J; Landthaler, M; Szeimies, R-M

    2009-01-01

    Numerous diseases affect both skin and eyes due to similar ontogenetic origin. The eye is the second most common site of melanoma after the skin. The eyelids are predisposed for development of toxic and allergic dermatitis as the skin in this region is four times thinner than the other facial skin. The differential diagnosis must include atopic and seborrhoeic eyelid dermatitis. Atopic and vernal keratoconjunctivitis are associated with atopic eczema. Various immunobullous disorders involve the conjunctiva with varying severity. Side effects of dermatologic treatments with glucocorticoids, antimalarials, psoralens, retinoids, or tetracyclines may involve the eye. PMID:19130027

  8. Skin as an Organ

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

    2006-03-14

    This lesson is part of the Skin Deep Project, which examines the science behind skin. Skin Deep is developed by AAAS and funded by NeutrogenaIn this lesson, students will examine the skin and how it functions as an organ and as part of a larger body system. By taking a closer look at the anatomy and function of the integumentary system, students will further their general knowledge of organ systems in general. Further, they will benefit from realizing that any part of a system may itself be considered as a systema subsystemwith its own internal parts and interactions. Additional links are given for further inquiry.

  9. Influence of barium substitution on bioactivity, thermal and physico-mechanical properties of bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Arepalli, Sampath Kumar; Tripathi, Himanshu; Vyas, Vikash Kumar; Jain, Shubham; Suman, Shyam Kumar; Pyare, Ram; Singh, S P

    2015-04-01

    Barium with low concentration in the glasses acts as a muscle stimulant and is found in human teeth. We have made a primary study by substituting barium in the bioactive glass. The chemical composition containing (46.1-X) SiO2--24.3 Na2O-26.9 CaO-2.6 P2O5, where X=0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6mol% of BaO was chosen and melted in an electric furnace at 1400±5°C. The glasses were characterized to determine their use in biomedical applications. The nucleation and crystallization regimes were determined by DTA and the controlled crystallization was carried out by suitable heat treatment. The crystalline phase formed was identified by using XRD technique. Bioactivity of these glasses was assessed by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various time periods. The formation of hydroxy carbonate apatite (HCA) layer was identified by FTIR spectrometry, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and XRD which showed the presence of HCA as the main phase in all tested bioactive glass samples. Flexural strength and densities of bioactive glasses have been measured and found to increase with increasing the barium content. The human blood compatibility of the samples was evaluated and found to be pertinent. PMID:25686983

  10. Biomimetic component coating on 3D scaffolds using high bioactivity of mesoporous bioactive ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Hui-suk; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Khang, Dongwoo; Choi, Jungil; Kim, Hui-hoon; Kang, Minji

    2011-01-01

    Background Mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) are very attractive materials for use in bone tissue regeneration because of their extraordinarily high bone-forming bioactivity in vitro. That is, MBGs may induce the rapid formation of hydroxy apatite (HA) in simulated body fluid (SBF), which is a major inorganic component of bone extracellular matrix (ECM) and comes with both good osteoconductivity and high affinity to adsorb proteins. Meanwhile, the high bioactivity of MBGs may lead to an abrupt initial local pH variation during the initial Ca ion-leaching from MBGs at the initial transplant stage, which may induce unexpected negative effects on using them in in vivo application. In this study we suggest a new way of using MBGs in bone tissue regeneration that can improve the strength and make up for the weakness of MBGs. We applied the outstanding bone-forming bioactivity of MBG to coat the main ECM components HA and collagen on the MBG-polycarplolactone (PCL) composite scaffolds for improving their function as bone scaffolds in tissue regeneration. This precoating process can also expect to reduce initial local pH variation of MBGs. Methods and materials The MBG-PCL scaffolds were immersed in the mixed solution of the collagen and SBF at 37°C for 24 hours. The coating of ECM components on the MBG-PCL scaffolds and the effect of ECM coating on in vitro cell behaviors were confirmed. Results The ECM components were fully coated on MBG-PCL scaffolds after immersing in SBF containing dilute collagen-I solution only for 24 hours due to the high bone-forming bioactivity of MBG. Both cell affinity and osteoconductivity of MBG-PCL scaffolds were dramatically enhanced by this precoating process. Conclusion The precoating process of ECM components on MBG-PCL scaffold using a high bioactivity of MBG was not only effective in enhancing the functionality of scaffolds but also effective in eliminating the unexpected side effect. The MBG-PCL scaffold-coated ECM components ideally satisfied the required conditions of scaffold in tissue engineering, including 3D well-interconnected pore structures with high porosity, good bioactivity, enhanced cell affinity, biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and sufficient mechanical properties, and promise excellent potential application in the field of biomaterials. PMID:22072886

  11. Bioactive borate glass coatings for titanium alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laxmikanth Peddi; Richard K. Brow; Roger F. Brown

    2008-01-01

    Bioactive borate glass coatings have been developed for titanium and titanium alloys. Glasses from the Na2O–CaO–B2O3 system, modified by additions of SiO2, Al2O3, and P2O5, were characterized and compositions with thermal expansion matches to titanium were identified. Infrared and X-ray diffraction\\u000a analyses indicate that a hydroxyapatite surface layer forms on the borate glasses after exposure to a simulated body fluid

  12. Marine Nucleosides: Structure, Bioactivity, Synthesis and Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ri-Ming; Chen, Yin-Ning; Zeng, Ziyu; Gao, Cheng-Hai; Su, Xiangdong; Peng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Nucleosides are glycosylamines that structurally form part of nucleotide molecules, the building block of DNA and RNA. Both nucleosides and nucleotides are vital components of all living cells and involved in several key biological processes. Some of these nucleosides have been obtained from a variety of marine resources. Because of the biological importance of these compounds, this review covers 68 marine originated nucleosides and their synthetic analogs published up to June 2014. The review will focus on the structures, bioactivities, synthesis and biosynthetic processes of these compounds. PMID:25474189

  13. Anomalous Skin Effect Igor Kaganovich

    E-print Network

    Kaganovich, Igor

    Anomalous Skin Effect Revisited Igor Kaganovich Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory #12 to explain "simply" anomalous skin effect without abusing physics. #12;3 Outline Skin effect (Inductively Coupled Plasmas/ Lasers) ­ Normal skin effect ­ Concept of phase-mixing and scale ­ Anomalous skin effect

  14. A novel graded bioactive high adhesion implant coating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrika Brohede; Shuxi Zhao; Fredrik Lindberg; Albert Mihranyan; Johan Forsgren; Maria Strømme; Håkan Engqvist

    2009-01-01

    One method to increase the clinical success rate of metal implants is to increase their bone bonding properties, i.e. to develop a bone bioactive surface leading to reduced risks of interfacial problems. Much research has been devoted to modifying the surface of metals to make them become bioactive. Many of the proposed methods include depositing a coating on the implant.

  15. Recovery of bioactive compounds in kiwifruit juice by ultrafiltration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Cassano; L. Donato; C. Conidi; E. Drioli

    2008-01-01

    Food quality is not only a function of nutritional values but also of the presence of bioactive compounds exerting a positive effects on human health.This research was undertaken to study the influence of the ultrafiltration (UF) on the composition of some bioactive compounds of the kiwifruit juice in order to develop a natural product which can be used to fortify

  16. Time-Controlled Pulsatile Delivery Systems for Bioactive Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anil K. Anal

    2007-01-01

    In the body under physiological conditions, many vital functions are regulated by pulsed or transient release of bioactive substances at a specific time and site. Thus, to mimic the function of living systems, it is important to develop new drug delivery devices to achieve pulsed delivery of a certain amount of a bioactive compound at predetermined time intervals. The ability

  17. Bioactive substances of plant origin in food impact on genomics

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    by antioxidant properties. In the first part of this review, we indicate the main groups of bioactive compounds, it was shown, however, that the bioavailabil- ity of potential antioxidants from plant foods is generally too manipulations. bioactive compounds / antioxidants / transcription factors / AP-1 / NF-kB / PPARs / SREBPs / gene

  18. Bioactive natural products from blue-green algae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory M. L. Patterson; Linda K. Larsen; Richard E. Moore

    1994-01-01

    Since 1981 we have cultured and prepared lipophilic and hydrophilic extracts from more than 1500 strains representing some 400 species of blue-green algae. Screening for a wide variety of potentially useful bioactivities, including cytotoxic, multi-drug-resistance reversal, antifungal, and antiviral effects, has led to the discovery and identification of numerous novel bioactive metabolites including peptides, macrolides and glycosides.

  19. Ethnic skin disorders overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebat M. Halder; Pavan K. Nootheti

    2003-01-01

    With the changing demographics of the US population, there is a need to understand the variety of dermatologic disorders that manifest in ethnic groups of non-Caucasian skin types. This article provides a review of presentations and current treatments of several common dermatologic diagnoses in black, Hispanic, and Asian racial groups and compares them with the presentations in Caucasian skin. The

  20. Measuring skin reflectance parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew P. Dickens; William A. P. Smith; Hossein Ragheb; Edwin R. Hancock

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of determining skin reflectance parameters, and studies their stability and discriminating power for different individuals. Our study uses radiance data captured by a Cyberware 3030 range scanner. We analyse the data using a layered reflectance model based on the Beckmann-Kirchhoff wave scattering model. The parameters of this model are the thickness of the skin layers,

  1. Screening for skin cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Helfand; Susan M Mahon; Karen B Eden; Paul S Frame; C. Tracy Orleans

    2001-01-01

    Context: Malignant melanoma is often lethal, and its incidence in the United States has increased rapidly over the past 2 decades. Nonmelanoma skin cancer is seldom lethal, but, if advanced, can cause severe disfigurement and morbidity. Early detection and treatment of melanoma might reduce mortality, while early detection and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer might prevent major disfigurement and to

  2. Measuring and Protecting Skin

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nancy P. Moreno

    2011-01-01

    In this activity, learners compare and contrast their own skin (including the area covered) with that of an orange. This activity helps learners understand that skin is a vital part of the body and must be protected from sun damage. This lesson guide includes background information, resources, variation ideas and a bilingual (English and Spanish) handout.

  3. Mastocytosis and the skin.

    PubMed

    Soter, N A

    2000-06-01

    The most frequent site of organ involvement in individuals with any form of mastocytosis is the skin. Cutaneous lesions include urticaria pigmentosa, mastocytoma, diffuse and erythematous cutaneous mastocytosis, and telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans. The major histologic feature is an increase in the number of mast cells in the dermis. Treatment depends on the type of skin lesions. PMID:10909039

  4. Bioactive glasses: Importance of structure and properties in bone regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hench, Larry L.; Roki, Niksa; Fenn, Michael B.

    2014-09-01

    This review provides a brief background on the applications, mechanisms and genetics involved with use of bioactive glass to stimulate regeneration of bone. The emphasis is on the role of structural changes of the bioactive glasses, in particular Bioglass, which result in controlled release of osteostimulative ions. The review also summarizes the use of Raman spectroscopy, referred to hereto forward as bio-Raman spectroscopy, to obtain rapid, real time in vitro analysis of human cells in contact with bioactive glasses, and the osteostimulative dissolution ions that lead to osteogenesis. The bio-Raman studies support the results obtained from in vivo studies of bioactive glasses, as well as extensive cell and molecular biology studies, and thus offers an innovative means for rapid screening of new bioactive materials while reducing the need for animal testing.

  5. Cyanobacterial bioactive molecules - Biosynthesis and genetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vishal; Prasanna, Radha

    2012-09-30

    Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) represent a group of Gram negative photosynthetic prokaryotes, which constitute a rich source of novel bioactive compounds and enzymes, that are important from both biotechnology and industrial point of view. Toxic blooms of Microcystis, Anabaena and Nostoc are known to produce a diverse array of bioactive compounds exhibiting a broad spectrum of activity, including anti-cancer, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory activity, besides cytotoxic activities. In this context, the functional role of the majority of these compounds/enzymes, particularly in terms of the mechanism(s) of genetic and environmental regulation has remained elusive. A limited number of studies have suggested that some of the novel compound(s)/enzyme(s) may have ecological roles as allelochemicals. This compilation attempts to synthesize the available information on gene(s) responsible for the biosynthesis of these toxic compounds/enzymes in cyanobacteria and molecular basis of regulation. Emphasis has also been given from an agricultural perspective, regarding their potential as biocontrol agents. A critical evaluation of the research needs for the future and its significance is also discussed. PMID:23031424

  6. Bioactivation of biomorphous silicon carbide bone implants.

    PubMed

    Will, Julia; Hoppe, Alexander; Müller, Frank A; Raya, Carmen T; Fernández, Julián M; Greil, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Wood-derived silicon carbide (SiC) offers a specific biomorphous microstructure similar to the cellular pore microstructure of bone. Compared with bioactive ceramics such as calcium phosphate, however, silicon carbide is considered not to induce spontaneous interface bonding to living bone. Bioactivation by chemical treatment of biomorphous silicon carbide was investigated in order to accelerate osseointegration and improve bone bonding ability. Biomorphous SiC was processed from sipo (Entrandrophragma utile) wood by heating in an inert atmosphere and infiltrating the resulting carbon replica with liquid silicon melt at 1450°C. After removing excess silicon by leaching in HF/HNO? the biomorphous preform consisted of ?-SiC with a small amount (approximately 6wt.%) of unreacted carbon. The preform was again leached in HCl/HNO? and finally exposed to CaCl? solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared analyses proved that oxidation of the residual carbon at the surface induced formation of carboxyl [COO?] groups, which triggered adsorption of Ca(2+), as confirmed by XPS and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy measurements. A local increase in Ca(2+) concentration stimulated in vitro precipitation of Ca?(PO?)?OH (HAP) on the silicon carbide preform surface during exposure to simulated body fluid, which indicates a significantly increased bone bonding activity compared with SiC. PMID:20615484

  7. You and Your Skin

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science NetLinks (AAAS; )

    2006-04-30

    The You and Your Skin interactive was developed by Science NetLinks with funding from Neutrogena as part of the Skin Deep project. This resource provides an introduction to the basic structure of the skin, information about how the skin protects us, and some information on how to care for the skin. There are four main sections to the resource: Function, Anatomy, Protection, and Care. When you click on one of the main sections, you'll be taken to an enlarged view of that section, which contains several subsections represented by the highlighted ring around the circle. Roll your mouse over the ring to see the subsections. To go to one of the subsections, simply click on it. To move from one of the main sections to another, simply click on one of the red arrows found by the ring.

  8. Hiding the squid: patterns in artificial cephalopod skin.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Aaron; Rossiter, Jonathan; Homer, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Cephalopods employ their chromomorphic skins for rapid and versatile active camouflage and signalling effects. This is achieved using dense networks of pigmented, muscle-driven chromatophore cells which are neurally stimulated to actuate and affect local skin colouring. This allows cephalopods to adopt numerous dynamic and complex skin patterns, most commonly used to blend into the environment or to communicate with other animals. Our ultimate goal is to create an artificial skin that can mimic such pattern generation techniques, and that could produce a host of novel and compliant devices such as cloaking suits and dynamic illuminated clothing. This paper presents the design, mathematical modelling and analysis of a dynamic biomimetic pattern generation system using bioinspired artificial chromatophores. The artificial skin is made from electroactive dielectric elastomer: a soft, planar-actuating smart material that we show can be effective at mimicking the actuation of biological chromatophores. The proposed system achieves dynamic pattern generation by imposing simple local rules into the artificial chromatophore cells so that they can sense their surroundings in order to manipulate their actuation. By modelling sets of artificial chromatophores in linear arrays of cells, we explore the capability of the system to generate a variety of dynamic pattern types. We show that it is possible to mimic patterning seen in cephalopods, such as the passing cloud display, and other complex dynamic patterning. PMID:26063823

  9. Stochastic simulation of structured skin cell population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nakaoka, Shinji; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-03-01

    The epidermis is the outmost skin tissue. It operates as a first defense system to process inflammatory signals and responds by producing inflammatory mediators that promote the recruitment of immune cells. Various skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis occur as a result of the defect of proper skin barrier function and successive impaired inflammatory responses. The onset of such a skin disease links to the disturbed epidermal homeostasis regulated by appropriate self-renewal and differentiation of epidermal stem cells. The theory of physiologically structured population models provides a versatile framework to formulate mathematical models which describe the growth dynamics of a cell population such as the epidermis. In this paper, we develop an algorithm to implement stochastic simulation for a class of physiologically structured population models. We demonstrate that the developed algorithm is applicable to several cell population models and typical age-structured population models. On the basis of the developed algorithm, we investigate stochastic dynamics of skin cell populations and spread of inflammation. It is revealed that demographic stochasticity can bring considerable impact on the outcome of inflammation spread at the tissue level. PMID:23255068

  10. Dry skin - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pat skin dry then apply your moisturizer. Avoid skin care products and soaps that contain alcohol, fragrances, dyes, ... the-counter cortisone creams or lotions if your skin is inflamed. Look for moisturizers that contain ceramides.

  11. aallll IIrreell aanndd ccaanncceerr ssttaattiissttiiccss sseeccoonndd rreeppoorrtt 11999988--22000000 Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin

    E-print Network

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    --22000000 46 Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma

  12. Cellular uptake and metabolism of flavonoids and their metabolites: implications for their bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Jeremy P E; Abd-el-Mohsen, Manal M; Rice-Evans, Catherine

    2004-03-01

    Flavonoids have been proposed to act as beneficial agents in a multitude of disease states, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. The biological effect of these polyphenols and their in vivo circulating metabolites will ultimately depend on the extent to which they associate with cells, either by interactions at the membrane or more importantly their uptake. This review summarises the current knowledge on the cellular uptake of flavonoids and their metabolites with particular relevance to further intracellular metabolism and the generation of potential new bioactive forms. Uptake and metabolism of the circulating forms of flavanols, flavonols, and flavanones into cells of the skin, the brain, and cancer cells is reviewed and potential biological relevance to intracellular formed metabolites is discussed. PMID:14989269

  13. Archaea on Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Alexander J.; Auerbach, Anna K.; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin. PMID:23776475

  14. Sensitive skin: an overview.

    PubMed

    Berardesca, E; Farage, M; Maibach, H

    2013-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a condition of subjective cutaneous hyper-reactivity to environmental factors. Subjects experiencing this condition report exaggerated reactions when their skin is in contact with cosmetics, soaps and sun screens, and they often report worsening after exposure to dry and cold climate. Although no sign of irritation is commonly detected, itching, burning, stinging and a tight sensation are constantly present. Generally substances that are not commonly considered irritants are involved in this abnormal response.Sensitive skin and subjective irritation are widespread but still far from being completely defined and understood. A correlation between sensitive skin and constitutional anomalies and/or other triggering factors such as occupational skin diseases or chronic exposure to irritants has been hypothesized. Recent findings suggest that higher sensitivity can be due to different mechanisms. Hyper-reactors may have a thinner stratum corneum with a reduced corneocyte area causing a higher transcutaneous penetration of water-soluble chemicals. Alterations in vanilloid receptors and changes in neuronal transmission have been described. Monitoring skin parameters such as barrier function, proclivity to irritation, corneocyte size and sensorial transmission can also be useful to identify regional differences in skin sensitivity. PMID:22928591

  15. The Ontogeny of Skin

    PubMed Central

    Visscher, Marty; Narendran, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Significance: During gestation, fetal skin progresses from a single layer derived from ectoderm to a complex, multi-layer tissue with the stratum corneum (SC) as the outermost layer. Innate immunity is a conferred complex process involving a balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, structural proteins, and specific antigen-presenting cells. The SC is a part of the innate immune system as an impermeable physical barrier containing anti-microbial lipids and host defense proteins. Postnatally, the epidermis continually replenishes itself, provides a protective barrier, and repairs injuries. Recent Advances: Vernix caseosa protects the fetus during gestation and facilitates development of the SC in the aqueous uterine environment. The anti-infective, hydrating, acidification, and wound-healing properties post birth provide insights for the development of strategies that facilitate SC maturation and repair in the premature infant. Critical Issues: Reduction of infant mortality is a global health priority. Premature infants have an incompetent skin barrier putting them at risk for irritant exposure, skin compromise and life-threatening infections. Effective interventions to accelerate skin barrier maturation are compelling. Future Directions: Investigations to determine the ontogeny of barrier maturation, that is, SC structure, composition, cohesiveness, permeability, susceptibility to injury, and microflora, as a function of gestational age are essential. Clinicians need to know when the premature skin barrier becomes fully competent and comparable to healthy newborn skin. This will guide the development of innovative strategies for optimizing skin barrier development. PMID:24761361

  16. Ultrasound skin tightening.

    PubMed

    Minkis, Kira; Alam, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound skin tightening is a noninvasive, nonablative method that allows for energy deposition into the deep dermal and subcutaneous tissue while avoiding epidermal heating. Ultrasound coagulation is confined to arrays of 1-mm(3) zones that include the superficial musculoaponeurotic system and connective tissue. This technology gained approval from the Food and Drug Administration as the first energy-based skin "lifting" device, specifically for lifting lax tissue on the neck, submentum, and eyebrows. Ultrasound has the unique advantage of direct visualization of treated structures during treatment. Ultrasound is a safe and efficacious treatment for mild skin tightening and lifting. PMID:24267423

  17. Thermal Skin fabrication technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced fabrication techniques applicable to Thermal Skin structures were investigated, including: (1) chemical machining; (2) braze bonding; (3) diffusion bonding; and (4) electron beam welding. Materials investigated were nickel and nickel alloys. Sample Thermal Skin panels were manufactured using the advanced fabrication techniques studied and were structurally tested. Results of the program included: (1) development of improved chemical machining processes for nickel and several nickel alloys; (2) identification of design geometry limits; (3) identification of diffusion bonding requirements; (4) development of a unique diffusion bonding tool; (5) identification of electron beam welding limits; and (6) identification of structural properties of Thermal Skin material.

  18. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    MedlinePLUS

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal ...

  19. Assessment of biomechanical skin properties: Is cellulitic skin different?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marek K. Dobke; Barry DiBernardo; R. Carl Thompson; Hakan Usal

    2002-01-01

    Background: An objective in vivo measurement of viscoelastic skin properties is difficult. Consequently, the clinician's ability to evaluate the effectiveness of therapies that may affect skin pliability and skin surface characteristics is limited. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the Biomechanical Tissue Characterization BTC-2000 System for objective, noninvasive assessment of viscoelastic skin properties, specifically

  20. Laser speckle and skin cancer: skin roughness assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim K. Lee; Lioudmila Tchvialeva; Haishan Zeng; David I. McLean; Harvey Lui

    2009-01-01

    Incidence of skin cancer has been increasing rapidly since the last few decades. Non-invasive optical diagnostic tools may improve the diagnostic accuracy. In this paper, skin structure, skin cancer statistics and subtypes of skin cancer are briefly reviewed. Among the subtypes, malignant melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous; early detection dramatically improves the prognosis. Therefore, a non-invasive diagnostic tool

  1. Electrospinning Bioactive Supramolecular Polymers from Water

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Electrospinning is a high-throughput, low-cost technique for manufacturing long fibers from solution. Conventionally, this technique is used with covalent polymers with large molecular weights. We report here the electrospinning of functional peptide-based supramolecular polymers from water at very low concentrations (<4 wt %). Molecules with low molecular weights (<1 kDa) could be electrospun because they self-assembled into one-dimensional supramolecular polymers upon solvation and the critical parameters of viscosity, solution conductivity, and surface tension were optimized for this technique. The supramolecular structure of the electrospun fibers could ensure that certain residues, like bioepitopes, are displayed on the surface even after processing. This system provides an opportunity to electrospin bioactive supramolecular materials from water for biomedical applications. PMID:24697625

  2. Bioactive glass coatings for orthopedic metallic implants

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Saiz, Eduardo; Fujino, Sigheru; Oku, Takeo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2003-06-30

    The objective of this work is to develop bioactive glass coatings for metallic orthopedic implants. A new family of glasses in the SiO2-Na2O-K2O-CaO-MgO-P2O5 system has been synthesized and characterized. The glass properties (thermal expansion, softening and transformation temperatures, density and hardness) are in line with the predictions of established empirical models. The optimized firing conditions to fabricate coatings on Ti-based and Co-Cr alloys have been determined and related to the glass properties and the interfacial reactions. Excellent adhesion to alloys has been achieved through the formation of 100-200 nm thick interfacial layers (Ti5Si3 on Ti-based alloys and CrOx on Co-Cr). Finally, glass coatings, approximately 100 mu m thick, have been fabricated onto commercial Ti alloy-based dental implants.

  3. Bioactive supramolecular peptide nanofibers for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Elif; Garip, I Ceren; Gulseren, Gulcihan; Tekinay, Ayse B; Guler, Mustafa O

    2014-09-01

    Recent advances in understanding of cell-matrix interactions and the role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in regulation of cellular behavior have created new perspectives for regenerative medicine. Supramolecular peptide nanofiber systems have been used as synthetic scaffolds in regenerative medicine applications due to their tailorable properties and ability to mimic ECM proteins. Through designed bioactive epitopes, peptide nanofiber systems provide biomolecular recognition sites that can trigger specific interactions with cell surface receptors. The present Review covers structural and biochemical properties of the self-assembled peptide nanofibers for tissue regeneration, and highlights studies that investigate the ability of ECM mimetic peptides to alter cellular behavior including cell adhesion, proliferation, and/or differentiation. PMID:24574311

  4. Bioactive constituents of Cirsium japonicum var. australe.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wan-Chun; Wu, Yang-Chang; Dankó, Balázs; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Hsieh, Chi-Ting; Tsai, Yu-Chi; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Martins, Ana; Hohmann, Judit; Hunyadi, Attila; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2014-07-25

    Cirsium japonicum var. australe, used as a folk medicine in Taiwan, has been employed traditionally in the treatment of diabetes and inflammatory symptoms. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of its ethanolic extract, utilizing centrifugal partition chromatography monitored by DPPH-TLC analysis, led to the isolation of three new acetylenic phenylacrylic acid esters (1-3) and two new polyacetylenes (4 and 5), together with seven known compounds (6-12). The structures of 1-5 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR techniques. The absolute configurations of 4 and 7 were determined utilizing Mosher's method and ECD/CD experiments. The DPPH scavenging activity of the constituents isolated from the C. japonicum var. australe ethanolic extract was evaluated. The potential antidiabetic activity of some of the isolates was evaluated using in vitro cellular glucose uptake and oil red staining assays. PMID:25025240

  5. Biomimetic and nanostructured hybrid bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xianfeng; Sahai, Nita; Qi, Lin; Mankoci, Steven; Zhao, Weilong

    2015-05-01

    Inspired by nature's toughening mechanisms, we designed a new polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)-derived hybrid glass (PHG) that has covalent interactions on the molecular scale between the inorganic POSS cage and organic phase. These features allow "elastic deformation" of the inorganic POSS cage in limited scale. The final product is a bulk hybrid material with toughness (3.56 ± 0.25 MPa·m(1/2)) similar to natural bone (2.4-5.3 MPa·m(1/2)). PHG exhibited excellent bioactivity by promoting the formation of plate-like hydroxyapatite on its surface in simulated body fluid and showed good cell adhesion. PHG also can be a platform to guide adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiation and mineralization. The key structural features of this material can be used to guide the design of bio-inspired composites with unique toughness, which would be of great benefit to hard tissue engineering. PMID:25736490

  6. Titanium Enolates of Thiazolidinethione Chiral Auxiliaries: Versatile Tools for

    E-print Network

    Titanium Enolates of Thiazolidinethione Chiral Auxiliaries: Versatile Tools for Asymmetric Aldol of titanium tetrachloride and nature of the amine employed.3 However, more easily cleavable auxiliaries than (Figure 2). Formation of the enolate at 0 °C using titanium tetrachlo- ride and the appropriate amine base

  7. Room-temperature ionic liquids: a novel versatile lubricant.

    PubMed

    Ye, C; Liu, W; Chen, Y; Yu, L

    2001-11-01

    Alkylimidazolium tetrafluoroborates are promising versatile lubricants for the contact of steel/steel, steel/aluminium, steel/copper, steel/SiO2, Si3N4/SiO2, steel/Si(100), steel/sialon ceramics and Si3N4/sialon ceramics; they show excellent friction reduction, antiwear performance and high load-carrying capacity. PMID:12240132

  8. Exploiting Contextual Handover Information for Versatile Services in NGN Environments

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    Exploiting Contextual Handover Information for Versatile Services in NGN Environments Edson D. S. Handover, the vital event in which a user changes the attachment point in a Next Generation Network (NGN for businesses. This paper describes the capabilities of a platform which intends to exploit contextual handover

  9. Proximal-ACCPM: a versatile oracle based optimization method

    E-print Network

    Beltran-Royo, Cesar

    Proximal-ACCPM: a versatile oracle based optimization method F. Babonneau C. Beltran A. Haurie C. Tadonki J.-P. Vial revised version, June 2005 Abstract Oracle Based Optimization (OBO) conveniently approximation revealed by an oracle. We show, through three representative examples, how difficult problems can

  10. From Protocol Models to Their Implementation: A Versatile Testing Methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Varsamou; Nikolaos Papandreou; Theodore Antonakopoulos

    2004-01-01

    Editor's note: In this protocol design and verification scheme, high-level models serve in generating simulation sequences for low-level models, and all simulation is based on directed testing. The methodology is versatile and flexible, but it might be difficult to set up the first time.

  11. Versatile Padding Schemes for Joint Signature and Encryption

    E-print Network

    Dodis, Yevgeniy

    Versatile Padding Schemes for Joint Signature and Encryption Yevgeniy Dodis New York University propose several highly-practical and optimized constructions for joint signature and encryption primitives expansion, "backward" use for plain sig- nature/encryption, long message and associated data support

  12. A versatile method for deciphering plant membrane proteomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert Rolland; Myriam Ferro; Genevieve Ephritikhine; Anne Marmagne; Claire Ramus; Sabine Brugiere; Daniel Salvi; Jacques Bourguignon; Helene Barbier-Brygoo; Jacques Joyard; Jerome Garin

    2006-01-01

    Proteomics is a very powerful approach to link the information contained in sequenced genomes, like that of Arabidopsis, to the functional knowledge pro- vided by studies of plant cell compartments. This article summarizes the different steps of a versatile strategy that has been developed to decipher plant membrane proteomes. Initiated with envelope membranes from spinach chloroplasts, this strategy has been

  13. Dynamic Multibody Protein Interactions Suggest Versatile Pathways for Copper Trafficking

    E-print Network

    Chen, Peng

    , the human copper chaperone Hah1 delivers Cu+ to the Wilson's Disease Protein (WDP) via weak and dynamic, the copper chaperone, Hah1, specifically delivers Cu+ via weak and dynamic protein interactions to twoDynamic Multibody Protein Interactions Suggest Versatile Pathways for Copper Trafficking Aaron M

  14. Versatile Desktop Experiment Module (DEMo) on Heat Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minerick, Adrienne R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines a new Desktop Experiment Module (DEMo) engineered for a chemical engineering junior-level Heat Transfer course. This new DEMo learning tool is versatile, fairly inexpensive, and portable such that it can be positioned on student desks throughout a classroom. The DEMo system can illustrate conduction of various materials,…

  15. Assembly of bioactive peptide-chitosan nanocomplexes.

    PubMed

    Hu, B; Wang, S S; Li, J; Zeng, X X; Huang, Q R

    2011-06-16

    The assembly of nanocomplexes from bioactive peptides, namely, caseinophosphopeptides (CPPs) and chitosan (CS), at physiological conditions and various CS/CPP mass ratios has been systematically studied using a combination of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), turbidimetric titration, dynamic light scattering (DLS), electrophoretic mobility (?-potential) measurements, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and fluorescence spectroscopy. Peptides incorporated with CS forming nanoparticles were prepared and identified using LC-MS/MS. They were characterized by different amounts of clusters of phosphorylated seryl residues. At low salt concentrations, an increase in CS/CPP mass ratio shifted the critical pH(?1) value, which was designated as the formation of CS/CPP nanocomplexes, as well as pH(max), which represents the neutralization of positive and negative charges at higher pH values. The sizes, charges, morphologies, binding mechanisms, and binding constants of the bioactive peptide-chitosan nanocomplexes were analyzed, and our results suggest that three processes are involved in nanocomplex formation: First, negatively charged CPPs absorb to positively charged CS molecular chains to form intrapolymer nanocomplexes saturated with CPPs (CPPNPs). Subsequently, the negatively charged CPPNPs are bridged by the addition of positively charged CS, resulting in the formation of nearly neutral associative biopolymer complexes. Finally, further addition of excess chitosan breaks down the bridges of associative complexes and causes the formation of positively charged isolated spherical nanocomplexes. The binding between the peptides and CS is mainly driven by electrostatic interactions with a binding constant of K(cs) = 4.6 × 10(4) M(-1). Phosphorylated groups and other negatively charged amino acids, such as aspartic acid (Asp) and glutamic acid (Glu), in the CPPs might be the dominant sites for interaction with -NH(3)(+) groups on the CS molecular chains. PMID:21608974

  16. Bioactivity of herb-enriched beef patties.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Eileen; Aherne, S Aisling; O'Grady, Michael N; McGovern, Laura; Kerry, Joseph P; O'Brien, Nora M

    2009-08-01

    Interest exists in the manufacture of meat products with added functional ingredients to enhance consumer health. Because experimental evidence suggests that many herbs and spices, particularly those of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis L. (sage) and Origanum vulgare L. (oregano), possess a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities, they represent promising functional ingredients for incorporation into meat and meat products. The present study aimed to determine the bioactivity of cooked beef patties that were enriched with or without sage or oregano extracts (1,200 microg/g). Cooked beef patties were subjected to an in vitro digestion procedure, and the resulting micelles isolated from the digested meats were added to human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The antioxidant potential (ferric reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] value) of enriched beef patties was significantly higher than the FRAP value of non-enriched beef patties, both before and after in vitro digestion. Cell viability significantly increased following treatment with certain concentrations of the micelle fractions from digested sage- or oregano-enriched beef patties. Pretreatment with micelles derived from sage- or oregano-enriched beef patties did not significantly protect against cell injury or DNA damage induced by H(2)O(2). However, micelles derived from digested sage-enriched beef patties (10% vol/vol) significantly increased cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) content. In addition, micelles derived from both sage- and oregano-enriched beef patties (10% vol/vol) significantly protected against H(2)O(2)-induced GSH depletion. Thus, it appears that sage and oregano exhibit some bioactivity within a meat system. Our findings suggest that herbal extracts have potential as possible functional ingredients in meat products. PMID:19735192

  17. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    MedlinePLUS

    ... actually a modified type of skin. Hair grows everywhere on the human body except the palms of ... of sweat glands. The eccrine glands are found everywhere, although they're mostly in the forehead, palms, ...

  18. Laser Skin Renewal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... away. Fractional ablative laser resurfacing – Pinpoint laser beams peel away many small areas of skin. Fractional non- ... renewal exist. Topical cosmeceuticals, microdermabrasion, and lunchtime chemical peels provide very mild improvement. Botulinum toxin (Botox®) can ...

  19. Bacterial Skin Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Interest (Quiz) Itching (Video) Hives (News) Doctors Say Head Lice Should Not Bar Kids From School (News) Poison ... of severe dry skin? Eczema Ichthyosis Fungal infection Pediculosis Am I Correct? More Videos Health Day News ...

  20. Histoplasma skin test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... allergen is injected just below the cleaned skin surface. The injection site is checked at 24 hours and at 48 hours for signs of a reaction. Occasionally, the reaction may not appear until the ...

  1. Aging changes in skin

    MedlinePLUS

    ... parts: The outer part (epidermis) contains skin cells, pigment, and proteins. The middle part (dermis) contains blood ... with areas that are protected from sunlight. Natural pigments seem to provide some protection against sun-induced ...

  2. Skin tumors on squirrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Reilly, J.R.

    1955-01-01

    Skin tumors having the gross appearance of previously reported fibromas are reported on gray squirrels from N. Y., Md., Va., N. C., and W. Va. and from a fox squirrel from W. Va. and a porcupine from Pa.

  3. Radiation therapy - skin care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... red, peel, or itch. You should treat your skin with care while receiving radiation therapy. ... When you have radiation treatment, a health care provider draws ... they come off, do not redraw them. Tell your provider instead. ...

  4. Genetics and skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Bekou, Vassiliki; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is a complex process and underlies multiple influences with the probable involvement of heritable and various environmental factors. Several theories have been conducted regarding the pathomechanisms of aged skin, however fundamental mechanisms still remain poorly understood. This article addresses the influence of genetics on skin aging and in particular deals with the differences observed in ethnic populations and between both genders. Recent studies indicate that male and female aged skin differs as far as the type, the consistency and the sensitivity to external factors is concerned. The same has been also documented between elderly people of different origin. Consequently, the aging process taking place in both genders and in diverse ethnic groups should be examined separately and products specialized to each population should be developed in order to satisfy the special needs. PMID:23467395

  5. Ballistic skin simulant.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Jorma; Leppäniemi, Ari; Paronen, Mikael; Kulomäki, Erkki

    2005-05-28

    Hydrogels prepared from water solutions containing 10-20 mass% gelatine are generally accepted muscle tissue simulants in terminal ballistic research. They, however, do not have a surface layer which simulates the effect of human skin. The purpose of this research was to find a suitable skin simulant for enhancing the testing fidelity and the credibility of the results with gelatine-based materials when assessing the injury potential of not only high energy bullets, but also especially that of non-penetrating "less lethal" kinetic impact ammunition and relatively low energy ricochet fragments. A skin simulant also permits the simulation and assessment of exit wounds. The mechanical and ballistic properties of human skin and target simulant were established on the basis of results found in the literature. Some errors in these were found. The corrected values are included in this paper for comparison. The target values of the mechanical properties of the skin simulant were the following: threshold velocity v(th)=94+/-4 m/s, tensile strength 18+/-2 N/mm2 and elongation at break 65+/-5%. A selection of synthetic and natural materials was evaluated as skin simulants by analysing their mechanical and ballistic properties. The results were compared to literature values obtained with human cadavers. The tests showed that the best skin simulant of the ones evaluated was semi-finished chrome tanned upholstery "crust" cowhide of 0.9-1.1 mm nominal thickness. Its threshold velocity was 90.7 m/s, tensile strength 20.89+/-4.11 MPa and elongation at break 61+/-9%. These values are the same as the average values of human skin. Of the synthetic materials evaluated, 1mm thick natural rubber can be used on impact side as a threshold velocity filter with some reservations although its theoretical threshold velocity is only 82.9 m/s. PMID:15837009

  6. In Vitro Bioactivity and Antimicrobial Tuning of Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles Added with Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaf Powder

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, M.; Ruby Priscilla, S.; Kavitha, K.; Manivasakan, P.; Rajendran, V.; Kulandaivelu, P.

    2014-01-01

    Silica and phosphate based bioactive glass nanoparticles (58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5) with doping of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder and silver nanoparticles were prepared and characterised. Bioactive glass nanoparticles were produced using sol-gel technique. In vitro bioactivity of the prepared samples was investigated using simulated body fluid. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of prepared glass particles reveals amorphous phase and spherical morphology with a particle size of less than 50?nm. When compared to neem doped glass, better bioactivity was attained in silver doped glass through formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface, which was confirmed through XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. However, neem leaf powder doped bioactive glass nanoparticles show good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and less bioactivity compared with silver doped glass particles. In addition, the biocompatibility of the prepared nanocomposites reveals better results for neem doped and silver doped glasses at lower concentration. Therefore, neem doped bioactive glass may act as a potent antimicrobial agent for preventing microbial infection in tissue engineering applications. PMID:25276834

  7. The skin in mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Soter, N A

    1991-03-01

    The most frequent site of organ involvement in patients with any form of mastocytosis is the skin. Cutaneous expressions include urticaria pigmentosa, mastocytoma, diffuse and erythrodermic cutaneous mastocytosis, and telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans. The cutaneous lesions tend to appear early in life. Although urticaria pigmentosa has been reported in 12 pairs of twins and one set of triplets, the majority of affected individuals have no familial association. Most patients with systemic mastocytosis have skin lesions; however, an occasional patient will have systemic disease with no other skin features than flushing. In lesional cutaneous sites and in non-lesional skin, there is an increase in the number of mast cells. Electron microscopy shows quantitative differences between lesional skin mast cells from patients with and without systemic disease. The mast cells from adult patients with systemic disease have a larger mean cytoplasmic area, nuclear size, and granule diameter. The granules contain predominantly grating/lattice structures. The cutaneous mast cells contain tryptase and chymase. They retain their functional reactivities to relevant secretory stimuli, such as C3a, morphine sulfate, and calcium ionophore A23187. Lesional skin contains histamine, leukotriene B4, prostaglandin D2, 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, platelet-activating factor, and heparin. Treatment of the cutaneous manifestations includes the use of H1 and H2 antihistamines, oral disodium cromoglycate, psoralens plus ultraviolet A photochemotherapy, and potent topical corticosteroid preparations. PMID:16799606

  8. The skin in mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Soter, N A

    1991-03-01

    The most frequent site of organ involvement in patients with any form of mastocytosis is the skin. Cutaneous expressions include urticaria pigmentosa, mastocytoma, diffuse and erythrodermic cutaneous mastocytosis, and telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans. The cutaneous lesions tend to appear early in life. Although urticaria pigmentosa has been reported in 12 pairs of twins and one set of triplets, the majority of affected individuals have no familial association. Most patients with systemic mastocytosis have skin lesions; however, an occasional patient will have systemic disease with no other skin features than flushing. In lesional cutaneous sites and in non-lesional skin, there is an increase in the number of mast cells. Electron microscopy shows quantitative differences between lesional skin mast cells from patients with and without systemic disease. The mast cells from adult patients with systemic disease have a larger mean cytoplasmic area, nuclear size, and granule diameter. The granules contain predominantly grating/lattice structures. The cutaneous mast cells contain tryptase and chymase. They retain their functional reactivities to relevant secretory stimuli, such as C3a, morphine sulfate, and calcium ionophore A23187. Lesional skin contains histamine, leukotriene B4, prostaglandin D2, 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, platelet-activating factor, and heparin. Treatment of the cutaneous manifestations includes the use of H1 and H2 antihistamines, oral disodium cromoglycate, psoralens plus ultraviolet A photochemotherapy, and potent topical corticosteroid preparations. PMID:1672136

  9. Structural characterization and thermal and chemical stability of bioactive molecule-hydrotalcite (LDH) nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Conterosito, Eleonora; Croce, Gianluca; Palin, Luca; Pagano, Cinzia; Perioli, Luana; Viterbo, Davide; Boccaleri, Enrico; Paul, Geo; Milanesio, Marco

    2013-08-28

    Layered double hydroxides (LDH) are versatile materials used for intercalating bioactive molecules, both in pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields, with the purpose of protecting them from degradation, enhancing their water solubility to increase bioavailability, and/or obtaining modified release properties. The properties of the intercalation compounds of Mg/Al_LDH and Zn/Al_LDH with different drugs and sunscreens, namely diclofenac, ketoprofen, gliclazide, retinoic acid, furosemide, para-aminobenzoic acid and 2-phenylbenzimidazolsulfonic (Eusolex) acid, have been studied by crystallographic, spectroscopic and thermogravimetric techniques and by solid state NMR, to shed light on their structure, their molecular interactions and their stability from the thermal and chemical viewpoint. The structural features were described with particular attention to the interaction between the organic and inorganic components and to the stability of the intercalation products. For the first time two synchrotron radiation powder diffraction patterns of organic-containing LDH were solved and refined by Rietveld methods to obtain an experimental crystal structure. PMID:23873340

  10. Bioactive and Biodegradable Nanocomposites and Hybrid Biomaterials for Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Allo, Bedilu A.; Costa, Daniel O.; Dixon, S. Jeffrey; Mequanint, Kibret; Rizkalla, Amin S.

    2012-01-01

    Strategies for bone tissue engineering and regeneration rely on bioactive scaffolds to mimic the natural extracellular matrix and act as templates onto which cells attach, multiply, migrate and function. Of particular interest are nanocomposites and organic-inorganic (O/I) hybrid biomaterials based on selective combinations of biodegradable polymers and bioactive inorganic materials. In this paper, we review the current state of bioactive and biodegradable nanocomposite and O/I hybrid biomaterials and their applications in bone regeneration. We focus specifically on nanocomposites based on nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HA) and bioactive glass (BG) fillers in combination with biodegradable polyesters and their hybrid counterparts. Topics include 3D scaffold design, materials that are widely used in bone regeneration, and recent trends in next generation biomaterials. We conclude with a perspective on the future application of nanocomposites and O/I hybrid biomaterials for regeneration of bone. PMID:24955542

  11. Optimising bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian R. Jones; Lisa M. Ehrenfried; Larry L. Hench

    2006-01-01

    A 3D scaffold has been developed that has the potential to fulfil the criteria for an ideal scaffold for bone tissue engineering. Sol–gel derived bioactive glasses of the 70S30C (70mol% SiO2, 30mol% CaO) composition have been foamed to produce 3D bioactive scaffolds with hierarchical interconnected pore morphologies similar to trabecular bone. The scaffolds consist of a hierarchical pore network with

  12. Remineralization of human dentin using ultrafine bioactive glass particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meret Vollenweider; Tobias J. Brunner; Sven Knecht; Robert N. Grass; Matthias Zehnder; Thomas Imfeld; Wendelin J. Stark

    2007-01-01

    Bioactive glass nanoparticles synthesized by flame spray synthesis were tested for their remineralization capabilities in vitro. After artificial demineralization with EDTA, human dentin was treated with 20–50nm size bioactive glass nanoparticles or a micrometer-sized, commercial reference material (PerioGlas) for up to 30 days. The degree of remineralization was measured using quantitative gravimetric methods (thermogravimetry, elemental analysis) and element-sensitive scanning electron

  13. Cloning, in vitro expression and bioactivity of duck interleukin-18

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong-Ying Chen; Bao-An Cui; Ping-An Xia; Xin-Sheng Li; Gong-Zheng Hu; Ming-Fan Yang; Hong-Ying Zhang; Xue-Bin Wang; Su-fang Cao; Long-Xian Zhang; Xiang-Tao Kang; Ke Tu

    2008-01-01

    The encoding sequence for duck IL-18 was obtained, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, from mRNA harvested from Con A-stimulated Gushi (GS) duck splenic mononuclear cells. Recombinant duck IL-18 (rduIL-18) was produced in a prokaryotic expression system. In vitro bioactivity of rduIL-18 was determined in a lymphocyte proliferation assay and in vivo bioactivity of rduIL-18 was assessed by addition to a

  14. Modular design of non-viral vectors with bioactive components.

    PubMed

    Shea, Lonnie D; Houchin, Tiffany L

    2004-09-01

    Inefficient gene delivery continues to limit gene therapy applications to both basic and applied sciences. Approaches for engineering vectors increasingly include bioactive components that bind cellular receptors, disrupt membranes, or enhance nuclear transport. Recently, a novel cationic lipid was developed by modifying the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. This cationic corticosteroid condenses plasmids for gene delivery, while also modulating inflammation. Modular vectors containing bioactive components that target various cellular processes can overcome the barriers limiting gene transfer. PMID:15331218

  15. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

    2014-01-01

    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, “goose bumps”, redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  16. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

    2014-01-01

    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  17. Surfactants and the skin.

    PubMed

    Dykes, P

    1998-02-01

    The skin surface is the interface between us, the organism, and the outside world. When we clean the skin we remove not only the bacteria, dirt and grease which have accumulated, but also part of our natural barrier - the stratum corneum. Corneocytes, both singly and in clumps, are released from the skin surface by the action of detergents and mechanical stimulation. So too are the lipids and proteins which make up the intercorneocyte region of the stratum corneum. The analysis of the types and amounts of materials released by a standard scrub procedure may prove useful in the selection of surfactants with particular properties. Changes in the physical properties of the skin occur after washing. For example, changes in skin surface pH and transepidermal water loss (a sensitive index of barrier function) are easily demonstrable. Excessive exposure to surfactants results in repeated damage to the stratum corneum which can in turn lead to an irritant dermatitis. Individual susceptibility to irritant dermatitis varies and this may be demonstrated using a simple patch test technique. This test is a way of potentially increasing the sensitivity of human based assays such as the soap chamber test by preselection of subjects. Alternatively it may be possible to use measurements of function such as transepidermal water loss or laser Doppler blood flow as an index of damage rather than conventional cutaneous irritancy. These approaches may help in the search for the ideal of a non-irritant cleanser. PMID:18505489

  18. Studies on novel bioactive glasses and bioactive glass–nano-HAp composites suitable for coating on metallic implants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chidambaram Soundrapandian; Sanghamitra Bharati; Debabrata Basu; Someswar Datta

    2011-01-01

    A series of novel zinc oxide (ZnO) containing bioactive glass compositions in SiO2–Na2O–CaO–P2O5 system and composite with hydroxyapatite (HAp) nano-particles were developed and applied as coating on Ti–6Al–4V substrates. The bioactive glasses and their composites were also processed to yield dense scaffolds, porous scaffolds and porous bone filler materials. The coating materials and the coatings were characterized and evaluated by

  19. Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Fluoridated and Unfluoridated Bioactive Glass Composites: Structural Analysis and Bioactivity Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Batra, Uma [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh-160012 (India); Kapoor, Seema [University Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India); Sharma, J. D. [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh (India)

    2011-12-12

    Biphasic bioceramic composites containing nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP) and nanosized bioactive glasses have been prepared in the form of pellets and have been examined for the effects of bioglass concentrations and sintering temperature on the structural transformations and bioactivity behavior. Pure stoichiometric nano-HAP was synthesized using sol-gel technique. Two bioglasses synthesized in this work--fluoridated bioglass (Cao-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Na{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaF{sub 2}) and unfluoridated bioglass (Cao-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Na{sub 2}O{sub 3}) designated as FBG and UFBG respectively, were added to nano-HAP with concentrations of 5, 10, 12 and 15%. The average particle sizes of synthesized HAP and bioglasses were 23 nm and 35 nm, respectively. The pellets were sintered at four different temperatures i.e. 1000 deg. C, 1150 deg. C, 1250 deg. C and 1350 deg. C. The investigations involved study of structural and bioactivity behavior of green and sintered pellets and their deviations from original materials i.e. HAP, FBG and UFBG, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The phase composition of the sintered pellets was found to be non-stoichiometric HAP with {alpha}-TCP (tricalcium phosphate) and {beta}-TCP. It was revealed from SEM images that bonding mechanism was mainly solid state sintering for all pellets sintered at 1000 deg. C and 1150 deg. C and also for pellets with lower concentrations of bioglass i.e. 5% and 10% sintered at 1250 deg. C. Partly liquid phase sintering was observed for pellets with higher bioglass concentrations of 12% and 15% sintered at 1250 deg. C and same behaviour was noted for pellets at all concentrations of bioglasses at 1350 deg. C. The sintered density, hardness and compression strength of pellets have been influenced both by the concentration of the bioglasses and sintering temperature. It was observed that the biological HAP layer formation was faster on the green pellets surface than on pure HAP and sintered pellets, showing higher bioactivity in the green pellets.

  20. Versatile matrix for constructing enzyme-based biosensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaohao; Luo, Xi; Wan, Qijin; Wu, Kangbing; Yang, Nianjun

    2014-10-01

    A versatile matrix was fabricated and utilized as a universal interface for the construction of enzyme-based biosensors. This matrix was formed on the gold electrode via combining self-assembled monolayer of 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid with gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles were electrochemically deposited. Electrochemistry of three redox enzymes (catalase, glucose oxidase, and horseradish peroxidase) was investigated on such a matrix. The electrocatalytic monitoring of hydrogen peroxide and glucose was conducted on this matrix after being coated with those enzymes. On them the monitoring of hydrogen peroxide and glucose shows rapid response times, wide linear working ranges, low detection limits, and high enzymatic affinities. This matrix is thus a versatile and suitable platform to develop highly sensitive enzyme-based biosensors. PMID:25208242

  1. Research and development of a versatile portable speech prosthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Versatile Portable Speech Prosthesis (VPSP), a synthetic speech output communication aid for non-speaking people is described. It was intended initially for severely physically limited people with cerebral palsy who are in electric wheelchairs. Hence, it was designed to be placed on a wheelchair and powered from a wheelchair battery. It can easily be separated from the wheelchair. The VPSP is versatile because it is designed to accept any means of single switch, multiple switch, or keyboard control which physically limited people have the ability to use. It is portable because it is mounted on and can go with the electric wheelchair. It is a speech prosthesis, obviously, because it speaks with a synthetic voice for people unable to speak with their own voices. Both hardware and software are described.

  2. Skin conditions: common skin rashes in infants.

    PubMed

    Zuniga, Ramiro; Nguyen, Tam

    2013-04-01

    Infants exhibit many skin rashes. Erythema toxicum neonatorum presents as erythematous macules, papules, and pustules on the face, trunk, and extremities; it typically resolves spontaneously within 1 week. Neonatal acne presents as comedones or erythematous papules on the face, scalp, chest, and back. Infantile acne is similar but starts after the neonatal period. Both conditions typically resolve spontaneously; failure to resolve within 1 year warrants evaluation for androgen excess. Neonatal cephalic pustulosis is an acne variant caused by hypersensitivity to Malassezia furfur. It is typically self-limited, but severe cases are managed with topical ketoconazole. Miliaria and milia are caused by sweat retention and present as tiny vesicles or papules; they resolve spontaneously. Contact diaper dermatitis is managed by keeping the diaper area clean and with open air exposure. Diaper dermatitis due to Candida albicans is managed with topical antifungals. Seborrheic dermatitis causes scaling on the scalp. Management involves shampooing and removing scales with a soft brush after applying mineral oil or petrolatum; severe cases are managed with tar or ketoconazole shampoo. Atopic dermatitis is related to food allergy in approximately one-third of children. Food allergy can be confirmed with oral food challenges or skin prick tests. Management includes elimination of irritants and triggers and use of low-potency topical steroids. PMID:23600337

  3. Sprayed skin turbine component

    DOEpatents

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  4. Skin friction balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ping, Tcheng (inventor); Supplee, Frank H., Jr. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A skin friction balance uses a parallel linkage mechanism to avoid inaccuracies in skin friction measurement attributable to off-center normal forces. The parallel linkage mechanism includes a stationary plate mounted in a cage, and an upper and lower movable plate which are linked to each other and to the stationary plate throught three vertical links. Flexure pivots are provided for pivotally connecting the links and the plates. A sensing element connected to the upper plate moves in response to skin friction, and the lower plate moves in the opposite direction of the upper plate. A force motor maintains a null position of the sensing element by exerting a restoring force in response to a signal generated by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).

  5. Complement in skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Kotnik, V

    2011-01-01

    Complement is one of the most important mechanisms of natural resistance preventing infections in humans and animals. It is actively involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including skin diseases, characterized by the presence of autoantibodies, foreign microorganisms, altered tissue cells, and the presence of mannan. Complement is intended to kill invading microorganisms but it can also destroy the organism's own damaged or altered cells. It is characterized by vigorous activity and is also potentially harmful for the host if triggered in its own body. This review discusses the significance of complement activation for emerging skin diseases and highlights the importance of serological laboratory tests for the detection of complement system activity alterations in skin diseases such as pemphigus vulgaris, bullous pemphigoid, herpes gestationis, dermatitis herpetiformis, porphyria, urticaria, angioedema, cutaneous vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, partial lipodystrophy, lichen planus, xeroderma pigmentosum, psoriasis, and recurrent cutaneous infections. Finally, we draw attention to the current potential for treating these diseases with complement inhibitors. PMID:21879199

  6. Smoking and skin disease.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-06-01

    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic wounds. Most likely, alteration of inflammatory cell function and extracellular matrix turnover caused by smoking-induced oxidative stress are involved in the pathophysiologic mechanisms. PMID:20532469

  7. Evolutionary Versatile Printable RFID Antennas for “Green” Electronics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Amin; Q. Chen; H. Tenhunen; L. R. Zheng

    2012-01-01

    The development of low cost directly printable RFID tag antennas is essential for item level tracking. We present evolutionary design approach to achieve robust extremely versatile RFID antennas on paper\\/flexible substrates which allow a simple integration directly on, e.g., paperboard in a roll-to-roll production line. Fully integrated printed tags for “green” electronics are designed for operability in frequencies 866–868 MHz

  8. Coiled coils: a highly versatile protein folding motif

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Burkhard; Jörg Stetefeld; Sergei V Strelkov

    2001-01-01

    The ?-helical coiled coil is one of the principal subunit oligomerization motifs in proteins. Its most characteristic feature is a heptad repeat pattern of primarily apolar residues that constitute the oligomer interface. Despite its simplicity, it is a highly versatile folding motif: coiled-coil-containing proteins exhibit a broad range of different functions related to the specific ‘design’ of their coiled-coil domains.

  9. A versatile recording system for studies of mastication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Kavanagh; H. Zander

    1965-01-01

    A versatile instrumentation system for research on the physiology of mastication is described. Tooth contact signals from\\u000a miniature radio transmitters in dental bridgework are combined with electromyographic data from the muscles of mastication.\\u000a Flexibility in signal processing utilizing a multi-channel FM tape recorder is emphasized to accommodate the needs of varying\\u000a research programs.

  10. Versatility and application of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Da-Wen Gao; Yu Tao

    2011-01-01

    With the unique cell compartmentalization and the ability to simultaneously oxidize ammonium and reduce nitrite into nitrogen\\u000a gas, anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria have challenged our recognitions of microorganism. The research conducted\\u000a on these bacteria has been extended from bench-scale tryouts to full-scale reactor systems. This review addresses the recently\\u000a discovered versatile properties of anammox bacteria and the applications and obstacles

  11. A Versatile Method for Grafting Polymers on Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Gann, John P.; Yan, Mingdi

    2015-01-01

    We report a simple and versatile method for grafting polymers on nanoparticles. A procedure was developed for the synthesis and subsequent functionalization of silica nanoparticles with a perfluorophenylazide. Polymers were then grafted by the photochemically induced insertion reactions of the perfluorophenylnitrene. Polystyrene, poly(4-vinylpyridine), and poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) were successfully grafted on silica nanoparticles. Grafting density was studied with regard to polymer concentration and molecular weight. PMID:18433181

  12. Study of surfactant-skin interactions by skin impedance measurements.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guojin; Moore, David J

    2012-02-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) plays a very critical physiological role as skin barrier in regulating water loss through the skin and protects the body from a wide range of physical and chemical exogenous insults. Surfactant-containing formulations can induce skin damage and irritation owing to surfactant absorption and penetration. It is generally accepted that reduction in skin barrier properties occurs only after surfactants have penetrated/permeated into the skin barrier. To mitigate the harshness of surfactant-based cleansing products, penetration/permeation of surfactants should be reduced. Skin impedance measurements have been taken in vitro on porcine skin using vertical Franz diffusion cells to investigate the impact of surfactants, temperature and pH on skin barrier integrity. These skin impedance results demonstrate excellent correlation with other published methods for assessing skin damage and irritation from different surfactant chemistry, concentration, pH, time of exposure and temperature. This study demonstrates that skin impedance can be utilized as a routine approach to screen surfactant-containing formulations for their propensity to compromise the skin barrier and hence likely lead to skin irritation. PMID:21923733

  13. Burchellin: study of bioactivity against Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 is a widespread insect pest of serious medical importance. Since no effective vaccine is available for treating dengue, the eradication or control of the main mosquito vector is regarded as essential. Since conventional insecticides have limited success, plants may be an alternative source of larvicidal agents, since they contain a rich source of bioactive chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of the neolignan burchellin isolated from Ocotea cymbarum (Lauraceae), a plant from the Amazon region, against third instar larvae of A. aegypti. Methods Burchellin obtained from O. cymbarum was analyzed. The inhibitory activity against A. aegypti eggs and larvae and histological changes in the digestive system of treated L3 larvae were evaluated. In addition, nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide levels were determined, and cytotoxicity bioassays performed. Results The data showed that burchellin interfered with the development cycle of the mosquito, where its strongest toxic effect was 100% mortality in larvae (L3) at concentrations???30 ppm. This compound did not show target cell toxicity in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice, and proved to have molecular stability when dissolved in water. The L3 and L4 larvae treated with the compound showed cellular destruction and disorganization, cell spacing, and vacuolization of epithelial cells in small regions of the midgut. Conclusion The neolignan burchellin proved to be a strong candidate for a natural, safe and stable phytolarvicidal to be used in population control of A. aegypti. PMID:24713267

  14. Bioactive nanocrystalline sol-gel hydroxyapatite coatings.

    PubMed

    Chai, C S; Ben-Nissan, B

    1999-08-01

    Sol-gel technology offers an alternative technique for producing bioactive surfaces for improved bone attachment. Previous work indicated that monophasic hydroxyapatite coatings were difficult to produce. In the present work hydroxyapatite was synthesized using the sol-gel technique with alkoxide precursors and the solution was allowed to age up to seven days prior to coating. It was found that, similar to the wet-chemical method of hydroxyapatite powder synthesis, an aging time is required to produce a pure hydroxyapatite phase. A methodology that has been successfully used to produce nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite thin film coatings via the sol-gel route on various substrates including alumina, Vycor glass, partially stabilized zirconia, Ti-6Al-4V alloy and single crystal MgO is described. Coatings produced on MgO substrates were characterized by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy, while the analogous gels were examined with thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses. The coatings were crack free and the surface was covered with small grains, of approximately 200 nm in size for samples fired to 1000 degrees C. Coating thickness varied between 70 and 1000 nm depending on the number of applied layers. PMID:15348113

  15. Microencapsulated Bioactive Agents and Method of Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Microcapsules prepared by encapsulating an aqueous solution of a protein, drug or other bioactive substance inside a semi-permeable membrane by are disclosed. The microcapsules are formed by interfacial coacervation under conditions where the shear forces are limited to 0- 100 dynes per sq cm at the interface. By placing the microcapsules in a high osmotic watering solution, the protein solution is gradually made saturated and then supersaturated, and the controlled nucleation and crystallization of the protein is achieved. The crystal-filled microcapsules prepared by this method can be conveniently harvested and stored while keeping the encapsulated crystals in essentially pristine condition due to the rugged, protective membrane. Because the membrane components themselves are x-ray transparent, large crystal-containing microcapsules can be individually selected. mounted in x-ray capillary tubes and subjected to high energy x-ray diffraction studies to determine the 3-D structure of the protein molecules. Certain embodiments of the microcapsules of the invention have composite polymeric outer membranes which are somewhat elastic, water insoluble, permeable only to water, salts, and low molecular weight molecules and are structurally stable in fluid shear forces typically encountered in the human vascular system.

  16. Suppression of skin inflammation in keratinocytes and acute/chronic disease models by caffeic acid phenethyl ester.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kyung-Min; Bae, SeungJin; Koo, Jung Eun; Kim, Eun-Sun; Bae, Ok-Nam; Lee, Joo Young

    2015-04-01

    Skin inflammation plays a central role in the pathophysiology and symptoms of diverse chronic skin diseases including atopic dermatitis (AD). In this study, we examined if caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a skin-permeable bioactive compound from propolis, was protective against skin inflammation using in vitro cell system and in vivo animal disease models. CAPE suppressed TNF-?-induced NF-?B activation and expression of inflammatory cytokines in human keratinocytes (HaCaT). The potency and efficacy of CAPE were superior to those of a non-phenethyl derivative, caffeic acid. Consistently, topical treatment of CAPE (0.5 %) attenuated 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate(TPA)-induced skin inflammation on mouse ear as CAPE reduced ear swelling and histologic inflammation scores. CAPE suppressed increased expression of pro-inflammatory molecules such as TNF-?, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible NO synthase in TPA-stimulated skin. TPA-induced phosphorylation of I?B and ERK was blocked by CAPE suggesting that protective effects of CAPE on skin inflammation is attributed to inhibition of NF-?B activation. Most importantly, in an oxazolone-induced chronic dermatitis model, topical application of CAPE (0.5 and 1 %) was effective in alleviating AD-like symptoms such as increases of trans-epidermal water loss, skin thickening and serum IgE as well as histologic inflammation assessment. Collectively, our results propose CAPE as a promising candidate for a novel topical drug for skin inflammatory diseases. PMID:25501505

  17. Inch of Skin

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL)

    2004-01-01

    What are the different nerve receptors located in the skin and where are they? This material is part of a series of hands-on science activities designed to arouse student interest. Here students mark off a square-inch section of skin and gently poke the area, stimulating different nerve receptors. The activity includes a description, a list of science process skills and complex reasoning strategies being used, and a compilation of applicable K-12 national science education standards. Also provided are content topics, a list of necessary supplies, instructions, and presentation techniques. The content of the activity is explained, and assessment suggestions are provided.

  18. Melanocyte biology and skin pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jennifer Y; Fisher, David E

    2007-02-22

    Melanocytes are phenotypically prominent but histologically inconspicuous skin cells. They are responsible for the pigmentation of skin and hair, and thereby contribute to the appearance of skin and provide protection from damage by ultraviolet radiation. Pigmentation mutants in various species are highly informative about basic genetic and developmental pathways, and provide important clues to the processes of photoprotection, cancer predisposition and even human evolution. Skin is the most common site of cancer in humans. Continued understanding of melanocyte contributions to skin biology will hopefully provide new opportunities for the prevention and treatment of skin diseases. PMID:17314970

  19. Bioactive and thermally compatible glass coating on zirconia dental implants.

    PubMed

    Kirsten, A; Hausmann, A; Weber, M; Fischer, J; Fischer, H

    2015-02-01

    The healing time of zirconia implants may be reduced by the use of bioactive glass coatings. Unfortunately, existing glasses are either bioactive like Bioglass 45S5 but thermally incompatible with the zirconia substrate, or they are thermally compatible but exhibit only a very low level of bioactivity. In this study, we hypothesized that a tailored substitution of alkaline earth metals and alkaline metals in 45S5 can lead to a glass composition that is both bioactive and thermally compatible with zirconia implants. A novel glass composition was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and heating microscopy to investigate its chemical, physical, and thermal properties. Bioactivity was tested in vitro using simulated body fluid (SBF). Smooth and microstructured glass coatings were applied using a tailored spray technique with subsequent thermal treatment. Coating adhesion was tested on implants that were inserted in bovine ribs. The cytocompatibility of the coating was analyzed using L929 mouse fibroblasts. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the novel glass was shown to be slightly lower (11.58 · 10(-6) K(-1)) than that of the zirconia (11.67 · 10(-6) K(-1)). After storage in SBF, the glass showed reaction layers almost identical to the bioactive glass gold standard, 45S5. A process window between 800 °C and 910 °C was found to result in densely sintered and amorphous coatings. Microstructured glass coatings on zirconia implants survived a minimum insertion torque of 60 Ncm in the in vitro experiment on bovine ribs. Proliferation and cytotoxicity of the glass coatings was comparable with the controls. The novel glass composition showed a strong adhesion to the zirconia substrate and a significant bioactive behavior in the SBF in vitro experiments. Therefore, it holds great potential to significantly reduce the healing time of zirconia dental implants. PMID:25421839

  20. Skin Pores Detection for Image-Based Skin Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qian Zhang; Taeg Keun Whangbo

    2008-01-01

    Skin analysis has potential uses in many fields, including computer assisted diagnosis for dermatology, topical drug efficacy\\u000a testing for the pharmaceutical industry, and quantitative product comparison for cosmetics. In medicine, skin pores are the\\u000a openings of hair follicles, oil glands, and sweat glands. There are many skin problems associated with skin pores, such as\\u000a blackheads which are not dirt and

  1. Mechanistic relationship among mutagenicity, skin sensitization, and skin carcinogenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, J; Hilton, J; Dearman, R J; Callander, R D; Kimber, I

    1993-01-01

    Twenty organic Salmonella mutagens, seven of which (including benzo[a]pyrene) are established skin carcinogens, and one of which (2-chloroethanol) is a well-defined noncarcinogen to skin, have been evaluated for skin-sensitizing activity using the local lymph node assay. The relative mutagenicity of the agents to Salmonella was also established. Fourteen of the chemicals were positive in the local lymph node assay, including the seven skin carcinogens. 2-Chloroethanol was inactive as a sensitizing agent. We suggest that a variety of factors contributes to the lack of sensitizing activity of the remaining six bacterial mutagens: extremes of intrinsic chemical reactivity, high water solubility reducing dermal translocation, and inappropriate dermal metabolism. Two reference skin-sensitizing agents (an oxazolinone and fluorescein isothiocyanate) were established as in vitro clastogens after their recognition as nonmutagens to Salmonella. These data imply that mutagenicity, rather than simply activity in the Salmonella assay, is a primary stimulus for electrophilic sensitization and carcinogenic initiation in the skin. We conclude that genotoxicity data for an agent can provide indications of the agent's potential to induce skin sensitization and that genotoxins which are skin-sensitizing agents have an enhanced potential to initiate skin carcinogenesis. We suggest that common, albeit individually distinct, structure-activity relationships underpin genotoxicity, skin sensitization, and the initiation of skin carcinogenesis. These relationships should simplify the hazard evaluation of chemicals and contribute to a reduction in animal usage. Several predictions of skin carcinogenicity are made based on the data presented. PMID:8513766

  2. Performing diagnostic skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Godsell, G

    1998-03-01

    The Scope of Professional Practice states that nurses may respond to the needs of patients by expanding their practice. Performing skin biopsies for cancer diagnosis is one such area. The provision of appropriate education, training and updating is essential. Clear guidelines for practice are required for all such procedures. PMID:9534558

  3. Shark skin laceration.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Sean D; Rosen, Ted

    2006-01-01

    We present a case of multiple lacerations occurring from an encounter with a bull shark in which violent contact was made with the animal's rough skin. Conservative treatment of the injury resulted in good clinical outcome without any complications. Such events are only rarely reported in the medical literature. PMID:17083886

  4. Chemokines and skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Chemokines are small molecules that induce chemotaxis and activation of certain subsets of leukocytes. The expression patterns of chemokines and chemokine receptors are specific to certain organs and cells. Therefore, chemokines are important to elucidate the mechanism of organ-specific human diseases. CCL17 expressed by Langerhans cells, blood endothelial cells, and fibroblasts plays a key role in attracting Th2 cells and tumor cells of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and mycosis fungoides/Sézary syndrome into the skin, developing various Th2-type inflammatory skin diseases as well as cutaneous lymphoma. CCL11 and CCL26 expressed by skin-resident cells, such as fibroblasts, blood endothelial cells, and keratinocytes, induce infiltration of CCR3-expressing cells such as Th2 cells and eosinophils. CCL11 may also serve as an autocrine as well as a paracrine in anaplastic large cell lymphoma. CX3CL1 expressed on blood endothelial cells leads to infiltration of CX3CR1(+) immune cells, such as mast cells, neutrophils, and macrophages, playing important roles in wound healing, tumor immunity, and vasculitis. Biologics targeting chemokines and their receptors are promising strategies for various skin diseases that are resistant to the current therapy. PMID:25182982

  5. Cephalopod behaviour: Skin flicks.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    Cephalopods, such as octopus and squid, can change their coloration in an instant, and even produce moving patterns on their skin. A new study describes these wavelike patterns in a colourful tropical cuttlefish, providing insights into the neural mechanisms that generate them. PMID:25093557

  6. Noninvasive Skin Tightening Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive skin tightening has become one of the most common cosmetic aesthetic procedures being performed today. The use of radiofrequency devices for these procedures has been at the forefront of this trend for the past several years. Newer and more sophisticated radiofrequency devices are being brought to the market and presented here are the Venus Freeze and Venus Legacy. PMID:26155322

  7. Immunity and skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.B.; Brysk, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Observations in humans and animal studies support the theory that immunologic surveillance plays an important role in limiting the development of skin malignancies. These immune responses undergo progressive diminution with age. In addition, other factors, such as bereavement, poor nutrition, and acute and chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, can further diminish immune mechanisms.

  8. Screening for Skin Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Helfand; Susan M. Mahon; Karen B. Eden; Paul S. Frame; C. Tracy Orleans

    We searched the MEDLINE database for papers published between 1994 and June 1999, using search terms for screening, physical examination, morbidity, and skin neoplasms. For information on accuracy of screening tests, we used the search terms sensitivity and specificity. We identified the most important studies from before 1994 from the Guide to Clinical Preventive Services, second edition, and from high-quality

  9. Measuring and Protecting Skin

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Baylor College of Medicine (Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center)

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students learn about their skin and the importance of protecting it. It is part of the My World activities from Baylor College of Medicine. Additional activities can be accessed at http://www.ccitonline.org/ceo/content.cfm?content_id=96.

  10. The Skin in Mastocytosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas A. Soter

    1991-01-01

    The most frequent site of organ involvement in patients with any form of mastocytosis is the skin. Cutaneous expressions include urticaria pigmentosa, mastocytoma, diffuse and erythrodermic cutaneous mastocytosis, and telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans. The cutaneous lesions tend to appear early in life. Although urticaria pigmentosa has been reported in 12 pairs of twins and one set of triplets, the majority

  11. Skin Burns (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... than 3 inches or 7.5 cm) or deep (deep partial-thickness or full thickness) (see 'Burn type' ... are good examples of superficial partial-thickness burns. Deep partial-thickness skin burns — Deep partial-thickness skin ...

  12. Bioactivity-guided navigation of chemical space.

    PubMed

    Bon, Robin S; Waldmann, Herbert

    2010-08-17

    A central aim of biological research is to elucidate the many roles of proteins in complex, dynamic living systems; the selective perturbation of protein function is an important tool in achieving this goal. Because chemical perturbations offer opportunities often not accessible with genetic methods, the development of small-molecule modulators of protein function is at the heart of chemical biology research. In this endeavor, the identification of biologically relevant starting points within the vast chemical space available for the design of compound collections is a particularly relevant, yet difficult, task. In this Account, we present our research aimed at linking chemical and biological space to define suitable starting points that guide the synthesis of compound collections with biological relevance. Both protein folds and natural product (NP) scaffolds are highly conserved in nature. Whereas different amino acid sequences can make up ligand-binding sites in proteins with highly similar fold types, differently substituted NPs characterized by particular scaffold classes often display diverse biological activities. Therefore, we hypothesized that (i) ligand-binding sites with similar ligand-sensing cores embedded in their folds would bind NPs with similar scaffolds and (ii) selectivity is ensured by variation of both amino acid side chains and NP substituents. To investigate this notion in compound library design, we developed an approach termed biology-oriented synthesis (BIOS). BIOS employs chem- and bioinformatic methods for mapping biologically relevant chemical space and protein space to generate hypotheses for compound collection design and synthesis. BIOS also provides hypotheses for potential bioactivity of compound library members. On the one hand, protein structure similarity clustering (PSSC) is used to identify ligand binding sites with high subfold similarity, that is, high structural similarity in their ligand-sensing cores. On the other hand, structural classification by scaffold trees (for example, structural classification of natural products or SCONP), when combined with software tools like "Scaffold Hunter", enables the hierarchical structural classification of small-molecule collections in tree-like arrangements, their annotation with bioactivity data, and the intuitive navigation of chemical space. Brachiation (in a manner analogous to tree-swinging primates) within the scaffold trees serves to identify new starting points for the design and synthesis of small-molecule libraries, and PSSC may be used to select potential protein targets. The introduction of chemical diversity in compound collections designed according to the logic of BIOS is essential for the frequent identification of small molecules with diverse biological activities. The continuing development of synthetic methodology, both on solid phase and in solution, enables the generation of focused small-molecule collections with sufficient substituent, stereochemical, and scaffold diversity to yield comparatively high hit rates in biochemical and biological screens from relatively small libraries. BIOS has also allowed the identification of new ligand classes for several different proteins and chemical probes for the study of protein function in cells. PMID:20481515

  13. Bioactive steroids from Oryza sativa L.

    PubMed

    Macías, Francisco A; Chinchilla, Nuria; Varela, Rosa M; Molinillo, José M G

    2006-07-01

    Rice is one of the most interesting crops in the world from both the social and the economic point of views. The monoculture practices along with the heavy use of herbicides are characteristic of modern agriculture and are inducing the appearance of tolerant and/or herbicide resistant weed biotypes. This is the case the world's main weed of rice barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli). Alternative strategies for weed suppression consist of the use of chemicals from rice due to necessity of obtaining new herbicides with new modes of action that could prevent resistance phenomena. In order to carry out a study that guides to the isolation of the most active compounds from rice, different extracts were achieved, and their activities evaluated. So, all the plant material was divided into three parts: fresh plant, dried plant, and fresh plant from Pluviotron. The aerial part was separated from roots in all cases and extracted in water, in organic solvents as well as with the Pluviotron device. The activity of the 12 extracts obtained was evaluated using a generalist bioassay, wheat etiolated coleoptiles bioassay, and a phytotoxic bioassay on barnyardgrass as target species. The bioactive extracts were fractionated and 15 compounds were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods. Eight of these compounds were isolated for the first time in Oryza sativa. The most phytotoxic compounds on E. crus-galli were ergosterol peroxide and 7-oxo-stigmasterol. In the case of ergosterol peroxide the activity was higher than the commercial herbicide Logran. This is the first report of potential allelopathic activity of steroids on weeds based on their phytotoxicity. PMID:16620896

  14. Bioactive steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana flowers.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Andy J; Calle, Juan M; Simonet, Ana M; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A

    2013-11-01

    Bioguided studies of flowers of Agave offoyana allowed the isolation of five steroidal saponins never described previously, Magueyosides A-E (1-5), along with six known steroidal saponins (6-11). The structures of compounds were determined as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2?,3?-diol-12-one 3-O-{?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-2?,3?-diol-12-one 3-O-{?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-2?,3?,12?-triol 3-O-{?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-5?-spirostan-2?,3?-diol-12-one 3-O-{?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (4), and (25R)-5?-spirostan-2?,3?-diol-9(11)-en-12-one 3-O-{?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (5), by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The bioactivities of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa were evaluated. A dose-dependent phytotoxicity and low dose stimulation were observed. PMID:23859261

  15. Preparation of curcuminoid niosomes for enhancement of skin permeation.

    PubMed

    Rungphanichkul, N; Nimmannit, U; Muangsiri, W; Rojsitthisak, P

    2011-08-01

    Curcuminoids (curcumin, desmethoxycurcumin, and bisdesmethoxycurcumin) are major bioactive substances found in turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) extracts and possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anticancer properties. In this study, curcuminoid niosomes prepared with a series of Span non-ionic surfactants were developed to enhance the skin permeation of curcuminoids. Formulations were evaluated based on aggregation of niosomes, curcuminoid loading, % entrapment efficiency and in vitro permeation of curcuminoids through shed snake skin. Optimal formulations of curcuminoid niosomes including sorbitan monooleate, cholesterol, and Solulan C-24 at a mole ratio of 47.5:47.5:5 were obtained. Up to 11 micromoles of curcuminoids could be loaded in the niosome with a % entrapment efficiency of 83%. About 90% of the niosomes had a diameter of 12.25 +/- 5.00 microm. The niosomes significantly enhanced permeation of curcuminoids compared with a methanolic solution of curcuminoids: 4% of entrapped curcuminoids traversed the shed snake skin, whereas permeation from the methanolic solution was undetectable. The fluxes of curcumin, desmethoxycurcumin, and bisdesmethoxycurcumin were 1.117, 0.263, and 0.057 microg/(cm2h), respectively, consistent with the relative hydrophobicity of curcumin > desmethoxycurcumin > bisdesmethoxycurcumin. In conclusion, our data show that curcuminoids can be successfully formulated as niosomes and that such formulations have improved properties for transdermal delivery. PMID:21901978

  16. Immense Essence of Excellence: Marine Microbial Bioactive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Ira; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Oceans have borne most of the biological activities on our planet. A number of biologically active compounds with varying degrees of action, such as anti-tumor, anti-cancer, anti-microtubule, anti-proliferative, cytotoxic, photo protective, as well as antibiotic and antifouling properties, have been isolated to date from marine sources. The marine environment also represents a largely unexplored source for isolation of new microbes (bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, microalgae-cyanobacteria and diatoms) that are potent producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Extensive research has been done to unveil the bioactive potential of marine microbes (free living and symbiotic) and the results are amazingly diverse and productive. Some of these bioactive secondary metabolites of microbial origin with strong antibacterial and antifungal activities are being intensely used as antibiotics and may be effective against infectious diseases such as HIV, conditions of multiple bacterial infections (penicillin, cephalosporines, streptomycin, and vancomycin) or neuropsychiatric sequelae. Research is also being conducted on the general aspects of biophysical and biochemical properties, chemical structures and biotechnological applications of the bioactive substances derived from marine microorganisms, and their potential use as cosmeceuticals and nutraceuticals. This review is an attempt to consolidate the latest studies and critical research in this field, and to showcase the immense competence of marine microbial flora as bioactive metabolite producers. In addition, the present review addresses some effective and novel approaches of procuring marine microbial compounds utilizing the latest screening strategies of drug discovery. PMID:21116414

  17. Brain-Skin Connection: Stress, Inflammation and Skin Aging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Lyga, John

    2014-01-01

    The intricate relationship between stress and skin conditions has been documented since ancient times. Recent clinical observations also link psychological stress to the onset or aggravation of multiple skin diseases. However, the exact underlying mechanisms have only been studied and partially revealed in the past 20 years or so. In this review, the authors will discuss the recent discoveries in the field of “Brain-Skin Connection”, summarizing findings from the overlapping fields of psychology, endocrinology, skin neurobiology, skin inflammation, immunology, and pharmacology. PMID:24853682

  18. Dynamic Skin Triangulation (extended abstract)

    E-print Network

    Sullivan, John M.

    Dynamic Skin Triangulation (extended abstract) Ho-Lun Cheng , Tamal K. Dey , Herbert Edelsbrunner small and large angles. Skin Surfaces. The approach to deforming surfaces taken in this paper is based on the technical notion of skin surfaces, as introduced in [3]. The main reason for this choice is the existence

  19. Melanocyte biology and skin pigmentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Y. Lin; David E. Fisher

    2007-01-01

    Melanocytes are phenotypically prominent but histologically inconspicuous skin cells. They are responsible for the pigmentation of skin and hair, and thereby contribute to the appearance of skin and provide protection from damage by ultraviolet radiation. Pigmentation mutants in various species are highly informative about basic genetic and developmental pathways, and provide important clues to the processes of photoprotection, cancer predisposition

  20. Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the…

  1. AT NORTHWESTERN SKIN CANCER INSTITUTE

    E-print Network

    Engman, David M.

    research. We are the Chicago area's leading site for the care of patients with skin cancers (includingTHE CANCER INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE SKIN CANCER INSTITUTE THE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE #12;THE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE "Through the Skin Cancer Institute, we are endeavoring

  2. Bioactive Molecules in Soil Ecosystems: Masters of the Underground

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Xuliang; Gao, Jie; Ma, Anzhou; Fu, Shenglei; Zhuang, Guoqiang

    2013-01-01

    Complex biological and ecological processes occur in the rhizosphere through ecosystem-level interactions between roots, microorganisms and soil fauna. Over the past decade, studies of the rhizosphere have revealed that when roots, microorganisms and soil fauna physically contact one another, bioactive molecular exchanges often mediate these interactions as intercellular signal, which prepare the partners for successful interactions. Despite the importance of bioactive molecules in sustainable agriculture, little is known of their numerous functions, and improving plant health and productivity by altering ecological processes remains difficult. In this review, we describe the major bioactive molecules present in below-ground ecosystems (i.e., flavonoids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics and quorum-sensing signals), and we discuss how these molecules affect microbial communities, nutrient availability and plant defense responses. PMID:23615474

  3. Quantitative studies on roast kinetics for bioactives in coffee.

    PubMed

    Lang, Roman; Yagar, Erkan Firat; Wahl, Anika; Beusch, Anja; Dunkel, Andreas; Dieminger, Natalie; Eggers, Rudolf; Bytof, Gerhard; Stiebitz, Herbert; Lantz, Ingo; Hofmann, Thomas

    2013-12-11

    Quantitative analysis of the bioactives trigonelline (1), N-methylpyridinium (2), caffeine (3), and caffeoylquinic acids (4) in a large set of roasted Arabica (total sample size n = 113) and Robusta coffees (total sample size n = 38) revealed that the concentrations of 1 and 4 significantly correlated with the roasting color (P < 0.001, two tailed), whereas that of 2 significantly correlated inversely with the color (P < 0.001, two tailed). As dark-roasted coffees were rich in N-methylpyridinium whereas light-roasted coffees were rich in trigonelline and caffeoylquinic acids, manufacturing of roast coffees rich in all four bioactives would therefore necessitate blending of two or even more coffees of different roasting colors. Additional experiments on the migration rates during coffee brewing showed that all four bioactives were nearly quantitatively extracted in the brew (>90%) when a water volume/coffee powder ratio of >16 was used. PMID:24274681

  4. Edible berries: bioactive components and their effect on human health.

    PubMed

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won

    2014-02-01

    The importance of food consumption in relation to human health has increased consumer attention in nutraceutical components and foods, especially fruits and vegetables. Berries are a rich source of a wide variety of non-nutritive, nutritive, and bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, phenolics, anthocyanins, phenolic acids, stilbenes, and tannins, as well as nutritive compounds such as sugars, essential oils, carotenoids, vitamins, and minerals. Bioactive compounds from berries have potent antioxidant, anticancer, antimutagenic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineurodegenerative properties, both in vitro and in vivo. The following is a comprehensive and critical review on nutritional and non-nutritional bioactive compounds of berries including their absorption, metabolism, and biological activity in relation to their potential effect on human health. PMID:24012283

  5. Bioactive molecules in soil ecosystems: masters of the underground.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xuliang; Gao, Jie; Ma, Anzhou; Fu, Shenglei; Zhuang, Guoqiang

    2013-01-01

    Complex biological and ecological processes occur in the rhizosphere through ecosystem-level interactions between roots, microorganisms and soil fauna. Over the past decade, studies of the rhizosphere have revealed that when roots, microorganisms and soil fauna physically contact one another, bioactive molecular exchanges often mediate these interactions as intercellular signal, which prepare the partners for successful interactions. Despite the importance of bioactive molecules in sustainable agriculture, little is known of their numerous functions, and improving plant health and productivity by altering ecological processes remains difficult. In this review, we describe the major bioactive molecules present in below-ground ecosystems (i.e., flavonoids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics and quorum-sensing signals), and we discuss how these molecules affect microbial communities, nutrient availability and plant defense responses. PMID:23615474

  6. Beta-conglycinins among sources of bioactives in soybean hydrolysates that inhibited leukemia cells in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is a complex matrix containing several potentially bioactive components. The objective was to build a statistical model to predict the anticancer potential of soybean based on the composition of bioactive components in soybean hydrolysates produced by simulated gastrointestinal digestion. ...

  7. Ablation of human skin mast cells in situ by lysosomotropic agents.

    PubMed

    Hagforsen, Eva; Paivandy, Aida; Lampinen, Maria; Weström, Simone; Calounova, Gabriela; Melo, Fabio R; Rollman, Ola; Pejler, Gunnar

    2015-07-01

    Mast cells are known to have a detrimental impact on numerous types of inflammatory skin diseases such as contact dermatitis, atopic eczema and cutaneous mastocytosis. Regimens that dampen skin mast cell-mediated activities can thus offer an attractive therapeutic option under such circumstances. As mast cells are known to secrete a large array of potentially pathogenic compounds, both from preformed stores in secretory lysosomes (granules) and after de novo synthesis, mere inhibition of degranulation or interference with individual mast cell mediators may not be sufficient to provide an effective blockade of harmful mast cell activities. An alternative strategy may therefore be to locally reduce skin mast cell numbers. Here, we explored the possibility of using lysosomotropic agents for this purpose, appreciating the fact that mast cell granules contain bioactive compounds prone to trigger apoptosis if released into the cytosolic compartment. Based on this principle, we show that incubation of human skin punch biopsies with the lysosomotropic agents siramesine or Leu-Leu methyl ester preferably ablated the mast cell population, without causing any gross adverse effects on the skin morphology. Subsequent analysis revealed that mast cells treated with lysosomotropic agents predominantly underwent apoptotic rather than necrotic cell death. In summary, this study raises the possibility of using lysosomotropic agents as a novel approach to targeting deleterious mast cell populations in cutaneous mastocytosis and other skin disorders negatively influenced by mast cells. PMID:25808581

  8. CORRTEX: a compact and versatile system for time domain reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Deupree, R.G.; Eilers, D.D.; McKown, T.O.; Storey, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    The CORRTEX (COntinuous Reflectometry for Radius versus Time EXperiments) system was designed to be an adaptable and versatile unit for performing time domain reflectometry (TDR). The system consists of a coaxial cable, a digital TDR, which uses a Motorola 6800 microprocessor, a power source or battery pack, and an output terminal or recording driver. Desirable criteria for the system are discussed as well as the operation of the CORRTEX system. The types of present applications of the CORRTEX system are summarized and data presented.

  9. The acoustic vector sensor: a versatile battlefield acoustics sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bree, Hans-Elias; Wind, Jelmer W.

    2011-06-01

    The invention of the Microflown sensor has made it possible to measure acoustic particle velocity directly. An acoustic vector sensor (AVS) measures the particle velocity in three directions (the source direction) and the pressure. The sensor is a uniquely versatile battlefield sensor because its size is a few millimeters and it is sensitive to sound from 10Hz to 10kHz. This article shows field tests results of acoustic vector sensors, measuring rifles, heavy artillery, fixed wing aircraft and helicopters. Experimental data shows that the sensor is suitable as a ground sensor, mounted on a vehicle and on a UAV.

  10. Surface plasmon resonance-enabled antibacterial digital versatile discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Xuan; Chung, Pei-Yu; Jiang, Peng; Dai, Jianli

    2012-02-01

    We report the achievement of effective sterilization of exemplary bacteria including Escherichia coli and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on a digital versatile disc (DVD). The spiral arrangement of aluminum-covered pits generates strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption of near-infrared light, leading to high surface temperature that could even damage the DVD plastics. Localized protein denaturation and high sterilization efficiency have been demonstrated by using a fluorescence microscope and cell cultures. Numerical simulations have also been conducted to model the SPR properties and the surface temperature distribution of DVDs under laser illumination. The theoretical predictions agree reasonably well with the experimental results.

  11. Versatile Digital GHz Phase Lock for External Cavity Diode Lasers

    E-print Network

    Jürgen Appel; Andrew MacRae; A. I. Lvovsky

    2010-01-11

    We present a versatile, inexpensive and simple optical phase lock for applications in atomic physics experiments. Thanks to all-digital phase detection and implementation of beat frequency pre-scaling, the apparatus requires no microwave-range reference input, and permits phase locking at frequency differences ranging from sub-MHz to 7 GHz (and with minor extension, to 12 GHz). The locking range thus covers ground state hyperfine splittings of all alkali metals, which makes this system a universal tool for many experiments on coherent interaction between light and atoms.

  12. Algae biofuels: versatility for the future of bioenergy.

    PubMed

    Jones, Carla S; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2012-06-01

    The world continues to increase its energy use, brought about by an expanding population and a desire for a greater standard of living. This energy use coupled with the realization of the impact of carbon dioxide on the climate, has led us to reanalyze the potential of plant-based biofuels. Of the potential sources of biofuels the most efficient producers of biomass are the photosynthetic microalgae and cyanobacteria. These versatile organisms can be used for the production of bioethanol, biodiesel, biohydrogen, and biogas. In fact, one of the most economic methods for algal biofuels production may be the combined biorefinery approach where multiple biofuels are produced from one biomass source. PMID:22104720

  13. Versatile supramolecular organogel with outstanding stability toward aqueous interfaces.

    PubMed

    Bonifazi, Evelyn L; Edelsztein, Valeria C; Menéndez, Guillermo O; Samaniego López, Cecilia; Spagnuolo, Carla C; Di Chenna, Pablo H

    2014-06-25

    In this communication, we report on a novel and versatile low-molecular-weight organogelator. The methanolic gel exhibits an exceptional water-enhanced stability as evidenced by a 30 °C increase in Tg with up to 10%v/v of water. This atypical property not observed with other solvents makes of this supramolecular gel a highly stable matrix compatible with aqueous interfaces. As a proof of principle we present the sensing performance of a symmetric tricarbocyanine fluorophore bearing a Zn(II)chelator unit. The system retained its remarkable physical integrity for a long period of time opening new possibilities for other organic-aqueous interface applications. PMID:24912100

  14. Versatile access to Martin's spirosilanes and their hypervalent derivatives.

    PubMed

    Lenormand, Hugo; Corcé, Vincent; Sorin, Geoffroy; Chhun, Christine; Chamoreau, Lise-Marie; Krim, Lahouari; Zins, Emilie-Laure; Goddard, Jean-Philippe; Fensterbank, Louis

    2015-03-20

    A new route to Martin's spirosilanes has been devised. The original synthesis does not allow diversely substituted spirosilane derivatives to be synthesized, and thus their corresponding silicates. In this report, Martin's spirosilanes bearing alkyl, aryl, halogen, alkoxy, and trifluoromethyl substituents on the aryl ring have been prepared through a versatile four-step route. Addition of fluoride onto these Lewis acids as a prototypical reaction with a nucleophile yielded a library of stable fluorosilicates. Both sets of compounds have been characterized by X-ray crystallography. PMID:25695186

  15. A new versatile underground gamma-ray spectrometry system.

    PubMed

    Lutter, Guillaume; Hult, Mikael; Marissens, Gerd; Andreotti, Erica; Rosengård, Ulf; Misiaszek, Marcin; Yüksel, Ayhan; Sahin, Namik

    2013-11-01

    The newest development in IRMM's underground analytical facility is a large lead shield lined with copper that is versatile and can host several detectors of different types. The characteristics and the background performance of the shield are described for four different detector configurations involving HPGe-detectors and NaI-detectors. The shield has been designed to swap detectors, while still maintaining a low background. This enables testing of detectors for other experiments and optimisation of detection limits for specific radionuclides in different projects. PMID:23743483

  16. Skin contamination dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Hamby, David M. (Corvallis, OR); Farsoni, Abdollah T. (Corvallis, OR); Cazalas, Edward (Corvallis, OR)

    2011-06-21

    A technique and device provides absolute skin dosimetry in real time at multiple tissue depths simultaneously. The device uses a phoswich detector which has multiple scintillators embedded at different depths within a non-scintillating material. A digital pulse processor connected to the phoswich detector measures a differential distribution (dN/dH) of count rate N as function of pulse height H for signals from each of the multiple scintillators. A digital processor computes in real time from the differential count-rate distribution for each of multiple scintillators an estimate of an ionizing radiation dose delivered to each of multiple depths of skin tissue corresponding to the multiple scintillators embedded at multiple corresponding depths within the non-scintillating material.

  17. Preventive Skin Care Fact or Fiction?

    E-print Network

    Goldman, Steven A.

    _cancer.jpg #12;Skin Cancer or Benign Mole? Benign! Skin tags are common skin lesions Some may have hundreds of them Easily removed http://feathertouchelectrolysis.ca/skin_tags_polyps_91.jpg #12;Skin CancerPreventive Skin Care Fact or Fiction? Rochester Recreation Club for the Deaf July 21, 2011

  18. Soil as Living Skin

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pulse of the Planet

    2006-06-26

    In this two-minute radio program, a soil scientist introduces listeners to reasons why soil is crucial to the planet. The scientist lists functions of soil that include nutrient cycling and water filtration, and he also uses living skin as an analogy for soil. The program, part of the Pulse of the Planet radio show, is available here in text and audio formats. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  19. Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Samarasinghe, Venura; Madan, Vishal

    2012-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) represents the most common form of cancer in Caucasians, with continuing increase in incidence worldwide. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) accounts for 75% of cases of NMSC, and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) accounts for the remaining majority of NMSC cases. Whilst metastasis from BCC is extremely rare, metastasis from high-risk SCC may be fatal. In this article, we review the aetiology, diagnosis and management of NMSC. PMID:22557848

  20. Skin, Scales and Skulls

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Virginia Aquarium and Marine Science Center

    2009-01-01

    In this activity, learners examine body parts (including skin, scales, and skulls) from fish, mammals and reptiles. Questions are provided to help encourage learner investigations. Several activities are described, including object identification (what animal and what part of the animal?), free sorting of the objects, and a discussion of similarities, differences, and protective functions of the animal parts. It's written for use as a cart demo in a museum or aquarium, but could be done anywhere animal body parts are available.

  1. The CARLSBAD Database: A Confederated Database of Chemical Bioactivities

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Stephen L.; Hines-Kay, Jarrett; Yang, Jeremy J.; Zahoransky-Kohalmi, Gergely; Bologa, Cristian G.; Ursu, Oleg; Oprea, Tudor I.

    2013-01-01

    Many bioactivity databases offer information regarding the biological activity of small molecules on protein targets. Information in these databases is often hard to resolve with certainty because of subsetting different data in a variety of formats; use of different bioactivity metrics; use of different identifiers for chemicals and proteins; and having to access different query interfaces, respectively. Given the multitude of data sources, interfaces and standards, it is challenging to gather relevant facts and make appropriate connections and decisions regarding chemical–protein associations. The CARLSBAD database has been developed as an integrated resource, focused on high-quality subsets from several bioactivity databases, which are aggregated and presented in a uniform manner, suitable for the study of the relationships between small molecules and targets. In contrast to data collection resources, CARLSBAD provides a single normalized activity value of a given type for each unique chemical–protein target pair. Two types of scaffold perception methods have been implemented and are available for datamining: HierS (hierarchical scaffolds) and MCES (maximum common edge subgraph). The 2012 release of CARLSBAD contains 439 985 unique chemical structures, mapped onto 1,420 889 unique bioactivities, and annotated with 277 140 HierS scaffolds and 54 135 MCES chemical patterns, respectively. Of the 890 323 unique structure–target pairs curated in CARLSBAD, 13.95% are aggregated from multiple structure–target values: 94 975 are aggregated from two bioactivities, 14 544 from three, 7 930 from four and 2214 have five bioactivities, respectively. CARLSBAD captures bioactivities and tags for 1435 unique chemical structures of active pharmaceutical ingredients (i.e. ‘drugs’). CARLSBAD processing resulted in a net 17.3% data reduction for chemicals, 34.3% reduction for bioactivities, 23% reduction for HierS and 25% reduction for MCES, respectively. The CARLSBAD database supports a knowledge mining system that provides non-specialists with novel integrative ways of exploring chemical biology space to facilitate knowledge mining in drug discovery and repurposing. Database URL: http://carlsbad.health.unm.edu/carlsbad/. PMID:23794735

  2. Combining xanthan and chitosan membranes to multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells as bioactive dressings for dermo-epidermal wounds.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Márcia Z; Caliari-Oliveira, Carolina; Mizukami, Amanda; Swiech, Kamilla; Covas, Dimas T; Donadi, Eduardo A; Oliva-Neto, Pedro; Moraes, Ângela M

    2015-03-01

    The association between tridimensional scaffolds to cells of interest has provided excellent perspectives for obtaining viable complex tissues in vitro, such as skin, resulting in impressive advances in the field of tissue engineering applied to regenerative therapies. The use of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in the treatment of dermo-epidermal wounds is particularly promising due to several relevant properties of these cells, such as high capacity of proliferation in culture, potential of differentiation in multiple skin cell types, important paracrine and immunomodulatory effects, among others. Membranes of chitosan complexed with xanthan may be potentially useful as scaffolds for multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, given that they present suitable physico-chemical characteristics and have adequate tridimensional structure for the adhesion, growth, and maintenance of cell function. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to assess the applicability of bioactive dressings associating dense and porous chitosan-xanthan membranes to multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells for the treatment of skin wounds. The membranes showed to be non-mutagenic and allowed efficient adhesion and proliferation of the mesenchymal stromal cells in vitro. In vivo assays performed with mesenchymal stromal cells grown on the surface of the dense membranes showed acceleration of wound healing in Wistar rats, thus indicating that the use of this cell-scaffold association for tissue engineering purposes is feasible and attractive. PMID:25281644

  3. The genetics of skin fragility.

    PubMed

    Has, Cristina; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2014-01-01

    Genetic skin fragility manifests with diminished resistance of the skin and mucous membranes to external mechanical forces and with skin blistering, erosions, and painful wounds as clinical features. Skin fragility disorders, collectively called epidermolysis bullosa, are caused by mutations in 18 distinct genes that encode proteins involved in epidermal integrity and dermal-epidermal adhesion. The genetic spectrum, along with environmental and genetic modifiers, creates a large number of clinical phenotypes, spanning from minor localized lesions to severe generalized blistering, secondary skin cancer, or early demise resulting from extensive loss of the epidermis. Laboratory investigations of skin fragility have greatly augmented our understanding of genotype-phenotype correlations in epidermolysis bullosa and have also advanced skin biology in general. Current translational research concentrates on the development of biologically valid treatments with therapeutic genes, cells, proteins, or small-molecule compounds in preclinical settings or human pilot trials. PMID:24898041

  4. Nanostructured bioactive glass–ceramic coatings deposited by the liquid precursor plasma spraying process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanfeng Xiao; Lei Song; Xiaoguang Liu; Yi Huang; Tao Huang; Yao Wu; Jiyong Chen; Fang Wu

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive glass–ceramic coatings have great potential in dental and orthopedic medical implant applications, due to its excellent bioactivity, biocompatibility and osteoinductivity. However, most of the coating preparation techniques either produce only thin thickness coatings or require tedious preparation steps. In this study, a new attempt was made to deposit bioactive glass–ceramic coatings on titanium substrates by the liquid precursor plasma

  5. Preparation and Properties of Pressing Powders for Bioactivity Pottery Doped with Rare Earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meng Junping; Liang Jinsheng; Wang Lijuan; Li Yangxian; Ding Yan; Nie Lei

    2007-01-01

    Pressing powders for bioactivity pottery (PPBP) were prepared using rare earth (RE), magnetic materials (MM) and other mineral materials, according to structural characteristics of water clusters, the oscillation law of molecule and bioactivity mechanism. The microstructures and bioactivity of the powders were characterized by SEM, IR, etc. The results showed that tourmaline, rare earth and magnetic materials could cooperate together

  6. Broad-Spectrum Bactericidal Activity of Ag2O-Doped Bioactive Glass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Bellantone; Huw D. Williams; Larry L. Hench

    2002-01-01

    Bioactive glass has found extensive application as an orthopedic and dental graft material and most recently also as a tissue engineering scaffold. Here we report an initial investigation of the in vitro antibacterial properties of AgBG, a novel bioactive glass composition doped with Ag2O. The bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties of this new material and of two other bioactive glass compositions,

  7. Bioactive components in kombucha tea, Cryptocarya massoy (Oken) Kosterm., and Rollinia emarginata Schlecht

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Estelle DiGeorgio

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to analyze the bioactive compounds in three natural sources: kombucha tea, Cryptocarya massoy , and Rollinia emarginata. Bioactive constituents were isolated in pure form using bioactivity-directed fractionation and assayed by the brine shrimp lethality test. Pure compounds were tested further in vitro using a panel of six tumor cell lines derived from human

  8. A versatile thermal destruction and recovery (TDR) system

    SciTech Connect

    Dupree, R.D. Jr.; Barkley, T.; Forsberg, B.W.; Castellon, O.A.; Taylor, R.H. Jr. [Plasma Energy Applied Technology Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Both public and private sector industries generate significant quantities of waste, in spite of concerted and sometimes costly efforts toward waste minimization. Plasma Energy Applied Technology Inc. (PEAT) has created a versatile Thermal Destruction and Recovery (TDR) System which can treat many of these wastes to reduce customer environmental liability. This system has successfully treated materials such as infectious medical waste, DOD ammunition and energetic material, DOE weapon components, ash, electronic scrap, batteries, asbestos and various forms of toxic organic compounds. This paper presents details of the TDR process, pilot unit, and treatability tests conducted on these materials, particularly the munitions. The versatility of plasma technology as an industrial heat source offers a broad range of options for material processing which can be applied to waste disposal with the potential for material recovery, enhanced economics, and improved environmental compliance. Plasma Energy Applied Technology Inc. (PEAT) has designed, built and permitted a highly flexible, general purpose TDRS pilot system for treatability testing. Test programs and process development tasks are in progress covering a wide variety of waste types, with primary focus on environmentally hazardous waste materials, or those representing uniquely difficult disposal problems such as munitions.

  9. Versatile peroxidase of Bjerkandera fumosa: substrate and inhibitor specificity.

    PubMed

    Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Makarov, Oleg; Chernyshova, Marina; Turkovskaya, Olga; Jarosz-Wilkolazka, Anna

    2013-01-10

    The inhibitor and substrate specificities of versatile peroxidase from Bjerkandera fumosa (VPBF) were studied. Two different effects were found: NaN(3), Tween-80, anthracene, and fluorene decreased the activity of VPBF, but p-aminobenzoic acid increased it. A mixed mechanism of effector influence on the activity of this enzyme was shown. The catalytic properties of VPBF in the oxidation of mono- and polycyclic aromatic compounds were studied also. 2,7-Diaminofluorene, ABTS, veratryl alcohol, and syringaldazine can be oxidized by VPBF in two ways: either directly by the enzyme or by diffusible chelated Mn(3+) as an oxidizing agent. During VPBF oxidation of 2,7-diaminofluorene, both with and without Mn(2+), biphasic kinetics with apparent saturation in both micromolar and millimolar ranges were obtained. In the case of ABTS, inhibition of VPBF activity by an excess of substrate was observed. Direct oxidation of p-aminobenzoic acid by versatile peroxidase was found for the first time. The oxidation of three- and four-ring PAHs by VPBF was investigated, and the oxidation of anthracene, phenanthrene, fluorene, pyrene, chrysene, and fluoranthene was shown. The products of PAH oxidation (9,10-anthraquinone, 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, and 9-fluorenone) catalyzed by VPBF were identified. PMID:23199738

  10. Versatile optical coherence tomography for imaging the human eye

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Aizhu; Shao, Yilei; Zhong, Jianguang; Jiang, Hong; Shen, Meixiao; Wang, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrated the feasibility of a CMOS-based spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) for versatile ophthalmic applications of imaging the corneal epithelium, limbus, ocular surface, contact lens, crystalline lens, retina, and full eye in vivo. The system was based on a single spectrometer and an alternating reference arm with four mirrors. A galvanometer scanner was used to switch the reference beam among the four mirrors, depending on the imaging application. An axial resolution of 7.7 ?m in air, a scan depth of up to 37.7 mm in air, and a scan speed of up to 70,000 A-lines per second were achieved. The approach has the capability to provide high-resolution imaging of the corneal epithelium, contact lens, ocular surface, and tear meniscus. Using two reference mirrors, the zero delay lines were alternatively placed on the front cornea or on the back lens. The entire ocular anterior segment was imaged by registering and overlapping the two images. The full eye through the pupil was measured when the reference arm was switched among the four reference mirrors. After mounting a 60 D lens in the sample arm, this SD-OCT was used to image the retina, including the macula and optical nerve head. This system demonstrates versatility and simplicity for multi-purpose ophthalmic applications. PMID:23847729

  11. Versatile clinical information system design for emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Amouh, Teh; Gemo, Monica; Macq, Benoît; Vanderdonckt, Jean; El Gariani, Abdul Wahed; Reynaert, Marc S; Stamatakis, Lambert; Thys, Frédéric

    2005-06-01

    Compared to other hospital units, the emergency department presents some distinguishing characteristics of its own. Emergency health-care delivery is a collaborative process involving the contribution of several individuals who accomplish their tasks while working autonomously under pressure and sometimes with limited resources. Effective computerization of the emergency department information system presents a real challenge due to the complexity of the scenario. Current computerized support suffers from several problems, including inadequate data models, clumsy user interfaces, and poor integration with other clinical information systems. To tackle such complexity, we propose an approach combining three points of view, namely the transactions (in and out of the department), the (mono and multi) user interfaces and data management. Unlike current systems, we pay particular attention to the user-friendliness and versatility of our system. This means that intuitive user interfaces have been conceived and specific software modeling methodologies have been applied to provide our system with the flexibility and adaptability necessary for the individual and group coordinated tasks. Our approach has been implemented by prototyping a web-based, multiplatform, multiuser, and versatile clinical information system built upon multitier software architecture, using the Java programming language. PMID:16138534

  12. Versatile Low Level RF System For Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, James M. [JP Accelerator Works, Inc., 2245 47th Street, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The Low Level RF (LLRF) system is the source of all of the rf signals required for an rf linear accelerator. These signals are amplified to drive accelerator and buncher cavities. It can even provide the synchronizing signal for the rf power for a synchrotron. The use of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) techniques results in a versatile system that can provide multiple coherent signals at the same or different frequencies with adjustable amplitudes and phase relations. Pulsing the DDS allows rf switching with an essentially infinite on/off ratio. The LLRF system includes a versatile phase detector that allows phase-locking the rf frequency to a cavity at any phase angle over the full 360 deg. range. With the use of stepper motor driven slug tuners multiple cavity resonant frequencies can be phase locked to the rf source frequency. No external phase shifters are required and there is no feedback loop phase setup required. All that is needed is to turn the frequency feedback on. The use of Digital Signal Processing (DSP) allows amplitude and phase control over the entire rf pulse. This paper describes the basic principles of a LLRF system that has been used for both proton accelerators and electron accelerators, including multiple tank accelerators, sub-harmonic and fundamental bunchers, and synchrotrons.

  13. Versatile Low Level RF System For Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, James M.

    2011-06-01

    The Low Level RF (LLRF) system is the source of all of the rf signals required for an rf linear accelerator. These signals are amplified to drive accelerator and buncher cavities. It can even provide the synchronizing signal for the rf power for a synchrotron. The use of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) techniques results in a versatile system that can provide multiple coherent signals at the same or different frequencies with adjustable amplitudes and phase relations. Pulsing the DDS allows rf switching with an essentially infinite on/off ratio. The LLRF system includes a versatile phase detector that allows phase-locking the rf frequency to a cavity at any phase angle over the full 360° range. With the use of stepper motor driven slug tuners multiple cavity resonant frequencies can be phase locked to the rf source frequency. No external phase shifters are required and there is no feedback loop phase setup required. All that is needed is to turn the frequency feedback on. The use of Digital Signal Processing (DSP) allows amplitude and phase control over the entire rf pulse. This paper describes the basic principles of a LLRF system that has been used for both proton accelerators and electron accelerators, including multiple tank accelerators, sub-harmonic and fundamental bunchers, and synchrotrons.

  14. In-vivo differentiation of photo-aged epidermis skin by texture-based classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoman; Weng, Cuncheng; Yu, Biying; Li, Hui

    2014-11-01

    Two sets of in vivo female cheek skin epidermis images were analyzed through gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and fast fourier transform (FFT). One set was derived from women in their 20s and the other from women more than 60 years of age. GLCM was used to evaluate the texture features of the regions of interest within the cheek epidermis, and texture classification was subsequently performed. During texture classification, 25 images (320×240 pixels) in each age set were randomly selected. Three texture features, i.e., energy, contrast, and correlation, were obtained from the skin images and analyzed at four orientations (0°, 45°,90°, and 135°), accompanied by different distances between two pixels. The textures of the different aging skins were characterized by FFT, which provides the dermatoglyph orientation index. The differences in the textures between the young and old skin samples can be well described by the FFT dermatoglyph orientation index. The texture features varied among the different aging skins, which provide a versatile platform for differentiating the statuses of aging skins.

  15. [Dry skin and black skin: what are the facts?].

    PubMed

    Mahé, A

    2002-01-01

    We present a review of the data in the literature on the potential specificities of the stratum corneum of so-called "black" skin, together with the afferent cutaneous hydration regulation process. The methodology of the studies is often debatable, not only for basic (absence of definition of "black skin") but also for technical reasons. Their results are often contradicting. Other than certain subtle differences, related to potentially enhanced preservation of the epidermis of dark skin from heliodermal xerosis, we conclude in the similarity of the physicochemical characteristics of the stratum corneum in the different color of skin. Moreover, the data available do not suggest a predisposition of certain skin colors to the occurrence of pathological states involving the stratum corneum. However, dark skin is characterized by its semiologic capacity of taking on a "ashy" aspect related to a better assessment of normal or xerotic stratum corneum because of melanic pigmentation. PMID:11976544

  16. Microencapsulation of Bioactive Principles with an Airless Spray-Gun Suitable for Processing High Viscous Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Cocchietto, Moreno; Blasi, Paolo; Lapasin, Romano; Moro, Chiara; Gallo, Davide; Sava, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: to design, assemble and test a prototype of a novel production plant, suitable for producing microparticles (MPs) by processing highly viscous feed solutions (FSs). Methods: the prototype has been built using a commercial air compressor, a piston pump, an airless spray-gun, a customized air-treatment section, a timer, a rotating base, and a filtration section. Preliminary prototype parameter setting was carried out to individuate the best performing nozzle’s dimension, the nebulization timing, and the CaCl2 concentration in the gelation fluid. In addition, prototype throughput (1 L to 5 L) and the range of practicable feed solution (FS) viscosities were assayed. A set of four batches was prepared in order to characterize the MPs, in terms of mean particle size and distribution, flow properties, swelling, encapsulation efficiency and release. Results: according to a qualitative scoring, the large nozzle was suitable to nebulize FSs at a higher alginate concentration. Conversely, the small nozzle performed better in the processing of FSs with an alginate concentration up to 2% w/v. Only at the highest degree of viscosity, corresponding to 5% w/v of alginate, the FS processing was not technically possible. Among the CaCl2 concentrations considered, 15% w/v was recognized as the most versatile. The prototype appears to be convenient and suitable to grant a high yield starting from 2 L of FS. The flow behavior of the FSs assayed can be satisfactorily described with the Carreau-Yasuda equation and the throughput begins to slightly decrease for FSs at alginate concentrations exceeding 3% w/v. MP morphology was irregular with crumpled shape. The angle of repose indicates a good flowability and the release studies showed gastro-resistance and potential prolonged release applications. Conclusions: the novel prototype of production plant is suitable to process large amounts (2 L or more) of FSs, characterized by a high viscosity, to produce MPs suitable for bioactive principle delivery. PMID:24956192

  17. Plastids of Marine Phytoplankton Produce Bioactive Pigments and Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Heydarizadeh, Parisa; Poirier, Isabelle; Loizeau, Damien; Ulmann, Lionel; Mimouni, Virginie; Schoefs, Benoît; Bertrand, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton is acknowledged to be a very diverse source of bioactive molecules. These compounds play physiological roles that allow cells to deal with changes of the environmental constrains. For example, the diversity of light harvesting pigments allows efficient photosynthesis at different depths in the seawater column. Identically, lipid composition of cell membranes can vary according to environmental factors. This, together with the heterogenous evolutionary origin of taxa, makes the chemical diversity of phytoplankton compounds much larger than in terrestrial plants. This contribution is dedicated to pigments and lipids synthesized within or from plastids/photosynthetic membranes. It starts with a short review of cyanobacteria and microalgae phylogeny. Then the bioactivity of pigments and lipids (anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-allergic activities, and cardio- neuro-, hepato- and photoprotective effects), alone or in combination, is detailed. To increase the cellular production of bioactive compounds, specific culture conditions may be applied (e.g., high light intensity, nitrogen starvation). Regardless of the progress made in blue biotechnologies, the production of bioactive compounds is still limited. However, some examples of large scale production are given, and perspectives are suggested in the final section. PMID:24022731

  18. Plant secondary metabolites from Argentinean semiarid lands: bioactivity against insects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta E. Sosa; Carlos E. Tonn

    2008-01-01

    In this report some recent advances on the studies about the interaction between plant secondary metabolites and insects are\\u000a presented. Bioactivities elicited by natural products with different terpenoid skeletons, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, as\\u000a well as essential oils, are discussed. Special mention has been made to plants from the central-western semiarid area of Argentina.

  19. A novel graded bioactive high adhesion implant coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brohede, Ulrika; Zhao, Shuxi; Lindberg, Fredrik; Mihranyan, Albert; Forsgren, Johan; Strømme, Maria; Engqvist, Håkan

    2009-06-01

    One method to increase the clinical success rate of metal implants is to increase their bone bonding properties, i.e. to develop a bone bioactive surface leading to reduced risks of interfacial problems. Much research has been devoted to modifying the surface of metals to make them become bioactive. Many of the proposed methods include depositing a coating on the implant. However, there is a risk of coating failure due to low substrate adhesion. This paper describes a method to obtain bioactivity combined with a high coating adhesion via a gradient structure of the coating. Gradient coatings were deposited on Ti (grade 5) using reactive magnetron sputtering with increasing oxygen content. To increase the grain size in the coating, all coatings were post annealed at 385 °C. The obtained coating exhibited a gradual transition over 70 nm from crystalline titanium oxide (anatase) at the surface to metallic Ti in the substrate, as shown using cross-section transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling. Using scratch testing, it could be shown that the adhesion to the substrate was well above 1 GPa. The bioactivity of the coating was verified in vitro by the spontaneous formation of hydroxylapatite upon storage in phosphate buffer solution at 37 °C for one week. The described process can be applied to implants irrespective of bulk metal in the base and should introduce the possibility to create safer permanent implants like reconstructive devices, dental, or spinal implants.

  20. Growth Hormone Secretagogues: Characterization, Efficacy, and Minimal Bioactive Conformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert S. McDowell; Kathleen A. Elias; Mark S. Stanley; Daniel J. Burdick; John P. Burnier; Kathryn S. Chan; Wayne J. Fairbrother; R. Glenn Hammonds; Gladys S. Ingle; Neil E. Jacobsen; Deborah L. Mortensen; Thomas E. Rawson; Wesley B. Won; Ross G. Clark; Todd C. Somers

    1995-01-01

    Another class of growth hormone (GH) secretagogues has been discovered by altering the backbone structure of a flexible linear GH-releasing peptide (GHRP). In vitro and in vivo characterization confirms these GH secretagogues as the most potent and smallest (M_r < 500) reported. Anabolic efficacy is demonstrated in rodents with intermittent delivery. A convergent model of the bioactive conformation of GHRPs

  1. Surface bioactivity of plasma implanted silicon and amorphous carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul K Chu

    Plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII&D) has been shown to be an effective tech- nique to enhance the surface bioactivity of materials. In this paper, recent progress made in our laboratory on plasma surface modification single-crystal silicon and amorphous carbon is reviewed. Silicon is the most important material in the integrated circuit industry but its surface biocompatibility has not

  2. Greener and Expeditious Synthesis of Bioactive Heterocycles using Microwave Irradiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utilization of green chemistry techniques is dramatically reducing chemical waste and reaction times as has recently been proven in several organic syntheses and chemical transformations. To illustrate these advantages in the synthesis of bio-active heterocycles, we have stud...

  3. Production of the bioactive polysaccharide schizophyllan from renewable cellulosic materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Schizophyllan is a bioactive homoglucan with a ß-1,3-linked backbone and ß-1,6-linked side chains of single glucose units at every other residue. It is produced by the ubiquitous mushroom, Schizophyllum commune. Schizophyllan acts as a biological response modifier and a non-specific stimulator of ...

  4. Multicomponent organized bioactive layers for fiber-optic luminescent sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Loïc J. Blum; Sabine M. Gautier; Agnès Berger; Philippe E. Michel; Pierre R. Coulet

    1995-01-01

    The characteristics and performance of biosensors mainly depend on the properties of the bioactive layer associated with the transducer. Two approaches that we consider as essential are addressed: the designs of (i) a reagentless fiber-optic biosensor with cosubstrates embedded in the vicinity of the immobilized enzyme; (ii) a compartmentalized layer with sequential enzymatic reactions for improved signal detection. Concerning the

  5. Bioactivity of cedarwood oil and cedrol against arthropod pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heartwood samples from Juniperus virginiana, were extracted with liquid carbon dioxide and the bioactivity of carbon dioxide-derived cedarwood oil (CWO) towards several species of arthropods was investigated. Repellency or toxicity was tested for ants, ticks, and cockroaches. Ants in an outdoor bi...

  6. Preparation of bioactive titanium metal via anodic oxidation treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bangcheng Yang; Masaiki Uchida; Hyun-Min Kim; Xingdong Zhang; Tadashi Kokubo

    2004-01-01

    Titania with specific structures of anatase and rutile was found to induce apatite formation in vitro. In this study, anodic oxidation in H2SO4 solution, which could form anatase and rutile on titanium metal surface by conditioning the process, was employed to modify the structure and bioactivity of biomedical titanium. After the titanium metal was subjected to anodic oxidation treatment, thin

  7. Preparation and bioactivity evaluation of bone-like hydroxyapatite nanopowder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Fathi; A. Hanifi; V. Mortazavi

    2008-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramic such as hydroxyapatite (HA) is good candidate for bone substitutes due to their chemical and structural similarity to bone minerals. The bone mineral consists of tiny hydroxyapatite crystals in the nanoregime. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite is also expected to have better bioactivity than coarser crystals. This paper reports on the preparation and in vitro evaluation of bone-like hydroxyapatite nanopowder.

  8. Conformation of oleuropein, the major bioactive compound of Olea europea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evangelos Gikas; Fotini N. Bazoti; Anthony Tsarbopoulos

    2007-01-01

    Oleuropein is the major bioactive component of Olea europea (the olive tree) and possesses strong antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic and anticancer properties whereas it has been shown to bind to endogenous peptides. Thus the understanding of its conformation is important and could shed some light into its mechanism of action. The aim of the current study was to

  9. New bioactive and biobased product applications of pectin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pectin is well known for its bioactive health-promoting properties and use in biobased products. Recent reports have demonstrated that pectin and pectic fractions have potential as prebiotics, prevent pathogenic bacterial adhesion, increase prostate specific antigen doubling time in patients with re...

  10. Wastewater Chemistry and Fractionation of Bioactive Phosphorus in Dairy Manure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thanh H. Dao; J. B. Reeves III; Hailin Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Because manure organic phosphorus (P) is environmentally bioactive, a novel in situ enzyme hydrolysis assay was developed to identify water soluble? and labile complexed P and mechanisms controlling P solubilization in dairy manure. Water?extractable P averaged 16% (±14.8%) of total P of 107 manures collected across five northeastern states of the USA. Adding a multidentate ligand solubilized inorganic complexed P

  11. Application of Bioactive Molecules in Pulp-capping Situations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Goldberg; F. Decup; D. Buch; E. Soheili Majd; J.-J. Lasfargues; E. Salih; L. Stanislawski

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of bioactive molecules in pulpal wound healing, we carried out experiments using the rat upper molars as an in vivo model. Cavities were prepared on the mesial aspect, and pulp perforation was accomplished by the application of pressure with the tip of a steel probe. After the pulp-capping procedure, the cavities were filled with a glass-ionomer

  12. Bioactivity of essential oils and their volatile aroma components: Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamdy A. E. Shaaban; Ahmed H. El-Ghorab; Takayuki Shibamoto

    2012-01-01

    The bioactivity of essential oils and their flavor and fragrance components have been known since ancient times. Essential oils are a mixture of numerous compounds characterized by an essence of aromatic plants. Currently, approximately 3000 essential oils are known, 300 of which are commercially important, in particular for the pharmaceutical, food, household and cosmetic industries. Essential oils have been known

  13. Bioactivity and Structure of Biophenols as Mediators of Chronic Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory Tucker; Kevin Robards

    2008-01-01

    Biophenols and their associated activity have generated intense interest. Current topics of debate are their bioavailability and bioactivity. It is generally assumed that their plasma concentrations are insufficient to produce the health benefits previously attributed to their consumption. However, data on localized in vivo concentrations are not available and many questions remain unanswered. Potential mechanisms by which they may exert

  14. Nano/macro porous bioactive glass scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shaojie

    Bioactive glass (BG) and ceramics have been widely studied and developed as implants to replace hard tissues of the musculo-skeletal system, such as bones and teeth. Recently, instead of using bulk materials, which usually do not degrade rapidly enough and may remain in the human body for a long time, the idea of bioscaffold for tissue regeneration has generated much interest. An ideal bioscaffold is a porous material that would not only provide a three-dimensional structure for the regeneration of natural tissue, but also degrade gradually and, eventually be replaced by the natural tissue completely. Among various material choices the nano-macro dual porous BG appears as the most promising candidate for bioscaffold applications. Here macropores facilitate tissue growth while nanopores control degradation and enhance cell response. The surface area, which controls the degradation of scaffold can also be tuned by changing the nanopore size. However, fabrication of such 3D structure with desirable nano and macro pores has remained challenging. In this dissertation, sol-gel process combined with spinodal decomposition or polymer sponge replication method has been developed to fabricate the nano-macro porous BG scaffolds. Macropores up to 100microm are created by freezing polymer induced spinodal structure through sol-gel transition, while larger macropores (>200um) of predetermined size are obtained by the polymer sponge replication technique. The size of nanopores, which are inherent to the sol-gel method of glass fabrication, has been tailored using several approaches: Before gel point, small nanopores are generated using acid catalyst that leads to weakly-branched polymer-like network. On the other hand, larger nanopores are created with the base-catalyzed gel with highly-branched cluster-like structure. After the gel point, the nanostructure can be further modified by manipulating the sintering temperature and/or the ammonia concentration used in the solvent exchange process. Although both techniques lower the surface area of BG scaffolds, the temperature-dependent sintering process closes nanopores through densification, while the concentration-dependent solvent exchange process enlarges nanopores through Ostwald-ripening type coarsening. Therefore, nanopore size and surface area of BG scaffold are independently controlled using these methods. In vitro cell and in vivo animal tissue responses have been investigated to evaluate the performance of the nano-macro porous BG scaffold. The cells are found to migrate and penetrate deep into the 3D nano-macro porous structure, while exhibiting excellent adhesion to the bioscaffold surface. Importantly, the new tissue with both blood vessels and collagen fibers is formed deep inside the implanted scaffolds without obvious inflammatory reaction. Furthermore, our observations show biological benefits of the nanopores in the BG scaffold. In comparison to BG scaffold without nanopores, cells migrate and penetrate into nano-macro dual-porous BG scaffold faster and deeper mainly because of the increase of surface area. To study the effect of nanopore topography, we fabricated BG scaffolds with the same surface area but different nanopore sizes. It is found that the initial cell attachment is significantly enhanced on the BG scaffold with the same surface area but smaller nanopores size, indicating that the nanopore topography strongly influences the performance of BG scaffold. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate most clearly the usefulness of our nano-macro dual-porous BG as a novel and superior 3D bioscaffold for regenerative medicine and hard tissue engineering.

  15. Climate change and skin.

    PubMed

    Balato, N; Ayala, F; Megna, M; Balato, A; Patruno, C

    2013-02-01

    Global climate appears to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Climate change can be caused by several factors that include variations in solar radiation received by earth, oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions, as well as human-induced alterations of the natural world. Many human activities, such as the use of fossil fuel and the consequent accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, land consumption, deforestation, industrial processes, as well as some agriculture practices are contributing to global climate change. Indeed, many authors have reported on the current trend towards global warming (average surface temperature has augmented by 0.6 °C over the past 100 years), decreased precipitation, atmospheric humidity changes, and global rise in extreme climatic events. The magnitude and cause of these changes and their impact on human activity have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing climate change as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Although many articles have been written based on observations and various predictive models of how climate change could affect social, economic and health systems, only few studies exist about the effects of this change on skin physiology and diseases. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to climate. For example, global warming, deforestation and changes in precipitation have been linked to variations in the geographical distribution of vectors of some infectious diseases (leishmaniasis, lyme disease, etc) by changing their spread, whereas warm and humid environment can also encourage the colonization of the skin by bacteria and fungi. The present review focuses on the wide and complex relationship between climate change and dermatology, showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence and the clinical pattern of many dermatoses. PMID:23407083

  16. Cannabis and skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Tennstedt, Dominique; Saint-Remy, Anaïs

    2011-01-01

    From time out of mind, man has grown hemp for both "industrial" and "recreational" use (it is then referred to as cannabis). Of course, cannabis has strong psychoactive properties and is one of the most commonly used "soft drugs" in the world. Clinicians should know the adverse effects on mucous membranes and on skin, which may sometimes entail an absolutely necessary stopping of consumption. Raynaud's phenomenon, as well as arteritis due to cannabis consumption may be extremely severe and result in worrying situations for both clinicians and patients. PMID:21282088

  17. Memristance in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinsen, Ø. G.; Grimnes, S.; Lütken, C. A.; Johnsen, G. K.

    2010-04-01

    The memristor is basically a resistor with memory, so that the resistance is dependent on the net amount of charge having passed through the device. It is the regarded the fourth fundamental component, in addition to the resistor, capacitor and inductor, that can be deduced from the four basic circuit variables; current, voltage, charge and magnetic flux. We show that memristors can be used for modelling electrical properties of human skin. In particular is electro-osmosis in human sweat ducts of memristive nature.

  18. Tumours of the skin.

    PubMed

    Weiss, E; Frese, K

    1974-01-01

    Tumours occur more frequently in the skin than in any other part of the body. Epithelial tumours are described under the following headings: basal cell tumour, squamous cell carcinoma, papilloma, sebaceous gland tumour, tumour of hepatoid glands, sweat gland tumour, mixed tumour of apocrine sweat glands, carcinoma of apocrine sweat glands, tumour of hair follicle, and intracutaneous cornifying epithelioma. Tumours of the melanogenic system are divided into benign melanoma and malignant melanoma, the latter being subdivided into the following types: epithelioid, spindle cell, epithelioid and spindle cell, dendritic, and whorled. PMID:4547652

  19. Improved Skin Friction Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, R. V.; Bachalo, W. D.; Houser, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    An improved system for measuring aerodynamic skin friction which uses a dual-laser-beam oil-film interferometer was developed. Improvements in the optical hardware provided equal signal characteristics for each beam and reduced the cost and complexity of the system by replacing polarization rotation by a mirrored prism for separation of the two signals. An automated, objective, data-reduction procedure was implemented to eliminate tedious manual manipulation of the interferometry data records. The present system was intended for use in two-dimensional, incompressible flows over a smooth, level surface without pressure gradient, but the improvements discussed are not limited to this application.

  20. Skin substitutes: An Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Singh, A. K.; Shenoy, Y. R.

    2012-01-01

    There have been numerous alternatives developed to replace skin. These can either be permanent substitutes or temporary substitutes, which need to be replaced later by autologous grafts. These have been tried in recent times as an attempt to reduce the need or in the case of permanent substitutes ,altogether replace autologous skin grafts. However till date no ideal skin substitute has been developed. Various factors have to be considered while choosing one of these substitutes. In a developing country like India awareness and availability of these skin substitutes is not adequate considering the volume of cases that require this modality of treatment. Also there are skin substitutes developed in our country that need to be highlighted. This article is an attempt to review the vast array of skin substitutes that have been developed and consider their utility and feasibility for developing countries. PMID:23162239

  1. [Youth Healthcare guideline 'Skin disorders'].

    PubMed

    Deurloo, Jacqueline A; van Gameren-Oosterom, Helma B M; Kamphuis, Mascha

    2012-01-01

    There is a high incidence of skin disorders; these are also frequently encountered within Youth Healthcare (YHC). Some skin disorders are caused by an underlying disease, syndrome or child abuse. Therefore, detection of these causes in an early stage is important. Skin disorders can have a huge psychosocial impact on both child and parents. This is one of the reasons why prevention, detection, diagnosis, treatment, referral, and uniform advice and guidance are of great importance. The YHC Guideline examines counselling and advice, criteria for referral to primary or secondary healthcare, and skincare in general. It also describes the disorders that should be actively detected. The Guideline also looks at specific aspects of dark skins and ethnic diversity, and the impact of skin disorders on general wellbeing. The accompanying web-based tool includes argumentation and opinions from experts on more than 75 skin disorders, including illustrations and decision trees, to aid the drawing up of a treatment plan. PMID:23151335

  2. Conductive hydrogels with tailored bioactivity for implantable electrode coatings.

    PubMed

    Mario Cheong, G L; Lim, Khoon S; Jakubowicz, Anais; Martens, Penny J; Poole-Warren, Laura A; Green, Rylie A

    2014-03-01

    The development of high-resolution neuroprosthetics has driven the need for better electrode materials. Approaches to achieve both electrical and mechanical improvements have included the development of hydrogel and conducting polymer composites. However, these composites have limited biological interaction, as they are often composed of synthetic polymers or non-ideal biological polymers, which lack the required elements for biorecognition. This study explores the covalent incorporation of bioactive molecules within a conducting hydrogel (CH). The CH was formed from the biosynthetic co-hydrogel poly(vinyl alcohol)-heparin and the conductive polymer (CP), poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene). Adhesive biomolecules sericin and gelatin were covalently incorporated via methacrylate crosslinking within the CH. Electrical properties of the bioactive CH were assessed, and it was shown that the polar biomolecules improved charge transfer. The bioactivity of heparin within the hybrid assessed by examining stimulation of B-lymphocyte (BaF3) proliferation showed that bioactivity was retained after electropolymerization of the CP through the hydrogel. Similarly, incorporation of sericin and gelatin in the CH promoted neural cell adhesion and proliferation, with only small percentages (? 2 wt.%) required to achieve optimal results. Sericin provided the best support for the outgrowth of neural processes, and 1 wt.% was sufficient to facilitate adhesion and differentiation of neurons. The drug delivery capability of CH was shown through incorporation of nerve growth factor during polymer fabrication. NGF was delivered to the target cells, resulting in outgrowth of neural processes. The CH system is a flexible technology platform, which can be tailored to covalently incorporate bioactive protein sequences and deliver mobile water-soluble drug molecules. PMID:24365707

  3. Skin care for the newborn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rashmi Sarkar; Srikanta Basu; R. K. Agrawal; Piyush Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Skin of the newborn differs from that of an adult in several ways. It is more susceptible to trauma and infection and requires\\u000a special care. Certain principles of skin care have to be emphasized to the mother or caregiver such as gentle cleansing, adequate\\u000a hydration and moisturization of the skin, preventing friction and maceration in body folds, and protection from

  4. 45S5 Bioactive glass surface charge variations and the formation of a surface calcium phosphate layer in a

    E-print Network

    Lu, Helen H.

    45S5 Bioactive glass surface charge variations and the formation of a surface calcium phosphate: bioactivity; surface charge; fibronectin; protein adsorption; calcium phosphate layer INTRODUCTION By forming a surface calcium phosphate layer in vivo, bioactive materials, such as 45S5 bioactive glass (BG), are able

  5. Bioactive ceramic-based materials with designed reactivity for bone tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsuki, Chikara; Kamitakahara, Masanobu; Miyazaki, Toshiki

    2009-01-01

    Bioactive ceramics have been used clinically to repair bone defects owing to their biological affinity to living bone; i.e. the capability of direct bonding to living bone, their so-called bioactivity. However, currently available bioactive ceramics do not satisfy every clinical application. Therefore, the development of novel design of bioactive materials is necessary. Bioactive ceramics show osteoconduction by formation of biologically active bone-like apatite through chemical reaction of the ceramic surface with surrounding body fluid. Hence, the control of their chemical reactivity in body fluid is essential to developing novel bioactive materials as well as biodegradable materials. This paper reviews novel bioactive materials designed based on chemical reactivity in body fluid. PMID:19158015

  6. Skin decontamination: principles and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heidi P; Zhai, Hongbo; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-11-01

    Skin decontamination is the primary intervention needed in chemical, biological and radiological exposures, involving immediate removal of the contaminant from the skin performed in the most efficient way. The most readily available decontamination system on a practical basis is washing with soap and water or water only. Timely use of flushing with copious amounts of water may physically remove the contaminant. However, this traditional method may not be completely effective, and contaminants left on the skin after traditional washing procedures can have toxic consequences. This article focuses on the principles and practices of skin decontamination. PMID:22851522

  7. [Skin symptoms in neurological diseases].

    PubMed

    Burg, G; Burg, D

    1995-04-01

    The considerable variety of diseases involving both the skin and the peripheral or central nervous system is due to the developmental relationship between skin and nervous system. Diseases of the nervous system resulting in skin changes comprise disorders of nails, hair, sweat and sebaceous glands as well as neuropathic ulcers in various manifestations. Neurocutaneous syndromes (phacomatoses) are nevoid systemic diseases comprising neurofibromatoses, tuberose sclerosis, ataxia telangiectasia, nevoid angiomatoses and other neurocutaneous disorders. Polytopic disorders of the skin and nervous system may be due to infectious diseases, diseases of the connective tissue, fat, inflammatory vascular and granulomatous disorders. PMID:7754467

  8. The future of skin metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Alban; Vogel, Timothy M; Simonet, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomics, the direct exploitation of environmental microbial DNA, is complementary to traditional culture-based approaches for deciphering taxonomic and functional microbial diversity in a plethora of ecosystems, including those related to the human body such as the mouth, saliva, teeth, gut or skin. DNA extracted from human skin analyzed by sequencing the PCR-amplified rrs gene has already revealed the taxonomic diversity of microbial communities colonizing the human skin ("skin microbiome"). Each individual possesses his/her own skin microbial community structure, with marked taxonomic differences between different parts of the body and temporal evolution depending on physical and chemical conditions (sweat, washing etc.). However, technical limitations due to the low bacterial density at the surface of the human skin or contamination by human DNA still has inhibited extended use of the metagenomic approach for investigating the skin microbiome at a functional level. These difficulties have been overcome in part by the new generation of sequencing platforms that now provide sequences describing the genes and functions carried out by skin bacteria. These methodological advances should help us understand the mechanisms by which these microorganisms adapt to the specific chemical composition of each skin and thereby lead to a better understanding of bacteria/human host interdependence. This knowledge will pave the way for more systemic and individualized pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. PMID:24361423

  9. Variations in Human Skin Color

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

    2006-09-09

    In this lesson, the students examine their skin types, similarities, differences, etc. and discuss the social implications of each group. They also examine the factors that influence variations in skin color in greater depth. The class is separated into groups and work on presentations, designed to foster peer-teaching with guidance from the instructor. The presentations to be worked on by the students are: Modern Human Variation: Overview, Skin Color Adaptation, and A new Light on Skin Color. All of the resources needed for the students presentations are included. Following each presentation, tips for review and discussion of the learning objectives are given.

  10. Allergic and immunologic skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Leung, D Y; Diaz, L A; DeLeo, V; Soter, N A

    1997-12-10

    The skin represents a unique immunologic organ poised to protect the host from invading organisms and environmental antigens. The skin is also an important target for a variety of allergic and autoimmune responses. Mast cells are key to the pathogenesis of urticaria, angioedema, and mastocytosis. Atopic dermatitis is the consequence of an immunoregulatory abnormality resulting in a skin-directed T helper type 2 response. Allergic contact dermatitis is an example of classic delayed type hypersensitivity. Circulating autoantibodies against the epidermis are a key mechanism by which bullous skin diseases occur. PMID:9396653

  11. Bioactives from probiotics for dermal health: functions and benefits.

    PubMed

    Lew, L-C; Liong, M-T

    2013-05-01

    Probiotics have been extensively reviewed for decades, emphasizing on improving general gut health. Recently, more studies showed that probiotics may exert other health-promoting effects beyond gut well-being, attributed to the rise of the gut-brain axis correlations. Some of these new benefits include skin health such as improving atopic eczema, atopic dermatitis, healing of burn and scars, skin-rejuvenating properties and improving skin innate immunity. Increasing evidence has also showed that bacterial compounds such as cell wall fragments, their metabolites and dead bacteria can elicit certain immune responses on the skin and improve skin barrier functions. This review aimed to underline the mechanisms or the exact compounds underlying the benefits of bacterial extract on the skin based on evidences from in vivo and in vitro studies. This review could be of help in screening of probiotic strains with potential dermal enhancing properties for topical applications. PMID:23311666

  12. Measuring skin while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, T.W.; Osisanya, S.; Tiab, D.

    1995-12-31

    A new model is proposed to characterize the variation in skin effect along a horizontal well. Typically, a cylindrical-shaped damaged region is assumed; however, this work describes the damaged region as a combination cylindrical-conical shape. The shape of the damaged region and the severity of the damage is governed by the contact time of the drilling fluid with the formation. This time is a function of the drilling rate penetration (ROP) and the mud filtrate invasion rate. Simple, empirical models are used to provide ROP and mud filtrate invasion rate. The effects of anisotropy ratio, penetration rates, and horizontal length are included in the analysis. Anisotropy and increasing penetration rate both will result in a decrease in the skin effect. Any horizontal well length greater than the equivalent horizontal length of the cone-shaped damage region will result in a constant cylindrical-shaped damage region, which can be evaluated using Hawkins` formula. The cone-shaped damage region will exist at the furthest end of the horizontal length. The time to transform the cone-shaped damage region to a cylinder is the circulation time after drilling to the total length. This circulation time is determined for the various anisotropy ratios and penetration rates.

  13. A versatile magnetic field gradient control system for NMR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottomley, P. A.

    1981-09-01

    A complete digitally controlled magnetic field gradient system for NMR imaging is described; the device is capable of operating in the projection reconstruction (PR), the sensitive line (SL), and the sensitive point (SP) modes. Gradient scanning is achieved via clocked eight-bit counters which step either a digital vector generator when operating in the PR mode, or a series of MDACs when in the SL or SP modes. Versatile control of the image array size, the spatial resolution, the orientation of projections, and the positioning of sensitive lines and points is provided without the use of moving parts or microprocessors and with little or no computer interfacing. The device will function either independent of a conventional NMR Fourier transform spectrometer system when manual gradient scanning is employed, or synchronously with the spectrometer when gradients are scanned automatically. A gradient coil design and criteria for establishing the gradient amplitudes are discussed, and some NMR images which were generated with the system are presented.

  14. A versatile clearing agent for multi-modal brain imaging

    E-print Network

    Costantini, Irene; Di Giovanna, Antonino Paolo; Mascaro, Anna Letizia Allegra; Silvestri, Ludovico; Müllenbroich, Marie Caroline; Onofri, Leonardo; Conti, Valerio; Vanzi, Francesco; Sacconi, Leonardo; Guerrini, Renzo; Markram, Henry; Iannello, Giulio; Pavone, Francesco Saverio

    2015-01-01

    Extensive mapping of neuronal connections in the central nervous system requires high-throughput um-scale imaging of large volumes. In recent years, different approaches have been developed to overcome the limitations due to tissue light scattering. These methods are generally developed to improve the performance of a specific imaging modality, thus limiting comprehensive neuroanatomical exploration by multimodal optical techniques. Here, we introduce a versatile brain clearing agent (2,2'-thiodiethanol; TDE) suitable for various applications and imaging techniques. TDE is cost-efficient, water-soluble and low-viscous and, more importantly, it preserves fluorescence, is compatible with immunostaining and does not cause deformations at sub-cellular level. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this method in different applications: in fixed samples by imaging a whole mouse hippocampus with serial two-photon tomography; in combination with CLARITY by reconstructing an entire mouse brain with light sheet microscopy...

  15. Towards a versatile control system for mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noreils, Fabrice R.

    1991-03-01

    The goal of a mobile robot is not only to perform a large variety of task but also to adapt its behavior to the dynamic of the environment. Such a robot needs both reflexive and planning capabilities. Moreover we wish that a mobile robot be able to coordinate its activity with other mobile robots. This paper is intended to show that the integration of all these capabilities (reflexivity planning and coordination) is feasible in order to acheive this goal a new robot architecture is proposed. This architecture is composed of three levels: functional control and planner. Furthermore this architecture provides important features such as a progressive and programmable reactivity robustness additivity and versatility. This paper emphasizes the control level and how it is used by the planner level. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of such an approach a complete implementation of this architecture on our mobile robot including experiments are described.

  16. Metagenome of a Versatile Chemolithoautotroph from Expanding Oceanic Dead Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, David A.; Zaikova, Elena; Howes, Charles L.; Song, Young; Wright, Jody; Tringe, Susannah G.; Tortell, Philippe D.; Hallam, Steven J.

    2009-07-15

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), also known as oceanic"dead zones", are widespread oceanographic features currently expanding due to global warming and coastal eutrophication. Although inhospitable to metazoan life, OMZs support a thriving but cryptic microbiota whose combined metabolic activity is intimately connected to nutrient and trace gas cycling within the global ocean. Here we report time-resolved metagenomic analyses of a ubiquitous and abundant but uncultivated OMZ microbe (SUP05) closely related to chemoautotrophic gill symbionts of deep-sea clams and mussels. The SUP05 metagenome harbors a versatile repertoire of genes mediating autotrophic carbon assimilation, sulfur-oxidation and nitrate respiration responsive to a wide range of water column redox states. Thus, SUP05 plays integral roles in shaping nutrient and energy flow within oxygen-deficient oceanic waters via carbon sequestration, sulfide detoxification and biological nitrogen loss with important implications for marine productivity and atmospheric greenhouse control.

  17. A versatile photoelectron spectrometer for pressures up to 30 mbar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, Susanna K.; Hahlin, Maria; Kahk, Juhan Matthias; Villar-Garcia, Ignacio J.; Webb, Matthew J.; Grennberg, Helena; Yakimova, Rositza; Rensmo, Hâkan; Edström, Kristina; Hagfeldt, Anders; Siegbahn, Hans; Edwards, Mârten O. M.; Karlsson, Patrik G.; Backlund, Klas; Åhlund, John; Payne, David J.

    2014-07-01

    High-pressure photoelectron spectroscopy is a rapidly developing technique with applications in a wide range of fields ranging from fundamental surface science and catalysis to energy materials, environmental science, and biology. At present the majority of the high-pressure photoelectron spectrometers are situated at synchrotron end stations, but recently a small number of laboratory-based setups have also emerged. In this paper we discuss the design and performance of a new laboratory based high pressure photoelectron spectrometer equipped with an Al K? X-ray anode and a hemispherical electron energy analyzer combined with a differentially pumped electrostatic lens. The instrument is demonstrated to be capable of measuring core level spectra at pressures up to 30 mbar. Moreover, valence band spectra of a silver sample as well as a carbon-coated surface (graphene) recorded under a 2 mbar nitrogen atmosphere are presented, demonstrating the versatility of this laboratory-based spectrometer.

  18. DIFCARS: A versatile model of CARS signal generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaabar, W.; Devonshire, R.

    1995-04-01

    A versatile model of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signal generation is presented. The model combines the novel treatment of CARS signal generation given by Teets with the realistic electric field distributions produced by the model of focused laser beams given by Evans and Grey-Morgan. The model provides a detailed picture of local contributions to the total CARS signal, including interference effects, as well as the total CARS power and the CARS spectrum. Illustrative applications of the model are given for each of the common CARS phase-matching configurations, collinear CARS, USED CARS and folded BOXCARS. A particular feature of the model is that the input data derives from readily accessible features of the pump and Stokes input beams arriving at the focusing lens and of the lens itself.

  19. The versatility and adaptation of bacteria from the genus Stenotrophomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, R.P.; van der Lelie, D.; Monchy, S.; Cardinale, M.; Taghavi, S.; Crossman, L.; Avison, M. B.; Berg, G.; Dow, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    The genus Stenotrophomonas comprises at least eight species. These bacteria are found throughout the environment, particularly in close association with plants. Strains of the most predominant species, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, have an extraordinary range of activities that include beneficial effects for plant growth and health, the breakdown of natural and man-made pollutants that are central to bioremediation and phytoremediation strategies and the production of biomolecules of economic value, as well as detrimental effects, such as multidrug resistance, in human pathogenic strains. Here, we discuss the versatility of the bacteria in the genus Stenotrophomonas and the insight that comparative genomic analysis of clinical and endophytic isolates of S. maltophilia has brought to our understanding of the adaptation of this genus to various niches.

  20. FLUTE: A versatile linac-based THz source

    SciTech Connect

    Nasse, M. J.; Schuh, M.; Schwarz, M. [Laboratory for Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (LAS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Naknaimueang, S.; Mathis, Y.-L.; Rossmanith, R.; Wesolowski, P.; Huttel, E. [ANKA Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Plech, A. [Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Schmelling, M. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (MPIK), 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Mueller, A.-S. [Laboratory for Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (LAS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); ANKA Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    A new compact versatile linear accelerator named FLUTE is currently being designed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. This paper presents the status of this 42 MeV machine. It will be used to generate strong (several 100 MV/m) ultra-short ({approx}1 ps) THz pulses (up to {approx}4-25 THz) for photon science experiments, as well as to conduct a variety of accelerator studies. The latter range from comparing different coherent THz radiation generation schemes to compressing electron bunches and studying the electron beam stability. The bunch charge will cover a wide range ({approx}100 pC-3 nC). Later we plan to also produce ultra-short x-ray pulses from the electron bunches, which, for example, could then be combined for THz pump-x-ray probe experiments.

  1. Extraordinary phylogenetic diversity and metabolic versatility in aquifer sediment

    PubMed Central

    Castelle, Cindy J.; Hug, Laura A.; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Thomas, Brian C.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Wu, Dongying; Tringe, Susannah G.; Singer, Steven W.; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms in the subsurface represent a substantial but poorly understood component of the Earth’s biosphere. Subsurface environments are complex and difficult to characterize; thus, their microbiota have remained as a ‘dark matter’ of the carbon and other biogeochemical cycles. Here we deeply sequence two sediment-hosted microbial communities from an aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River, CO, USA. No single organism represents more than ~1% of either community. Remarkably, many bacteria and archaea in these communities are novel at the phylum level or belong to phyla lacking a sequenced representative. The dominant organism in deeper sediment, RBG-1, is a member of a new phylum. On the basis of its reconstructed complete genome, RBG-1 is metabolically versatile. Its wide respiration-based repertoire may enable it to respond to the fluctuating redox environment close to the water table. We document extraordinary microbial novelty and the importance of previously unknown lineages in sediment biogeochemical transformations. PMID:23979677

  2. Development of a versatile laser light scattering instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Ansari, Rafat R.

    1990-01-01

    A versatile laser light scattering (LLS) instrument is developed for use in microgravity to measure microscopic particles of 30 A to above 3 microns. Since it is an optical technique, LLS does not affect the sample being studied. A LLS instrument built from modules allows several configurations, each optimized for a particular experiment. The multiangle LLS instrument can be mounted in the rack in the Space Shuttle and on Space Station Freedom. It is possible that a Space Shuttle glove-box and a lap-top computer containing a correlator card can be used to perform a number of experiments and to demonstrate the technology needed for more elaborate investigations. This offers simple means of flying a great number of experiments without the additional requirements of full-scale flight hardware experiments.

  3. Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brullot, W.; Reddy, N. K.; Wouters, J.; Valev, V. K.; Goderis, B.; Vermant, J.; Verbiest, T.

    2012-06-01

    Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained by a facile protocol and thoroughly characterized. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized using a modified forced hydrolysis method were functionalized with polyethylene glycol silane (PEG silane), precipitated and dried. These functionalized particles are dispersable in a range of solvents and concentrations depending on the desired properties. Examples of tunable properties are magnetic behavior, optical and magneto-optical response, thermal features and rheological behavior. As such, PEG silane functionalized particles represent a platform for the development of new materials that have broad applicability in e.g. biomedical, industrial or photonic environments. Magnetic, optical, magneto-optical, thermal and rheological properties of several ferrofluids based on PEG coated particles with different concentrations of particles dispersed in low molecular mass polyethylene glycol were investigated, establishing the applicability of such materials.

  4. Development of a versatile laser light scattering instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, William V.; Ansari, Rafat R.

    1990-10-01

    A versatile laser light scattering (LLS) instrument is developed for use in microgravity to measure microscopic particles of 30 A to above 3 microns. Since it is an optical technique, LLS does not affect the sample being studied. A LLS instrument built from modules allows several configurations, each optimized for a particular experiment. The multiangle LLS instrument can be mounted in the rack in the Space Shuttle and on Space Station Freedom. It is possible that a Space Shuttle glove-box and a lap-top computer containing a correlator card can be used to perform a number of experiments and to demonstrate the technology needed for more elaborate investigations. This offers simple means of flying a great number of experiments without the additional requirements of full-scale flight hardware experiments.

  5. Tudor: a versatile family of histone methylation ‘readers’

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Rui; Wang, Gang Greg

    2013-01-01

    The Tudor domain comprises a family of motifs that mediate protein-protein interactions required for various DNA-templated biological processes. Emerging evidence demonstrates a versatility of the Tudor family domains by identifying their specific interactions to a wide variety of histone methylation marks. Here, we discuss novel functions of a number of Tudor-containing proteins (including JMJD2A, 53BP1, SGF29, Spindlin1, UHRF1, PHF1, PHF19 and SHH1) in ‘reading’ unique methylation events on histones in order to facilitate DNA damage repair or regulate transcription. This review covers our recent understanding of the molecular bases for histone-Tudor interactions and their biological outcomes. As deregulation of Tudor-containing proteins is associated with certain human disorders, pharmacological targeting of Tudor interactions could provide new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24035451

  6. AOTF microscope for imaging with increased speed and spectral versatility.

    PubMed Central

    Wachman, E S; Niu, W; Farkas, D L

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a new fluorescence microscope that addresses the spectral and speed limitations of current light microscopy instrumentation. In the present device, interference and neutral density filters normally used for fluorescence excitation and detection are replaced by acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs). Improvements are described, including the use of a dispersing prism in conjunction with the imaging AOTF and an oblique-illumination excitation scheme, which together enable the AOTF microscope to produce images comparable to those obtained with conventional fluorescence instruments. The superior speed and spectral versatility of the AOTF microscope are demonstrated by a ratio image pair acquired in 3.5 ms and a micro-spectral absorbance measurement of hemoglobin through a cranial window in a living mouse. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:9284289

  7. Evaluation of bioactive compounds and bioactivities of soybean dried by different methods and conditions.

    PubMed

    Niamnuy, Chalida; Nachaisin, Mali; Laohavanich, Juckamas; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2011-12-01

    Soybean has attracted significant research and commercial interests due to its many health-promoting bioactive compounds, especially isoflavones (?-glucosides, malonyl-?-glucosides, acetyl-?-glucosides and aglycones). Isoflavones possess antioxidant activity and ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity, which has proved effective in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Prior to its use, however, soybean needs to be dried to extend its storage life and to prepare the material for subsequent food or pharmaceutical processing. The present study investigated the effects of drying methods and conditions on the drying characteristics, isoflavones, antioxidant activity and ? -glucosidase inhibitory activity of dried soybean. Hot-air fluidized bed drying (HAFBD), superheated-steam fluidized bed drying (SSFBD) and gas-fired infrared combined with hot air vibrating drying (GFIR-HAVD) were carried out at various drying temperatures (50, 70, 130 and150°C). The results showed that higher drying temperatures led to higher drying rates and higher levels of ?-glucosides and antioxidant activity, but to lower levels of malonyl-?-glucosides, acetyl-?-glucosides and total isoflavones. At the same drying temperature GFIR-HAVD resulted in the highest drying rates and the highest levels of ?-glucosides, aglycones and total isoflavones, antioxidant activity as well as ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity of dried soybean. A drying temperature of 130°C gave the highest levels of aglycones and ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity in all cases. The relationships between all the studied parameters were monitored and simple correlations between them were determined. PMID:25212316

  8. Hyaluronic acid skin fillers: Adverse reactions and skin testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas J. Lowe; C. Anne Maxwell; Philippa Lowe; Michael G. Duick; Kishor Shah

    2001-01-01

    Background: Hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers have been proposed as alternatives to other temporary skin fillers, such as bovine collagen, for treating facial skin lines and for providing lip augmentation. Several types of commercial HA fillers are now available in many countries. They include Restylane, which is produced by microbiologic engineering techniques, and Hylaform, which is HA extract derived from rooster

  9. A model skin surface for testing adhesion to skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN C. CHARKOUDIAN

    tapes for the medical industry involve complex issues in adhesion-to-skin and related testing procedures. Although human test panels provide in vivo data, the procedures are costly and difficult, and are characterized by large variability. Indeed, even the same test site on the same human being will change with time. In vitro methods using excised human skin and animal models are

  10. Regulated Proenkephalin Expression in Human Skin and Cultured Skin Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrzej T Slominski; Michal A Zmijewski; Blazej Zbytek; Anna A Brozyna; Jackie Granese; Alexander Pisarchik; Andre Szczesniewski; Desmond J Tobin

    2011-01-01

    Skin responds to environmental stressors via coordinated actions of the local neuroimmunoendocrine system. Although some of these responses involve opioid receptors, little is known about cutaneous proenkephalin expression, its environmental regulation, and alterations in pathology. The objective of this study was to assess regulated expression of proenkephalin in normal and pathological skin and in isolated melanocytes, keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and melanoma

  11. Recent Advances in Exopolysaccharides from Paenibacillus spp.: Production, Isolation, Structure, and Bioactivities

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Tzu-Wen; Wang, San-Lang

    2015-01-01

    This review provides a comprehensive summary of the most recent developments of various aspects (i.e., production, purification, structure, and bioactivity) of the exopolysaccharides (EPSs) from Paenibacillus spp. For the production, in particular, squid pen waste was first utilized successfully to produce a high yield of inexpensive EPSs from Paenibacillus sp. TKU023 and P. macerans TKU029. In addition, this technology for EPS production is prevailing because it is more environmentally friendly. The Paenibacillus spp. EPSs reported from various references constitute a structurally diverse class of biological macromolecules with different applications in the broad fields of pharmacy, cosmetics and bioremediation. The EPS produced by P. macerans TKU029 can increase in vivo skin hydration and may be a new source of natural moisturizers with potential value in cosmetics. However, the relationships between the structures and activities of these EPSs in many studies are not well established. The contents and data in this review will serve as useful references for further investigation, production, structure and application of Paenibacillus spp. EPSs in various fields. PMID:25837984

  12. Bioactivity-guided isolation of antiproliferative compounds from the roots of Onopordum acanthium.

    PubMed

    Csupor-Löffler, Boglárka; Zupkó, István; Molnár, Judit; Forgo, Peter; Hohmann, Judit

    2014-03-01

    Onopordum acanthium has been considered in traditional medicine to be effective against different cancers. The chloroform extracts of the root, which displayed antiproliferative effect against human tumor cell lines, was subjected to bioactivity-guided multistep chromatographic separation. This experiment resulted in the isolation of the sesquiterpene lactones 4beta,14-dihydro-3-dehydrozaluzanin C (1), zaluzanin C (2) and 4beta,15,11beta,13-tetrahydrozaluzanin C (3), the neolignan nitidanin-diisovalerianate (4), besides 13-oxo-9Z,11 E-octadecadienoic acid (5), 24-methylenecholesterol (6), alpha-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol. The structures of the isolated compounds were established through analytical data (NMR, MS), and by comparison of these with those reported in the literature. All the aforementioned compounds were detected for the first time from this plant. The antiproliferative activities of compounds 1-6 were assessed on cervix adenocarcinoma HeLa, breast adenocarcinoma MCF7 and skin epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells by using the MTT assay. It was found that, 4beta,14-dihydro-3-dehydrozaluzanin C (1), the most active antiproliferative compound of the extract, exerted remarkable tumor cell growth inhibitory activity (IC50 2.7-15.1 microM). PMID:24689209

  13. Triterpene glycosides and other polar constituents of shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) kernels and their bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Kurita, Masahiro; Shinozaki, Takuro; Ukiya, Motohiko; Yasukawa, Ken; Shimizu, Naoto; Tokuda, Harukuni; Masters, Eliot T; Akihisa, Momoko; Akihisa, Toshihiro

    2014-12-01

    The MeOH extract of defatted shea (Vitellaria paradoxa; Sapotaceae) kernels was investigated for its constituents, and fifteen oleanane-type triterpene acids and glycosides, two steroid glucosides, two pentane-2,4-diol glucosides, seven phenolic compounds, and three sugars, were isolated. The structures of five triterpene glycosides were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical methods. Upon evaluation of the bioactivity of the isolated compounds, it was found that some or most of the compounds have potent or moderate inhibitory activities against the following: melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells induced by ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH); generation of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, against Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-teradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells; t TPA-induced inflammation in mice, and proliferation of one or more of HL-60, A549, AZ521, and SK-BR-3 human cancer cell lines, respectively. Western blot analysis established that paradoxoside E inhibits melanogenesis by regulation of expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, and tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) and TRP-2. In addition, tieghemelin A was demonstrated to exhibit cytotoxic activity against A549 cells (IC50 13.5 ?M) mainly due to induction of apoptosis by flow cytometry. The extract of defatted shea kernels and its constituents may be, therefore, valuable as potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, skin-whitening, chemopreventive, and anticancer agents. PMID:25446237

  14. Recent advances in exopolysaccharides from Paenibacillus spp.: production, isolation, structure, and bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tzu-Wen; Wang, San-Lang

    2015-04-01

    This review provides a comprehensive summary of the most recent developments of various aspects (i.e., production, purification, structure, and bioactivity) of the exopolysaccharides (EPSs) from Paenibacillus spp. For the production, in particular, squid pen waste was first utilized successfully to produce a high yield of inexpensive EPSs from Paenibacillus sp. TKU023 and P. macerans TKU029. In addition, this technology for EPS production is prevailing because it is more environmentally friendly. The Paenibacillus spp. EPSs reported from various references constitute a structurally diverse class of biological macromolecules with different applications in the broad fields of pharmacy, cosmetics and bioremediation. The EPS produced by P. macerans TKU029 can increase in vivo skin hydration and may be a new source of natural moisturizers with potential value in cosmetics. However, the relationships between the structures and activities of these EPSs in many studies are not well established. The contents and data in this review will serve as useful references for further investigation, production, structure and application of Paenibacillus spp. EPSs in various fields. PMID:25837984

  15. Description and performance of a highly versatile, low-cost fiber-optic confocal Raman microscope

    E-print Network

    Myrick, Michael Lenn

    Description and performance of a highly versatile, low-cost fiber-optic confocal Raman microscope C for publication 29 September 1995 A versatile fiber-optic confocal Raman microscope has been developed. Fiber optics provide remote capabilities for the microscope and the ability to use multiple excitation sources

  16. Dynamic Modeling and Control of a Grid-Connected Hybrid Generation System With Versatile Power Transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seul-Ki Kim; Jin-Hong Jeon; Chang-Hee Cho; Jong-Bo Ahn; Sae-Hyuk Kwon

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents power-control strategies of a grid-connected hybrid generation system with versatile power transfer. The hybrid system is the combination of photovoltaic (PV) array, wind turbine, and battery storage via a common dc bus. Versatile power transfer was defined as multimodes of operation, including normal operation without use of battery, power dispatching, and power averaging, which enables grid- or

  17. Neuroimmunology of Stress: Skin Takes Center Stage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra C Arck; Andrzej Slominski; Theoharis C Theoharides; Eva M J Peters; Ralf Paus

    2006-01-01

    Like few other organs, the skin is continuously exposed to multiple exogenous and endogenous stressors. Superimposed on this is the impact of psychological stress on skin physiology and pathology. Here, we review the “brain–skin connection,” which may underlie inflammatory skin diseases triggered or aggravated by stress, and we summarize relevant general principles of skin neuroimmunology and neuroendocrinology. Specifically, we portray

  18. Characteristics and Pathomechanisms of Endogenously Aged Skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evgenia Makrantonaki; Christos C. Zouboulis

    2007-01-01

    The skin, being in direct contact with several environmental factors (e.g. UV irradiation), does not only undergo endogenous aging, which has to do with the ‘biological clock’ of the skin cells per se, but also exogenous aging. While exogenous skin aging has been extensively studied, the pathomechanisms of endogenous skin aging remain far less clear. Endogenous skin aging reflects reduction

  19. Enhanced chlorhexidine skin penetration with eucalyptus oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarja J Karpanen; Barbara R Conway; Tony Worthington; Anthony C Hilton; Tom SJ Elliott; Peter A Lambert

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) is a widely used skin antiseptic, however it poorly penetrates the skin, limiting its efficacy against microorganisms residing beneath the surface layers of skin. The aim of the current study was to improve the delivery of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) when used as a skin antiseptic. METHOD: Chlorhexidine was applied to the surface of donor skin and

  20. Sensitive skin: a complex and multifactorial syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Pons-Guiraud

    2004-01-01

    Summary Many people complain of discomfort after application of commonly used skin care pro- ducts, particularly to the face. This hyperreactivity of the skin is a non-immunologically mediated skin inflammation. It seems to be the result of an intolerance of the skin to various stimuli that are normally well tolerated. It is difficult to assess the prevalence of 'sensitive skin'

  1. Characteristics of the Aging Skin

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Elsner, Peter; Maibach, Howard I.

    2013-01-01

    Significance Although most researches into the changes in skin with age focus on the unwelcome aesthetic aspects of the aging skin, skin deterioration with age is more than a merely cosmetic problem. Although mortality from skin disease is primarily restricted to melanoma, dermatological disorders are ubiquitous in older people with a significant impact on quality of life. The structural and functional deterioration of the skin that occurs with age has numerous clinical presentations, ranging from benign but potentially excruciating disorders like pruritus to the more threatening carcinomas and melanomas. Recent Advances The degenerative changes that occur in the aging skin are increasingly understood at both the molecular and cellular level, facilitating a deeper understanding of the structural and functional deterioration that these changes produce. Critical Issues A loss of both function and structural stability in skin proceeds unavoidably as individuals age, which is the result of both intrinsic and extrinsic processes, which contribute simultaneously to a progressive loss of skin integrity. Intrinsic aging proceeds at a genetically determined pace, primarily caused by the buildup of damaging products of cellular metabolism as well as an increasing biological aging of the cells. Estrogen levels strongly influence skin integrity in women as well; falling levels in midlife, therefore, produce premature aging as compared with similarly aged men. Extrinsic insults from the environment add to the dermatological signs of aging. Future Directions A deeper understanding of the physiological basis of skin aging will facilitate progress in the treatment of the unwelcome sequelae of aging skin, both cosmetic and pathogenic. PMID:24527317

  2. Functionally graded bioactive coatings: From fabrication to testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foppiano, Silvia

    Every year about half a million Americans undergo total joint replacement surgery of some kind. This number is expected to steadily increase in the future. About 20% of these patients will need a revision surgery because of implant failure, with a significant increase in health care cost. Current implant materials for load bearing applications must be strong enough to support the loads involved in daily activities, and bioinert, to limit reactivity in the body that may cause inflammatory and other adverse reactions. Metal alloys are typically used as materials for load bearing implants and rely on mechanical interlocking to achieve fixation which can be improved by using bone cements. To improve implant osteointegration, metal implants have been coated with a bone-like mineral: hydroxyapatite (HA). The plasma spray technique is commonly used to apply the HA coating. Such implants do not require the use of bone cement. Plasma sprayed HA coated implants are FDA approved and currently on the market, but their properties are not reproducible or reliable. Thus, coating delamination can occur. Our research group developed a novel family of bioactive glasses which were enameled onto titanium alloy using a functionally graded approach. We stratified the coating with different glass compositions to fulfill different functions. We coupled a first glass layer, with a good CTE match to the alloy, with a second layer of bioactive glass obtaining a functionally graded bioactive coating (FGC). In this thesis for the first time the cytocompatibility of novel bioactive glasses, and their functionally graded coatings on Ti6Al4V, was studied with an in vitro bone model (MC3T3-E1.4 mouse preosteblast cells). The novel bioactive glasses are cytocompatible and no compositional change is required. The fabrication process is reproducible, introduces a small (average 6 vol%) amount of crystallization, which does not significantly affect bioactivity in SBF as tested. The coatings are cytocompatible, but should be preconditioned in SBF prior to their use. Preconditioning stabilizes the coatings, eliminates possible contaminants introduced during processing and handling, and yields dissolution products capable of inducing specific gene expression (e.g. Runx-2). Future research will involve identification of such dissolution products as well as in vivo testing.

  3. Engineering bioactive polymers for the next generation of bone repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Emily Y.

    Bone disease is a serious health condition among the aged population. In some cases of bone damage it becomes necessary to replace, recontour, and assist in the healing of the bone. Many materials have been proposed as useful replacements but none have been proven to be ideal. In this thesis, two bioactive composites were investigated for bone replacements. First reported material is a hydroxyapatite (HA) particle reinforced polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) composite treated with a co-polymer coupling agent for mandible augmentations. The influence of the coupling agent on the local mechanical properties of the system before and after simulated biological conditions was determined by applying nano-indentation at the cross-sectional HA/PMMA interface. The local interfacial results were indicative of the global quasi static compression test results. While the coupling agent improved the interfacial and global mechanical properties before and after 24 hours in vitro immersion, it did not affect the surface bioactivity of the system. However, the addition of coupling agent did not provide long term in vitro improvement of both local and global mechanical properties of the composite. An alternative approach of combining a bioactive phase into polymer matrix was developed. The second analyzed material is an injectable composite with osteoconductivity and ideal mechanical biocompatibility for vertebral fracture fixations which we formulated and fabricated. A bioactive component was engineered into the macromolecular structure to facilitate the formation of apatite nucleation sites on a thermo-sensitive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacryamide)-co-poly(ethyleneglycol) dimethacrylate (PNIPAAm-PEGDM), through incorporation of tri-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS). PNIPAAm-PEGDM is capable of liquid to solid phase transformation at 32°C. In this study, the phase transformation temperature (LCSTs), the in vitro mechanical properties, swelling characteristics and bioactivity of the polymers were evaluated. The addition of NIPS to the polymer encouraged apatite formation and increased its compressive modulus while its LCST remained unchanged. The challenge of this material system is to balance the network-forming and bioactivity inducing MPS with the gain in elastic recovery induced by PEGDM addition to the PNIPAAm base, all while maintaining an injectable material system. This material platform offers a family of polymers that have a range of mechanical properties for various tissue replacements.

  4. A versatile Body Sensor Network for health care applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saim Kim; Lisa Beckmann; Moritz Pistor; Linda Cousin; Marian Walter; Steffen Leonhardt

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a Body Sensor Network, called the meditBSN, for health monitoring applications. It is designed around a MSP430F1611 microcontroller and a CC1101 433 MHz ISM band transceiver IC. A Bioimpedance Spectroscopy measurement condition monitoring application has been developed using the meditBSN. It incorporates three 3-D accelerometers and a skin temperature probe. Additionally, a PDA software

  5. Retinoid Therapy: Compatible Skin Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yohini Appa

    1999-01-01

    Topically applied tretinoin (a retinoid) has been used for over 25 years to treat acne and disorders of keratinization. Now, tretinoin emollient cream, 0.05% (Renova®), may be prescribed for the treatment of photodamaged and chronologically aged skin, in conjunction with appropriate skin care and sun protection routines. Mild to moderate cutaneous side effects to topical tretinoin, such as xerosis, peeling,

  6. Polymeric proanthocyanidins from grape skins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Marc Souquet; Véronique Cheynier; Franck Brossaud; Michel Moutounet

    1996-01-01

    LC-mass spectrometric analysis of the degradation products released by thioacidolysis of a grape (Vitis vinifera var. Merlot) skin extract showed that catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate and epigallocatechin were the major constitutive units of grape skin tannins. Gallocatechin and epigallocatechin gallate were also detected. Epicatechin represented 60% of the extension units, whereas 67% of the terminal units consisted of catechin. Six

  7. UV-induced skin damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ichihashi; M. Ueda; A. Budiyanto; T. Bito; M. Oka; M. Fukunaga; K. Tsuru; T. Horikawa

    2003-01-01

    Solar radiation induces acute and chronic reactions in human and animal skin. Chronic repeated exposures are the primary cause of benign and malignant skin tumors, including malignant melanoma. Among types of solar radiation, ultraviolet B (290–320 nm) radiation is highly mutagenic and carcinogenic in animal experiments compared to ultraviolet A (320–400 nm) radiation. Epidemiological studies suggest that solar UV radiation

  8. Skin Rashes and Other Changes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... armpits or groin? Yes This may be a SKIN TAG. These are harmless, but if one gets irritated, you can have it removed. No 43. Do you have a yellow area under your skin, perhaps near your eyelids? Yes This may be ...

  9. Skin Signs in Anorexia nervosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Strumìa; E. Varotti; E. Manzato; M. Gualandi

    2001-01-01

    Background: Eating disorders are becoming an epidemic in Europe, particularly among young women, but European studies concerning this topic are few. In eating disorders, significant medical complications occur in all of the primary human organ systems, including the skin. Objective: The purpose of this study was to improve the knowledge of skin signs in anorexia nervosa (AN) and verify whether

  10. TOXIC RESPONSES OF THE SKIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The importance of fish skin is realized when one considers it is the interface between the external and intrnal environment of the animal. As will be pointed out in this chapter, fish skin has a number of vital functions many of which could be life threatening if perturbed beyond...

  11. Skin Diseases in the Tropics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahe, Antoine; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Common skin diseases are prevalent in tropical countries because of extreme weather conditions, mediocre hygiene, and lack of adequate treatment of infectious dermatoses. This guide describes the major endemic skin diseases and their signs for the purpose of helping unspecialized health agents train themselves and determine when a patient should…

  12. Skin care management: educational aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Joachim Schwanitz; Ulrike Riehl; Tanja Schlesinger; Meike Bock; Christoph Skudlik; Britta Wulfhorst

    2003-01-01

    Health education is effective in primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of occupational skin disorders, as clearly demonstrated by interventional studies carried out at the University of Osnabrueck. Health education may intervene with (a) habituated behaviour of affected employees and (b) the condition of working environments. In conclusion, prevention of occupational skin diseases and maintenance of health can be achieved by

  13. Pain-induced skin autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Odoardi, Francesca; Neuhuber, Winfried; Flügel, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    A recent paper published in Nature reports sensory nerve fibers in the skin that give local immune cells important instructions for the organization of an immune response; in this particular case the cooperation between the nervous and immune systems had disastrous consequences, namely an auto-destruction of the skin. PMID:24946740

  14. Moisturizing Different Racial Skin Types

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Victor W.; Longaker, Michael T.; Yang, George P.

    2014-01-01

    The skin is a complex organ involved in thermoregulation, gas exchange, protection against pathogens, and barrier function to maintain proper hydration. When dry, the ability for skin to execute these tasks becomes impaired. Dry skin affects almost everyone as we age, but it is also dependent on external factors, such as dry climate, colder temperatures, and repeated washing. In addition, increasing evidence has shown racial variability in the physiological properties of skin, which directly impacts water content of the stratum corneum and sensitivity to exogenously applied agents. A multitude of products have been developed to treat dry skin, and as a group, moisturizers have been designed to either impart or restore hydration in the stratum corneum. Given the large number of moisturizers presently available, depending on individual components, several different mechanisms may be employed to promote skin hydration. As there exists dramatic racial variability in skin properties, certain moisturizers may thus be more effective in some and less effective in others to treat the common condition of dry skin. PMID:25013536

  15. Keratins and skin disease.

    PubMed

    Knöbel, Maria; O'Toole, Edel A; Smith, Frances J D

    2015-06-01

    Mutations in keratin genes cause a diverse spectrum of skin, hair and mucosal disorders. Cutaneous disorders include epidermolysis bullosa simplex, palmoplantar keratoderma, epidermolytic ichthyosis and pachyonychia congenita. Both clinical and laboratory observations confirm a major role for keratins in maintaining epidermal cell-cell adhesion. When normal tissue homeostasis is disturbed, for example, during wound healing and cancer, keratins play an important non-mechanical role. Post-translational modifications including glycosylation and phosphorylation of keratins play an important role in protection of epithelial cells from injury. Keratins also play a role in modulation of the immune response. A current focus in the area of keratins and disease is the development of new treatments including small inhibitory RNA (siRNA) to mutant keratins and small molecules to modulate keratin expression. PMID:25620412

  16. Hereditary Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaou, Vasiliki; Stratigos, Alexander J.; Tsao, Hensin

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous basal and squamous cell carcinomas are among the most frequent malignancies in the white population, with the annual incidence estimates ranging from 1 million to 3.5 million cases in the United States. These tumors can occur either sporadically or in the context of hereditary genodermatoses with cancer predisposition, such as basal cell nevus syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum, epidermolysis bullosa, or oculocutaneous albinism. Different genes and signaling pathways have been shown to play a central role in the development and growth of these tumors. This article overviews the clinical features, diagnostic criteria, and the most recent data on genetic routes of the major hereditary syndromes predisposed to the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer. PMID:23174490

  17. Identification and characterisation of water and alkali soluble oligosaccharides from hazelnut skin (Corylus avellana L.).

    PubMed

    Montella, Rosa; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Travaglia, Fabiano; Locatelli, Monica; Bordiga, Matteo; Meyrand, Mickael; Barile, Daniela; Arlorio, Marco

    2013-10-15

    Hazelnut skins are a good example of agricultural by-product with the potential to become a valuable source of functional ingredients. In this work, the fibre from hazelnut skins was extracted by using water and alkali solution and characterised by a suite of analytical tools (MALDI-FTICR, nano LC-Chip-Q-ToF and gas chromatography). Over thirty complex free oligosaccharides, composed mainly of galacturonic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine, were characterised for the first time in the present study. Their concentration ranged between 16 and 34mg per g of extract. The oligosaccharides isolated from this agricultural by-product are mainly hexose oligosaccharides (potentially galacto-oligosaccharides,) and xyloglucans. The identified composition could justify the bioactive activity of the extracts, namely prebiotic activity, previously demonstrated. PMID:23692758

  18. Introduction to skin cancer nursing.

    PubMed

    Godsell, Gillian

    The incidence of skin cancer continues to increase annually and it is the most common cancer in the UK with over 100,000 cases each year. The treatment of skin cancer can involve many different disciplines including dermatology, plastic surgery, oncology, radiotherapy, ENT and maxillofacial and involves both adult and paediatric services in primary and secondary care. This article considers the many duties of a skin cancer clinical nurse specialist, and the increasing pressure such nurses are under. The skin cancer nurse specialist must liaise and work with the many different departments, and will be involved in the care of the patient with skin cancer from diagnosis throughout the pathway to discharge or death. PMID:19462586

  19. Conservative procedures in skin reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    Skin exerts a number of essential protective functions ensuring homeostasis of the whole body. In the present review barrier function of skin and its expression of antimicrobial peptides are discussed. Barrier function is provided by the dynamic stratum corneum structure composed of lipids and corneocytes. Stratum corneum is a conditio sine qua non for terrestrial life. Impairment of barrier function can be due to injury and inflammatory skin diseases. Therapeutic options are discussed with special emphasis of radiodermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis in patients with hearing device. The use of antimicrobial peptides is illustrated by facial inflammatory skin diseases. In wound healing new developments include biotechnological developments of matrix- and growth factors and tissue-engineered skin substitutes. In everyday wound care of chronic wounds the concept of wound bed preparation (TIME) constitutes the base of successful treatment. PMID:22073065

  20. Conservative procedures in skin reconstitution

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    Skin exerts a number of essential protective functions ensuring homeostasis of the whole body. In the present review barrier function of skin and its expression of antimicrobial peptides are discussed. Barrier function is provided by the dynamic stratum corneum structure composed of lipids and corneocytes. Stratum corneum is a conditio sine qua non for terrestrial life. Impairment of barrier function can be due to injury and inflammatory skin diseases. Therapeutic options are discussed with special emphasis of radiodermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis in patients with hearing device. The use of antimicrobial peptides is illustrated by facial inflammatory skin diseases. In wound healing new developments include biotechnological developments of matrix- and growth factors and tissue-engineered skin substitutes. In everyday wound care of chronic wounds the concept of wound bed preparation (TIME) constitutes the base of successful treatment. PMID:22073065

  1. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section 12...SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or...

  2. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section 12...SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or...

  3. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section 12...SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or...

  4. Confocal probing of skin during it clearing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. V. Meglinski; S. J. Matcher; A. N. Bashkatov; E. A. Genina; V. V. Tuchin

    2001-01-01

    The effect of temporal skin tissues clearing produced by diffusion of the osmotically active chemical agents into the skin are studied with confocal probing. Skin tissue optical properties and their changes are presented

  5. Treatment Options for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lower part of the epidermis. Melanin is the pigment that gives skin its natural color. When skin is exposed to the sun, melanocytes make more pigment and cause the skin to darken. Enlarge Anatomy ...

  6. Itchy, Scaly Skin? Living with Psoriasis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... exit disclaimer . Subscribe Itchy, Scaly Skin? Living With Psoriasis The thick, red, scaly skin of psoriasis can ... Diet Itchy, Scaly Skin? Wise Choices Links Treating Psoriasis Doctors often use a trial-and-error approach ...

  7. Capturing skin properties from dynamic mechanical analyses

    E-print Network

    Sandford, Erika J. (Erika Jaye)

    2012-01-01

    Existing skin mechanical testing devices focus on measuring skin elasticity and are not tailored to assess the dynamic behavior of skin. The mathematical techniques used to analyze data collected using these devices are ...

  8. Laser speckle and skin cancer: skin roughness assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tim K.; Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Zeng, Haishan; McLean, David I.; Lui, Harvey

    2009-10-01

    Incidence of skin cancer has been increasing rapidly since the last few decades. Non-invasive optical diagnostic tools may improve the diagnostic accuracy. In this paper, skin structure, skin cancer statistics and subtypes of skin cancer are briefly reviewed. Among the subtypes, malignant melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous; early detection dramatically improves the prognosis. Therefore, a non-invasive diagnostic tool for malignant melanoma is especially needed. In addition, in order for the diagnostic tool to be useful, it must be able to differentiate melanoma from common skin conditions such as seborrheic keratosis, a benign skin disease that resembles melanoma according to the well known clinical-assessment ABCD rule. The key diagnostic feature between these two diseases is surface roughness. Based on laser speckle contrast, our research team has recently developed a portable, optical, non-invasive, in-vivo diagnostic device for quantifying skin surface roughness. The methodology of our technique is described in details. Examining the preliminary data collected in a pilot clinical study for the prototype, we found that there was a difference in roughness between melanoma and seborrheic keratosis. In fact, there was a perfect cutoff value for the two diseases based on our initial data.

  9. Matching the skin barrier to the skin type.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Hyacinth; North, Jacqui; Davenport, Rebecca; Williams, Julia

    Peristomal skin problems are thought to be common (Herlufsson et al, 2006; Williams et al, 2010), and can interfere with the security of stoma products. Stoma patients are reliant on the integrity of their peristomal skin to maintain a normal lifestyle. Bekkers et al (1996) highlighted that, if the peristomal skin becomes damaged, it not only affects the person physically, but also psychologically, ultimately prolonging rehabilitation and adaptation to the stoma. Therefore, it can be concluded that maintaining skin integrity is a basic and essential skill in ensuring good stoma management. This article explores the assessment of four stoma patients, highlighting the importance of matching their skin type with their skin barrier for optimum skin protection. The patients have kindly agreed for their case studies to be published as a means of informing others. All names have been changed in line with Nursing and Midwifery Council (2010) guidelines to maintain patient confidentiality. This article was originally presented at the World Council of Enterostomal Therapists' (WCET) annual conference in 2010, receiving first prize at poster presentations. PMID:22096806

  10. Bioactive factors for tissue regeneration: state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Ohba, Shinsuke; Hojo, Hironori; Chung, Ung-il

    2012-01-01

    Summary There are three components for the creation of new tissues: cell sources, scaffolds, and bioactive factors. Unlike conventional medical strategies, regenerative medicine requires not only analytical approaches but also integrative ones. Basic research has identified a number of bioactive factors that are necessary, but not sufficient, for organogenesis. In skeletal development, these factors include bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), transforming growth factor ? TGF-?, Wnts, hedgehogs (Hh), fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), SRY box-containing gene (Sox) 9, Sp7, and runt-related transcription factors (Runx). Clinical and preclinical studies have been extensively performed to apply the knowledge to bone and cartilage regeneration. Given the large number of findings obtained so far, it would be a good time for a multi-disciplinary, collaborative effort to optimize these known factors and develop appropriate drug delivery systems for delivering them. PMID:23738297

  11. Bioactive factors for tissue regeneration: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Shinsuke; Hojo, Hironori; Chung, Ung-Il

    2012-07-01

    THERE ARE THREE COMPONENTS FOR THE CREATION OF NEW TISSUES: cell sources, scaffolds, and bioactive factors. Unlike conventional medical strategies, regenerative medicine requires not only analytical approaches but also integrative ones. Basic research has identified a number of bioactive factors that are necessary, but not sufficient, for organogenesis. In skeletal development, these factors include bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), transforming growth factor ? TGF-?, Wnts, hedgehogs (Hh), fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), SRY box-containing gene (Sox) 9, Sp7, and runt-related transcription factors (Runx). Clinical and preclinical studies have been extensively performed to apply the knowledge to bone and cartilage regeneration. Given the large number of findings obtained so far, it would be a good time for a multi-disciplinary, collaborative effort to optimize these known factors and develop appropriate drug delivery systems for delivering them. PMID:23738297

  12. Pentacyclic triterpenes with selective bioactivity from Sebastiania adenophora leaves, Euphorbiaceae.

    PubMed

    Macías-Rubalcava, M L; Hernández-Bautista, B E; Jiménez-Estrada, M; Cruz-Ortega, R; Anaya, A L

    2007-01-01

    Six known pentacyclic triterpenes possessing oleanane, lupane, or taraxerane-type skeletons were isolated from the leaves of Sebastiania adenophora (Euphorbiaceae) and are reported for the first time in this species. These compounds include 3-epi-beta-amyrin, beta-amyrinone, 3-epi-lupeol, lupenone, taraxerol, and taraxerone. Structures were elucidated by comparison with literature data. The bioactivities of these compounds were tested on the root growth of Amaranthus hypochondriacus, amaranth (Amaranthaceae), Lycopersicon esculentum, tomato (Solanaceae), and Echinochloa crus-galli, barnyard grass (Poaceae). All six triterpenes were selectively bioactive. An important stimulatory effect was observed on amaranth root growth (23% to 56%) for almost all tested triterpenes (250 microg/ml). These triterpenes significantly inhibited the root growth of barnyard grass (28% to 78%) and tomato (23% to 49%). Aqueous leachate and organic extracts of S. adenophora leaves significantly inhibited the root growth of all test species. The possible ecological role of the allelochemicals isolated is discussed. PMID:17151909

  13. Nanocellulose-based composites and bioactive agents for food packaging.

    PubMed

    Khan, Avik; Huq, Tanzina; Khan, Ruhul A; Riedl, Bernard; Lacroix, Monique

    2014-01-01

    Global environmental concern, regarding the use of petroleum-based packaging materials, is encouraging researchers and industries in the search for packaging materials from natural biopolymers. Bioactive packaging is gaining more and more interest not only due to its environment friendly nature but also due to its potential to improve food quality and safety during packaging. Some of the shortcomings of biopolymers, such as weak mechanical and barrier properties can be significantly enhanced by the use of nanomaterials such as nanocellulose (NC). The use of NC can extend the food shelf life and can also improve the food quality as they can serve as carriers of some active substances, such as antioxidants and antimicrobials. The NC fiber-based composites have great potential in the preparation of cheap, lightweight, and very strong nanocomposites for food packaging. This review highlights the potential use and application of NC fiber-based nanocomposites and also the incorporation of bioactive agents in food packaging. PMID:24188266

  14. Essential oils: extraction, bioactivities, and their uses for food preservation.

    PubMed

    Tongnuanchan, Phakawat; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2014-07-01

    Essential oils are concentrated liquids of complex mixtures of volatile compounds and can be extracted from several plant organs. Essential oils are a good source of several bioactive compounds, which possess antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. In addition, some essential oils have been used as medicine. Furthermore, the uses of essential oils have received increasing attention as the natural additives for the shelf-life extension of food products, due to the risk in using synthetic preservatives. Essential oils can be incorporated into packaging, in which they can provide multifunctions termed "active or smart packaging." Those essential oils are able to modify the matrix of packaging materials, thereby rendering the improved properties. This review covers up-to-date literatures on essential oils including sources, chemical composition, extraction methods, bioactivities, and their applications, particularly with the emphasis on preservation and the shelf-life extension of food products. PMID:24888440

  15. In-fiber photo-immobilization of a bioactive surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Elizabeth; Yong, Derrick; Yu, Xia; Li, Hao; Chan, Chi Chiu

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate the first in-fiber light-induced bioactive biotin-functionalization via photobleaching fluorophore-conjugated biotin. Photobleaching the fluorophores generated free radicals that bind to the albumin-passivated inner surface of pure silica photonic crystal fiber. The subsequent attachment of dye-conjugated streptavidin to the bound biotin qualified the photo-immobilization process and demonstrated a potential for the construction of in-fiber macromolecular assemblies or multiplexes. Compared with other in-fiber bioactive coating methods, the proposed light-induced technique requires only a low-power light source, without the need for additional preactivation steps or toxic chemical reagents. This method, hence, enables a simple and compact implementation for potential biomedical applications.

  16. The surface characterization and bioactivity of NANOZR in vitro.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian-min; Hong, Guang; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Zheng, Gang; Lin, Hong; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surface characterization and bioactivity of ceria-stabilized zirconia/alumina nanocomposite (NANOZR) in comparison to yttria-stabilized zirconia (3Y-TZP) and pure titanium (CpTi). Three-dimension surface morphology, surface wettability, bovine serum albumin adsorption rate, cell morphology, cell proliferation and ALP activity of three tested materials were measured. There were no significant differences in surface roughness, contact angle among the three materials. The ALP expression of NANOZR was higher than CpTi and 3Y-TZP at 14 and 21 days although bovine serum albumin adsorption rate, cell morphology; and cell proliferation was not different among the three materials. These results suggest that the three test materials basically had similar surface characterization and bioactivity. Within the limitations of this study, our results show that the three test materials were biologically similar bio-inert materials. PMID:24583647

  17. Analysis, structural characterization, and bioactivity of oligosaccharides derived from lactose.

    PubMed

    Moreno, F Javier; Montilla, Antonia; Villamiel, Mar; Corzo, Nieves; Olano, Agustín

    2014-06-01

    The increasing interest for prebiotic carbohydrates as functional food ingredients has promoted the synthesis of galactooligosaccharides and new lactose derivatives. This review provides a comprehensive overview on the chromatographic analysis, structural characterization, and bioactivity studies of lactose-derived oligosaccharides. The most common chromatographic techniques used for the separation and structural characterization of this type of oligosaccharides, including GC and HPLC in different operational modes, coupled to various detectors are discussed. Insights on oligosaccharide MS fragmentation patterns, using different ionization sources and mass analyzers, as well as data on structural analysis by NMR spectroscopy are also described. Finally, this article deals with the bioactive effects of galacto oligosaccharides and oligosaccharides derived from lactulose on the gastrointestinal and immune systems, which support their consumption to provide significant health benefits. PMID:24446419

  18. Study on bioactive compounds from Streptomyces sp. ANU 6277.

    PubMed

    Narayana, Kolla J P; Prabhakar, Peddikotla; Vijayalakshmi, Muvva; Venkateswarlu, Yenamandra; Krishna, Palakodety S J

    2008-01-01

    An attempt was made to study the bioactive compounds from a terrestrial Streptomyces sp. ANU 6277 isolated from laterite soil. Four active fractions were recovered from the solvent extracts obtained from the culture broth of five day-old strain. Three bioactive compounds were purified and identified as 3-phenylpropionic acid, anthracene-9,10-quinone and 8-hydroxyquinoline. The components of the partially purified fourth active fraction were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and identified as benzyl alcohol, phenylethyl alcohol and 2H-1, 4-benzoxazin-3 (4H)-one. Four active fractions were screened for antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi including phytopathogenic, toxigenic and dermatophytic genera. Among these metabolites, 8-hydroxyquinoline exhibited strong antibacterial and antifungal activity as compared to 3-phenylpropionic acid and anthracene-9,10-quinone. PMID:18610654

  19. Bayesian Models Leveraging Bioactivity and Cytotoxicity Information for Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Ekins, Sean; Reynolds, Robert C.; Kim, Hiyun; Koo, Mi-Sun; Ekonomidis, Marilyn; Talaue, Meliza; Paget, Steve D.; Woolhiser, Lisa K.; Lenaerts, Anne J.; Bunin, Barry A.; Connell, Nancy; Freundlich, Joel S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Identification of unique leads represents a significant challenge in drug discovery. This hurdle is magnified in neglected diseases such as tuberculosis. We have leveraged public high-throughput screening (HTS) data, to experimentally validate virtual screening approach employing Bayesian models built with bioactivity information (single-event model) as well as bioactivity and cytotoxicity information (dual-event model). We virtually screen a commercial library and experimentally confirm actives with hit rates exceeding typical HTS results by 1-2 orders of magnitude. The first dual-event Bayesian model identified compounds with antitubercular whole-cell activity and low mammalian cell cytotoxicity from a published set of antimalarials. The most potent hit exhibits the in vitro activity and in vitro/in vivo safety profile of a drug lead. These Bayesian models offer significant economies in time and cost to drug discovery. PMID:23521795

  20. Bioactive peptides from marine processing waste and shellfish: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pádraigín A. Harnedy; Richard J. FitzGerald

    Marine organisms such as fish and shellfish are rich sources of structurally diverse bioactive nitrogenous components. Based on emerging evidence of potential health benefits, these components show significant promise as functional food ingredients. Activities including antihypertensive, antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-coagulant, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, immunostimulatory, calcium-binding, hypocholesteremic and appetite suppression have been reported. Fish and shellfish waste components contain significant levels of high

  1. Neutral atom beam technique enhances bioactivity of PEEK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoury, Joseph; Kirkpatrick, Sean R.; Maxwell, Melissa; Cherian, Raymond E.; Kirkpatrick, Allen; Svrluga, Richard C.

    2013-07-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is currently gaining popularity in orthopedic and spinal applications but has potential drawbacks in use. PEEK is biocompatible, similar in elasticity to bone, and radiolucent; however, it has been shown to be inert and does not integrate well with bone. Recent efforts have focused on increasing the bioactivity of PEEK by modifying the surface to improve the bone-implant interface. We have employed a novel Accelerated Neutral Atom Beam technique (ANAB) to enhance the bioactivity of PEEK. ANAB employs an intense beam of cluster-like packets of accelerated unbonded neutral argon (Ar) gas atoms. These beams are created by first producing a highly energetic Gas Cluster Ion Beam (GCIB) comprised of van der Waals bonded Ar atoms, then transferring energy to the clusters so as to cause release of most of the interatomic bonds, and finally deflecting away the remaining electrically charged cluster cores of still bonded atoms. We identified that ANAB treatment of PEEK results in nanometer scale surface modifications as well as increased surface hydrophilicity. Human osteoblasts seeded onto the surface of ANAB-treated PEEK exhibited enhanced growth as compared to control PEEK as evidenced by cell proliferation assays and microscopy. This increase in bioactivity resulted in cell proliferation levels comparable to native titanium. An in vivo study using a rat calvarial critical size defect model revealed enhanced osseointegration where bone tissue formation was evident only on the ANAB treated PEEK. Taken together, these data suggest that ANAB treatment of PEEK has the potential to enhance its bioactivity, resulting in bone formation and significantly decreasing osseointegration time of orthopedic and spinal implants.

  2. Bioactive norsesquiterpenes from Helianthus annuus with potential allelopathic activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco A. Macías; Rosa M. Varela; Ascensión Torres; Rosa M. Oliva; José M. G. Molinillo

    1998-01-01

    Six bioactive norsesquiterpenes have been isolated from Helianthus annus (sunflower) var. SH-222® and VYP®. Three new ionone type bisnorsesquiterpenes and a new norbisabolene are potential allelopathic agents. Their structures were determined through the analysis of their homo- and hetero-nuclear 2D-NMR spectral data. On the basis of combined studies of the theoretical conformations and NOEDIFF data the relative stereochemistry is proposed.

  3. Tape cast bioactive metal-ceramic laminates for structural application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clupper, Daniel Christopher

    Bioglass 45S5, is a silica based glass which is able to rapidly form strong bonds with bone and soft tissue in vivo. It is used clinically to replace damaged ear ossicles and in dental surgery to help maintain the structural integrity of the jaw bone. The goal of the research was to demonstrate that Bioglass can be toughened by lamination with metallic layers while maintaining bioactivity. Improvement of the mechanical properties of Bioglass 45SS would allow for additional clinical applications, such as fracture fixation plates, or vertebral spacers. Bioglass 45S5 was tape cast and laminated with clinically relevant metals (316L, stainless steel and titanium) as well as copper in an effort to demonstrate that the effective toughness, or area under the load-deflection diagram can be increased significantly through ductile layer lamination. The average strength of monolithic tape cast sintered Bioglass was as high as 150 MPa and the toughness measured approximately 1.0 MPa m1/2. Copper-Bioglass laminates clearly demonstrated the toughening effect of metal layers on tape cast sintered Bioglass 45S5. Steel-Bioglass laminates, although less tough than the copper-Bioglass laminates, showed higher strengths. In vitro bioactivity tests of both titanium and steel Bioglass laminates showed the formation of mature and thick hydroxyapatite layers after 24 hours in Tris buffer solution. Under the standard test conditions, the bioactivity of monolithic tape cast sintered Bioglass increased with increasing sintering temperature. For samples sintered at 1000°C, thick crystalline layers of hydroxyapatite formed within 24 hours in Tris buffer solution. The bioactivity of these samples approached that of amorphous bulk Bioglass. Samples processed at 800°C were able to form thick crystalline hydroxyapatite layer after 24 hours when the test solution volume was increased by eight times.

  4. Bacterial adherence to bioinert and bioactive materials studied in vitro.

    PubMed

    Oga, M; Arizono, T; Sugioka, Y

    1993-06-01

    In vitro, bioinert stainless steel and titanium alloy, and bioactive sintered hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite-coated titanium materials were exposed to Staphylococcus epidermidis to study bacterial adhesion. Scanning electron microscopy showed that fibrous strands interconnected the adherent bacteria, and that background matrix enclosed bacterial colonies. This adherent mode of growth may reduce the susceptibility of the bacteria to host clearance mechanisms and antibiotic therapy. Adherence assays revealed that bacterial adherence to sintered hydroxyapatite was higher than to the other 3 materials. PMID:8391746

  5. Expanding opportunities for mining bioactive chemistry from patents.

    PubMed

    Southan, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    Bioactive structures published in medicinal chemistry patents typically exceed those in papers by at least twofold and may precede them by several years. The Big-Bang of open automated extraction since 2012 has contributed to over 15 million patent-derived compounds in PubChem. While mapping between chemical structures, assay results and protein targets from patent documents is challenging, these relationships can be harvested using open tools and are beginning to be curated into databases. PMID:26194581

  6. Bioactive compounds in legumes and their germinated products.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Yin; Lai, Hsi-Mei

    2006-05-31

    Nineteen domestic legume varieties, including 6 soybeans, 7 black soybeans, 4 azuki beans, and 2 mung beans, were evaluated for contents of dietary fiber, total phenolics, and flavonoids. Nine varieties of legumes (black soybean TN6, TN3, BM, and WY; soybean KS1, KS2, and KS8; azuki bean AKS5 and AKS6) were good sources of bioactive compounds and were selected for germination tests. After short- and long-term germinations, the bioactive compounds were determined and compared with compositions of isoflavones in soybeans. The reducing power of legumes correlated well with their total flavonoid contents (r (2) = 0.9414), whereas less correlation was found between reducing power and total phenolics contents (r (2) = 0.6885). The dark-coat seeds, such as azuki beans and black soybeans, contained high amounts of phenolic compounds and contributed to high antioxidative ability, whereas their phenolics content and antioxidative abilities significantly decreased after short-term germination due to losses of pigments in the seed coats. After long-term germination, the contents of bioactive compounds (total phenolics and flavonoids) increased again and the ratio of aglycones to total isoflavones significantly increased in black soybeans. TN3 and TN6 seeds and their long-term germinated seeds and AKS5 seeds were identified as the legume samples that might have the highest antioxidant ability according to the results of chemometric analysis. Selection of the right legume varieties combined with a suitable germination process could provide good sources of bioactive compounds from legumes and their germinated products for neutraceutical applications. PMID:16719500

  7. Bioactive double glass coatings for Co-Cr-Mo alloy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ö. H. Andersson; K. H. Karlsson; H. Hero; E. Vedel; A. Yli-Urpo; K. J. J. Pajamäki; T. S. Lindholm

    1995-01-01

    Glass compositions for double coatings for a Co-Cr-Mo alloy were developed. The glass compositions were chosen to fulfil such requirements as matching thermal expansion, low glass transition temperature and moderate solubility. For the ground coat a fairly high durability is required, whereas the cover coat must be bioactive, i.e. become attached to living bone by a chemical bond. Two compositions

  8. In vitro characterisation of zirconia coated by bioactive glass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bosetti; E. Vernè; M. Ferraris; A. Ravaglioli; M. Cannas

    2001-01-01

    An in vitro evaluation of a biomedical device, which combines the mechanical properties of zirconia substrates with the bioactivity of two different glass layers (AP40 and RKKP), was performed. In this work, data on different kinds of analysis were reported both on as-sintered zirconia samples and on RKKP- and AP40-coated zirconia substrates. Structure, composition and morphology of the apatite layer

  9. Bioactive substances produced by marine isolates of Pseudomonas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alim Isnansetyo; Yuto Kamei

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas is a genus of non-fermentative gram-negative Gammaproteobacteria found both on land and in the water. Many terrestrial isolates of this genus have been studied extensively. While many produce\\u000a bioactive substances, enzymes, and biosurfactants, other Pseudomonas isolates are used for biological control of plant diseases and bioremediation. In contrast, only a few marine isolates of\\u000a this genus have been described

  10. Freeze Casting of Porous Bioactive Glass and Bioceramics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kajal K. Mallick

    2009-01-01

    Highly porous network structures of hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphates, a bioactive glass as well as their composites have been fabricated using variations of camphene-, glycerol-, and ice-based freeze-casting techniques. The ball-milled slurries containing 10%-60% solid loading were cast at ambient tem- perature, followed by sublimation at temperatures between ? 701 and 601C. The green body was sintered in air to a

  11. Cranberries and Their Bioactive Constituents in Human Health12

    PubMed Central

    Blumberg, Jeffrey B.; Camesano, Terri A.; Cassidy, Aedin; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Howell, Amy; Manach, Claudine; Ostertag, Luisa M.; Sies, Helmut; Skulas-Ray, Ann; Vita, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent observational and clinical studies have raised interest in the potential health effects of cranberry consumption, an association that appears to be due to the phytochemical content of this fruit. The profile of cranberry bioactives is distinct from that of other berry fruit, being rich in A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs) in contrast to the B-type PACs present in most other fruit. Basic research has suggested a number of potential mechanisms of action of cranberry bioactives, although further molecular studies are necessary. Human studies on the health effects of cranberry products have focused principally on urinary tract and cardiovascular health, with some attention also directed to oral health and gastrointestinal epithelia. Evidence suggesting that cranberries may decrease the recurrence of urinary tract infections is important because a nutritional approach to this condition could lower the use of antibiotic treatment and the consequent development of resistance to these drugs. There is encouraging, but limited, evidence of a cardioprotective effect of cranberries mediated via actions on antioxidant capacity and lipoprotein profiles. The mixed outcomes from clinical studies with cranberry products could result from interventions testing a variety of products, often uncharacterized in their composition of bioactives, using different doses and regimens, as well as the absence of a biomarker for compliance to the protocol. Daily consumption of a variety of fruit is necessary to achieve a healthy dietary pattern, meet recommendations for micronutrient intake, and promote the intake of a diversity of phytochemicals. Berry fruit, including cranberries, represent a rich source of phenolic bioactives that may contribute to human health. PMID:24228191

  12. Marine Bioactives: Pharmacological Properties and Potential Applications against Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    D’Orazio, Nicolantonio; Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Gemello, Eugenio; De Girolamo, Massimo; Cusenza, Salvatore; Riccioni, Graziano

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is a hot topic in medical research, because it plays a key role in inflammatory diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other forms of arthritis, diabetes, heart diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, allergies, asthma, even cancer and many others. Over the past few decades, it was realized that the process of inflammation is virtually the same in different disorders, and a better understanding of inflammation may lead to better treatments for numerous diseases. Inflammation is the activation of the immune system in response to infection, irritation, or injury, with an influx of white blood cells, redness, heat, swelling, pain, and dysfunction of the organs involved. Although the pathophysiological basis of these conditions is not yet fully understood, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have often been implicated in their pathogenesis. In fact, in inflammatory diseases the antioxidant defense system is compromised, as evidenced by increased markers of oxidative stress, and decreased levels of protective antioxidant enzymes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). An enriched diet containing antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, ?-carotene and phenolic substances, has been suggested to improve symptoms by reducing disease-related oxidative stress. In this respect, the marine world represents a largely untapped reserve of bioactive ingredients, and considerable potential exists for exploitation of these bioactives as functional food ingredients. Substances such as n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and peptides provide a myriad of health benefits, including reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory activities. New marine bioactives are recently gaining attention, since they could be helpful in combating chronic inflammatory degenerative conditions. The aim of this review is to examine the published studies concerning the potential pharmacological properties and application of many marine bioactives against inflammatory diseases. PMID:22690145

  13. Fractionation of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins for Bioactivity Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vaishali Sharma; Chungfen Zhang; Giulio M. Pasinetti; Richard A. Dixon

    \\u000a Grape seed extract (GSE) is rich in flavonoids, particularly proanthocyanidins (PAs). PAs and their monomers are strong antioxidants\\u000a and have been ascribed a number of potential activities beneficial to health, including protection against cancers, cardiovascular\\u000a disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. However, little is known about the chemical nature and the concentration of bioactive polyphenols\\u000a to which the body is exposed after

  14. Isolation and identification of bioactive compounds in Andrographis paniculata (Chuanxinlian)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Wan Chao; Bi-Fong Lin

    2010-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees (Acanthaceae) is a medicinal plant used in many countries. Its major constituents are diterpenoids, flavonoids and polyphenols. Among the single compounds extracted from A. paniculata, andrographolide is the major one in terms of bioactive properties and abundance. Among the andrographolide analogues, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide is immunostimulatory, anti-infective and anti-atherosclerotic; neoandrographolide is anti-inflammatory, anti-infective and anti-hepatotoxic; 14-deoxyandrographolide is

  15. Ultraviolet Light and Skin Cancer in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Shannon C.; Bergfeld, Wilma F.

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide. Ultraviolet light exposure is the most important risk factor for cutaneous melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Nonmelanoma skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Constitutive skin color and genetic factors, as well as immunological factors, play a role in the development of skin cancer. Ultraviolet light also causes sunburn and photoaging damage to the skin. PMID:23015891

  16. Shed Snake Skin and Hairless Mouse Skin as Model Membranes for Human Skin During Permeation Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pauline Carole Rigg; Brian William Barry

    1990-01-01

    Difficulties in obtaining and using human skin have tempted many workers to employ animal membranes for percutaneous absorption studies. We have investigated the suitability of two species of snake (Elaphe obsoleta, Python molurus) for this purpose and compared our in vitro experimental results for human skin and for hairless mouse, a currently popular model. The effects of long-term hydration on

  17. Bioactive glass/ZrO2 composites for orthopaedic applications.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, D; Sola, A; Cannillo, V

    2014-02-01

    Binary biocomposites were realized by combining yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) with a bioactive glass matrix. Few works are available regarding composites containing zirconia and a relatively high content of glass because the resulting samples are usually biocompatible but not bioactive after thermal treatment. In the present research, the promising properties of the new BG_Ca-K glass, with its low tendency to crystallize and high apatite-forming ability, allowed us to sinter the composites at a relatively low temperature with excellent effects in terms of bioactivity. In addition, it was possible to benefit from the good mechanical behaviour of Y-TZP, thus obtaining samples with microhardness values that were among the highest reported in the literature. After a detailed analysis regarding the thermal behaviour of the composite powders, the sintered bodies were fully characterized by means of x-ray diffraction, SEM equipped with EDS, density measurements, volumetric shrinkage determination, mechanical testing and in vitro evaluation in a simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. According to the experimental results, the presence of Y-TZP improved the mechanical performance. Meanwhile, the BG_Ca-K glass, which mainly preserved its amorphous structure after sintering, provided the composites with a good apatite-forming ability in SBF. PMID:24343516

  18. Secondary Metabolites from Higher Fungi: Discovery, Bioactivity, and Bioproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Xiao, Jian-Hui

    Medicinal higher fungi such as Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum have been used as an alternative medicine remedy to promote health and longevity for people in China and other regions of the world since ancient times. Nowadays there is an increasing public interest in the secondary metabolites of those higher fungi for discovering new drugs or lead compounds. Current research in drug discovery from medicinal higher fungi involves a multifaceted approach combining mycological, biochemical, pharmacological, metabolic, biosynthetic and molecular techniques. In recent years, many new secondary metabolites from higher fungi have been isolated and are more likely to provide lead compounds for new drug discovery, which may include chemopreventive agents possessing the bioactivity of immunomodulatory, anticancer, etc. However, numerous challenges of secondary metabolites from higher fungi are encountered including bioseparation, identification, biosynthetic metabolism, and screening model issues, etc. Commercial production of secondary metabolites from medicinal mushrooms is still limited mainly due to less information about secondary metabolism and its regulation. Strategies for enhancing secondary metabolite production by medicinal mushroom fermentation include two-stage cultivation combining liquid fermentation and static culture, two-stage dissolved oxygen control, etc. Purification of bioactive secondary metabolites, such as ganoderic acids from G. lucidum, is also very important to pharmacological study and future pharmaceutical application. This review outlines typical examples of the discovery, bioactivity, and bioproduction of secondary metabolites of higher fungi origin.

  19. Phenolic compounds from Achillea millefolium L. and their bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Vitalini, Sara; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Iriti, Marcello; Orsenigo, Simone; Basilico, Nicoletta; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Iorizzi, Maria; Fico, Gelsomina

    2011-01-01

    Since antiquity, Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae) has been used in traditional medicine of several cultures, from Europe to Asia. Its richness in bioactive compounds contributes to a wide range of medicinal properties. In this study, we assessed A. millefolium methanolic extract and its isolated components for free radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-pycrilhydrazyl, total antioxidant capacity (based on the reduction of Cu(++) to Cu(+)), and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation. The activity against chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum was also tested. Chlorogenic acid, its derivatives and some flavonoids isolated by semipreparative HPLC and identified by NMR and spectrometric techniques were the major bioactive constituents of the methanolic extract. The latter exhibited significant antioxidant properties, as well as its flavonol glycosides and chlorogenic acids. With regard to the antiplasmodial activity, apigenin 7-glucoside was the most effective compound, followed by luteolin 7-glucoside, whereas chlorogenic acids were completely inactive. On the whole, our results confirmed A. millefolium as an important source of bioactive metabolites, justifying its pharmaceutical and ethnobotanical use. PMID:21503279

  20. Effect of crystallinity on crack propagation and mineralization of bioactive glass 45S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashyap, Satadru

    Bioactive glasses are a type of ceramic material designed to be used as bioresorbable therapeutic bone implants. Thermal treatment of bioactive glass ceramics dictates many important features such as microstructure, degree of crystallinity, mechanical properties, and mineralization. This study investigates the effects of temperature, time, and heating rates on the crystallization kinetics of melt cast bioactive glass 45S5. Bulk crystallization (three dimensional crystallite formation) was found to always occur in bulk bioactive glass 45S5 irrespective of the processing conditions. A comparative study of crack paths in amorphous and crystalline phases of bioactive glass 45S5 revealed crack deflections and higher fracture resistance in partially crystallized bioactive glass. Such toughening is likely attributed to different crystallographic orientations of crystals or residual thermal mismatch strains. Furthermore, in vitro immersion testing of partially crystalline glass ceramic revealed higher adhesion capabilities of the mineralized layer formed on amorphous regions as compared to its crystalline counterpart.

  1. How to Check Your Skin for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bend your elbows. Look carefully at your fingernails, palms, forearms (including the undersides), and upper arms . Check ... new flesh-colored firm bump Write down the dates of your skin self-exams and make notes ...

  2. Fluoride release and bioactivity evaluation of glass ionomer: Forsterite nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Sayyedan, Fatemeh Sadat; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Edris, Hossein; Doostmohammadi, Ali; Mortazavi, Vajihesadat; Shirani, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01

    Background: The most important limitation of glass ionomer cements (GICs) is the weak mechanical properties. Our previous research showed that higher mechanical properties could be achieved by addition of forsterite (Mg2SiO4) nanoparticles to ceramic part of GIC. The objective of the present study was to fabricate a glass ionomer- Mg2SiO4 nanocomposite and to evaluate the effect of addition of Mg2SiO4 nanoparticles on bioactivity and fluoride release behavior of prepared nanocomposite. Materials and Methods: Forsterite nanoparticles were made by sol-gel process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique was used in order to phase structure characterization and determination of grain size of Mg2SiO4 nanopowder. Nanocomposite was fabricated via adding 3wt.% of Mg2SiO4 nanoparticles to ceramic part of commercial GIC (Fuji II GC). Fluoride ion release and bioactivity of nanocomposite were measured using the artificial saliva and simulated body fluid (SBF), respectively. Bioactivity of specimens was investigated by Fourier transitioned-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electronmicroscopy (SEM), Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and registration of the changes in pH of soaking solution at the soaking period. Statistical analysis was carried out by one Way analysis of variance and differences were considered significant if P < 0.05. Results: The results of XRD analysis confirmed that nanocrystalline and pure Mg2SiO4 powder was obtained. Fluoride ion release evaluation showed that the values of released fluoride ions from nanocomposite are somewhat less than Fuji II GC. SEM images, pH changes of the SBF and results of the ICP-OES and FTIR tests confirmed the bioactivity of the nanocomposite. Statistical analysis showed that the differences between the results of all groups were significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Glass ionomer- Mg2SiO4 nanocomposite could be a good candidate for dentistry and orthopedic applications, through of desirable fluoride ion release and bioactivity. PMID:24130579

  3. Surface immobilized hydrogels as versatile reagent reservoirs for microarrays.

    PubMed

    Sola, Laura; Gagni, Paola; Cretich, Marina; Chiari, Marcella

    2013-05-31

    The accuracy of antibody-based microarrays depends on eliminating or at least minimizing the effect of cross-reactive components. In this work, a method to create a versatile, compartmentalized storage system for antibodies and soluble microarray reagents is described. These containers are made of hydrogel plugs immobilized on a slide facing the corresponding sub-array on a printed surface. The hydrogels were polymerized using a 4% w/v N,N-dimethylacrylamide and 3% w/v bisacrylamide solution, thus generating large pore sizes to allow the facile transfer of intact, functional biomolecules. The hydrogel microenvironments can be desiccated and rehydrated with a desired solution, and they can store reagents in a dry form. These hydrogels were shown to provide limits of detection similar to those obtained by conventional incubation conditions in an assay for HIV p24 antigen. Moreover, they prevent cross-reactivity issues in the detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins A and B and promote the accurate quantification of interleukin 10 by a microarray-integrated calibration curve. PMID:23454034

  4. The genus Pseudovibrio contains metabolically versatile bacteria adapted for symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Bondarev, Vladimir; Richter, Michael; Romano, Stefano; Piel, Jörn; Schwedt, Anne; Schulz-Vogt, Heide N

    2013-01-01

    The majority of strains belonging to the genus Pseudovibrio have been isolated from marine invertebrates such as tunicates, corals and particularly sponges, but the physiology of these bacteria is poorly understood. In this study, we analyse for the first time the genomes of two Pseudovibrio strains – FO-BEG1 and JE062. The strain FO-BEG1 is a required symbiont of a cultivated Beggiatoa strain, a sulfide-oxidizing, autotrophic bacterium, which was initially isolated from a coral. Strain JE062 was isolated from a sponge. The presented data show that both strains are generalistic bacteria capable of importing and oxidizing a wide range of organic and inorganic compounds to meet their carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous and energy requirements under both, oxic and anoxic conditions. Several physiological traits encoded in the analysed genomes were verified in laboratory experiments with both isolates. Besides the versatile metabolic abilities of both Pseudovibrio strains, our study reveals a number of open reading frames and gene clusters in the genomes that seem to be involved in symbiont–host interactions. Both Pseudovibrio strains have the genomic potential to attach to host cells, interact with the eukaryotic cell machinery, produce secondary metabolites and supply the host with cofactors. PMID:23601235

  5. Scalable and versatile graphene functionalized with the Mannich condensate.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ruijuan; Tang, Zhenghai; Lin, Tengfei; Guo, Baochun

    2013-03-01

    The functionalized graphene (JTPG) is fabricated by chemical conversion of graphene oxide (GO), using tea polyphenols (TP) as the reducer and stabilizer, followed by further derivatization through the Mannich reaction between the pyrogallol groups on TP and Jeffamine M-2070. JTPG exhibits solubility in a broad spectrum of solvents, long-term stability and single-layered dispersion in water and organic solvents, which are substantiated by AFM, TEM, and XRD. The paper-like JTPG hybrids prepared by vacuum-assisted filtration exhibits an unusual combination of high toughness (tensile strength of ~275 MPa and break strain of ~8%) and high electrical conductivity (~700 S/m). Still, JTPG is revealed to be very promising in the fabrication of polymer/graphene composites due to the excellent solubility in the solvent with low boiling point and low toxicity. Accordingly, as an example, nitrile rubber/JTPG composites are fabricated by the solution compounding in acetone. The resulted composite shows low threshold percolation at 0.23 vol.% of graphene. The versatilities both in dispersibility and performance, together with the scalable process of JTPG, enable a new way to scale up the fabrication of the graphene-based polymer composites or hybrids with high performance. PMID:23465413

  6. microRNAs, an active and versatile group in cancers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jeffrey; Zheng, Min; Tang, Ya-ling; Liang, Xin-hua; Yang, Qin

    2011-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that function as endogenous triggers of the RNA interference pathway. Studies have shown that thousands of human protein-coding genes are regulated by miRNAs, indicating that miRNAs are master regulators of many important biological processes, such as cancer development. miRNAs frequently have deregulated expression in many types of human cancers, and play critical roles in tumorigenesis, which functions either as tumor suppressors or as oncogenes. Recent studies have shown that miRNAs are highly related with cancer progression, including initiating, growth, apoptosis, invasion, and metastasis. Furthermore, miRNAs are shown to be responsible for the cancer-related inflammation, anti-cancer drug resistance, and regulation of cancer stem cells. Therefore, miRNAs have generated great interest as a novel strategy in cancer diagnosis and therapy. Here we review the versatile roles of miRNAs in cancers and their potential applications for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment as biomarkers. PMID:22010574

  7. Versatile fs laser-written glass chip lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, D. G.; Gross, S.; Fuerbach, A.; Ebendorff Heidepriem, H.; Monro, T. M.; Withford, M. J.

    2013-03-01

    We report laser-written chip lasers with potential to be a platform planar technology versatile enough to cover the visible through to the mid-infrared spectral region. By femtosecond laser direct-writing a thulium doped fluoride based glass host (ZBLAN), we have demonstrated a 151% quantum efficiency ?=1.9 ?m laser with a close to diffraction limited beam quality (M2~ 1.12 +/- 0.08) with 225 nm of continuous tunability in a device that can be rapidly fabricated by singlestep optical processing. The 9 mm long planar chip developed for concept demonstration contains fifteen large modearea waveguides that can operate in semi-monolithic or external cavity laser configurations. This chip laser has achieved the highest quantum efficiency from a planar glass waveguide laser. The depressed cladding geometry supports the largest fundamental modes reported for a rare-earth doped waveguide laser thereby favouring high peak-power operation which is demonstrated by achieving 1.9 kW peak-power pulses when Q-switched.

  8. Substrate versatility of polyhydroxyalkanoate producing glycerol grown bacterial enrichment culture.

    PubMed

    Moralejo-Gárate, Helena; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Mosquera-Corral, Anuska; Campos, José Luis; Palmeiro-Sánchez, Tania; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2014-12-01

    Waste-based polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production by bacterial enrichments generally follows a three step strategy in which first the wastewater is converted into a volatile fatty acid rich stream that is subsequently used as substrate in a selector and biopolymer production units. In this work, a bacterial community with high biopolymer production capacity was enriched using glycerol, a non-fermented substrate. The substrate versatility and PHA production capacity of this community was studied using glucose, lactate, acetate and xylitol as substrate. Except for xylitol, very high PHA producing capacities were obtained. The PHA accumulation was comparable or even higher than with glycerol as substrate. This is the first study that established a high PHA content (?70 wt%) with glucose as substrate in a microbial enrichment culture. The results presented in this study support the development of replacing pure culture based PHA production by bacterial enrichment cultures. A process where mixtures of substrates can be easily handled and the acidification step can potentially be avoided is described. PMID:25213684

  9. Versatile cationic lipids for siRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Jeff; Slobodkin, Gregory; Matar, Majed; Congo, Richard; Ulkoski, David; Rea-Ramsey, Angela; Pence, Casey; Rice, Jennifer; McClure, Diane; Polach, Kevin J; Brunhoeber, Elaine; Wilkinson, Leslie; Wallace, Kirby; Anwer, Khursheed; Fewell, Jason G

    2012-03-10

    Exploitation of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway offers the promise of new and effective therapies for a wide variety of diseases. Clinical development of new drugs based on this platform technology is still limited, however, by a lack of safe and efficient delivery systems. Here we report the development of a class of structurally versatile cationic lipopolyamines designed specifically for delivery of siRNA which show high levels of target transcript knockdown in a range of cell types in vitro. A primary benefit of these lipids is the ease with which they may be covalently modified by the addition of functional molecules. For in vivo applications one of the core lipids (Staramine) was modified with methoxypolyethylene glycols (mPEGs) of varying lengths. Upon systemic administration, PEGylated Staramine nanoparticles containing siRNA targeting the caveolin-1 (Cav-1) transcript caused a reduction of the Cav-1 transcript of up to 60%, depending on the mPEG length, specifically in lung tissue after 48h compared to treatment with non-silencing siRNA. In addition, modification with mPEG reduced toxicity associated with intravenous administration. The ability to produce a high level of target gene knockdown in the lung with minimal toxicity demonstrates the potential of these lipopolyamines for use in developing RNAi therapeutics for pulmonary disease. PMID:22100441

  10. Ultrafast and versatile spectroscopy by temporal Fourier transform

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chi; Wei, Xiaoming; Marhic, Michel E.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most remarkable and useful properties of a spatially converging lens system is its inherent ability to perform the Fourier transform; the same applies for the time-lens system. At the back focal plane of the time-lens, the spectral information can be instantaneously obtained in the time axis. By implementing temporal Fourier transform for spectroscopy applications, this time-lens-based architecture can provide orders of magnitude improvement over the state-of-art spatial-dispersion-based spectroscopy in terms of the frame rate. On the other hand, in addition to the single-lens structure, the multi-lens structures (e.g. telescope or wide-angle scope) will provide very versatile operating conditions. Leveraging the merit of instantaneous response, as well as the flexible lens structure, here we present a 100-MHz frame rate spectroscopy system – the parametric spectro-temporal analyzer (PASTA), which achieves 17 times zoom in/out ratio for different observation ranges. PMID:24939667

  11. miR-9: a versatile regulator of neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Coolen, Marion; Katz, Shauna; Bally-Cuif, Laure

    2013-01-01

    Soon after its discovery, microRNA-9 (miR-9) attracted the attention of neurobiologists, since it is one of the most highly expressed microRNAs in the developing and adult vertebrate brain. Functional analyses in different vertebrate species have revealed a prominent role of this microRNA in balancing proliferation in embryonic neural progenitor populations. Key transcriptional regulators such as FoxG1, Hes1 or Tlx, were identified as direct targets of miR-9, placing it at the core of the gene network controlling the progenitor state. Recent data also suggest that this function could extend to adult neural stem cells. Other studies point to a role of miR-9 in differentiated neurons. Moreover miR-9 has been implicated in human brain pathologies, either displaying a protective role, such as in Progeria, or participating in disease progression in brain cancers. Altogether functional studies highlight a prominent feature of this highly conserved microRNA, its functional versatility, both along its evolutionary history and across cellular contexts. PMID:24312010

  12. Ultrafast and versatile spectroscopy by temporal Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chi; Wei, Xiaoming; Marhic, Michel E.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.

    2014-06-01

    One of the most remarkable and useful properties of a spatially converging lens system is its inherent ability to perform the Fourier transform; the same applies for the time-lens system. At the back focal plane of the time-lens, the spectral information can be instantaneously obtained in the time axis. By implementing temporal Fourier transform for spectroscopy applications, this time-lens-based architecture can provide orders of magnitude improvement over the state-of-art spatial-dispersion-based spectroscopy in terms of the frame rate. On the other hand, in addition to the single-lens structure, the multi-lens structures (e.g. telescope or wide-angle scope) will provide very versatile operating conditions. Leveraging the merit of instantaneous response, as well as the flexible lens structure, here we present a 100-MHz frame rate spectroscopy system - the parametric spectro-temporal analyzer (PASTA), which achieves 17 times zoom in/out ratio for different observation ranges.

  13. Fullerene nanowires as a versatile platform for organic electronics

    PubMed Central

    Maeyoshi, Yuta; Saeki, Akinori; Suwa, Shotaro; Omichi, Masaaki; Marui, Hiromi; Asano, Atsushi; Tsukuda, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Masaki; Kishimura, Akihiro; Kataoka, Kazunori; Seki, Shu

    2012-01-01

    The development of organic semiconducting nanowires that act as charge carrier transport pathways in flexible and lightweight nanoelectronics is a major scientific challenge. We report on the fabrication of fullerene nanowires that is universally applicable to its derivatives (pristine C60, methanofullerenes of C61 and C71, and indene C60 bis-adduct), realized by the single particle nanofabrication technique (SPNT). Nanowires with radii of 8–11?nm were formed via a chain polymerization reaction induced by a high-energy ion beam. Fabrication of a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT): [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cell including PC61BM nanowires with precisely-controlled length and density demonstrates how application of this methodology can improve the power conversion efficiency of these inverted cells. The proposed technique provides a versatile platform for the fabrication of continuous and uniform n-type fullerene nanowires towards a wide range of organic electronics applications. PMID:22934128

  14. The versatile link, a common project for super-LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Amaral, Luis; Dris, Stefanos; Gerardin, Alexandre; Huffman, Todd; Issever, Cigdem; Pacheco, Alberto Jimenez; Jones, Mark; Kwan, Simon; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lian, Zhijun; Liu, Tiankuan; /CERN /Oxford U. /Fermilab /Taipei, Computing Ctr. /Southern Methodist U.

    2009-07-01

    Radiation tolerant, high speed optoelectronic data transmission links are fundamental building blocks in today's large scale High Energy Physics (HEP) detectors, as exemplified by the four experiments currently under commissioning at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), see for example. New experiments or upgrades will impose even more stringent demands on these systems from the point of view of performance and radiation tolerance. This can already be seen from the developments underway for the Super Large Hadron Collider (SLHC) project, a proposed upgrade to the LHC aiming at increasing the luminosity of the machine by factor of 10 to 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, and thus providing a better chance to see rare processes and improving statistically marginal measurements. In the past, specific data transmission links have been independently developed by each LHC experiment for data acquisition (DAQ), detector control as well as trigger and timing distribution (TTC). This was justified by the different types of applications being targeted as well as by technological limitations preventing one single solution from fitting all requirements. However with today's maturity of optoelectronic and CMOS technologies it is possible to envisage the development of a general purpose optical link which can cover most transmission applications: a Versatile Link. Such an approach has the clear advantage of concentrating the development effort on one single project targeting an optical link whose final functionality will only result from the topology and configuration settings adopted.

  15. Versatile Apoferritin Nanoparticle Labels for Assay of Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Wang, Jun; Wu, Hong; Lin, Yuehe

    2006-10-30

    A versatile bioassay label based on marker-loaded-apoferritin nanoparticles (MLAN) have been developed for sensitive protein detection. Dissociation and reconstitution characteristics at different pH as well as the special cavity structure of apoferritin provide a facile route to prepare nanoparticle labels, and avoid complicated and tedious synthesis process of conventional nanoparticle labels. The optical and electrochemical characteristics of the prepared nanoparticle labels are easily controlled by loading different optical or electrochemical markers. A fluorescence marker (fluorescein anion) and a redox marker [hexacyanoferrate (III)] were used as model markers to load into the cavity of apoferritin nanoparticle and developed for microscopic fluorescence immunoassay and electrochemical immunoassay, respectively. Detection limits of 0.06 ng mL-1 (0.39 pM) and 0.08 ng mL-1 (0.51 pM) of IgG were obtained with fluorescein MLAP and hexacyanoferrate MLAN, respectively. The new nanoparticle labels hold great promise for multiplex protein detection (in connection to nanoparticles loaded with different markers) and for enhancing the sensitivity of other bioassay.

  16. A new versatile method for modelling geomagnetic induction in pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boteler, D. H.

    2013-04-01

    Geomagnetic induction drives telluric currents in pipelines and creates fluctuations in pipe-to-soil potentials (PSP) that interfere with pipeline surveys and create conditions where corrosion is more likely to occur. To understand the process of geomagnetic induction and determine the severity and location of troublesome effects requires the ability to model geomagnetic induction in realistic pipeline networks. Previous modelling work, based on transmission line theory, has provided some insights into the process but has to be customized for each situation. This paper presents a new versatile modelling technique that can be easily applied to any pipeline network. The essential part of the new method is the development of an equivalent-pi circuit for geomagnetic induction in a pipeline section. A complex pipeline network can then be represented as a set of equivalent-pi circuits that are combined to form a nodal admittance network comprising connections between nodes and to ground from each node. The nodal admittance matrix method is then used to determine the voltages everywhere in the pipeline system. Sample results are presented for geomagnetic induction in an example pipeline. It is shown how the modelling results can be combined with electric fields calculated from geomagnetic observatory data to determine the PSP variations that occur during geomagnetic disturbances.

  17. Versatile and Sensitive Dual Comb Fourier Transform Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquey, M.; Jacquet, P.; Mandon, J.; Thon, R.; Guelachvili, G.; Hänsch, T. W.; Picqué, N.

    2010-06-01

    Fourier transform spectroscopy based on time-domain interferences between two slightly detuned frequency comb sources holds much promise for the real-time diagnostic of gaseous, liquid or solid-state samples. In one very recent example, cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy with two infrared frequency combs has demonstrated a dramatically enhanced sensitivity, compared to conventional Fourier spectroscopy, with intriguing implications for instantaneous trace gas analysis. It however remains challenging to match continuously the comb and cavity modes across a broad spectral bandwidth during the time of a measurement. An obvious alternative for reaching a long interaction path is a conventional multipass cell. Additionally, differential detection schemes may be devised to increase the dynamic range of the interferometric measurements, thus providing enhanced signal to noise ratio. Experimental demonstrations will be given in the 1.5 ?m region with a dual comb set-up based on two Er-doped fiber femtosecond lasers. The versatility and performances of these solutions will be compared to the cavity-enhanced dual comb technique and other state-of-the-art alternatives. P. Jacquet, J. Mandon, B. Bernhardt, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, Frequency Comb Fourier Transform Spectroscopy with kHz Optical Resolution, The Optical Society of America, Washington, DC 2009, paper FMB2 (2009). B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T.W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy, Nature Photonics 4, 55-57 (2010),

  18. Versatile multi-functionalization of protein nanofibrils for biosensor applications.

    PubMed

    Sasso, L; Suei, S; Domigan, L; Healy, J; Nock, V; Williams, M A K; Gerrard, J A

    2014-01-01

    Protein nanofibrils offer advantages over other nanostructures due to the ease in their self-assembly and the versatility of surface chemistry available. Yet, an efficient and general methodology for their post-assembly functionalization remains a significant challenge. We introduce a generic approach, based on biotinylation and thiolation, for the multi-functionalization of protein nanofibrils self-assembled from whey proteins. Biochemical characterization shows the effects of the functionalization onto the nanofibrils' surface, giving insights into the changes in surface chemistry of the nanostructures. We show how these methods can be used to decorate whey protein nanofibrils with several components such as fluorescent quantum dots, enzymes, and metal nanoparticles. A multi-functionalization approach is used, as a proof of principle, for the development of a glucose biosensor platform, where the protein nanofibrils act as nanoscaffolds for glucose oxidase. Biotinylation is used for enzyme attachment and thiolation for nanoscaffold anchoring onto a gold electrode surface. Characterization via cyclic voltammetry shows an increase in glucose-oxidase mediated current response due to thiol-metal interactions with the gold electrode. The presented approach for protein nanofibril multi-functionalization is novel and has the potential of being applied to other protein nanostructures with similar surface chemistry. PMID:24337159

  19. Robust and Versatile Black-Box Certification of Quantum Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tzyh Haur; Vértesi, Tamás; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Scarani, Valerio; Navascués, Miguel

    2014-07-01

    Self-testing refers to the fact that, in some quantum devices, both states and measurements can be assessed in a black-box scenario, on the sole basis of the observed statistics, i.e., without reference to any prior device calibration. Only a few examples of self-testing are known, and they just provide nontrivial assessment for devices performing unrealistically close to the ideal case. We overcome these difficulties by approaching self-testing with the semidefinite programing hierarchy for the characterization of quantum correlations. This allows us to improve dramatically the robustness of previous self-testing schemes; e.g., we show that a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt violation larger than 2.57 certifies a singlet fidelity of more than 70%. In addition, the versatility of the tool brings about self-testing of hitherto impossible cases, such as the robust self-testing of nonmaximally entangled two-qutrit states in the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu scenario.

  20. Revertant mosaicism in the skin.

    PubMed

    Lai-Cheong, J E; McGrath, J A

    2013-02-01

    Revertant mosaicism is a naturally occurring phenomenon involving the spontaneous correction of a pathogenic mutation in a somatic cell. Revertant mosaicism is not a rare event and has been described in several inherited skin conditions, including various subtypes of epidermolysis bullosa. The recognition of revertant mosaicism paves the way for revertant therapy which represents a potentially exciting "natural gene therapy" option for genetic disorders. The skin provides a useful model for studying revertant mosaicism because it is readily accessible and easy to examine. In this paper, we provide an overview of revertant mosaicism and its relevance in genetic skin disorders. PMID:23407079

  1. Neutron skins and neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarewicz, J. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4350 (United States)

    2013-11-07

    The neutron-skin thickness of heavy nuclei provides a fundamental link to the equation of state of neutron-rich matter, and hence to the properties of neutron stars. The Lead Radius Experiment ('PREX') at Jefferson Laboratory has recently provided the first model-independence evidence on the existence of a neutron-rich skin in {sup 208}Pb. In this contribution we examine how the increased accuracy in the determination of neutron skins expected from the commissioning of intense polarized electron beams may impact the physics of neutron stars.

  2. Skin-to-skin (kangaroo) care, respiratory control, and thermoregulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bettina Bohnhorst; Tim Heyne; Corinna S. Peter; Christian F. Poets

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To demonstrate that skin-to-skin care (SSC) has no detrimental effects on the frequency of episodes of bradycardia and\\/or hypoxemia. Methods: Twenty-two spontaneously breathing preterm infants (median gestational age at birth, 29 weeks [range, 24-31 weeks]; age at study, 26 days [range, 7-72 days]; weight at study, 1310 g [range, 725-1890 g]) had three 2-hour recordings of breathing movements, nasal

  3. The Human Skin Microbiome in Health and Skin Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huiying Li

    \\u000a The human skin, as the largest organ of the human body, protects the underlying tissues and plays an important role as a front-line\\u000a defense system against external environmental changes and invading pathogens. It is colonized by a unique and complex microbial\\u000a ecosystem, including bacteria, fungi, and bacteriophages, some of which could become pathogenic under certain circumstances.\\u000a The skin microbiota is

  4. Bioactive Metabolites Produced by Pseudonocardia endophytica VUK-10 from Mangrove Sediments: Isolation, Chemical Structure Determination and Bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Mangamuri, Usha Kiranmayi; Vijayalakshmi, Muvva; Poda, Sudhakar; Manavathi, Bramanandam; Bhujangarao, Ch; Venkateswarlu, Y

    2015-05-28

    Chemical investigation of the actinobacterial isolate Pseudonocardia endophytica VUK-10 has led to the segregation of two known bioactive compounds, namely 4-(2-acetamidoethyl) phenyl acetate and 4-((1, 4-dioxooctahydropyrrolo [1, 2-a] pyrazin-3-yl) methyl) phenyl acetate. The strain was isolated from a sediment sample of the Nizampatnam mangrove ecosystem, south coastal Andhra Pradesh, India. The chemical structure of the active compounds was established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopies, FTIR, and EIMS. The antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of the bioactive compounds produced by the strain were tested against opportunistic and pathogenic bacteria and fungi and on MDA-MB-231, OAW, HeLa, and MCF-7 cell lines. The compounds exhibited antimicrobial activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi and also showed potent cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231, OAW, HeLa, and MCF-7 cell lines. This is the first example for this class of bioactive compounds isolated from Pseudonocardia of mangrove origin. PMID:25418482

  5. Bioactive surface modification of metal oxides via catechol-bearing modular peptides: multivalent-binding, surface retention, and peptide bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wen; Policastro, Gina M; Hua, Geng; Guo, Kai; Zhou, Jinjun; Wesdemiotis, Chrys; Doll, Gary L; Becker, Matthew L

    2014-11-19

    A series of multivalent dendrons containing a bioactive osteogenic growth peptide (OGP) domain and surface-binding catechol domains were obtained through solid phase synthesis, and their binding affinity to hydroxyapatite, TiO2, ZrO2, CeO2, Fe3O4 and gold was characterized using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-d). Using the distinct difference in binding affinity of the bioconjugate to the metal oxides, TiO2-coated glass slides were selectively patterned with bioactive peptides. Cell culture studies demonstrated the bioavailability of the OGP and that OGP remained on the surface for at least 2 weeks under in vitro cell culture conditions. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcein (OCN) markers were upregulated 3-fold and 60-fold, respectively, relative to controls at 21 days. Similarly, 3-fold more calcium was deposited using the OGP tethered dendron compared to TiO2. These catechol-bearing dendrons provide a fast and efficient method to functionalize a wide range of inorganic materials with bioactive peptides and have the potential to be used in coating orthopaedic implants and fixation devices. PMID:25343707

  6. Preparation, characterization, in vitro bioactivity, and cellular responses to a polyetheretherketone bioactive composite containing nanocalcium silicate for bone repair.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rui; Tang, Songchao; Tan, Honglue; Qian, Jun; Lin, Wentao; Wang, Yugang; Liu, Changsheng; Wei, Jie; Tang, Tingting

    2014-08-13

    In this study, a nanocalcium silicate (n-CS)/polyetheretherketone (PEEK) bioactive composite was prepared using a process of compounding and injection-molding. The mechanical properties, hydrophilicity, and in vitro bioactivity of the composite, as well as the cellular responses of MC3T3-E1 cells (attachment, proliferation, spreading, and differentiation) to the composite, were investigated. The results showed that the mechanical properties and hydrophilicity of the composites were significantly improved by the addition of n-CS to PEEK. In addition, an apatite-layer formed on the composite surface after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 days. In cell culture tests, the results revealed that the n-CS/PEEK composite significantly promoted cell attachment, proliferation, and spreading compared with PEEK or ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). Moreover, cells grown on the composite exhibited higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, more calcium nodule-formation, and higher expression levels of osteogenic differentiation-related genes than cells grown on PEEK or UHMWPE. These results indicated that the incorporation of n-CS to PEEK could greatly improve the bioactivity and biocompatibility of the composite. Thus, the n-CS/PEEK composite may be a promising bone repair material for use in orthopedic clinics. PMID:25013988

  7. Versatility of retroauricular mastoid donor site: a convenient valuable warehouse of various free graft tissues in cosmetic and reconstructive surgery.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong Mok; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Woo, Kevin Volt; Lee, Yoon Ho

    2013-01-01

    Soft-tissue deficiency is a critical issue in facial cosmetic and reconstructive surgery. Harvesting autografts from other anatomical sites has been a common practice in overcoming soft-tissue insufficiency for many years. However, donor-site complications and visible scars are of important concerns. Therefore, we would like to introduce an alternative donor site of free-tissue grafts and its inherent advantages: the retroauricular mastoid area located along the mastoid hair line. From August 1991 to June 2011, we performed facial reconstructive surgeries for cosmetic correction of disfigurements from both congenital and complications of previous cosmetic procedures on a total of 213 patients. These patients had undergone either 1 or more facial cosmetic surgeries in the past. In this study, our primary goal focused on revising facial asymmetries or defects from previous surgical scars, tissue contraction, undercorrection, or underdevelopment. For autograft harvesting, we incised an elliptical shape along the retroauricular hairline. We then harvested sufficient amount of skin, dermal fat, fascia, or a piece of the mastoid bone if needed. After harvesting, we closed the incisional area and covered it with a compressive dressing. In evaluation of our results, we compared the preoperative photographs with postoperative and constructed a survey on patient satisfaction. Overall, the patients in this study were greatly satisfied with their surgical results. No major complications were reported. As a result of our long-term study, we believe that the retroauricular mastoid area has been shown to be an indispensable donor site for a variety of autograft tissues in terms of safety, convenience, and versatility of its unique structural composition consisting of skin, dermal fat, fascia, and bone. PMID:24036825

  8. Fabrication, structure and biological properties of organic acid-derived sol-gel bioactive glasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Lei; Xiaofeng Chen; Yingjun Wang; Naru Zhao; Chang Du; Liming Fang

    2010-01-01

    Sol-gel-derived bioactive glasses (BGs) have been developed for bone tissue regeneration. To develop more reliable bone tissue repair systems, it is necessary to control the morphology and surface textures of bioactive glasses. In this study, we prepared bioactive glasses by sol-gel technology using hydrochloride acid, lactic acid, citric acid and acetic acid as hydrolysis catalysts. We studied effects of acids

  9. Development of prosthetic skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilaru, Rohit

    The objective of this research was to embed tactile sensors in polyimides. This novel method could be utilized to realize prosthetic skin for sensing different kinds of mechanical stimuli. Tactile sensors have an increasing demand in medical sectors: upper and lower-limb prosthetics and in the industrial sectors: robot end-effectors, grippers and manipulators. The sensors developed are targeted for prosthetic arm tactile sensing applications. Current work presents piezoresistive differential pressure sensors fabricated on flexible polyimide film or substrate. A unique technique to bond a flexible superstrate polyimide layer to a MEMS tactile sensor array is presented in this thesis. The sensor is made of aluminium oxide membrane layer with nichrome piezoresistors as the half-Wheatstone bridge elements. Four different types of sensor designs have been characterized to obtain gauge factor of thin film nichrome. The sensor arrays with and without the superstrate film were simulated for obtaining the maximum stress, average strain and deflection of the membrane. The maximum change in output voltage was 0.8 mV. The gauge factors calculated for tactile sensor with superstrate range between 2.2 to 7.8 and without superstrate range 1.5 to 5.7.

  10. Microlymphatics of human skin.

    PubMed

    Bollinger, A

    1993-02-01

    Microlymphatics of human skin form two superposed networks. The superficial one located at the level of dermal papillae may be visualized by fluorescence microlymphography. Microlymphatics fill from a subepidermal depot of minute amounts of FITC-dextran 150,000. In primary lymphedema with late onset the depicted network with vessels of normal size is significantly larger than in healthy controls, whereas in congenital lymphedema (Milroy's disease) microlymphatics are aplastic or ectatic (diameter > 90 microns). Lymphatic microangiopathy with obliterations of microvessels develops in chronic venous insufficiency, in lipedema (preliminary results) and after recurrent erysipelata. In healthy controls microlymphatics are permeable to FITC-dextran 40,000 and impermeable to the larger molecule 150,000. Preserved fragments of the network in chronic venous insufficiency exhibit increased permeability to FITC-dextran 150,000. After visualization of the vessels by the fluorescent dye microlymphatic pressure may be measured by the servo-nulling technique. First results indicate that microlymphatic hypertension contributes to edema formation in patients with primary lymphedema. PMID:8473066

  11. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  12. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer This page lists cancer ... for Basal Cell Carcinoma Drugs Approved for Melanoma Drugs Approved for Basal Cell Carcinoma Adrucil (Fluorouracil) Aldara ( ...

  13. Skin penetration of silica microparticles.

    PubMed

    Boonen, J; Baert, B; Lambert, J; De Spiegeleer, B

    2011-06-01

    Knowledge about skin penetration of nano- and microparticles is essential for the development of particle-core drug delivery systems and toxicology. A large number of studies have been devoted to metallic particle penetration. However, little work has been published about the importance of chemical material properties of the particles and the skin penetration effect of the applied formulation. Here, we investigated the penetration of 3 microm silica particles in water and in a 65% ethanolic plant extract on ex vivo human skin using scanning electron microscopy. Contrary to most other microsphere skin studies, we observed for the first time that 3 microm silica particles can penetrate the living epidermis. Moreover, when formulated in the ethanolic medium, particles even reach the dermis. The deviating chemical properties of silica compared to previously investigated microparticles (titanium dioxide, zinc oxide) and confounding effect of the formulation in which the silica microparticles are presented, is thus demonstrated. PMID:21699089

  14. Insulin Resistance and Skin Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Napolitano, Maddalena; Megna, Matteo; Monfrecola, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    In medical practice, almost every clinician may encounter patients with skin disease. However, it is not always easy for physicians of all specialties to face the daily task of determining the nature and clinical implication of dermatologic manifestations. Are they confined to the skin, representing a pure dermatologic event? Or are they also markers of internal conditions relating to the patient's overall health? In this review, we will discuss the principal cutaneous conditions which have been linked to metabolic alterations. Particularly, since insulin has an important role in homeostasis and physiology of the skin, we will focus on the relationships between insulin resistance (IR) and skin diseases, analyzing strongly IR-associated conditions such as acanthosis nigricans, acne, and psoriasis, without neglecting emerging and potential scenarios as the ones represented by hidradenitis suppurativa, androgenetic alopecia, and hirsutism. PMID:25977937

  15. Excisional biopsy of skin tumors.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Becker, Daniel G; Long, William B; Masterson, Thomas M

    2004-01-01

    The most frequently encountered neoplasm in the US is skin cancer. More than 600,000 new cases of malignant skin tumors are diagnosed in the US each year. One standard method of treatment of skin tumors is excisional biopsy. There are seven technical considerations involved in the excisional biopsy of skin tumors: (1) aseptic technique, (2) examination and demarcation of skin lesion, (3) skin biomechanical properties, (4) anesthesia, (5) excisional biopsy, (6) wound closure, and (7) postoperative care. The physician must use aseptic techniques and wear a cap, mask, and powder-free gloves. Hair is a source of wound contamination, and removal of hair prevents it from becoming entangled in suture and the wound during closure. Because surgical electric clippers cut hair close to the skin surface without nicking the skin, we now use only electric clippers to remove hair. The physician's visualization of the wound can be enhanced by magnification (2.5x) loupes. The physician's plan for excisional biopsy is dictated by the suspected pathology of the skin lesion. The ultimate appearance and function of a scar after closure of excisional biopsy can be predicted by the static and dynamic skin tensions on the surrounding skin. Infiltration anesthesia is preferred over regional nerve block because it does not interfere with the muscle movement that causes dynamic tensions, which elongate the configuration of the defect. Most skin lesions are amenable to a circular excision. In these instances, it is worthwhile to use circular-shaped excisions. The reusable metal trephines have been replaced by disposable trephines that have ribbed plastic handles attached to 316 stainless steel circular cutting blades. Wound closure is accomplished in the same direction as the long axis of the elliptical defect by first approximating the midportion of the defect with a 4-0 synthetic CAPROSYN* monofila-ment absorbable suture attached to the swage of the laser-drilled, compound-curved reverse cutting edge needle. Additional interrupted dermal (subcuticular) sutures are placed in each wound quadrant to approximate further the divided edges of the dermis. Compound-curved reverse cutting edge needles have been specifically designed for dermal closure. Reinforced Steri-Strips are then applied transversly across the incision to facilitate further skin edge approximation. Rigorous follow-up examination is essential for any patient with a history of a skin cancer to detect recurrence and prevent further actinic damage. The use of wide diameter trephine biopsy instruments are still not widely used by physicians because most physicians do not have the technical skills to approximate the defect with dermal sutures. Consequently, this need for a rapid dermal skin closure technique that can be used by a primary care physician must be devised before the trephine excisional biopsy technique is widely used by the primary care physician. This goal can be achieved by developing a disposable stapler for subcuticular closure of the skin. PMID:15301664

  16. Skin Diseases and the Adolescent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Marjorie

    1970-01-01

    Discusses such concerns as acne, syphilis, drug abuse, and tatoos. Indicates need for physician not only to treat skin diseases but to help adolescents to accept themselves and find constructive directions. (CJ)

  17. Shear instability in skin tissue

    E-print Network

    Ciarletta, Pasquale; Gower, Artur L

    2013-01-01

    We propose two toy-models to describe, predict, and interpret the wrinkles appearing on the surface of skin when it is sheared. With the first model, we account for the lines of greatest tension present in human skin by subjecting a layer of soft tissue to a pre-stretch, and for the epidermis by endowing one of the layer's faces with a surface tension. For the second model, we consider an anisotropic model for the skin, to reflect the presence of stiff collagen fibres in a softer elastic matrix. In both cases, we find an explicit bifurcation criterion, linking geometrical and material parameters to a critical shear deformation accompanied by small static wrinkles, with decaying amplitudes normal to the free surface of skin.

  18. Self-assembled rosette nanotubes and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogels promote skin cell functions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Linlin; Li, Dongni; Hemraz, Usha D; Fenniri, Hicham; Webster, Thomas J

    2014-10-01

    The next generation skin of wound healing materials should stimulate skin regeneration by actively promoting appropriate cellular adhesion and proliferation. As materials with novel self-assembling and solidification properties when transitioning from room to body temperatures, rosette nanotubes (RNTs) may be such a proactive material. RNTs resemble naturally occurring nanostructures in the skin (such as collagen and keratin) assembling with noncovalent forces in physiological environments. Presenting desirable bioactive properties, RNTs have been used for various tissue engineering applications including increasing in vivo bone and cartilage regeneration. The objective of the current in vitro study was, for the first time, to improve properties of a commonly used hydrogel (poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) or pHEMA) for skin regeneration by incorporating one type of novel self-assembled RNTs, called TBL. Results showed for the first time increased keratinocyte and fibroblast proliferation on hydrogels coated with TBLs compared to those not coated with TBL. In this manner, this study provides the first evidence that TBL RNTs are promising for wound healing applications due to their optimal cytocompatibility, solidification, and mechanical properties and, thus, should be further studied for such applications. PMID:24178366

  19. Recombinant Allergens for Skin Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Schmid-Grendelmeier; Reto Crameri

    2001-01-01

    Skin testing is a basic diagnostic procedure widely used to explore immediate-type reactions to allergen preparations in vivo. Despite their reliability, if standardized extracts are used, skin tests suffer from limited reproducibility due to difficulties in preparing consistently standardized extracts from natural raw material. Starting from allergen-encoding cDNAs, large amounts of highly pure allergens with a high batch-to-batch consistency satisfying

  20. Skin temperature response to cryotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda S. Chesterton; Nadine E. Foster; Lesley Ross

    2002-01-01

    Chesterton LS, Foster NE, Ross L. Skin temperature response to cryotherapy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:543-9. Objectives: To compare the localized skin-cooling effects of 2 cryotherapy modalities and to review the clinical relevance of the results. Design: Randomized controlled trial with repeated measures. Setting: Laboratory experiment. Participants: Convenience sample of 20 volunteers (13 women, 7 men), ages 21.3 to 44

  1. Modeling of skin reflectance spectra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor V. Meglinsky; Stephen J. Matcher

    2001-01-01

    We use the optical\\/near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy to non-invasively measure the hemoglobin saturation in living human skin. The difficulties in clinical application of this technique for skin tissue oxygenation monitoring are due to the complexity of extracting the information of chromophores distribution and their concentrations from the reflectance spectra in case of multiple scattering of light. We have developed a

  2. Skin: Behavior and Health Connection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science; )

    2006-09-07

    In this lesson, students become better aware of how their personal behavior and the environment can have a considerable impact on their health in general, particularly the health of their skin. In this exercise, students draw a model of a healthy and unhealthy person. This prompts a discussion on behavior and environmental behaviors that affect health. They also learn what good health is and the benefits of a healthy lifestyle. Finally, the students determine their skin types.

  3. Parkinson's disease and the skin.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Ralph; Miller, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    The concept that the skin is a mirror of Parkinson's disease dates to the start of the last century. Despite dermatological disorders being recognised as a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease, they are often overlooked. This article reviews the various skin disorders seen in Parkinson's disease and addresses the other dermatological questions that are frequently raised by those attending Parkinson's disease clinics. PMID:25862733

  4. Protective Skins for Composite Airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Vicki S.; Boone, Richard L.; Jones, Shannon; Pendse, Vandana; Hayward, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Traditional composite aircraft structures are designed for load bearing and then overdesigned for impact damage and hot humid environments. Seeking revolutionary improvement in the performance and weight of composite structures, Cessna Aircraft Company, with sponsorship from the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program/Subsonic Fixed Wing Project, has developed and tested a protective skin concept which would allow the primary composite structure to carry only load and would meet the impact, hot and humid, and other requirements through protective skins. A key requirement for the protective skins is to make any impact damage requiring repair visible. Testing from the first generation of skins helped identify the most promising materials which were used in a second generation of test articles. This report summarizes lessons learned from the first generation of protective skins, the design and construction of the second-generation test articles, test results from the second generation for impact, electromagnetic effects, aesthetics and smoothing, thermal, and acoustic (for the first time), and an assessment of the feasibility of the protective skin concept.

  5. Radiation sterilization of skin allograft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.

    2009-07-01

    In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6. The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm 2. The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.

  6. Skin cancer and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Joaquim J; Neutel, Dulce; Mestre, Tiago; Coelho, Miguel; Rosa, Mário M; Rascol, Olivier; Sampaio, Cristina

    2010-01-30

    The report of an increased frequency of melanoma during the clinical development of rasagiline prompted a renewed interest in a possible association between skin cancer and Parkinson's disease (PD). The evaluation of this risk ended in a recommendation to perform a periodic dermatological examination as a follow-up measure of their treatment. The recognition of this safety concern lead to the need to clarify if the risk of skin cancer is indeed associated with PD and if levodopa or other anti-parkinsonian drugs might contribute to increase such risk. To answer these questions, we critically reviewed all clinical studies available concerning the association between skin cancer and PD. We found 26 studies on cancer occurrence in PD. The best data available suggest the risk of cancer is reduced in PD patients. However, specific cancers like thyroid and the female breast were reported at higher-than-expected rates. Additionally, it was suggested that PD patients have a higher frequency of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers than the general population. The data on non-melanoma skin cancer are less robust than the data on melanoma. Causal factors remain unknown. Due to the weak association between skin cancer and PD, no robust recommendation can be made regarding the need for periodic dermatological screening. PMID:20063399

  7. [Skin and chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Raffaella; Mancini, Elena; Santoro, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Kidneys and skin are seldom considered associated, but their relationship is more closer than generally believed. In some immunological diseases (SLE...) and genetic syndromes (tuberous sclerosis, Fabrys disease...) the cutaneous manifestations are integral parts of the clinical picture. In advanced uremia, besides the well-known itching skin lesions, calciphylaxis may appear, a typical example of cutaneous involvement secondary to the metabolic complications (calcium-phosphate imbalance) of the renal disease. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis appears only in patients with renal failure and it has a very severe prognosis due to the systemic organ involvement. Moreover, there is a heterogeneous group of metabolic diseases, with renal involvement, that may be accompanied by skin lesions, either related to the disease itself or to its complications (diabetes mellitus, porphyrias). In systemic amyloidosis, fibrils may deposit even in dermis leading to different skin lesions. In some heroin abusers, in the presence of suppurative lesions in the sites of needle insertion, renal amyloidosis should be suspected, secondary to the chronic inflammation. Atheroembolic disease is nowadays frequently observed, as a consequence of the increasing number of invasive intravascular manoeuvres. Skin manifestations like livedo reticularis or the blue toe syndrome are the most typical signs, but often renal dysfunction is also present. In all these conditions, the skin lesion may be a first sign, a warning, that should arouse the suspicion of a more complex pathology, even with renal involvement. Being aware of this relationship is fundamental to accelerate the diagnostic process. PMID:25315722

  8. Versatile Optical Bench for Teaching, Development, and Testing of Electron and Ion Optical Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhiday, M. R.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Describes a versatile apparatus for demonstrating the imaging properties of various types of electrostatic lenses. The apparatus can be used to study the focusing properties of different types of electrostatic electron or ion lenses or their combinations. (MLH)

  9. Modeling skin permeation revisited Gabriel Wittum

    E-print Network

    Hackbusch, Wolfgang

    Modeling skin permeation revisited Gabriel Wittum Computing diffusion through human skin is usually diffusion through human skin using two and three dimensional models. First computations for this problem were made a decade ago, yielding new insight into permeation pathways through human skin, which were

  10. Skin cancer and solar UV radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. R. de Gruijl

    1999-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight is the most prominent and ubiquitous physical carcinogen in our natural environment. It is highly genotoxic but does not penetrate the body any deeper than the skin. Like all organisms regularly exposed to sunlight, the human skin is extremely well adapted to continuous UV stress. Well-pigmented skin is clearly better protected than white Caucasian skin.

  11. Airborne Particle Exposure and Extrinsic Skin Aging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Vierkötter; Tamara Schikowski; Ulrich Ranft; Dorothea Sugiri; Mary Matsui; Ursula Krämer; Jean Krutmann

    2010-01-01

    For decades, extrinsic skin aging has been known to result from chronic exposure to solar radiation and, more recently, to tobacco smoke. In this study, we have assessed the influence of air pollution on skin aging in 400 Caucasian women aged 70–80 years. Skin aging was clinically assessed by means of SCINEXA (score of intrinsic and extrinsic skin aging), a

  12. Percutaneous penetration through slightly damaged skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesper B. Nielsen

    2005-01-01

    Guidelines for experimental studies of percutaneous penetration prescribe optimal barrier integrity of the skin. The barrier integrity of the skin exposed in occupational or household situations is, however, not always ideal, and skin problems are among the most dominant reasons for absence from work. We have therefore evaluated an experimental model for percutaneous penetration through slightly damaged skin. The influence

  13. Skin temperature response during cycle ergometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Malkinson

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic exercise has among other things an effect on core body temperature, skin bloodflow and skin temperature. The skin through vasodilatation is used to transfer metabolic heat from the core to the external environment preventing a rise in body temperature that would be harmful to body organs. The purpose of the study was to characterize the regional skin temperature response

  14. [MPC0910112] Visiderm Skin Scanner Analysis

    E-print Network

    New Mexico, University of

    by dermatologists for diagnostic purposes. The Visiderm Skin Scanner enhances visibility of skin texture, markings[MPC0910112] Visiderm Skin Scanner Analysis The Visiderm Skin Scanner is a registered medical device which uses a "black" or ultraviolet light with a UVA lamp. This type of light is routinely used

  15. Skin Diseases and Tumors of the Penis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Haneke

    1982-01-01

    Nearly all skin diseases may also be located at the penis. Due to the different structure of the penis skin and mucosa, many dermatoses may look different not only as compared with other skin areas but also at the penis shaft and glans. A brief survey of infections, inflammatory and allergic skin diseases as well as of benign, pseudocarcinomatous, precancerous

  16. Shark Denticles Shark Skin Drag Reduction

    E-print Network

    Motta, Philip J.

    Shark Denticles Shark Skin Drag Reduction Shark Skin Drag Reduction Amy Lang1 , Maria Laura Riblets; Shark denticles; Shark skin separation control Definition The scales, or denticles, on fast-swimming sharks have evolved two mechanisms for controlling the boundary layer flow over the skin surface leading

  17. Biology of the skin and dermatological disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony G Quinn

    2004-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of skin diseases can be daunting because the complexity of the cellular composition of the skin means that the permutations of clinical presentations and the range of diseases that can arise are wide. An understanding of the anatomy and pathophysiology of normal and diseased skin helps in the diagnosis of skin diseases by providing a framework to relate

  18. SKIN TEMPERATURE AND TRANSEPIDERMAL WATER LOSS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine Grice; H. Sattar; M. Sharratt; H. Baker

    1971-01-01

    The transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured after complete inhibition of sweating. Skin temperature changes ranging from 25°-39° C were obtained in 17 subjects. Increase of skin temperature by 7°-8° C doubled the rate of TEWL in normal skin. The relationship between TEWL and skin temperature varied exponentially and the equations have been fitted for the 17 subjects. In order

  19. Versatile multi-functionalization of protein nanofibrils for biosensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasso, L.; Suei, S.; Domigan, L.; Healy, J.; Nock, V.; Williams, M. A. K.; Gerrard, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Protein nanofibrils offer advantages over other nanostructures due to the ease in their self-assembly and the versatility of surface chemistry available. Yet, an efficient and general methodology for their post-assembly functionalization remains a significant challenge. We introduce a generic approach, based on biotinylation and thiolation, for the multi-functionalization of protein nanofibrils self-assembled from whey proteins. Biochemical characterization shows the effects of the functionalization onto the nanofibrils' surface, giving insights into the changes in surface chemistry of the nanostructures. We show how these methods can be used to decorate whey protein nanofibrils with several components such as fluorescent quantum dots, enzymes, and metal nanoparticles. A multi-functionalization approach is used, as a proof of principle, for the development of a glucose biosensor platform, where the protein nanofibrils act as nanoscaffolds for glucose oxidase. Biotinylation is used for enzyme attachment and thiolation for nanoscaffold anchoring onto a gold electrode surface. Characterization via cyclic voltammetry shows an increase in glucose-oxidase mediated current response due to thiol-metal interactions with the gold electrode. The presented approach for protein nanofibril multi-functionalization is novel and has the potential of being applied to other protein nanostructures with similar surface chemistry.Protein nanofibrils offer advantages over other nanostructures due to the ease in their self-assembly and the versatility of surface chemistry available. Yet, an efficient and general methodology for their post-assembly functionalization remains a significant challenge. We introduce a generic approach, based on biotinylation and thiolation, for the multi-functionalization of protein nanofibrils self-assembled from whey proteins. Biochemical characterization shows the effects of the functionalization onto the nanofibrils' surface, giving insights into the changes in surface chemistry of the nanostructures. We show how these methods can be used to decorate whey protein nanofibrils with several components such as fluorescent quantum dots, enzymes, and metal nanoparticles. A multi-functionalization approach is used, as a proof of principle, for the development of a glucose biosensor platform, where the protein nanofibrils act as nanoscaffolds for glucose oxidase. Biotinylation is used for enzyme attachment and thiolation for nanoscaffold anchoring onto a gold electrode surface. Characterization via cyclic voltammetry shows an increase in glucose-oxidase mediated current response due to thiol-metal interactions with the gold electrode. The presented approach for protein nanofibril multi-functionalization is novel and has the potential of being applied to other protein nanostructures with similar surface chemistry. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Cyclic voltammetry characterization of biosensor platforms including bare Au electrodes (Fig. S1), biosensor response to various glucose concentrations (Fig. S2), and AFM roughness measurements due to WPNF modifications (Fig. S3). See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05752f

  20. Polymer-Silica Nanocomposites: A Versatile Platform for Multifunctional Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Chi-Kai

    Solution sol-gel synthesis is a versatile approach to create polymer-silica nanocomposite materials. The solution-to-solid transformation results in a solid consisting of interconnected nanoporous structure in 3D space, making it the ideal material for filtration, encapsulation, optics, electronics, drug release, and biomaterials, etc. Although the pore between nano and meso size may be tunable using different reaction conditions, the intrinsic properties such as limited diffusion within pore structure, complicated interfacial interactions at the pore surfaces, shrinkage and stress-induced cracking and brittleness have limited the applications of this material. To overcome these problems, diffusion, pore size, shrinkage and stress-induced defects need further investigation. Thus, the presented thesis will address these important questions such as whether these limitations can be utilized as the novel method to create new materials and lead to new applications. First, the behaviors of polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol) inside the silica pores are examined by studying the nucleation and growth of AgCl at the surface of the porous matrix. The pore structure and the pressure induced by the shrinkage affect have been found to induce the growth of AgCl nanocrystals. When the same process is carried out at 160 °C, silver metallization is possible. Due to the shrinkage-induced stresses, the polymer tends to move into open crack spaces and exterior surfaces, forming interconnected silver structure. This interconnected silver structure is very unique because its density is not related to the size scale of nanopore structures. These findings suggest that it is possible to utilize defect surface of silica material as the template to create interconnected silver structure. When the scale is small, polymer may no longer be needed if the diffusion length of Ag is more than the size of silica particles. To validate our assumption, monoliths of sol-gel sample containing AgNO3 was ground into two different sizes of powder followed by powder pressing, heat-treating and etching. A new robust porous silver foam was then successfully made. By combining the results from room temperature and high temperature processes, we further study the patterned silver nanoparticles arrays in order to examine how mobility of silver can be controlled on a quantifiable scale. Furthermore, we have identified a thiolcontaining sol-gel precursor to control the affinity between silver and silica matrix. Lastly, the effects of interfacial interactions between sol-gel silica and other nanocomposite components and the effect of thickness of the sol-gel layer on mechanical properties were investigated. These studies were applied to the biomimetic hydroxyapatite-gelatin system. We have found that by limiting the thickness while maintaining interfacial interactions of the sol-gel layer, a unique moldable property and short hardening time from these nanocomposites can be achieved without compromising its biocompatibility. Their biocompatibility has been proven based on the in vitro and in vivo testing of these materials. In conclusion, the present study has demonstrated that polymer-silica nanocomposite is a versatile platform to carry out applications in nanocrystal growth, nanoporous metals, metal-ceramic composites, nano-imprint thin film, and bone grafts. These important findings not only provide new insights into nanocomposites but also give new meanings to the previously functional-limited sol-gel materials.