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Bioactive lipid mediators in skin inflammation and immunity.  


The skin is the primary barrier from the outside environment, protecting the host from injury, infectious pathogens, water loss and solar ultraviolet radiation. In this role, it is supported by a highly organized system comprising elements of innate and adaptive immunity, responsive to inflammatory stimuli. The cutaneous immune system is regulated by mediators such as cytokines and bioactive lipids that can initiate rapid immune responses with controlled inflammation, followed by efficient resolution. However, when immune responses are inadequate or mounted against non-infectious agents, these mediators contribute to skin pathologies involving unresolved or chronic inflammation. Skin is characterized by active lipid metabolism and fatty acids play crucial roles both in terms of structural integrity and functionality, in particular when transformed to bioactive mediators. Eicosanoids, endocannabinoids and sphingolipids are such key bioactive lipids, intimately involved in skin biology, inflammation and immunity. We discuss their origins, role and influence over various cells of the epidermis, dermis and cutaneous immune system and examine their function in examples of inflammatory skin conditions. We focus on psoriasis, atopic and contact dermatitis, acne vulgaris, wound healing and photodermatology that demonstrate dysregulation of bioactive lipid metabolism and examine ways of using this insight to inform novel therapeutics. PMID:23124022

Kendall, Alexandra C; Nicolaou, Anna



Photoreactive elastin-like proteins for use as versatile bioactive materials and surface coatings  

PubMed Central

Photocrosslinkable, protein-engineered biomaterials combine a rapid, controllable, cytocompatible crosslinking method with a modular design strategy to create a new family of bioactive materials. These materials have a wide range of biomedical applications, including the development of bioactive implant coatings, drug delivery vehicles, and tissue engineering scaffolds. We present the successful functionalization of a bioactive elastin-like protein with photoreactive diazirine moieties. Scalable synthesis is achieved using a standard recombinant protein expression host followed by site-specific modification of lysine residues with a heterobifunctional N-hydroxysuccinimide ester-diazirine crosslinker. The resulting biomaterial is demonstrated to be processable by spin coating, drop casting, soft lithographic patterning, and mold casting to fabricate a variety of two- and three-dimensional photocrosslinked biomaterials with length scales spanning the nanometer to millimeter range. Protein thin films proved to be highly stable over a three-week period. Cell-adhesive functional domains incorporated into the engineered protein materials were shown to remain active post-photo-processing. Human adipose-derived stem cells achieved faster rates of cell adhesion and larger spread areas on thin films of the engineered protein compared to control substrates. The ease and scalability of material production, processing versatility, and modular bioactive functionality make this recombinantly engineered protein an ideal candidate for the development of novel biomaterial coatings, films, and scaffolds.

Raphel, Jordan; Parisi-Amon, Andreina; Heilshorn, Sarah



Discovering New Bioactive Neuropeptides in the Striatum Secretome Using in Vivo Microdialysis and Versatile Proteomics S?  

PubMed Central

The striatum, a major component of the brain basal nuclei, is central for planning and executing voluntary movements and undergoes lesions in neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington disease. To perform highly integrated tasks, the striatum relies on a complex network of communication within and between brain regions with a key role devoted to secreted molecules. To characterize the rat striatum secretome, we combined in vivo microdialysis together with proteomics analysis of trypsin digests and peptidomics studies of native fragments. This versatile approach, carried out using different microdialysis probes and mass spectrometer devices, allowed evidencing with high confidence the expression of 88 proteins and 100 processed peptides. Their secretory pathways were predicted by in silico analysis. Whereas high molecular weight proteins were mainly secreted by the classical mode (94%), low molecular weight proteins equally used classical and non-classical modes (53 and 47%, respectively). In addition, our results suggested alternative secretion mechanisms not predicted by bioinformatics tools. Based on spectrum counting, we performed a relative quantification of secreted proteins and peptides in both basal and neuronal depolarization conditions. This allowed detecting a series of neuropeptide precursors and a 6-fold increase for neurosecretory protein VGF and proenkephalin (PENK) levels. A focused investigation and a long peptide experiment led to the identification of new secreted non-opioid PENK peptides, referred to as PENK 114–133, PENK 239–260, and PENK 143–185. Moreover we showed that injecting synthetic PENK 114–133 and PENK 239–260 into the striatum robustly increased glutamate release in this region. Thus, the combination of microdialysis and versatile proteomics methods shed new light on the secreted protein repertoire and evidenced novel neuropeptide transmitters.

Bernay, Benoit; Gaillard, Marie-Claude; Guryca, Vilem; Emadali, Anouk; Kuhn, Lauriane; Bertrand, Anne; Detraz, Isabelle; Carcenac, Carole; Savasta, Marc; Brouillet, Emmanuel; Garin, Jerome; Elalouf, Jean-Marc



The use of a bioactive skin substitute decreases length of stay for pediatric burn patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To optimize burn care for children, the authors introduced a protocol incorporating the use of a bioactive skin substitute, TransCyte (Advanced Tissue Sciences, La Jolla, CA). This study was designed to determine whether this management plan was safe, efficacious, and decreased hospital inpatient length of stay (LOS) compared with conventional burn management in children. Methods: All pediatric burns greater

Jeffrey R. Lukish; Martin R. Eichelberger; Kurt D. Newman; Kerilyn Nobuhara; Maryam Keating; Naomi Golonka; Geraldine Pratsch; Vinita Misra; Eric Valladares; Patricia Johnson; James C. Gilbert; David M. Powell; Gary E. Hartman



Healing effect of bioactive glass ointment on full-thickness skin wounds.  


This study aimed to investigate the effect of bioactive glasses on cutaneous wound healing in both normal rats and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Bioactive glass ointments, prepared by mixing the sol-gel bioactive glass 58S (SGBG-58S), nanobioactive glass (NBG-58S) and the melt-derived 45S5 bioactive glass (45S5) powder with Vaseline (V) at 18% weight percentage, were used to heal full thickness excision wounds. Pure V was used as control in this study. Compared to SGBG-58S, NBG-58S consists of relatively dispersible nanoparticles with smaller size. The analysis of wound healing rate and wound healing time showed that bioactive glasses promoted wound healing. The ointments containing SGBG-58S and NBG-58S healed the wounds more quickly and efficiently than the ointment containing 45S5. Histological examination indicated that bioactive glasses promoted the proliferation of fibroblasts and growth of granulation tissue. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the production of two growth factors, VEGF and FGF2, which are beneficial to wound healing, was also stimulated during the healing process. Transmission electron microscope observations showed that fibroblasts in wounds treated with bioactive glasses contained more rough endoplasmic reticula and had formed new capillary microvessels by the seventh day. The effects of SGBG-58S and NBG-58S were better than those of 45S5. All results suggest that bioactive glasses, especially SGBG-58S and NBG-58S, can accelerate the recovery of skin wounds in both normal and diabetes-impaired healing models and have a great potential for use in wound repair in the future. PMID:22736113

Lin, Cai; Mao, Cong; Zhang, Juanjuan; Li, Yuli; Chen, Xiaofeng



Characterization of the bioactive motif of neuregulin-1, a fibroblast-derived paracrine factor that regulates the constitutive color and the function of melanocytes in human skin.  


Interactions between melanocytes and neighboring cells in the skin (keratinocytes and fibroblasts) play important roles in regulating human skin color. We recently reported that neuregulin-1 (NRG1) is highly expressed in fibroblasts from Fitzpatrick type VI skin (the darkest) and at least in part determines the constitutive color of human skin. We have now characterized the bioactive motif of NRG1 that is involved in modulating melanin production in human melanocytes. We found that 8-mer motifs (PSRYLCKC and LCKCPNEF) increased melanin production but did not increase the proliferation of melanocytes; the minimum fragment that could elicit that effect was the tetrapeptide LCKC. This smaller bioactive peptide might have an advantage in clinical applications in which it modulates only pigmentation and does not stimulate melanocyte proliferation. PMID:22494484

Choi, Wonseon; Kolbe, Ludger; Hearing, Vincent J



Review on Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah): bioactive phytochemicals and skin collagen synthesis promoting herb.  


Labisia pumila is a traditional herb widely used as post-partum medication for centuries. Recently, extensive researches have been carried out on the phytochemical identification, biological and toxicological studies for the herb. Phytochemicals found in the herbal extract showed high antioxidant properties, which were essential for various pharmacological activities. The significant findings are anti-estrogenic deficiency and -immunodeficiency diseases. Another finding that has considerable impact on natural product research is the contribution of L. pumila in promoting skin collagen synthesis. The performance of the herb as anti-aging agent due to natural aging process and accelerated by UV radiation was reviewed critically. PMID:22521793

Chua, Lee Suan; Lee, Sze Yean; Abdullah, Norhanisah; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji



Bioactives derived from ripe corn tassels: a possible new natural skin whitener, 4-hydroxy-1-oxindole-3-acetic acid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previously, we showed that extracts of ripe seasonal sweet corn tassels possess anti-irritant and anti-oxidant activities. The chemical identification of corn tassel bioactives were investigated by HPLC analysis. The hydroalcoholic extracts are composed primarily (>85%) phenolic-type compounds. The ...


A bioactive peptide analogue for myxoma virus protein with a targeted cytotoxicity for human skin cancer in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Cancer is an international health problem, and the search for effective treatments is still in progress. Peptide therapy is focused on the development of short peptides with strong tumoricidal activity and low toxicity. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a myxoma virus peptide analogue (RRM-MV) as a candidate for skin cancer therapy. RRM-MV was designed using the Resonant Recognition Model (RRM) and its effect was examined on human skin cancer and normal human skin cells in vitro. Methods Cell cultures were treated with various concentrations of the peptides at different incubation intervals. Cellular morphological changes (apoptosis and necrosis) were evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The cytotoxic effects of RRM-MV on human skin cancer and normal human skin cells were quantitatively determined by cytotoxicity and cell viability assays. The effect on human erythrocytes was also determined using quantitative hemolysis assay. DNA fragmentation assay was performed to detect early apoptotic events in treated cancer cells. Furthermore, to investigate the possible cell signalling pathway targeted by the peptides treatment, the levels of p-Akt expression in skin cancer and normal cells were detected by immunoblotting. Results Our results indicate that RRM-MV has a dose-dependent toxic effect on cancer cells only up to 18?h. The immunoblotting results indicated that the RRM-MV slightly increased p-Akt expression in melanoma and carcinoma cells, but did not seem to affect p-Akt expression in normal skin cells. Conclusions RRM-MV targets and lethally harms cancer cells and leaves normal cells unharmed. It is able to reduce the cancer cell viability, disrupting the LDH activity in cancer cells and can significantly affect cancer progression. Further investigation into other cell signalling pathways is needed in the process leading to the in vivo testing of this peptide to prove its safety as a possible effective treatment for skin cancer.



Fabrication of a nanofibrous scaffold with improved bioactivity for culture of human dermal fibroblasts for skin regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering dermal substitutes with electrospun nanofibres have lately been of prime importance for skin tissue regeneration. Simple electrospinning technology served to produce nanofibrous scaffolds morphologically and structurally similar to the extracellular matrix of native tissues. The nanofibrous scaffolds of poly(l-lactic acid)-co-poly(epsilo-caprolactone) (PLACL) and PLACL\\/gelatin complexes were fabricated by the electrospinning process. These nanofibres were characterized for fibre morphology, membrane porosity,

Arun Richard Chandrasekaran; J. Venugopal; S. Sundarrajan; S. Ramakrishna



Bioactive grape proanthocyanidins enhance immune reactivity in UV-irradiated skin through functional activation of dendritic cells in mice.  


Ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced immunosuppression has been implicated in skin carcinogenesis. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have anti-skin carcinogenic effects in mice and GSPs-fed mice exhibit a reduction in UV-induced suppression of allergic contact hypersensitivity (CHS), a prototypic T-cell-mediated response. Here, we report that dietary GSPs did not inhibit UVB-induced suppression of CHS in xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XPA)-deficient mice, which lack nucleotide excision repair mechanisms. GSPs enhanced repair of UVB-induced DNA damage (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers) in wild-type, but not XPA-deficient, dendritic cells (DC). Co-culture of CD4(+) T cells with DCs from UVB-irradiated wild-type mice resulted in suppression of T-cell proliferation and secretion of T-helper (TH) 1-type cytokines that was ameliorated when the DCs were obtained from GSP-fed mice, whereas DCs obtained from GSP-fed XPA-KO mice failed to restore T-cell proliferation. In adoptive transfer experiments, donor DCs were positively selected from the draining lymph nodes of UVB-exposed donor mice that were sensitized to 2,4,-dinitrofluorobenzene were transferred into naïve recipient mice and the CHS response assessed. Naïve recipients that received DCs from UVB-exposed wild-type donors that had been fed GSPs exhibited a full CHS response, whereas no significant CHS was observed in mice that received DCs from XPA-KO mice fed GSPs. These results suggest that GSPs prevent UVB-induced immunosuppression through DNA repair-dependent functional activation of dendritic cells in mice. Cancer Prev Res; 6(3); 242-52. ©2013 AACR. PMID:23321928

Vaid, Mudit; Singh, Tripti; Prasad, Ram; Elmets, Craig A; Xu, Hui; Katiyar, Santosh K



Bioactive Bioceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bioactive bioceramics as alternative to autografts and allografts include: bioactive glass, calcium carbonate (natural coral),\\u000a calcium sulfate and calcium phosphates of biologic (derived from bovine bone, coral and marine algae) or synthetic origin.\\u000a These bioceramics are available as granules or blocks (dense or porous), specially designed shapes (wedges, cylinders), cements\\u000a or as coatings on orthopedic or dental implants. Properties of

Racquel Z. LeGeros; Guy Daculsi; John P. LeGeros


Assessing the Bioactivity of Cosmetic Products and Ingredients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cosmetic ingredients can produce physical effects on the skin as well as positive and negative bioactive effects. Such effects have now been identified, categorized and interpreted. Because of this ongoing research and increased understanding, cosmetics, especially skin care products, are being improved. Targeting specific bioactive effects from newly developed cosmetic products is now possible. This development is aided by refining

Edward M. Jackson



Fibrin: a versatile scaffold for tissue engineering applications.  


Tissue engineering combines cell and molecular biology with materials and mechanical engineering to replace damaged or diseased organs and tissues. Fibrin is a critical blood component responsible for hemostasis, which has been used extensively as a biopolymer scaffold in tissue engineering. In this review we summarize the latest developments in organ and tissue regeneration using fibrin as the scaffold material. Commercially available fibrinogen and thrombin are combined to form a fibrin hydrogel. The incorporation of bioactive peptides and growth factors via a heparin-binding delivery system improves the functionality of fibrin as a scaffold. New technologies such as inkjet printing and magnetically influenced self-assembly can alter the geometry of the fibrin structure into appropriate and predictable forms. Fibrin can be prepared from autologous plasma, and is available as glue or as engineered microbeads. Fibrin alone or in combination with other materials has been used as a biological scaffold for stem or primary cells to regenerate adipose tissue, bone, cardiac tissue, cartilage, liver, nervous tissue, ocular tissue, skin, tendons, and ligaments. Thus, fibrin is a versatile biopolymer, which shows a great potential in tissue regeneration and wound healing. PMID:18544016

Ahmed, Tamer A E; Dare, Emma V; Hincke, Max



Bioactive Hydrogels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is much recent interest in the development of polymeric materials that go beyond the concept of biocompatibility, that is, that are capable of directing a particular desired biological response such as neovascularization. The approach described for the creation of bioactive surfaces involves the tethering of functional hydrogels to a polymeric substrate. The functional hydrogels are resistant to protein adsorption but are decorated with a variety of tissue response modifiers like growth factors and adhesion ligands that can induce a desired biological response. The hydrogel monomers must have controlled viscosity to be practically effective, so they are prepared by photoinitiated end-linking of end-functional macromonomers synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization. The use of t-butyl methacrylate monomers allows for spatial photo-patterning of tissue response modifiers.

Koberstein, Jeffrey T.



Bioactive molecules from the Blue Lagoon: in vitro and in vivo assessment of silica mud and microalgae extracts for their effects on skin barrier function and prevention of skin ageing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bathing in the Blue Lagoon, a specific geothermal biotope in Iceland has been known for many years to be beneficial for human skin in general and for patients with psoriasis and atopic dermatitis in particular. The scientific rationale for this empirical observation, however has remained elusive. We now report that extracts prepared from silica mud and two different microalgae species

Susanne Grether-Beck; Kathrin Mühlberg; Heidi Brenden; Ingo Felsner; Ása Brynjólfsdóttir; Sigurbjörn Einarsson; Jean Krutmann



Consumer Adoption of Versatile Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

By creating or sustaining competitive advantage through differentiation and augmentation, marketers have enhanced single use products to create versatile products. A versatile product was defined as a multi-functional physical object that results from converging technologies augmented from separate product categories. In relation to the adoption of versatile products, diffusion and adoption theories project patterns in consumption of various products, yet

Christine Haintz; John Van Beveren


VAC: Versatile Advection Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Versatile Advection Code (VAC) is a freely available general hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic simulation software that works in 1, 2 or 3 dimensions on Cartesian and logically Cartesian grids. VAC runs on any Unix/Linux system with a Fortran 90 (or 77) compiler and Perl interpreter. VAC can run on parallel machines using either the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library or a High Performance Fortran (HPF) compiler.

Tóth, Gábor; Keppens, Rony



Transfersomes: self-optimizing carriers for bioactives.  


The transdermal route of drug delivery has gained great interest of pharmaceutical research, as it circumvents number of problems associated with oral route of drug administration. The major barrier in transdermal delivery of drug is the skin intrinsic barrier, the stratum corneum, the outermost envelop of the skin that offers the principal hurdle for diffusion of hydrophilic ionizable bioactives. Recently, various strategies have been used to augment the transdermal delivery of bioactives. Mainly, they include iontophoresis, electrophoresis, sonophoresis, chemical permeation enhancers, microneedles, and vesicular system (liposomes, niosomes, elastic liposomes such as ethosomes and transfersomes). Among these strategies transferosomes appear promising. Transport of this vesicular system through skin and epithelial hurdle depends upon the flexibility of their membrane, which can be attained using appropriate ratio of surfactant. Transfersomes have shown immense potential in drug delivery across the skin. Recent success also demonstrates the potential of transfersome in vaccine, steroid, protein, and peptide delivery across the skin. It is also used for transporting genetic material and achieving transfection. This review highlights the various aspects of the transferosomes in the effective delivery of drug/bioactives across the skin. PMID:19055232

Rai, Kavita; Gupta, Yashwant; Jain, Anekant; Jain, Sanjay K


Bioactive materials for biomedical applications using sol-gel technology.  


This review paper focuses on the sol-gel technology that has been applied in many of the potential research areas and highlights the importance of sol-gel technology for preparing bioactive materials for biomedical applications. The versatility of sol-gel chemistry enables us to manipulate the characteristics of material required for particular applications. Sol-gel derived materials have proved to be good biomaterials for coating films and for the construction of super-paramagnetic nanoparticles, bioactive glasses and fiberoptic applicators for various biomedical applications. The introduction of the sol-gel route in a conventional method of preparing implants improves the mechanical strength, biocompatibility and bioactivity of scaffolds and prevents corrosion of metallic implants. The use of organically modified silanes (ORMOSILS) yields flexible and bioactive materials for soft and hard tissue replacement. A novel approach of nitric-oxide-releasing sol-gels as antibacterial coatings for reducing the infection around orthopedic implants has also been discussed. PMID:18689920

Gupta, Radha; Kumar, Ashok



Carbapenemases: the Versatile ?-Lactamases  

PubMed Central

Carbapenemases are ?-lactamases with versatile hydrolytic capacities. They have the ability to hydrolyze penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, and carbapenems. Bacteria producing these ?-lactamases may cause serious infections in which the carbapenemase activity renders many ?-lactams ineffective. Carbapenemases are members of the molecular class A, B, and D ?-lactamases. Class A and D enzymes have a serine-based hydrolytic mechanism, while class B enzymes are metallo-?-lactamases that contain zinc in the active site. The class A carbapenemase group includes members of the SME, IMI, NMC, GES, and KPC families. Of these, the KPC carbapenemases are the most prevalent, found mostly on plasmids in Klebsiella pneumoniae. The class D carbapenemases consist of OXA-type ?-lactamases frequently detected in Acinetobacter baumannii. The metallo-?-lactamases belong to the IMP, VIM, SPM, GIM, and SIM families and have been detected primarily in Pseudomonas aeruginosa; however, there are increasing numbers of reports worldwide of this group of ?-lactamases in the Enterobacteriaceae. This review updates the characteristics, epidemiology, and detection of the carbapenemases found in pathogenic bacteria.

Queenan, Anne Marie; Bush, Karen



Four Versatile MIDAS Compatible Modules.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four versatile MIDAS compatible modules are documented. These modules include a precision digital to analog converter, a programmable up/down counter, a high speed stepping motor indexer, and an amplifier controller-filter-V/F converter.

M. A. Lind J. B. Fowler



The Versatile Use of Temporoparietal Fascial Flap  

PubMed Central

Background: The pedicled or free temporoparietal fascial has been used in many areas, especially in head and neck reconstruction. This thin, pliable, highly vascularized flap may be also transferred as a carrier of subjacent bone or overlying skin. Objective: The aim of this study is to report our experience in versatile use of temporoparietal fascial flap (TPFF) and discuss the surgical anatomy and technique. Patients and Methods: A total number of 57 TPFFs have been used in periorbital, mid-facial, auricular, and tracheal reconstruction due to tumor resection, trauma, and congenital ear deformities. Results: All the flaps were successfully transferred without any major complication. The cosmetic results were quite satisfactory to all patients. Conclusion: The advantages and minimal donor site morbidity of TPPF makes this flap a good choice in many reconstructive procedures.

Demirdover, Cenk; Sahin, Baris; Vayvada, Haluk; Oztan, Hasan Yucel



A sleep inducing factor from common Indian toad ( Bufo melanostictus, Schneider) skin extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bufo melanostictus (common Indian toad) acquire different bioactive substances in their skin during their life-time in wide ecological habitat. Earlier investigation from this laboratory revealed that toad (B. melanostictus) skin extract (TSE) posses different bioactive compounds of different diversity (Das, M., Auddy, B. and Gomes, A., 1996. Pharmacological study of the toad skin extract on experimental animals. Indian J. Pharmacol.

Manika Das; B. N Mallick; S. C Dasgupta; A Gomes



DVD - digital versatile disks  

SciTech Connect

An international standard has emerged for the first true multimedia format. Digital Versatile Disk (by its official name), you may know it as Digital Video Disks. DVD has applications in movies, music, games, information CD-ROMS, and many other areas where massive amounts of digital information is needed. Did I say massive amounts of data? Would you believe over 17 gigabytes on a single piece of plastic the size of an audio-CD? That`s the promise, at least, by the group of nine electronics manufacturers who have agreed to the format specification, and who hope to make this goal a reality by 1998. In this major agreement, which didn`t come easily, the manufacturers will combine Sony and Phillip`s one side double-layer NMCD format with Toshiba and Matsushita`s double sided Super-Density disk. By Spring of this year, they plan to market the first 4.7 gigabyte units. The question is: Will DVD take off? Some believe that read-only disks recorded with movies will be about as popular as video laser disks. They say that until the eraseable/writable DVD arrives, the consumer will most likely not buy it. Also, DVD has a good market for replacement of CD- Roms. Back in the early 80`s, the international committee deciding the format of the audio compact disk decided its length would be 73 minutes. This, they declared, would allow Beethoven`s 9th Symphony to be contained entirely on a single CD. Similarly, today it was agreed that playback length of a single sided, single layer DVD would be 133 minutes, long enough to hold 94% of all feature-length movies. Further, audio can be in Dolby`s AC-3 stereo or 5.1 tracks of surround sound, better than CD-quality audio (16-bits at 48kHz). In addition, there are three to five language tracks, copy protection and parental ``locks`` for R rated movies. DVD will be backwards compatible with current CD-ROM and audio CD formats. Added versatility comes by way of multiple aspect rations: 4:3 pan-scan, 4:3 letterbox, and 16:9 widescreen. MPEG-2 is the selected image compression format, with full ITU Rec. 601 video resolution (72Ox480). MPEG-2 and AC-3 are also part of the U.S. high definition Advance Television standard (ATV). DVD has an average video bit rate of 3.5 Mbits/sec or 4.69Mbits/sec for image and sound. Unlike digital television transmission, which will use fixed length packets for audio and video, DVD will use variable length packets with a maximum throughput of more than 1OMbits/sec. The higher bit rate allows for less compression of difficult to encode material. Even with all the compression, narrow-beam red light lasers are required to significantly increase the physical data density of a platter by decreasing the size of the pits. This allows 4.7 gigabytes of data on a single sided, single layer DVD. The maximum 17 gigabyte capacity is achieved by employing two reflective layers on both sides of the disk. To read the imbedded layer of data, the laser`s focal length is altered so that the top layer pits are not picked up by the reader. It will be a couple of years before we have dual-layer, double-sided DVDS, and it will be achieved in four stages. The first format to appear will be the single sided, single layer disk (4.7 gigabytes). That will allow Hollywood to begin releasing DVD movie titles. DVD-ROM will be the next phase, allowing 4.7 gigabytes of CD-ROM-like content. The third stage will be write-once disks, and stage four will be rewritable disks. These last stages presents some issues which have yet to be resolved. For one, copyrighted materials may have some form of payment system, and there is the issue that erasable disks reflect less light than today`s DVDS. The problem here is that their data most likely will not be readable on earlier built players.

Gaunt, R.



Temperature characterization of versatile transceivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Versatile Transceiver is a part of the Versatile Link project, which is developing optical link architectures and components for future HL-LHC experiments. While having considerable size and weight constraints, Versatile Transceivers must work under severe environmental conditions. One such environmental parameter is the temperature: the operating temperature range is specified to be from -30 to +60°C. In this contribution we present the results of the temperature characterization of the VTRx transmitter and receiver. Several transmitter candidates from three different manufacturers have been characterized: multi-mode Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers and a single-mode Edge-Emitter Laser. Also both single- and multi-mode receivers have been tested.

Olanterä, L.; Détraz, S.; Storey, S.; Sigaud, C.; Soós, C.; Troska, J.; Vasey, F.



Skin Pigment  


... Skin Infections Fungal Skin Infections Viral Skin Infections Sunlight and Skin Damage Noncancerous Skin Growths Skin Cancers ... the body or small patches. When exposed to sunlight, melanocytes produce increased amounts of melanin, causing the ...


Just how versatile are domains?  

PubMed Central

Background Creating new protein domain arrangements is a frequent mechanism of evolutionary innovation. While some domains always form the same combinations, others form many different arrangements. This ability, which is often referred to as versatility or promiscuity of domains, its a random evolutionary model in which a domain's promiscuity is based on its relative frequency of domains. Results We show that there is a clear relationship across genomes between the promiscuity of a given domain and its frequency. However, the strength of this relationship differs for different domains. We thus redefine domain promiscuity by defining a new index, DV I ("domain versatility index"), which eliminates the effect of domain frequency. We explore links between a domain's versatility, when unlinked from abundance, and its biological properties. Conclusion Our results indicate that domains occurring as single domain proteins and domains appearing frequently at protein termini have a higher DV I. This is consistent with previous observations that the evolution of domain re-arrangements is primarily driven by fusion of pre-existing arrangements and single domains as well as loss of domains at protein termini. Furthermore, we studied the link between domain age, defined as the first appearance of a domain in the species tree, and the DV I. Contrary to previous studies based on domain promiscuity, it seems as if the DV I is age independent. Finally, we find that contrary to previously reported findings, versatility is lower in Eukaryotes. In summary, our measure of domain versatility indicates that a random attachment process is sufficient to explain the observed distribution of domain arrangements and that several views on domain promiscuity need to be revised.



Bioactivity of degradable polymer sutures coated with bioactive glass.  


Novel bioactive materials have been prepared by coating violet resorbable Vicryl sutures with a bioactive glass powder derived from a co-precipitation method. Two techniques have been chosen for the composite preparation: pressing the sutures in a bed of glass powder and slurry-dipping of sutures in liquid suspensions of bioactive glass powders. The uniformity and thickness of the coatings obtained by the two methods were compared. The bioactivity of the sutures with and without bioactive glass coating was tested by soaking in an inorganic acellular simulated body fluid (SBF). The composite sutures were characterised by XRD, SEM and FTIR analyses before and after soaking in SBF solution to assess the formation of hydroxyapatite on their surfaces, which is a qualitative measure of their bioactivity. The possible use of bioactive sutures to produce tissue engineering scaffolds and as reinforcement of resorbable calcium phosphates is discussed. PMID:15477741

Bretcanu, Oana; Verné, Enrica; Borello, Luisa; Boccaccini, Aldo R



Electrostatic Control of Bioactivity  

SciTech Connect

The power of independence: When exhibited on the surface of self-assembling peptide-amphiphile nanofibers, the hydrophobic laminin-derived IKVAV epitope induced nanofiber bundling through interdigitation with neighboring fibers and thus decreased the bioactivity of the resulting materials. The inclusion of charged amino acids in the peptide amphiphiles disrupted the tendency to bundle and led to significantly enhanced neurite outgrowth.

Goldberger, Joshua E.; Berns, Eric J.; Bitton, Ronit; Newcomb, Christina J.; Stupp, Samuel I. (NWU)



Porous bioactive materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioactive materials chemically bond to tissues through the development of biologically active apatite. Porous structures in biomaterials are designed to enhance bioactivity, grow artificial tissues and achieve better integration with host tissues in the body. The goal of this research is to design, fabricate and characterize novel porous bioactive materials. 3D ordered macroporous bioactive glasses (3DOM-BGs, pore size: 200--1000 nm) were prepared using a sol-gel process and colloidal crystal templates. 3DOM-BGs are more bioactive and degradable than mesoporous (pore size <50 nm) sol-gel BGs in simulated body fluid (SBF). Apatite formation and 3DOM-BG degradation rates increased with the decrease of soaking ratio. Apatite induction time in SBF increased with 3DOM-BG calcination temperature (600--800°C). Apatite formation and 3DOMBG degradation were slightly enhanced for a phosphate containing composition. Large 3DOM-BG particles formed less apatite and degraded less completely as compared with small particles. An increase in macropore size slowed down 3DOM-BG degradation and apatite formation processes. After heating the converted apatite at a temperature higher than 700°C, highly crystalline hydroxyapatite and a minor tri-calcium phosphate phase formed. 3DOM-BGs have potential applications as bone/periodontal fillers, and drugs and biological factors delivery agents. Anchoring artificial soft tissues (e.g., cartilage) to native bone presents a challenge. Porous polymer/bioactive glass composites are candidate materials for engineering artificial soft tissue/bone interfaces. Porous composites consisting of polymer matrices (e.g., polysulfone, polylactide, and polyurethane) and bioactive glass particles were prepared by polymer phase separation techniques adapted to include ceramic particles. Composites (thickness: 200--500 mum) have asymmetric structures with dense top layers and porous structures beneath. Porous structures consist of large pores (>100 mum) in a network of smaller (<10 mum) interconnected pores. Dense layers can be removed and large pores exposed by abrasion or salt leaching techniques. Composite modulus was enhanced with the increase of glass content, due to the change in composition and pore content. The growth of bone-like apatite on and inside composites after soaking in SBF demonstrated their potential for integration with bone. Cell culture studies revealed that composite surfaces were suitable for attachment, spreading and proliferation of chondrocytes.

Zhang, Kai


Dry skin  


Skin - dry; Winter itch ... Dry skin is common. It happens more often in the winter when cold air outside and heated air inside cause low humidity. Forced-air furnaces make skin even drier. The skin loses moisture and may ...


Skin Cancer  


... Z Diseases and treatments Q - T Skin cancer Skin cancer Basal cell carcinoma . Both patients have the ... type of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma. What skin cancer looks like Even the same type of ...


Bioactive glass in tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on recent advances in the development and use of bioactive glass for tissue engineering applications. Despite its inherent brittleness, bioactive glass has several appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. New bioactive glasses based on borate and borosilicate compositions have shown the ability to enhance new bone formation when compared to silicate bioactive glass. Borate-based bioactive glasses also have controllable degradation rates, so the degradation of the bioactive glass implant can be more closely matched to the rate of new bone formation. Bioactive glasses can be doped with trace quantities of elements such as Cu, Zn and Sr, which are known to be beneficial for healthy bone growth. In addition to the new bioactive glasses, recent advances in biomaterials processing have resulted in the creation of scaffold architectures with a range of mechanical properties suitable for the substitution of loaded as well as non-loaded bone. While bioactive glass has been extensively investigated for bone repair, there has been relatively little research on the application of bioactive glass to the repair of soft tissues. However, recent work has shown the ability of bioactive glass to promote angiogenesis, which is critical to numerous applications in tissue regeneration, such as neovascularization for bone regeneration and the healing of soft tissue wounds. Bioactive glass has also been shown to enhance neocartilage formation during in vitro culture of chondrocyte-seeded hydrogels, and to serve as a subchondral substrate for tissue-engineered osteochondral constructs. Methods used to manipulate the structure and performance of bioactive glass in these tissue engineering applications are analyzed.

Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Day, Delbert E.; Bal, B. Sonny; Fu, Qiang; Jung, Steven B.; Bonewald, Lynda F.; Tomsia, Antoni P.



The versatility and universality of calcium signalling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The universality of calcium as an intracellular messenger depends on its enormous versatility. Cells have a calcium signalling toolkit with many components that can be mixed and matched to create a wide range of spatial and temporal signals. This versatility is exploited to control processes as diverse as fertilization, proliferation, development, learning and memory, contraction and secretion, and must be

Michael J. Berridge; Peter Lipp; Martin D. Bootman



Broad spectrum bioactive sunscreens.  


The development of sunscreens containing reduced concentration of chemical UV filters, even though, possessing broad spectrum effectiveness with the use of natural raw materials that improve and infer UV absorption is of great interest. Due to the structural similarities between polyphenolic compounds and organic UV filters, they might exert photoprotection activity. The objective of the present research work was to develop bioactive sunscreen delivery systems containing rutin, Passiflora incarnata L. and Plantago lanceolata extracts associated or not with organic and inorganic UV filters. UV transmission of the sunscreen delivery system films was performed by using diffuse transmittance measurements coupling to an integrating sphere. In vitro photoprotection efficacy was evaluated according to the following parameters: estimated sun protection factor (SPF); Boot's Star Rating category; UVA/UVB ratio; and critical wavelength (lambda(c)). Sunscreen delivery systems obtained SPF values ranging from 0.972+/-0.004 to 28.064+/-2.429 and bioactive compounds interacted with the UV filters positive and negatively. This behavior may be attributed to: the composition of the delivery system; the presence of inorganic UV filter and quantitative composition of the organic UV filters; and the phytochemical composition of the P. incarnata L. and P. lanceolata extracts. Among all associations of bioactive compounds and UV filters, we found that the broad spectrum sunscreen was accomplished when 1.68% (w/w) P. incarnata L. dry extract was in the presence of 7.0% (w/w) ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, 2.0% (w/w) benzophenone-3 and 2.0% (w/w) TiO(2). It was demonstrated that this association generated estimated SPF of 20.072+/-0.906 and it has improved the protective defense against UVA radiation accompanying augmentation of the UVA/UVB ratio from 0.49 to 0.52 and lambda(c) from 364 to 368.6nm. PMID:18662760

Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Sarruf, Fernanda Daud; Salgado-Santos, Idalina Maria Nunes; Haroutiounian-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Baby, André Rolim



Bioactivity in Organic Chemistry Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented are three ways in which bioactivity of organic compounds has been introduced in organic chemistry courses. One is to point out a typical bioactivity of a given functional group. A second is to discuss biorganic mechanisms. A third is to draw structure-activity correlations (SAR). (Author/HM)|

Ferguson, Lloyd N.



BIOCHEMISTRY: Versatile Collagens in Invertebrates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. In his Perspective, Engel discusses the diverse structural features of collagens, a ubiquitous fibrillar protein that forms the main support of skin and tendons. A unique example is reported in this issue by Coyne et al., who describe the amino acid sequence of the specialized collagen that forms the byssal threads that anchor mussels to rocks.

Jürgen Engel (Biozentrum of the University;Department of Biophysical Chemistry)



Skin - clammy  


Sweat - cold; Clammy skin; Cold sweat ... Clammy skin may be an emergency. Call your doctor or 911 immediately. ... care depends on what is causing the clammy skin. Call for medical help if you are not ...


VEGAS: VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Science Foundation Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation (NSF-ATI) program is funding a new spectrometer backend for the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). This spectrometer is being built by the CICADA collaboration - collaboration between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the Center for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) at the University of California Berkeley.The backend is named as VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) and will replace the capabilities of the existing spectrometers. This backend supports data processing from focal plane array systems. The spectrometer will be capable of processing up to 1.25 GHz bandwidth from 8 dual polarized beams or a bandwidth up to 10 GHz from a dual polarized beam.The spectrometer will be using 8-bit analog to digital converters (ADC), which gives a better dynamic range than existing GBT spectrometers. There will be 8 tunable digital sub-bands within the 1.25 GHz bandwidth, which will enhance the capability of simultaneous observation of multiple spectral transitions. The maximum spectral dump rate to disk will be about 0.5 msec. The vastly enhanced backend capabilities will support several science projects with the GBT. The projects include mapping temperature and density structure of molecular clouds; searches for organic molecules in the interstellar medium; determination of the fundamental constants of our evolving Universe; red-shifted spectral features from galaxies across cosmic time and survey for pulsars in the extreme gravitational environment of the Galactic Center.

Bussa, Srikanth; VEGAS Development Team



The Versatile Transceiver: towards production readiness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detectors involved in the upgrade programme of the LHC will need high-speed optical links to transfer readout and control data. The link front-end will be based on a radiation tolerant opto-electronic module, the Versatile Transceiver (VTRx), developed under the Versatile Link project. In this contribution we present a test system and protocol to be used to verify the compliance of the VTRx modules to the specifications, and a Versatile Link demonstrator based on the VTRx and the Gigabit Link Interface Board. Finally, we introduce the Small Footprint VTRx which is being designed for the CMS Tracker upgrade.

Soós, C.; Barros Marin, M.; Détraz, S.; Olanterä, L.; Sigaud, C.; Storey, S.; Troska, J.; Vasey, F.; Vichoudis, P.



Antimicrobial Peptides: Versatile Biological Properties  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial peptides are diverse group of biologically active molecules with multidimensional properties. In recent past, a wide variety of AMPs with diverse structures have been reported from different sources such as plants, animals, mammals, and microorganisms. The presence of unusual amino acids and structural motifs in AMPs confers unique structural properties to the peptide that attribute for their specific mode of action. The ability of these active AMPs to act as multifunctional effector molecules such as signalling molecule, immune modulators, mitogen, antitumor, and contraceptive agent makes it an interesting candidate to study every aspect of their structural and biological properties for prophylactic and therapeutic applications. In addition, easy cloning and recombinant expression of AMPs in heterologous plant host systems provided a pipeline for production of disease resistant transgenic plants. Besides these properties, AMPs were also used as drug delivery vectors to deliver cell impermeable drugs to cell interior. The present review focuses on the diversity and broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of AMPs along with its multidimensional properties that could be exploited for the application of these bioactive peptides as a potential and promising drug candidate in pharmaceutical industries.

Pushpanathan, Muthuirulan; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash



Methanol: A Versatile Fuel for Immediate Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates the large-scale production and use of methanol as a substitute for the diminishing reserves of low-cost petroleum resources. Describes the manufacturing process and advantages of the versatile fuel. (JR)

Reed, T. B.; Lerner, R. M.



The in-vitro bioactivity of mesoporous bioactive glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ordered mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) with different compositions were prepared by using nonionic block copolymer surfactants as structure-directing agents through an evaporation-induced self-assembly process. Their in-vitro bioactivities were studied in detail by electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic emission spectroscopy. The ICP element analysis results were further calculated in terms of the total consumption of

Xiaoxia Yan; Xiaohui Huang; Chengzhong Yu; Hexiang Deng; Yi Wang; Zhendong Zhang; Shizhang Qiao; Gaoqing Lu; Dongyuan Zhao



Bioactivity and protein attachment onto bioactive glasses containing silver nanoparticles.  


There is much interest in silver containing glasses for use in bone replacement owing to the demonstrated antibacterial effect. In this work, 2 and 8 mol % of silver was added during the sol-gel process to the composition of a bioactive glass belonging to CaO-SiO(2 -P(2)O(5) system. The samples were characterized by means of ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques to demonstrate that the silver is embedded into the glass matrix as nanoparticles. Bioactivity test in simulated body fluid proved that the presence of silver in the bioactive glass composition, even in high amount, preserve or even improve the bioactivity of the starting glass, and consequently, leads to the carbonated apatite formation, which is the prerequisite for bioactive materials to bond with living bones. Complementary information proving these findings were delivered by performing X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and XPS measurements. The presence of silver also improves protein binding capability to the bioactive glass surface as demonstrated by cw-electron paramagnetic resonance experiments and XPS measurements. PMID:22345075

Vulpoi, A; Gruian, C; Vanea, E; Baia, L; Simon, S; Steinhoff, H-J; Göller, G; Simon, V



Skin Graft  

PubMed Central

Skin graft is one of the most indispensable techniques in plastic surgery and dermatology. Skin grafts are used in a variety of clinical situations, such as traumatic wounds, defects after oncologic resection, burn reconstruction, scar contracture release, congenital skin deficiencies, hair restoration, vitiligo, and nipple-areola reconstruction. Skin grafts are generally avoided in the management of more complex wounds. Conditions with deep spaces and exposed bones normally require the use of skin flaps or muscle flaps. In the present review, we describe how to perform skin grafting successfully, and some variation of skin grafting.

Shimizu, Ruka; Kishi, Kazuo



New bioactive fatty acids.  


Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) through 10-hydroxy-8-octadecenoic acid, and racinoleic acid to 7,10,12-trihydroxy-8-octadecenoic acid. DOD showed antibacterial activity including against food-borne pathogens. Bacillus megaterium ALA2 converted n-6 and n-3 PUFAs to many new oxygenated fatty acids. For example: linoleic acid was converted to12,13-epoxy-9-octadecenoic acid and then to 12,13-dihydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid (12,13-DHOA). From here, there are two bioconversion pathways. The major pathway is: 12,13-DHOA --> 12,13,17-trihydroxy-9(S)-octadecenoic acid (THOA) --> 12,17;13,17-diepoxy-16-hydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid (DEOA) --> 7-hydroxy-DEOA. The minor pathway is: 12,13-DHOA --> 12,13,16-THOA --> 12-hydroxy-13,16-epoxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid. 12,13,17-THOA has anti-plant pathogenic fungal activity. The tetrahydrofuranyl moiety is known in anti cancer drugs. Strain ALA2 also converts other n-3 and n-6 PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) to many new oxygenated unsaturated fatty acid products. All of these new products have high potential for antimicrobial agents or biomedical applications. We also screened 12 Mortierella fungal strains from the ARS Culture Collection for the production of bioactive fatty acids such as dihomo-gama-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid. All of the strains tested produced AA and DGLA from glucose or glycerol. The top five AA producers (mg AA/g CDW) were in the following order: M. alpina > M. zychae > M. hygrophila > M. minutissima > M. parvispora. Both AA and DGLA are important natural precursors of a large family of prostaglandin and thromboxane groups. PMID:18296335

Hou, Ching T



Degradation, bioactivity, and osteogenic potential of composites made of PLGA and two different sol-gel bioactive glasses.  


We have developed poly(L: -lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) based composites using sol-gel derived bioactive glasses (S-BG), previously described by our group, as composite components. Two different composite types were manufactured that contained either S2-high content silica S-BG, or A2-high content lime S-BG. The composites were evaluated in the form of sheets and 3D scaffolds. Sheets containing 12, 21, and 33 vol.% of each bioactive glass were characterized for mechanical properties, wettability, hydrolytic degradation, and surface bioactivity. Sheets containing A2 S-BG rapidly formed a hydroxyapatite surface layer after incubation in simulated body fluid. The incorporation of either S-BG increased the tensile strength and Young's modulus of the composites and tailored their degradation rates compared to starting compounds. Sheets and 3D scaffolds were evaluated for their ability to support growth of human bone marrow cells (BMC) and MG-63 cells, respectively. Cells were grown in non-differentiating, osteogenic or osteoclast-inducing conditions. Osteogenesis was induced with either recombinant human BMP-2 or dexamethasone, and osteoclast formation with M-CSF. BMC viability was lower at higher S-BG content, though specific ALP/cell was significantly higher on PLGA/A2-33 composites. Composites containing S2 S-BG enhanced calcification of extracellular matrix by BMC, whereas incorporation of A2 S-BG in the composites promoted osteoclast formation from BMC. MG-63 osteoblast-like cells seeded in porous scaffolds containing S2 maintained viability and secreted collagen and calcium throughout the scaffolds. Overall, the presented data show functional versatility of the composites studied and indicate their potential to design a wide variety of implant materials differing in physico-chemical properties and biological applications. We propose these sol-gel derived bioactive glass-PLGA composites may prove excellent potential orthopedic and dental biomaterials supporting bone formation and remodeling. PMID:21487840

Pamula, Elzbieta; Kokoszka, Justyna; Cholewa-Kowalska, Katarzyna; Laczka, Maria; Kantor, Lukasz; Niedzwiedzki, Lukasz; Reilly, Gwendolen C; Filipowska, Joanna; Madej, Wojciech; Kolodziejczyk, Malgorzata; Tylko, Grzegorz; Osyczka, Anna M



Plant peroxidases: Versatile catalysts in the synthesis of bioactive natural products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Class III plant peroxidases are a polymorphic group of heme-containing enzymes located in the vacuole and the plant cell wall. ClassIII plant peroxidases are capable of oxidizing a broad range of structurally different substrates. This is determined by the strong oxidizing potentials of the activated forms of peroxidase, compound I and compound II, and makes them suitable oxidizing agents in

A. Ros Barceló; F. Pomar



Folate in Skin Cancer Prevention  

PubMed Central

Skin, the largest, most exposed organ of the body, provides a protective interface between humans and the environment. One of its primary roles is protection against exposure to sunlight, a major source of skin damage where the UV radiation (UVR) component functions as a complete carcinogen. Melanin pigmentation and the evolution of dark skin is an adaptive protective mechanism against high levels of UVR exposure. Recently, the hypothesis that skin pigmentation balances folate preservation and Vitamin D production has emerged. Both micronutrients are essential for reproductive success. Photodegradation of bioactive folates suggests a mechanism for the increased tendency of populations of low melanin pigmentation residing in areas of high UV exposure to develop skin cancers. Folate is proposed as a cancer prevention target for its role in providing precursors for DNA repair and replication, as well as its ability to promote genomic integrity through the generation of methyl groups needed for control of gene expression. The cancer prevention potential of folate has been demonstrated by large-scale epidemiological and nutritional studies indicating that decreased folate status increases the risk of developing certain cancers. While folate deficiency has been extensively documented by analysis of human plasma, folate status within skin has not been widely investigated. Nevertheless, inefficient delivery of micronutrients to skin and photolysis of folate argue that documented folate deficiencies will be present if not exacerbated in skin. Our studies indicate a critical role for folate in skin and the potential to protect sun exposed skin by effective topical delivery as a strategy for cancer prevention.

Williams, J.D.; Jacobson, Elaine L.; Kim, H.; Kim, M.; Jacobson, M.K.



Dendrimeric Nanoarchitectures Mediated Transdermal and Oral Delivery of Bioactives  

PubMed Central

Transdermal route is an evolving panorama in novel drug deliverance and with oral route they proffer immense potential. Most recently there is hastening in approaches for delivering bioactives via these routes, amongst them revolution has been made by dendrimers. Encapsulation and conjugation of bioactives with these virus sized robots have shown immense employment for delivery of hydrophobic and labile remedies. Transport of these nano-cruises from corner to corner of skin and through epithelial hurdle of gastrointestinal tract depends upon dendrimer characteristics. An improved thoughtful of these characteristics is an obligation for their use in these rambling fields. These characteristics embrace generation size, molecular weight, surface charge, incubation time and concentration. This context demarcates the imperative role of dendrimers in transdermal and oral drug delivery. This review also highlights concerning mechanism of convey of nanoarrays via epithelial hurdle of GIT.

Gajbhiye, V.; Kumar, P. Vijayaraj; Sharma, A.; Agarwal, A.; Asthana, A.; Jain, N. K.



Dendrimeric nanoarchitectures mediated transdermal and oral delivery of bioactives.  


Transdermal route is an evolving panorama in novel drug deliverance and with oral route they proffer immense potential. Most recently there is hastening in approaches for delivering bioactives via these routes, amongst them revolution has been made by dendrimers. Encapsulation and conjugation of bioactives with these virus sized robots have shown immense employment for delivery of hydrophobic and labile remedies. Transport of these nano-cruises from corner to corner of skin and through epithelial hurdle of gastrointestinal tract depends upon dendrimer characteristics. An improved thoughtful of these characteristics is an obligation for their use in these rambling fields. These characteristics embrace generation size, molecular weight, surface charge, incubation time and concentration. This context demarcates the imperative role of dendrimers in transdermal and oral drug delivery. This review also highlights concerning mechanism of convey of nanoarrays via epithelial hurdle of GIT. PMID:20046766

Gajbhiye, V; Kumar, P Vijayaraj; Sharma, A; Agarwal, A; Asthana, A; Jain, N K


Skin culture  


... culture if the sample involves the mucous membranes . See also: Herpes culture ... There is no preparation needed for a culture. For information on how to prepare for a skin or mucosal sample, see: Skin lesion biopsy Gum biopsy


Skin Size  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Get all wrapped up in a lesson about skin! In this activity, learners measure and calculate the approximate surface area of skin on someone's body as well as the amount of atmospheric force pushing on their body.

Muller, Eric



Bioactive proteins in breast milk.  


Human milk contains many proteins that have been shown to be bioactive, but it is still not known whether these activities are exerted in breast-fed infants. These bioactivities include enzyme activities, enhancement of nutrient absorption, growth stimulation, modulation of the immune system and defence against pathogens. The antimicrobial activities are very diverse, ranging from stimulation of beneficial microorganisms (i.e. prebiotic effects), killing or inhibition of growth of pathogens, to mechanisms preventing attachment or invasion of harmful microorganisms. Among the bioactive proteins are lactoferrin, lysozyme, secretory immunoglobulin A, haptocorrin, lactoperoxidase, ?-lactalbumin, bile salt stimulated lipase, ?- and ?-casein, and tumour growth factor ?. Human milk proteins may be largely resistant against digestion in the gastrointestinal tract, be partially digested into bioactive peptides, or be more or less completely digested and utilised as a source of amino acids. These events can be studied using an in vitro digestion model, which is useful for predicting results in human infants. Some bovine milk proteins, for example, lactoferrin and tumour growth factor ?, may also resist proteolysis and be capable of exerting bioactivities similar to those of human milk proteins. PMID:23448314

Lönnerdal, Bo



Skin Aging  


Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...


Identifying Financially Versatile Milk Production Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European dairy industry faces an increasingly uncertain world. There is uncertainty about, for example, subsidy payment levels and compliance conditions, global competition, price variability, consumer demand, carbon footprints, water quality, animal welfare, food safety, and the environment. Farmers can reduce their exposure to these uncertainties by adopting production systems that are financially versatile over a wide range of possible

Duncan J. Anderson; Claire G. Jack; Niamh Connolly



Guinea Pigs: Versatile Animals for the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guinea pigs are presented as versatile classroom animals. Suggestions for animal behavior and genetics studies are given. Also included is information concerning sex determination and the breeding of guinea pigs, and hints on keeping these animals in the classroom. References and illustrations complete the article. (MA)

Barman, Charles R.



Versatile Langmuir Probe for Outer Planet Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation outlines the design of a Versatile Langmuir Probe (VLP), intended to be deployed as a key instrument on the Europa Jupiter Systems Mission (EJSM) and other outer planet missions. The VLP will make in-situ planetary plasma particle, plasma wave, and electric field measurements that will be critical in developing a comprehensive picture of planetary processes. The VLP is

D. Allen; C. S. Fish; F. J. Crary; P. Leung; R. Frampton; C. Swenson; D. C. Thompson; L. Peltz



A Versatile Technique for Solving Quintic Equations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper we present a versatile technique to solve several types of solvable quintic equations. In the technique described here, the given quintic is first converted to a sextic equation by adding a root, and the resulting sextic equation is decomposed into two cubic polynomials as factors in a novel fashion. The resultant cubic equations…

Kulkarni, Raghavendra G.



On the Intellectual Versatility of Karl Pearson  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper displays the impressive versatility of Karl Pearson, focusing not only on his contributions to statistics and other quantitative disciplines but also on his research and publications in religion, politics, literary criticism, philosophy of science, Darwinism, biology, history, freethought, evolution, genetics, socialism, anthropology, eugenics, and emancipation of women. Being the chairman of a first class academic department and the

Richard H. Williams; Bruno D. Zumbo; Donald Ross; W. Zimmerman


Guinea Pigs: Versatile Animals for the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Guinea pigs are presented as versatile classroom animals. Suggestions for animal behavior and genetics studies are given. Also included is information concerning sex determination and the breeding of guinea pigs, and hints on keeping these animals in the classroom. References and illustrations complete the article. (MA)|

Barman, Charles R.



A Versatile Superconducting Magnetometer/Gradiometer System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A versatile superconductive magnetometer/gradiometer system was designed and procured from a commercial vendor. A number of magnetic field sensing (pick-up) loops are mounted on a common substrate block and connected through a switching network to a singl...

M. Nisenoff S. A. Wolf



A Versatile Technique for Solving Quintic Equations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we present a versatile technique to solve several types of solvable quintic equations. In the technique described here, the given quintic is first converted to a sextic equation by adding a root, and the resulting sextic equation is decomposed into two cubic polynomials as factors in a novel fashion. The resultant cubic equations are…

Kulkarni, Raghavendra G.



Factors affecting crystallization of bioactive glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The product range of bioactive glasses is restricted by their tendency to crystallize at working processes typically performed with high viscosity melts. In this work high-temperature properties viscosity, devitrification temperature and liquidus temperature of seven bioactive glasses are measured. Further, the parameters used to describe glass stability and crystallization tendency are discussed. The results indicate that bioactive glasses can be

Hanna Arstila; Erik Vedel; Leena Hupa; Mikko Hupa



Skin aging and dry skin.  


Skin aging appears to be the result of both scheduled and continuous "wear and tear" processes that damage cellular DNA and proteins. Two types of aging, chronological skin aging and photoaging, have distinct clinical and histological features. Chronological skin aging is a universal and inevitable process characterized primarily by physiologic alterations in skin function. In this case, keratinocytes are unable to properly terminally differentiate to form a functional stratum corneum, and the rate of formation of neutral lipids that contribute to the barrier function slows, causing dry, pale skin with fine wrinkles. In contrast, photoaging results from the UVR of sunlight and the damage thus becomes apparent in sun-exposed skin. Characteristics of this aging type are dry and sallow skin displaying fine wrinkles as well as deep furrows, resulting from the disorganization of epidermal and dermal components associated with elastosis and heliodermatitis. Understanding of the functions of the skin and the basic principles of moisturizer use and application is important for the prevention of skin aging. Successful treatment of dry skin with appropriate skin care products gives the impression of eternal youth. PMID:15492432

Hashizume, Hideo



[Nutrigenomics--bioactive dietary components].  


Nutrigenomics analyzes relations between diet and genes, and identifies mechanisms in which food and nutrition affect health and lifestyles and noncommunicable diseases (R. Chadwick, 2004). Bioactive dietary components are signal molecules that carry information from the external environment and affect in terms of quantity and quality in the process of gene expression. The biological effect of bioactive dietary components depends on various of physiological processes that can occur within a few genes. Polymorphism of genes can change their function and physiological response of the body for nutrients. Bioactive dietary components work on at least two levels of the expression of genes as factors regulating chromatin structure and as factors directly regulate the activity of nuclear receptors. The processes of synthesis and DNA repair are regulated by some of vitamins, macro-and micro-elements. They provide, among others, cofactors of enzymes that catalyze the replication of DNA methylation and its repair. DNA methylation profile may change under the influence of diet, single nucleotide polymorphisms and environmental factors. Bioactive dietary components may directly affect the process of gene expression by acting as ligands for nuclear receptors. Sensitive to dietary group of nuclear receptors are sensory receptors. This group includes, among others receptor PPAR (peroxisome proliferator activated), responsible for energy metabolism and receptors LXR (liver X receptor), FXR (farnesoid X receptor) and RXR, which is responsible for the metabolism of cholesterol. PMID:23619224

G?tek, Monika; Czech, Natalia; Fizia, Katarzyna; Bia?ek-Dratwa, Agnieszka; Muc-Wierzgo?, Ma?gorzata; Kokot, Teresa; Nowakowska-Zajdel, Ewa



Skin Penetration  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Penetration of the skin is a key element in cutaneous reactions to xenobiotics, drugs, or other compounds. The structure of\\u000a the skin is described in the present chapter. Based on this structure analysis, theoretical diffusion models are presented.\\u000a The inter- and intraindividual variation in the skin-barrier function is discussed and the complex influence of a carrier\\u000a medium on percutaneous absorption

Hans Schaefer; Thomas E. Redelmeier; Jürgen Lademann


Skin of Color  


... skin care Mom and baby skin care Nails Pregnancy and breastfeeding Sensitive skin Skin of color Stress and skin Sunscreens Tattoos and body piercings Teenage skin Tropical travel Vitamin D Cosmetic treatments Gold ...


A versatile scalable PET processing system  

SciTech Connect

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) historically has major clinical and preclinical applications in cancerous oncology, neurology, and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, in a new direction, an application specific PET system is being developed at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in collaboration with Duke University, University of Maryland at Baltimore (UMAB), and West Virginia University (WVU) targeted for plant eco-physiology research. The new plant imaging PET system is versatile and scalable such that it could adapt to several plant imaging needs - imaging many important plant organs including leaves, roots, and stems. The mechanical arrangement of the detectors is designed to accommodate the unpredictable and random distribution in space of the plant organs without requiring the plant be disturbed. Prototyping such a system requires a new data acquisition system (DAQ) and data processing system which are adaptable to the requirements of these unique and versatile detectors.

H. Dong, A. Weisenberger, J. McKisson, Xi Wenze, C. Cuevas, J. Wilson, L. Zukerman



A nanotectonics approach to produce hierarchically organized bioactive glass nanoparticles-based macrospheres.  


Bioactive particles have been widely used in a series of biomedical applications due to their ability to promote bone-bonding and elicit favorable biological responses in therapies associated with the replacement and regeneration of mineralized tissues. In this work hierarchical architectures are prepared by an innovative methodology using SiO(2)-CaO sol-gel based nanoparticles. Inspired by colloidal crystals, spherical aggregates were formed on biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces using bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG-NPs) able to promote bone regeneration. A highly ordered organization, a common feature of mineralized structures in Nature, was achieved at both nano- and microlevels, being the crystallization degree of the structures controlled by the evaporation rates taking place at room temperature (RT) or at 4 °C. The crystallization degree of the structures influenced the Ca/P ratio of the apatitic film formed at their surface, after 7 days of immersion in SBF. This allows the regulation of bioactive properties and the ability to release potential additives that could be also incorporated in such particles with a high efficiency. Such a versatile method to produce bioactive particles with controlled size and internal structure could open new possibilities in designing new spherical devices for orthopaedic applications, including tissue engineering. PMID:22992681

Luz, Gisela M; Mano, João F



Skin Infections  


... it can get infected by them. Some common types of skin infections are Bacterial: Cellulitis and impetigo. Staphylococcal infections can also affect the skin. Viral: Shingles, warts, and herpes simplex Fungal: Athlete's foot and yeast infections Parasitic: Body lice, head lice, and scabies ...


Skin Conditions  


Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It is, in terms of both weight, between 6 and 9 pounds, and surface area, about 2 square yards. Your skin separates the inside of your body from the ...


A parallel, portable and versatile treecode  

SciTech Connect

Portability and versatility are important characteristics of a computer program which is meant to be generally useful. We describe how we have developed a parallel N-body treecode to meet these goals. A variety of applications to which the code can be applied are mentioned. Performance of the program is also measured on several machines. A 512 processor Intel Paragon can solve for the forces on 10 million gravitationally interacting particles to 0.5% rms accuracy in 28.6 seconds.

Warren, M.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Salmon, J.K. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)]|[California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)



Versatile integrated PMD emulation and compensation elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly versatile building blocks for polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) emulation and compensation are demonstrated using tunable all-pass filters fabricated in 4%-index-contrast planar waveguides. While the all-pass filters can approximate any phase response, the complexity in setting the individual filter parameters is minimized by restricting the all-pass filter responses to realize a range of differential delays, dispersion, and dispersion slope. A single

C. K. Madsen; M. Cappuzzo; E. J. Laskowski; E. Chen; L. Gomez; A. Griffin; A. Wong-Foy; S. Chandrasekhar; L. Stulz; L. Buhl



Versatile approach to Rb vapor cell construction  

SciTech Connect

A versatile approach to Rb atomic vapor cell construction is proposed and tested. The construction method employs pinch-off copper cold-welds and epoxy to create hermetic seals between dissimilar geometries and materials. Accelerated testing revealed expected lifetimes of 3 days at 90 deg. C operation and in excess of 1 yr at 25 deg. C operation. The reaction of Rb with epoxy was determined to be the largest contributor to failure.

Hulbert, John F.; Hurd, Katie B.; Carroll, Brandon T.; Hawkins, Aaron R.; Wu, Bin; Schmidt, Holger [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Brigham Young University, 459 Clyde Building, Provo, Utah 84602 (United States); School of Engineering, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States)



A Versatile Computer-Controlled Assembly System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A versatile assembly system, using TV cameras and oomputer-controlled arm and moving table, is described. It makes almple,assemblies,such aa a peg and rings and a toy car. It separates parts from a heap, recognising them with an overhead camera, then assembles them by feel.,It can be instructed,to perform a new task with different,parte by spending,an hour showing,it the parts

A. P. Ambler; Harry G. Barrow; Christopher M. Brown; Rod M. Burstall; Robin J. Popplestone



Bioactive natural products from Lysobacter.  


The gliding Gram-negative Lysobacter bacteria are emerging as a promising source of new bioactive natural products. These ubiquitous freshwater and soil microorganisms are fast growing, simple to use and maintain, and genetically amenable for biosynthetic engineering. This Highlight reviews a group of biologically active and structurally distinct natural products from the genus Lysobacter, with a focus on their biosyntheses. Although Lysobacter sp. are known as prolific producers of bioactive natural products, detailed molecular mechanistic studies of their enzymatic assembly have been surprisingly scarce. We hope to provide a snapshot of the important work done on the lysobacterial natural products and to provide useful information for future biosynthetic engineering of novel antibiotics in Lysobacter. PMID:22898908

Xie, Yunxuan; Wright, Stephen; Shen, Yuemao; Du, Liangcheng



Bioactive naphthoquinones from Cordyceps unilateralis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six bioactive naphthoquinone derivatives, erythrostominone, deoxyerythrostominone, 4-O-methyl erythrostominone, epierythrostominol, deoxyerythrostominol and 3,5,8-trihydroxy-6-methoxy-2-(5-oxohexa-1,3-dienyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone, were isolated from the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps unilateralis BCC1869. While the latter is synthetically known, both it and 4-O-methyl erythrostominone are products of fungus strain C. unilateralis BCC1869.

Prasat Kittakoop; Juntira Punya; Palangpon Kongsaeree; Yuwapin Lertwerawat; Amnuay Jintasirikul; Morakot Tanticharoen; Yodhathai Thebtaranonth



Stem Cells and Bioactive Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major advances in biological and materials research have created the possibilities for tissue engineering and regenerative\\u000a medicine. Finding the most effective ways of utilising stem cells, of several types, and triggering their differentiatoin\\u000a in a controlled manner will provide cell sources for cell replacement therapy. Materials will be bioresorbable in vivo and bioactive, contributing to differentiation, implantation and long-term engraftment

Robert C. Bielby; Julia M. Polak


New versatile setup for goniometric measurements of spectral radiance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss a new versatile setup for goniometric measurements of spectral radiances with two modes of operation: (1) it can operate as a 2-D goniometer for measurements in a horizontal plane of the singly scattered radiance from particles in suspension and (2) it can be used as a 3-D goniometer for measuring spectral radiances over an entire hemisphere. In our setup, various kinds of light sources and detectors can easily be inserted. Among the detectors, a spectral imager is designed and used. Proper hardware and software is chosen so as to make our setup fully automated and easy to operate. We present results from two different investigations to demonstrate the utilization of our setup. The first investigation is concerned with measurements of the volume scattering function (VSF) over a large forward and backward angular range. Our experimental results for the VSF show good agreement with theoretical simulations. We also use our setup to obtain a series of 1-D angular spectral images of the skin on the dorsal side of a human hand in vivo by employing various illumination angles. Our setup provides a robust, highly automated, and flexible framework for carrying out goniometric measurements in a variety of applications.

Zhao, Lu; Nielsen, Kristian; Lotsberg, Jon K.; Marken, Endre; Stamnes, Jakob J.; Stamnes, Knut H.



Skin Care for Acne-Prone Skin  


Skin Care for Acne-prone Skin What Dermatologists Recommend Skin care can be just as important as the treatment(s) you use to clear your acne. Proper skin care can reduce possible side effects from prescription medications. ...


Versatile biofunctionalization of polypeptide-based thermosensitive hydrogels via click chemistry.  


In this study, we report thermosensitive hydrogels based on poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(?-propargyl-l-glutamate) (PEG-PPLG). (13)C NMR spectra, DLS, and circular dichroism spectra were employed to study the mechanism of the sol-gel phase transition. Mouse fibroblast L929 cells were encapsulated and cultured within the hydrogel matrices, and the encapsulated cells were shown to be highly viable in the gel matrices, suggesting that the hydrogels have excellent cytocompatibilities. The mass loss of the hydrogels in vitro was accelerated by the presence of proteinase K compared to the control group. In vivo biocompatibility studies revealed that the in situ formed gels in the subcutaneous layer last for ?21 days, and H&E staining study suggested acceptable biocompatibility of our materials in vivo. The presence of alkynyl side groups in the PEG-PPLG copolymers allowed convenient further functionalization with azide-modified bioactive molecules, such as biotin and galactose. The biofunctionalized PEG-polypeptide block copolymers showed sol-gel phase transitions similar to the parent copolymers. Interestingly, the incorporation of galactose groups into the hydrogels was found to improve cell adhesion, likely due to the adsorption of fibronectin (FN) in cell-extracellular matrix (ECM). Because bioactive materials have shown unique advantages in biomedical applications, especially tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications, we believe our novel functionalizable thermosensitive hydrogels have potential to serve as a versatile platform for the development of new biofunctional materials, for example, bioadhesive and bioresponsive hydrogels. PMID:23311471

Cheng, Yilong; He, Chaoliang; Xiao, Chunsheng; Ding, Jianxun; Cui, Haitao; Zhuang, Xiuli; Chen, Xuesi



Skin Cancer  


... young men. 12 Survival rates Basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas are the two most common forms of skin ... if detected early. 2 Both basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas have cure rates approaching 95 percent if detected ...


Skin Cancer  


... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...


Are dietary bioactives ready for recommended intakes?  


Research has shown that numerous dietary bioactive components that are not considered essential may still be beneficial to health. The dietary reference intake (DRI) process has been applied to nonessential nutrients, such as fiber, yet the majority of bioactive components await a recommended intake. Despite a plethora of new research over the past several years on the health effects of bioactives, it is possible that the field may never reach a point where the current DRI framework is suitable for these food components. If bioactives are to move toward dietary guidance, they will likely require an alternative path to get there. PMID:24038250

Gaine, P Courtney; Balentine, Douglas A; Erdman, John W; Dwyer, Johanna T; Ellwood, Kathleen C; Hu, Frank B; Russell, Robert M



Bioactivity of tape cast and sintered bioactive glass-ceramic in simulated body fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common ceramic processing technique, tape casting, was used to produce thin, flexible sheets of bioactive glass (Bioglass® 45S5) particulate in an organic matrix. Tape casting offers the possibility of producing three-dimensional shapes, as the final material is built up layer by layer. Bioactive glass tapes were sintered together to form small discs for in vitro bioactivity testing in simulated

Daniel C. Clupper; John J. Mecholsky; Guy P. LaTorre; David C. Greenspan



A Versatile CCD Wave Front Curvature Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small-format CCD detectors are well suited to wave front sensing applications. The prototype wave front sensor described here is based on a low-noise frame transfer 64x64 device with a DSP56002-based controller. The subaperture patterns necessary for curvature sensing are formed by extensive serial register binning. The reduced number of pixels allows rapid frame rates with low readout noise. The CCD is thermoelectrically cooled to minimize dark current. Versatility is achieved by having the serial binning pattern and the number of subapertures under software control.

Burley, G. S.; Walker, G. A. H.; Johnson, R.



Lunasin Is Prevalent in Barley and Is Bioavailable and Bioactive in In Vivo and In Vitro Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lunasin, a unique 43-amino acid peptide found in a number of seeds, has been shown to be chemopreventive in mammalian cells and in a skin cancer mouse model. To elucidate the role of cereals in cancer prevention, we report here the prevalence, bioavailability, and bioactivity of lunasin from barley. Lunasin is present in all cultivars of barley analyzed. The liver

Hyung Jin Jeong; Jin Boo Jeong; Chia Chien Hsieh; Blanca Hernández-Ledesma; Ben O. de Lumen



VISYTER: versatile and integrated system for telerehabilitation.  


The versatile and integrated system for telerehabilitation (VISYTER) is a software platform for developing various telerehabilitation applications. VISYTER has been designed to take into account the environments and requirements of rehabilitation services. The requirements considered in the platform design include minimal equipment beyond what is available in many rehabilitation settings, minimal maintenance, and ease of setup and operation. In addition, the platform has been designed to be able to adjust to different bandwidths, ranging from the very fast new generation of Internet to residential broadband connections. VISYTER is a secure integrated system that combines high-quality videoconferencing with access to electronic health records and other key tools in telerehabilitation such as stimuli presentation, remote multiple camera control, remote control of the display screen, and an eye contact teleprompter. The software platform is suitable for supporting low-volume services to homes, yet scalable to support high-volume enterprise-wide telehealth services. The VISYTER system has been used to develop a number of telerehabilitation applications, including a remote wheelchair prescription, adult autistic assessments, and international physical therapy teleconsultations. An evaluation of VISYTER for delivering a remote wheelchair prescription was conducted on 48 participants. Results of the evaluation indicate a high level of satisfaction from patients with the use of VISYTER. The versatility and cost-effectiveness of the platform has the potential for a wide range of telerehabilitation applications and potentially may lower the technical and economic barriers of telemedicine adoption. PMID:21034239

Parmanto, Bambang; Saptono, Andi; Pramana, Gede; Pulantara, Wayan; Schein, Richard M; Schmeler, Mark R; McCue, Michael P; Brienza, David M



Versatility of MicroRNA Biogenesis  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short single-stranded RNA molecules that regulate gene expression. MiRNAs originate from large primary (pri) and precursor (pre) transcripts that undergo various processing steps along their biogenesis pathway till they reach their mature and functional form. It is not clear, however, whether all miRNAs are processed similarly. Here we show that the ratio between pre-miRNA and mature miRNA forms varies between different miRNAs. Moreover, over-expression of several factors involved in miRNA biogenesis, including Exportin-5, Drosha, NF90a, NF45 and KSRP, displayed bidirectional effects on pre/mature miRNA ratios, suggesting their intricate biogenesis sensitivity. In an attempt to identify additional factors that might explain the versatility in miRNA biogenesis we have analyzed the contribution of two hnRNP family members, hnRNPH1 and hnRNPR. Knock-down or over-expression of these genes suggested that hnRNPR inhibits, whereas hnRNPH1 facilitates, miRNA processing. Overall, our results emphasize that miRNA biogenesis is versatile.

Volk, Naama; Shomron, Noam



Versatility of MicroRNA biogenesis.  


MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short single-stranded RNA molecules that regulate gene expression. MiRNAs originate from large primary (pri) and precursor (pre) transcripts that undergo various processing steps along their biogenesis pathway till they reach their mature and functional form. It is not clear, however, whether all miRNAs are processed similarly. Here we show that the ratio between pre-miRNA and mature miRNA forms varies between different miRNAs. Moreover, over-expression of several factors involved in miRNA biogenesis, including Exportin-5, Drosha, NF90a, NF45 and KSRP, displayed bidirectional effects on pre/mature miRNA ratios, suggesting their intricate biogenesis sensitivity. In an attempt to identify additional factors that might explain the versatility in miRNA biogenesis we have analyzed the contribution of two hnRNP family members, hnRNPH1 and hnRNPR. Knock-down or over-expression of these genes suggested that hnRNPR inhibits, whereas hnRNPH1 facilitates, miRNA processing. Overall, our results emphasize that miRNA biogenesis is versatile. PMID:21572999

Volk, Naama; Shomron, Noam



Versatile smart optical material characterizer system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A versatile optical characterization system is fabricated to measure various optical properties of materials and devices. The optical system is based on Michelson interferometer with advanced software algorithm to measure the intensity, phase angle, polarization state, and coherence of transmitted or reflected light from the materials and devices under test. Innovative contour map of phase/intensity vs. time/physical-quantity relation shows the dynamic evolution of interference patterns of multiple points in the analysis area. Advanced software semi-automatically calculates change of photon intensity, phase angle, polarization, and coherence which are results of various applied physical quantities such as voltage, electric field, current, temperature, pressure, chemical density, and reaction time. The measured optical property changes are converted by software to the changes of intrinsic and extrinsic properties of materials and devices under test. The system is designed for multi-point measurements which are suitable for 2D-array-pixel type devices. Therefore, this versatile optical measurement system can accelerate the development of advanced adaptive optics elements and phase control elements.

Park, Yeonjoon; Park, Sangjoon; Lee, Uhn; Lee, Kunik; Choi, Sang



A Versatile Ion Injector at KACST  

SciTech Connect

A versatile ion-beam injector is presently being constructed at the National Centre for Mathematics and Physics (NCMP) at the King Abdul-Aziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Saudi Arabia. This versatile injector will provide an electrostatic storage ring with high-quality ion beams of energies up to 30 keV per charge q. It will also allow for crossed-beams experiments in single-pass setups. The injector has been designed to include beams from two different ion sources, switched by a 90 deg. deflection setup, and to allow for matching of the beam parameters to the Twiss parameters of the ring. The injector is equipped with two crossed beam-lines (inlets), with duplicated beam extraction and acceleration systems. As part of the initial setup, a simple electric discharge ion source has been developed for commissioning of the whole injector. In this paper, we report on the ion optics layout and the design parameters of the injector.

El Ghazaly, M. O. A. [NCMP, KACST, 11442 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, Faculty of science, King Khalid University, PO Box 9003 Abha (Saudi Arabia); Behery, S. A.; Almuqhim, A. A. [NCMP, KACST, 11442 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Papash, A. I. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Welsch, C. P. [Cockcroft Institute and University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom)



Bioactive Properties of Wild Blueberry Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Bioactive extracts from wild blueberries were isolated, fractionated, and analyzed. Antioxidant activity, cardioprotective capacity, and ability to inhibit the initiation stage of chemically-induced carcinogenesis were evaluated. Many fractions had antioxidant activity, especially those rich in anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins. The ease of isolation of bioactive compounds and the ability to obtain accurate bioassays depended strongly on the source material used.

M. A. L. Smith; K. A. Marley; D. Seigler; K. W. Singletary; B. Meline



Bioactivity of plasma implanted biomaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII&D) is an effective technique to enhance the surface bioactivity of materials. In this paper, recent progress made in our laboratory on plasma surface modification of biomedical materials is described. NiTi alloys have unique super-elastic and shape memory properties and are suitable for orthopedic implants but the leaching of toxic Ni may pose health hazards in humans. We have recently investigated the use of acetylene, oxygen and nitrogen PIII&D to prevent out-diffusion of nickel and good results have been obtained. Silicon is the most important material in the microelectronics industry but its surface biocompatibility has not been investigated in details. We have recently performed hydrogen PIII into silicon to improve the surface bioactivity and observed biomimetic growth of apatite on the surface in simulated body fluids. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is widely used in the industry due to its excellent mechanical properties and chemical inertness and by incorporation of elements such as nitrogen and phosphorus, the surface blood compatibility can be improved. The properties as well as in vitro biological test results are discussed in this article.

Chu, Paul K.



Laser cladding of bioactive glass coatings.  


Laser cladding by powder injection has been used to produce bioactive glass coatings on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) substrates. Bioactive glass compositions alternative to 45S5 Bioglass were demonstrated to exhibit a gradual wetting angle-temperature evolution and therefore a more homogeneous deposition of the coating over the substrate was achieved. Among the different compositions studied, the S520 bioactive glass showed smoother wetting angle-temperature behavior and was successfully used as precursor material to produce bioactive coatings. Coatings processed using a Nd:YAG laser presented calcium silicate crystallization at the surface, with a uniform composition along the coating cross-section, and no significant dilution of the titanium alloy was observed. These coatings maintain similar bioactivity to that of the precursor material as demonstrated by immersion in simulated body fluid. PMID:19671459

Comesaña, R; Quintero, F; Lusquiños, F; Pascual, M J; Boutinguiza, M; Durán, A; Pou, J



Surface modification of bioactive glasses and preparation of PDLLA/bioactive glass composite films.  


In order to improve the homogeneous dispersion of particles in the polymeric matrix, 45S5, mesoporous 58S, and 58S bioactive glasses were surface modified by esterification reactions with dodecyl alcohol at reflux temperature of 260 degrees C (named as m-45S5, m-mesoporous 58S, and m-58S, respectively). The modified particles showed better hydrophobicity and longer time of suspension in organic matrix. The PDLLA/bioactive glass composite films were fabricated using surface modified bioactive glass particles through solvent casting-evaporation method. Surface morphology, mechanical property, and bioactivity were investigated. The results revealed that the inorganic particle distribution and tensile strength of the composite films with modified bioactive glass particles were significantly improved while great bioactive properties were maintained. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation illustrated that the modified bioactive glass particles were homogeneously dispersed in the PDLLA matrix. The maximum tensile strengths of composite films with modified bioactive glass particles were higher than that of composite films with unmodified bioactive glass particles. The bioactivity of the composite films were evaluated by being soaked in the simulated body fluid (SBF) and the SEM observation of the films suggested that the modified composite films were still bioactive in that they could induce the formation of HAp on its surface and the distribution of HAp was even more homogeneous on the film. The results mentioned above indicated that the surface modification of bioactive glasses with dodecyl alcohol was an effective method to prepare PDLLA/bioactive glass composites with enhanced properties. By studying the comparisons of modification effects among the three types of bioactive glasses, we could get the conclusion that the size and morphology of the inorganic particles would greatly affect the modification effects and the properties of composites. PMID:18801895

Gao, Yuan; Chang, Jiang



Skin Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

How does the notion of colorblind equality fit with the social and economic realities of black Americans? Challenging the increasingly popular argument that blacks should settle down, stop whining, and get jobs, Skin Trade insists that racism remains America's premier national story and its grossest national product. From Aunt Jemima Pancakes to ethnic Barbie dolls, corporate America peddles racial and

Ann duCille



Physiological versatility of the genus Rhodocista.  


A new purple bacterium (strain T4), capable of heterotrophic aerobic and phototrophic anaerobic growth, was isolated from waste water of a noodle factory near Hanoi, Vietnam. A comparison of 16S rDNA sequences revealed its association with the genus Rhodocista. The isolate, tentatively named "Rhodocista hanoiensis", forms cysts after growth on butyrate-containing plates at 42 degrees C. The vegetative cells form short (under aerobic conditions) or long curve-shaped rods. In contrast to other species of this genus T4 does not need any supplines (growth factors, not synthesized by the organisms). Comparative studies of T4 with Rhodocista centenaria (Rhodospirillum centenum) and Rhodocista pekingensis revealed a remarkable physiological versatility regarding nutrient spectra and survival properties of this genus. PMID:17913074

Do, Thi To Uyen; Tran, Van Nhi; Kleiner, Diethelm


How versatile are inositol phosphate kinases?  

PubMed Central

This review assesses the extent and the significance of catalytic versatility shown by several inositol phosphate kinases: the inositol phosphate multikinase, the reversible Ins(1,3,4) P (3)/Ins(3,4,5,6) P (4) kinase, and the kinases that synthesize diphosphoinositol polyphosphates. Particular emphasis is placed upon data that are relevant to the situation in vivo. It will be shown that catalytic promiscuity towards different inositol phosphates is not typically an evolutionary compromise, but instead is sometimes exploited to facilitate tight regulation of physiological processes. This multifunctionality can add to the complexity with which inositol signalling pathways interact. This review also assesses some proposed additional functions for the catalytic domains, including transcriptional regulation, protein kinase activity and control by molecular 'switching', all in the context of growing interest in 'moonlighting' (gene-sharing) proteins.

Shears, Stephen B



Functional versatility supports coral reef biodiversity  

PubMed Central

We explore the role of specialization in supporting species coexistence in high-diversity ecosystems. Using a novel ordination-based method to quantify specialist and generalist feeding structures and diets we examined the relationship between morphology and diet in 120 wrasses and parrotfishes from the Great Barrier Reef. We find that wrasses, despite their morphological diversity, exhibit weak links between morphology and diet and that specialist morphologies do not necessarily equate to specialized diets. The dominant pattern shows extensive overlap in morphology (functional morphospace occupation) among trophic groups; fish with a given morphology may have a number of feeding modes. Such trophic versatility may lay the foundation for both the origins and maintenance of high biodiversity on coral reefs.

Bellwood, D.R; Wainwright, P.C; Fulton, C.J; Hoey, A.S



A new, versatile Stirling energy conversion unit  

SciTech Connect

A new concept in Stirling engine technology is embodied in the ''Base Engine'' now being developed at Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc. This is a versatile energy conversion unit suitable for many different applications and heat sources. The Base Engine, rated at 40 kw at 2800 rpm, is a four cylinder, double acting, variable displacement Stirling engine. It incorporates remote-heating technology with a stacked-heat-exchanger configuration and a liquid metal heat pipe connected to a distinctly separate combustor or other heat source. It specifically emphasizes high efficiency over a wide range of operating conditions, long life, low manufacturing cost and low material cost. This paper describes the Base Engine, its design philosophy and approach, its projected performance, and some of its more attractive applications.

Meijer, R.J.; Ziph, B.



Design of a versatile ESQ transport system  

SciTech Connect

A versatile precision beam transport channel was built with inexpensive parts requiring minimum precision machining. The critical items, an optical bench and sliding bases are commercially available standard items. The only important precision machining is illustrated, where a small section of an optical bench is used as a quadrupole assembly holding fixture. With this type of fixturing there is no loss of precision during the transfer of the quadrupole assembly from the EDM setup onto the final assembly, other than the manufacturer-specified mounting and dismounting tolerance. Displacement measurements of the pole tips taken on ten different quadrupole assemblies determined that RMS displacement in the x direction was .000307 and in the y direction was .000290. The actual performance of this system will be presented in other papers at this conference by A.W. Maschke and E.F. Meier.

Brodowski, J.



PRALINE: A Versatile Multiple Sequence Alignment Toolkit.  


Profile ALIgNmEnt (PRALINE) is a versatile multiple sequence alignment toolkit. In its main alignment protocol, PRALINE follows the global progressive alignment algorithm. It provides various alignment optimization strategies to address the different situations that call for protein multiple sequence alignment: global profile preprocessing, homology-extended alignment, secondary structure-guided alignment, and transmembrane aware alignment. A number of combinations of these strategies are enabled as well.PRALINE is accessible via the online server . The server facilitates extensive visualization possibilities aiding the interpretation of alignments generated, which can be written out in pdf format for publication purposes. PRALINE also allows the sequences in the alignment to be represented in a dendrogram to show their mutual relationships according to the alignment. The chapter ends with a discussion of various issues occurring in multiple sequence alignment. PMID:24170407

Bawono, Punto; Heringa, Jaap



Versatile repair vessel tested in deep water  

SciTech Connect

Testing of a new subsea pipeline repair system in up to 1640 ft of water has been completed. The versatile system, integrated into a catamaran-type vessel, was to be operational by the end of 1985. The main characteristic of the Submersible Underwater Pipeline Repair and Work Apparatus (Supra) is its stable floating capability on the sea surface. Supra can be towed by a supply tug or diving support vessel at five knots in 13-ft waves. The system can be operated without the assistance of heavy-lift cranes or large barges. The developers claim Supra is highly independent of bad weather and sea conditions and can work 90% of the year. Since Supra is pressure-proof similar to a submarine, it can be submerged at sea by means of an integrated propulsion and ballast system and then maneuvered to the desired working location and positioned on the seabed by means of an underwater tracking and navigation system.

Not Available



Trait Empathy and Criminal Versatility in Sexual Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associations between trait empathy and criminal versatility were examined in a sample of 88 incarcerated adult sexual offenders (29 extrafamilial child molesters, 26 intrafamilial child molesters, and 33 rapists). Considerable criminal versatility was observed, with 60% of the whole sample and 88% of recidivist offenders having previous convictions for nonsexual offenses. Regression analyses showed significant associations between trait empathy and

Stephen W. Smallbone; Julia Wheaton; Donna Hourigan



Functional Significance of Bioactive Peptides Derived from Milk Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive peptides can be defined as protein fragments with potential biological activities. Milk proteins are precursors of many different biologically active peptides. Bioactive peptides from milk proteins are considered potential modulators of various regulatory processes in the body. They mediate physiological functions in cardiovascular, nervous, gastro intestinal and immune systems. The functional significance of bioactivities depends on peptide fragment. Bioactive

Samuel Mburu Kamau; Rong-Rong Lu; Wei Chen; Xiao-Ming Liu; Feng-Wei Tian; Yi Shen; Ting Gao



Allergy testing - skin  


Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test ... There are three common methods of allergy skin testing. The skin prick test involves: Placing a small amount of substances that may be causing your symptoms on the skin, ...


About MRSA Skin Infections  


... my family from MRSA skin infections? About MRSA Skin Infections: What is MRSA? MRSA is methicillin-resistant ... What are the signs and symptoms of MRSA skin infections? Most staph skin infections, including MRSA, appear ...


Skin Pigmentation Disorders  


Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...


Skin lesion of coccidioidomycosis  


... skin. The skin rash, or skin lesions, include erythema nodosum or erythema multiforme . They are thought to be ... the initial (primary) infection Erythema multiforme (target lesions) Erythema nodosum Papular rash Skin lesion of widespread (disseminated) disease: ...


Skin care and incontinence  


Incontinence - skin care ... in a wheelchair, regular chair, or bed TAKING CARE OF YOUR SKIN Using diapers and other products ... Over time, the skin can break down. Special care must be taken to keep the skin clean ...


Sol-gel derived porous bioactive nanocomposites: Synthesis and in vitro bioactivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous bioactive composites consisting of SiO2-CaO-Na2O-P2O5 bioactive glass-ceramic and synthetic water soluble polymer Polyvinylpyrrolidone [PVP (C6H9NO)n, MW~40000 g/mol] have been synthesized by sol-gel route. As-prepared polymeric composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Two major bone mineral phases, viz., hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] and wollastonite [calcium silicate (CaSiO3)] have been identified in the XRD patterns of the composites. Presence of these bone minerals indicates the bioactive nature of the composites. In vitro bioactivity tests confirm bioactivity in the porous composites. The flexibility offered by these bioactive polymer composites is advantageous for its application as implant material.

Shankhwar, Nisha; Kothiyal, G. P.; Srinivasan, A.



Amphibian Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the concept of permeability to better understand why amphibians are extremely sensitive to pollution. Learners soak one regular hard-boiled egg and one peeled hard-boiled egg in dyed water and then record how the eggs' circumference and appearance change after 24 hours. Learners investigate how the peeled egg represents amphibian skin and how amphibians are affected by pollution.

Aquarium, Omaha'S H.



Tribometrology of Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantitative assessment of both skin health and skin care products is suggested based on skin tribological properties. Simultaneous multi-sensor measurements of both coefficient of friction and contact electrical impedance allow for fast and quantitative evaluation of skin conditions such as dryness and moisturization, and early diagnosis of skin diseases or of the deterioration in skin functions at a stage

Norm Gitis; Raja Sivamani



The Science Inside Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science Inside Skin, created as part of the Skin Deep Project, offers readers a closer peek at the body's surface. Inside they'll find information about the three layers of skin, how skin changes during a lifetime, various skin ailments (ranging from acne to the three types of skin cancer), and sun safety.

Kirstin Fearnley (AAAS;)



Release of bioactive active iodine in kelp.  


The release process and influencing factors of bioactive iodine of kelp are systemically studied by leaching experiment. The results showed that the bioactive iodine of kelp can be released rapidly and the principal form of iodine in lixivium is I-. There is a dynamic process between the release and absorption of iodine. With the increase of leaching water, the gross amounts of released iodine rise. There also exists a transforming process among I-, IO3- and organic iodine in lixivium. PMID:16295897

Sun, Xiang-wu; Weng, Huan-xin; Qin, Ya-chao



Comparative analysis of the bioactivity of materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive materials are characterized by a high rate of formation of a carbonate-containing hydroxyapatite contact layer at\\u000a the implant-bone interface and by a moderate resorption capacity in weakly acidic media. In vitro tests simulating the precipitation\\u000a of hydroxyapatite from interstitial tissue fluid at the surface of a material are performed to evaluate the bioactivity of\\u000a a broad range of materials.

E. S. Kovaleva; A. G. Veresov; A. V. Soin; V. I. Putlyaev; Yu. D. Tret’yakov



On the versatility of von Willebrand factor.  


Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a large multimeric protein, the function of which has been demonstrated to be pivotal to the haemostatic system. Indeed, quantitative and/or qualitative abnormalities of VWF are associated with the bleeding disorder Von Willebrand disease (VWD). Moreover, increased plasma concentrations of VWF have been linked to an increased risk for thrombotic complications. In the previous decades, many studies have contributed to our understanding of how VWF is connected to the haemostatic system, particularly with regard to structure-function relationships. Interactive sites for important ligands of VWF (such as factor VIII, collagen, glycoprotein Ib?, integrin ?IIb?3 and protease ADAMTS13) have been identified, and mutagenesis studies have confirmed the physiological relevance of the interactions between VWF and these ligands. However, we have also become aware that VWF has a more versatile character than previously thought, given its potential role in various non-hemostatic processes, like intimal thickening, tumor cell apoptosis and inflammatory processes. In the presence review, a summary of our knowledge on VWF structure-function relationships is provided in the context of the "classical" haemostatic task of VWF and in perspective of pathological processes beyond haemostasis. PMID:23936617

Rauch, Antoine; Wohner, Nikolett; Christophe, Olivier D; Denis, Cécile V; Susen, Sophie; Lenting, Peter J



On the Versatility of von Willebrand Factor  

PubMed Central

Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a large multimeric protein, the function of which has been demonstrated to be pivotal to the haemostatic system. Indeed, quantitative and/or qualitative abnormalities of VWF are associated with the bleeding disorder Von Willebrand disease (VWD). Moreover, increased plasma concentrations of VWF have been linked to an increased risk for thrombotic complications. In the previous decades, many studies have contributed to our understanding of how VWF is connected to the haemostatic system, particularly with regard to structure-function relationships. Interactive sites for important ligands of VWF (such as factor VIII, collagen, glycoprotein Ib?, integrin ?IIb?3 and protease ADAMTS13) have been identified, and mutagenesis studies have confirmed the physiological relevance of the interactions between VWF and these ligands. However, we have also become aware that VWF has a more versatile character than previously thought, given its potential role in various non-hemostatic processes, like intimal thickening, tumor cell apoptosis and inflammatory processes. In the presence review, a summary of our knowledge on VWF structure-function relationships is provided in the context of the “classical” haemostatic task of VWF and in perspective of pathological processes beyond haemostasis.

Rauch, Antoine; Wohner, Nikolett; Christophe, Olivier D.; Denis, Cecile V.; Susen, Sophie; Lenting, Peter J.



Bioactive Constituents of Indigofera spicata.  


Four new flavanones, designated as (+)-5?-deacetylpurpurin (1), (+)-5-methoxypurpurin (2), (2S)-2,3-dihydrotephroglabrin (3), and (2S)-2,3-dihydrotephroapollin C (4), together with two known flavanones (5 and 6), three known rotenoids (7-9), and one known chalcone (10) were isolated from a chloroform-soluble partition of a methanol extract from the combined flowers, fruits, leaves, and twigs of Indigofera spicata, collected in Vietnam. The compounds were obtained by bioactivity-guided isolation using the HT-29 human colon cancer, 697 human acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and Raji human Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines. The structures of 1-4 were established by extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, and the absolute configurations were determined by the measurement of specific rotations and CD spectra. The cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds were tested against the HT-29, 697, Raji, and CCD-112CoN human normal colon cells. Also, the quinone reductase induction activities of the isolates were determined using the Hepa 1c1c7 murine hepatoma cell line. In addition, cis-(6a?,12a?)-hydroxyrotenone (7) was evaluated in an in vivo hollow fiber bioassay using HT-29, MCF-7 human breast cancer, and MDA-MB-435 human melanoma cells. PMID:23895019

Bueno Pérez, Lynette; Li, Jie; Lantvit, Daniel D; Pan, Li; Ninh, Tran Ngoc; Chai, Hee-Byung; Soejarto, Djaja Djendoel; Swanson, Steven M; Lucas, David M; Kinghorn, A Douglas



Bioactive compounds from Celaenodendron mexicanum.  


Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the CHCl3-MeOH extract of the leaves of Celaenodendron mexicanum by means of the brine shrimp lethality test and chromatographic techniques led to the isolation of three carboxylic acid triterpenes, the new tirucalla-type triterpene, 3 alpha-hydroxytirucalla-7,24Z-dien-26-oic acid, 3-oxotirucalla-7,24Z-dien-26-oic acid, and epi-oleanolic acid, and three biflavonoids amentoflavone, podocarpusflavone A, and podocarpusflavone B. Four non-active compounds friedelin, maytensifolin B, 3 beta-hydroxyfriedelan-16-one, and celaenodendrolide were also obtained. epi-Oleanolic acid was the most active against brine shrimps with LC50 value of 23.3 microM. In addition, all isolates were tested for in vitro antiprotozoal and cytotoxic activities. 3-Oxotirucalla-7,24Z-dien-26-oic acid and epi-oleanolic acid showed the highest activity against Leishmania donovani promastigotes with IC50 values of 13.7 and 18.8 microM, respectively. Only 3-oxotirucalla-7,24Z-dien-26-oic acid showed activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei bloodstream forms with IC50 value of 16.8 microM. PMID:10909269

Camacho, M R; Mata, R; Castaneda, P; Kirby, G C; Warhurst, D C; Croft, S L; Phillipson, J D



Protein Radicals in Fungal Versatile Peroxidase  

PubMed Central

Lignin-degrading peroxidases, a group of biotechnologically interesting enzymes, oxidize high redox potential aromatics via an exposed protein radical. Low temperature EPR of Pleurotus eryngii versatile peroxidase (VP) revealed, for the first time in a fungal peroxidase, the presence of a tryptophanyl radical in both the two-electron (VPI) and the one-electron (VPII) activated forms of the enzyme. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to substitute this tryptophan (Trp-164) by tyrosine and histidine residues. No changes in the crystal structure were observed, indicating that the modified behavior was due exclusively to the mutations introduced. EPR revealed the formation of tyrosyl radicals in both VPI and VPII of the W164Y variant. However, no protein radical was detected in the W164H variant, whose VPI spectrum indicated a porphyrin radical identical to that of the inactive W164S variant. Stopped-flow spectrophotometry showed that the W164Y mutation reduced 10-fold the apparent second-order rate constant for VPI reduction (k2app) by veratryl alcohol (VA), when compared with over 50-fold reduction in W164S, revealing some catalytic activity of the tyrosine radical. Its first-order rate constant (k2) was more affected than the dissociation constant (KD2). Moreover, VPII reduction by VA was impaired by the above mutations, revealing that the Trp-164 radical was involved in catalysis by both VPI and VPII. The low first-order rate constant (k3) values were similar for the W164Y, W164H, and W164S variants, indicating that the tyrosyl radical in VPII was not able to oxidize VA (in contrast with that observed for VPI). VPII self-reduction was also suppressed, revealing that Trp-164 is involved in this autocatalytic process.

Ruiz-Duenas, Francisco J.; Pogni, Rebecca; Morales, Maria; Giansanti, Stefania; Mate, Maria J.; Romero, Antonio; Martinez, Maria Jesus; Basosi, Riccardo; Martinez, Angel T.



Bioactivity of polycrystalline silicon layers.  


After oxygen, silicon is the second most abundant element in the environment and is present as an impurity in most materials. The widespread occurrence of siliceous biominerals as structural elements in lower plants and animals suggests that Si plays a role in the production and maintenance of connective tissue in higher organisms. It has been shown that the presence of Si is necessary in bones, cartilage and in the formation of connective tissue, as well as in some important metabolic processes. In this work, polycrystalline silicon layers are tested in terms of bioactivity, i.e., their ability to induce hydroxyapatite formation from simulated body fluid. Hydroxyapatite is a biologically compatible material with chemical similarity to the inorganic part of bones and teeth. Polycrystalline silicon layers are obtained by aluminum induced crystallization of Al and amorphous Si thin films deposited sequentially on glass substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and subsequently annealed in different atmospheres. The hydroxyapatite formation is induced by applying a method of laser-liquid-solid interaction. The method consists of irradiating the samples with laser light while immersed in a solution that is supersaturated with respect to Ca and P. As a result, heterogeneous porous sponge-like carbonate-containing hydroxyapatite is grown on the polysilicon surfaces. Crystals that are spherical in shape, containing Ca, P and O, Na, Cl, Mg, Al, Si and S, as well as well-faceted NaCl crystals are embedded in the hydroxyapatite layer. Enhancement of the hydroxyapatite growth and increased crystallinity is observed due to the applied laser-liquid-solid interaction. PMID:18464428

Pramatarova, Lilyana; Pecheva, Emilia; Montgomery, Paul; Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Petrov, Todor; Toth, Attila L; Dimitrova, Magdalena



SCI: Skin Cancer Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Skin Care Investigations offers students the chance to learn more about skin and skin cancer before entering the virtual world of Glowell Clinic, where they will spend time at the helpdesk answering callers' questions about skin protection and in the laboratory assessing whether skin abnormalities are cancerous or not. An interactive assessment allows students and teachers to gauge understanding at this level.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)



Cutaneous skin tag  


Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. It is usually small, but may be ...


Composite surgical sutures with bioactive glass coating.  


A processing method was developed to coat polyglactin 910 (Vicryl) sutures with bioactive glass powder (45S5 Bioglass). High reproducibility and homogeneity of the coating in terms of microstructure and thickness along the suture length were achieved. Bioglass-coated sutures exhibited a high level of chemical reactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF), indicating their bioactive behavior. This was evident by the prompt formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals on the surface after only 7 days of immersion in SBF. These crystals grew to form a thick HA layer (15 microm thickness) after 3 weeks in SBF. The tensile strength of the sutures was tested before and after immersion in SBF in order to assess the effect of the bioactive glass coating on suture degradation. The tensile strength of composite sutures was lower than that of as-received Vicryl sutures, 385 and 467 MPa, respectively. However, after 28 days of immersion in SBF the residual tensile strengths of coated and uncoated sutures were similar (83 and 88 MPa, respectively), indicating no negative effect of the HA layer formation on the suture strength. The effect of bioactive glass coating on the polymer degradation is discussed. The developed bioactive sutures represent interesting materials for applications in wound healing, fabrication of fibrous three-dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering, and reinforcement elements for calcium-phosphate temporary implants. PMID:14528459

Boccaccini, Aldo R; Stamboulis, Artemis G; Rashid, Azrina; Roether, Judith A



Coverage of skin defects without skin grafts using adipose-derived stem cells.  


A satisfying result is difficult to achieve in the repair of a full-thickness skin defect in the facial area, including the subunits of the nose. A full-thickness skin graft, nasolabial flap, or forehead flap as a major treatment still is used despite its relative potential for secondary contracture, unmatched skin color, hypertrophic scars, and donor-site morbidity. Another option, with good wound-healing power and soft tissue regeneration without skin grafts would be helpful for initiating treatment. Adult stem cells are a useful material in tissue engineering. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), an abundant population of pluripotent cells found in the stroma of adipose tissues, have been shown to differentiate in vitro into various cell lineages. As a robust source of bioactive growth factors, ADSCs contribute to recovery from ischemic damage, and they can promote the wound-healing process as well as soft tissue regeneration. The authors have experienced several cases of facial skin defect repair using ADSCs without skin grafts. In these cases, they observed rapid coverage of the wound with the patient's own regenerated tissue. During the treatment period, ADSC treatment showed an excellent wound-healing process in terms of quantity and quality. PMID:23877753

Jo, Dong In; Yang, Hyun Jin; Kim, Soon Heum; Kim, Cheol Keun; Park, Hyung Jun; Choi, Hyun Gon; Shin, Dong Hyeok; Uhm, Ki Il



A Versatile Medium for Cultivating Methanogenic Archaea  

PubMed Central

Background Methanobrevibacter smithii, Methanobrevibacter oralis, Methanosphaera stadtmanae, Methanomassilicoccus luminyensis and Methanobrevibacter arboriphilicus have been cultured from human digestive microbiota. Each one of these fastidious methanogenic archaea requires a specific medium for its growth, hampering their routine isolation and the culture. Methodology/Principal Findings A new culture medium here referred as SAB medium was optimized and tested to cultivate methanogens associated with human microbiota, as well as two mesophile methanogens Methanobacterium beijingense and Methanosaeta concilii. It was further tested for the isolation of archaea from 20 human stool specimens including 10 specimens testing positive for PCR detection of M. smithii. After inoculating 105 colony-forming-unit archaea/mL or 1 g stool specimen in parallel in SAB medium and reference DSMZ medium in the presence of negative controls, growth of archaea was determined by optical microscopy and the measurement of methane production by gas chromatography. While the negative controls remained sterile, all tested archaea grew significantly more rapidly in SAB medium than in reference medium in 1–3 days (P<0.05, Student test). Among PCR-positive stool specimens, 10/10 grew in the SAB medium, 6/10 in DSMZ 119 medium, 5/10 in DSMZ 322 medium and 3/10 in DSMZ 334 c medium. Four out of ten PCR-negative stool specimens grew after a 3-week incubation in the SAB-medium whereas no growth was detected in any of the reference media. 16S rRNA gene sequencing yielded 99–100% sequence similarity with reference M. smithii except for one specimen that yielded 99–100% sequence similarity with reference Methanobrevibacter millerae. Conclusions/Significance SAB medium allows for the versatile isolation and growth of methanogenic archaea associated with human gut microbiota including the archaea missed by inoculation of reference media. Implementation of the SAB medium in veterinary and medical microbiology laboratories will ease the routine culture-based detection of methanogenic archaea in clinical and environmental specimens.

Khelaifia, Saber; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel



Skin layers (image)  


... melanin provides a chemical pigment defense against ultraviolet light that can damage skin cells. Another important function of the skin is body temperature regulation. When the skin is exposed to a ...


Skin lesion KOH exam  


Potassium hydroxide examination of skin lesion ... The health care provider scrapes the lesion off your skin, using a blunt edge such as the edge of a microscope slide. The scrapings from the skin ...


Skin lesion biopsy  


Punch biopsy; Shave biopsy; Skin biopsy; Biopsy - skin ... There are several ways to do a skin biopsy. Most procedures can be easily done in outpatient medical offices or your doctor's office. Which procedure you have depends the location, size, ...


Tantalum—A bioactive metal for implants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metallic biomaterials currently in use for load-bearing orthopedic applications are mostly bioinert and therefore lack sufficient osseointegration. Although bioactive ceramics such as hydroxyapatite (HA) can spontaneously bond to living bone tissue, low fracture toughness of HA limits their use as a bone substitute for load-bearing applications. Surface modification techniques such as HA coating on metals are current options to improve osseointegration in load-bearing metal implants. Over the last few decades researchers have attempted to find a bioactive metal with high mechanical strength and excellent fatigue resistance that can bond chemically with surrounding bone for orthopedic applications. Recent in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies demonstrated that tantalum is a promising metal that is bioactive. However, tantalum applications in biomedical devices have been limited by processing challenges rather than biological performances. In this article, we provide an overview of processing aspects and biological properties of tantalum for load-bearing orthopedic applications.

Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Bose, Susmita; Davies, Neal M.; Bandyopadhyay, Amit



[Chemical principles and bioactivities of blueberry].  


The bioactive principles contained in blueberries (Vaccinium) are various kind of anthocyanins (anthocyanidins, or phenolic aglycone, conjugated with sugar), chlorogenic acid, flavonids, alpha-linolenic acid, pterostilbene, resveratrol, and vitamins. After oral administration, anthocyanins can pass through blood-brain barrier and thus appear in various organs and brain. Improve visual function by increasing rhodopsin regeneration and ocular health is the earliest reported bioactivities of anthocyanin. Recent studies demonstrated the benefit of blueberries to prevent the age-related chronic diseases such as cancer, diabeties, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, neurodegeneration, obesity, and osteoporosis through its apoptosis, antioxidant, antiinflammation, and antiangiogenesis effects. Blueberries can eradicate microorganisms for the prevention of symptomatic urinary tract infections in women. Thus, blueberries are recognized as one of the most nutritious foods and cultivated worldwide. However, how to prolong the shelving time of fresh fruit, well utilize the leaf and stem to isolate the bioactive chemicals, improve quality consistency of juicy and dry products, all should be further concerned. PMID:21355205

Chen, Chieh-fu; Li, Ya-dong; Xu, Zhe



Incorporation of bioactive materials into integrated systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandia is exploring two classes of integrated systems involving bioactive materials: 1) microfluidic systems that can be used to manipulate biomolecules for applications ranging from counter-terrorism to drug delivery systems, and 2) fluidic systems in which active biomolecules such as motor proteins provide specific functions such as active transport. An example of the first class involves the development of a reversible protein trap based on the integration of the thermally-switchable polymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)(PNIPAM) into a micro-hotplate device. To exemplify the second class, we describe the technical challenges associated with integrating microtubules and motor proteins into microfluidic systems for: 1) the active transport of nanoparticle cargo, or 2) templated growth of high-aspect ratio nanowires. These examples illustrate the functions of bioactive materials, synthesis and fabrication issues, mechanisms for switching surface chemistry and active transport, and new techniques such as the interfacial force microscope (IFM) that can be used to characterize bioactive surfaces.

Bunker, Bruce C.; Huber, Dale L.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Kim, Byung-Il; Boal, Andrew K.; Bachand, George D.; Rivera, Susan B.; Bauer, Joseph M.; Matzke, Carolyn M.



Skin discoloration - bluish  


Lips - bluish; Fingernails - bluish; Cyanosis; Bluish lips and fingernails; Bluish skin ... have a bluish color to their skin, called cyanosis. Depending on the cause, cyanosis may develop suddenly, ...


Interactions of bioactive glass materials in the oral environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research was to investigate bioactive glass materials for their use in dental restorations. Mechanical properties such as strength, toughness and wear resistance were considered initially, but the focus of this thesis was the biological properties such as reactions with saliva and interactions with natural dental tissues. Bioactive composite materials were created by incorporating bioactive glass and

Sarah Elizabeth Efflandt




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Consumption of tree nuts such as almonds has been associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. Flavonoids, found predominantly in the skin, may contribute to this putative health benefit of almonds, but their bioactivity and bioavailability have not previously been studied. Almond skin ...


The Preparation and Properties of Bioactive Composites Based on Modification Bioactive Glass and Poly(Lactide-Co-Glycolide)  

Microsoft Academic Search

PLGA\\/bioactive glass composites were prepared as promising bone-repairing materials. The bioactive glass was fabricated by Sol-gel method. Surface Modification was done to improve the phase compatibility between polymer and the inorganic phase. PLGA\\/bioactive glass composites were successfully prepared via solution dispersion method. Composites films with different content of bioactive glass were obtained. The mechanical properties of composites were characterized by

Jian Chen; Xin Fan; Zhongcheng Zhou; Jianpeng Zou; Jianming Ruan



The use of Psidium guajava Linn. in treating wound, skin and soft tissue infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial potential of the crude leaves extracts of Psidium guajava Linn. against some bacteria associated with surgical wound, burns, skin and soft tissue infections were investigated under different conditions. Phytochemical screening of the crude leaves extracts revealed the presence of some bioactive compounds that have been associated with antimicrobial activities. Aqueous extracts was more potent in inhibiting the growth

El-Mahmood Muhammad Abubakar


Estimating error rates in bioactivity databases.  


Bioactivity databases are routinely used in drug discovery to look-up and, using prediction tools, to predict potential targets for small molecules. These databases are typically manually curated from patents and scientific articles. Apart from errors in the source document, the human factor can cause errors during the extraction process. These errors can lead to wrong decisions in the early drug discovery process. In the current work, we have compared bioactivity data from three large databases (ChEMBL, Liceptor, and WOMBAT) who have curated data from the same source documents. As a result, we are able to report error rate estimates for individual activity parameters and individual bioactivity databases. Small molecule structures have the greatest estimated error rate followed by target, activity value, and activity type. This order is also reflected in supplier-specific error rate estimates. The results are also useful in identifying data points for recuration. We hope the results will lead to a more widespread awareness among scientists on the frequencies and types of errors in bioactivity data. PMID:24160896

Tiikkainen, Pekka; Bellis, Louisa; Light, Yvonne; Franke, Lutz



Methoxylation enhances stilbene bioactivity in Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Stilbenes are 1,2-diphenylethylene congeners produced by plants in response to stress. Many stilbenes also exhibit xenobiotic activities in animal cells, such as inhibition of cancer cell growth, neuroprotection, and immune modulation. In vivo, hydroxylated stilbenes are metabolized by glucuronidation to facilitate excretion. Methoxylated stilbenes are metabolized more slowly, which may have a positive effect on in vivo bioactivity. Here,

Mark A Wilson; Agnes M Rimando; Catherine A Wolkow



Food Composition Databases for Bioactive Food Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

A search of the scientific literature and other sources was undertaken to identify and locate data and databases on the presence and amount of bioactive components in foods. The goals were to determine the availability of such data and databases; develop an annotated bibliography; and suggest the next steps to be taken with regard to the development of food composition

Jean A. T. Pennington



Bromophenols in Marine Algae and Their Bioactivities  

PubMed Central

Marine algae contain various bromophenols that have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-thrombotic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress of these marine algal biomaterials, with respect to structure, bioactivities, and their potential application as pharmaceuticals.

Liu, Ming; Hansen, Poul Erik; Lin, Xiukun



Tantalum---A bioactive metal for implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metallic biomaterials currently in use for load-bearing orthopedic applications are mostly bioinert and therefore lack sufficient osseointegration. Although bioactive ceramics such as hydroxyapatite (HA) can spontaneously bond to living bone tissue, low fracture toughness of HA limits their use as a bone substitute for load-bearing applications. Surface modification techniques such as HA coating on metals are current options to improve

Vamsi Krishna Balla; Susmita Bose; Neal M. Davies; Amit Bandyopadhyay



Bioactive alkaloids from medicinal plants of Bhutan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural products had been indispensably used by many cultures and traditions in folklore medicines for thousands of years. These traditional medicines cater to about 85% of the world population for their primary health care needs. Natural products have been intensively explored also for their bioactive pharmacophores by modern pharmaceutical companies. In fact they are the skeletal framework of about 60%

Phurpa Wangchuk



Caring for Tattooed Skin  


... with the tattoo ink, causing a painful skin reaction. The UV light also can cause inks in tattoos to fade. If your tattooed skin feels dry, apply a water-based lotion or cream. ... If you have a skin reaction or see your tattooed skin changing in any ...


Skin Texture Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative characterization of skin appearance is an important but difficult task. The skin surface is a detailed landscape, with complex geometry and local optical properties. In addition, skin features depend on many variables such as body location (e.g. forehead, cheek), subject parameters (age, gender) and imaging parameters (lighting, camera). As with many real world surfaces, skin appearance is strongly affected

Oana G. Cula; Kristin J. Dana; Frank P. Murphy; Babar K. Rao



Thermal analysis and in vitro bioactivity of bioactive glass-alumina composites  

SciTech Connect

Bioactive glass-alumina composite (BA) pellets were fabricated in the range 95/5-60/40 wt.% respectively and were heat-treated under a specific thermal treatment up to 950 {sup o}C. Control (unheated) and heat-treated pellets were immersed in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) for bioactivity testing. All pellets before and after immersion in SBF were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. All composite pellets presented bioactive response. On the surface of the heat-treated pellets the development of a rich biological hydroxyapatite (HAp) layer was delayed for one day, compared to the respective control pellets. Independent of the proportion of the two components, all composites of each group (control and heat-treated) presented the same bioactive response as a function of immersion time in SBF. It was found that by the applied methodology, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be successfully applied in bioactive glass composites without obstructing their bioactive response. - Research Highlights: {yields} Isostatically pressed glass-alumina composites presented apatite-forming ability. {yields} The interaction with SBF resulted in an aluminium phosphate phase formation. {yields} The formation of an aluminium phosphate phase enhanced the in vitro apatite growth.

Chatzistavrou, Xanthippi, E-mail: [Solid State Physics Section, Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kantiranis, Nikolaos, E-mail: [School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kontonasaki, Eleana, E-mail: [School of Dentistry, Department of Fixed Prosthesis and Implant Prosthodontics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Chrissafis, Konstantinos, E-mail: [Solid State Physics Section, Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Papadopoulou, Labrini, E-mail: [School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Koidis, Petros, E-mail: [School of Dentistry, Department of Fixed Prosthesis and Implant Prosthodontics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Boccaccini, Aldo R., E-mail: [Department of Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Imperial College, SW7 2AZ London (United Kingdom); Paraskevopoulos, Konstantinos M., E-mail: [Solid State Physics Section, Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)



Bioactive glass ceramics: properties and applications.  


Heat treatment of an MgO-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 glass gave a glass ceramic containing crystalline apatite (Ca10(PO4)6O,F2] and beta-wollastonite (CaO,SiO2) in an MgO-CaO-SiO2 glassy matrix. It showed bioactivity and a fairly high mechanical strength which decreased only slowly, even under load-bearing conditions in the body. It is used clinically as artificial vertebrae, iliac bones, etc. The bioactivity of this glass ceramic was attributed to apatite formation on its surface in the body. Dissolution of calcium and silicate ions from the glass ceramic was considered to play an important role in forming the surface apatite layer. It was shown that some new kinds of bioactive materials can be developed from CaO,SiO2-based glasses. Ceramics, metals and organic polymers coated with bone-like apatite were obtained when such materials were placed in the vicinity of a CaO,SiO2-based glass in a simulated body fluid. A bioactive bone cement which was hardened within 4 min and bonded to living bone, forming an apatite, was obtained by mixing a CaO,SiO2-based glass powder with a neutral ammonium phosphate solution. Its compressive strength reached 80 MPa comparable to that of poly(methyl methacrylate) within 3 d. A bioactive and ferromagnetic glass ceramic containing crystalline magnetite (Fe3O4) in a matrix of CaO,SiO2-based glassy and crystalline phases was obtained by a heat treatment of a Fe2O3-CaO.SiO2-B2O3-P2O5 glass. This glass ceramic was shown to be useful as thermoseeds for hyperthermia treatment of cancer. PMID:1878450

Kokubo, T



Versatility of Tissue Expander in Abdominal Wall Reconstruction After Removal of Vascular Malformations in Children.  


BACKGROUND: Children who had extensive abdominal wall vascular anomalies (VAs) face 3 common reconstructive options: either tolerating the complications of these lesions, exposure to repeated laser therapy session with its sequelae, or excision followed by a color-matched skin graft. The use of serial tissue expansion and excision of the affected skin offers a potentially better option under the right circumstances. Tissue expanders (TEs) have broad applicability but are not without complications. OBJECTIVE: To study the versatility of use of TEs in the management of children who had extensive VAs in their abdominal wall with special emphasis to the complications and children and parental satisfaction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective data collection of 12 patients' charts, operative data of 84 operative procedures, and follow-up visits. Statistical analysis done using Student t test significance and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Using 35 different sizes of TEs and 84 operative procedures in 9 boys and 3 girls aged from 2 to 12 years with different types of abdominal wall VAs revealed an overall complications rate of 20%. Child and parental satisfaction was found to be good overall. CONCLUSIONS: Tissue expander is a useful and feasible tool for reconstruction of the abdominal wall with extensive VAs in children; parents and children were satisfied and body image is acceptable. PMID:23728247

Fahmy, Mohamed A Baky



The cancer preventive seed peptide lunasin from rye is bioavailable and bioactive.  


Lunasin is a unique 43-amino acid peptide that has been shown to be chemopreventive in mammalian cells and in a skin cancer mouse model against oncogenes and chemical carcinogens. In search for new sources of lunasin and to better understand the role of cereals in cancer prevention, we report here the properties of lunasin from rye. The stability and bioavailability were measured by in vitro digestibility assay using pepsin and pancreatin and feeding rats with lunasin-enriched rye (LER). Inhibition of histone acetyl transferase (HAT) and nuclear localization in mammalian cells were used to measure lunasin bioactivity. Lunasin is present in 15 out of 21 cultivars of rye analyzed. Lunasin present in rye crude protein preparation is stable to pepsin and pancreatin in in vitro digestion. The liver, kidney, and blood of rats fed LER show the presence of lunasin in Western blot. Lunasin extracted from these tissues inhibits the activities of HATs, confirming that the peptide is intact and bioactive. Lunasin purified from rye internalizes in the nuclei of mouse fibroblast cells. We conclude that lunasin in rye is bioavailable and bioactive and that consumption of rye may play an important role of cancer prevention in rye-consuming populations. PMID:19838942

Jeong, Hyung Jin; Lee, Jeong Rak; Jeong, Jin Boo; Park, Jae Ho; Cheong, Young-keun; de Lumen, Ben O



Tissue viability imaging for quantification of skin erythema and blanching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Naked eye observation has up to recently been the main method of determining skin erythema (vasodilatation) and blanching (vasoconstriction) in skin testing. Since naked eye observation is a highly subjective and investigatordependent method, it is difficult to attain reproducibility and to compare results reported by different researchers performing their studies at different laboratories. Consequently there is a need for more objective, quantitative and versatile methods in the assessment of alterations in skin erythema and blanching caused by internal and external factors such as the intake of vasoactive drugs, application of agents on the skin surface and by constituents in the environment. Since skin microcirculation is sensitive to applied pressure and heat, such methods should preferably be noninvasive and designed for remote use without touching the skin. As skin microcirculation further possesses substantial spatial variability, imaging techniques are to be preferred before single point measurements. An emerging technology based on polarization digital camera spectroscopy - Tissue Viability Imaging (TiVi) - fulfills these requirements. The principles of TiVi (1) and some of its early applications (2-5) are addressed in this paper.

Nilsson, Gert E.; Leahy, Martin J.



Apparatus Drawings Project. Report Number 7. Versatile Mass Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extremely versatile mass spectrometer, suitable for an undergraduate laboratory and simple enough to be constructed by an average departmental shop, is described. The data obtained when using the potassium isotopes K41 and K39 indicate an instrument resolving power of 75. The auxiliary equipment required is conventional and inexpensive. The apparatus structure and construction techniques are described in detail.

Robert G. Marcley



A GSM-based versatile Unmanned Ground Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operations like radioactive waste handling, bomb disposal, surveillance, search and rescue are today performed mostly by humans at great risk to their own safety and well-being. In order to minimize direct human intervention in such operations, the design of a remotely operated versatile Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) mounted with a robotic manipulator is presented in this paper. The robustness, range

B. N. Binoy; A. Kaushik; T. Keerthana; Aswathy Sathees; P. R. Barani; A. S. Nair



Versatile Langmuir Probe for the Europa Jupiter Systems Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation outlines the design of a Versatile Langmuir Probe (VLP), intended to be deployed as a key instrument on the Europa Jupiter Systems Mission (EJSM) and other outer planet missions. The VLP will make in-situ planetary plasma particle, plasma wave, and electric field measurements that will be critical in developing a comprehensive picture of planetary processes. The VLP is

Robert Frampton; C. Fish; L. Peltz; P. Leung; F. Crary; J. Cressler




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Versatility and specificity are usually mutually exclusive terms. However, as we discull calcium's role in plant nutrition, we are obliged to contrast the plethora of general 'housekeeping' functions of this element against the ability of calcium (CA2+)to impart signaling specificity during biologi...


A comparative analysis of metal transportomes from metabolically versatile Pseudomonas  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The availability of complete genome sequences of versatile Pseudomonas occupying remarkably diverse ecological niches enabled to gain insights into their adaptative assets. The objective of this study was to analyze the complete genetic repertoires of metal transporters (metal transportomes) from four representative Pseudomonas species and to identify metal transporters with \\

Adhikarla Haritha; Agnes Rodrigue; Pamarthi Maruthi Mohan



A versatile fast low noise preamplifier in UHF bipolar technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low noise, low power, radiation hard, full-custom-integrated circuit has been studied in UHF1 Harris process for coupling with photodetectors of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter. A versatile new version of the prototype preamplifier has been designed with improved performances in terms of noise, dynamic range, and consumption. Experimental results using an avalanche photodiode in DC coupling mode to preamplifier are

M. Goyot



Versatile Desktop Experiment Module (DEMo) on Heat Transfer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper outlines a new Desktop Experiment Module (DEMo) engineered for a chemical engineering junior-level Heat Transfer course. This new DEMo learning tool is versatile, fairly inexpensive, and portable such that it can be positioned on student desks throughout a classroom. The DEMo system can illustrate conduction of various materials,…

Minerick, Adrienne R.



Recombinant expression of bioactive peptide lunasin in Escherichia coli.  


Lunasin, a cancer-preventive peptide, was isolated from soybean, barley, and wheat. Previous studies showed that this 43-amino acid peptide has the ability to suppress chemical carcinogen-induced transformation in mammalian cells and skin carcinogenesis in mice. In this study, we attempted to use the Escherichia coli T7 expression system for expression of lunasin. The lunasin gene was synthesized by overlapping extension polymerase chain reaction and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) with the use of vector pET29a. The recombinant lunasin containing his-tag at the C-terminus was expressed in soluble form which could be purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. After 4 h, the expression level is above 4.73 mg of recombinant his-tagged lunasin/L of Luria-Bertani broth. It does not affect the bacterial growth and expression levels. This is the first study that successfully uses E. coli as a host to produce valuable bioactive lunasin. The result of in vitro bioassay showed that the purified recombinant lunasin can inhibit histone acetylation. Recombinant lunasin also inhibits the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, and nitric oxide production). Compared with other research methods on extraction or chemical synthesis to produce lunasin, our method is very efficient in saving time and cost. In the future, it could be applied in medicine and structure-function determination. PMID:20625716

Liu, Chin-Feng; Pan, Tzu-Ming



Designing bioactive delivery systems for tissue regeneration.  


The direct infusion of macromolecules into defect sites generally does not impart adequate physiological responses. Without the protection of delivery systems, inductive molecules may likely redistribute away from their desired locale and are vulnerable to degradation. In order to achieve efficacy, large doses supplied at interval time periods are necessary, often at great expense and ensuing detrimental side effects. The selection of a delivery system plays an important role in the rate of re-growth and functionality of regenerating tissue: not only do the release kinetics of inductive molecules and their consequent bioactivities need to be considered, but also how the delivery system interacts and integrates with its surrounding host environment. In the current review, we describe the means of release of macromolecules from hydrogels, polymeric microspheres, and porous scaffolds along with the selection and utilization of bioactive delivery systems in a variety of tissue-engineering strategies. PMID:20676773

Davis, Hillary E; Leach, J Kent



Designing Bioactive Delivery Systems for Tissue Regeneration  

PubMed Central

The direct infusion of macromolecules into defect sites generally does not impart adequate physiological responses. Without the protection of delivery systems, inductive molecules may likely redistribute away from their desired locale and are vulnerable to degradation. In order to achieve efficacy, large doses supplied at interval time periods are necessary, often at great expense and ensuing detrimental side effects. The selection of a delivery system plays an important role in the rate of re-growth and functionality of regenerating tissue: not only do the release kinetics of inductive molecules and their consequent bioactivities need to be considered, but also how the delivery system interacts and integrates with its surrounding host environment. In the current review, we describe the means of release of macromolecules from hydrogels, polymeric microspheres, and porous scaffolds along with the selection and utilization of bioactive delivery systems in a variety of tissue-engineering strategies.

Davis, Hillary E.



A novel bioactive peptide from wasp venom  

PubMed Central

Wasp venoms contain a number of pharmacologically active biomolecules, undertaking a wide range of functions necessary for the wasp's survival. We purified and characterized a novel bioactive peptide (vespin) from the venoms of Vespa magnifica (Smith) wasps with unique primary structure. Its amino acid sequence was determined to be CYQRRVAITAGGLKHRLMSSLIIIIIIRINYLRDNSVIILESSY. It has 44 residues including 15 leucines or isoleucines (32%) in the sequence. Vespin showed contractile activity on isolated ileum smooth muscle. The cDNA encoding vespin precursor was cloned from the cDNA library of the venomous glands. The precursor consists of 67 amino acid residues including the predicted signal peptide and mature vespin. A di-basic enzymatic processing site (-KR-) is located between the signal peptide and the mature peptide. Vespin did not show similarity with any known proteins or peptides by BLAST search, suggesting it is a novel bioactive peptide from wasp venoms.

Chen, Lingling; Chen, Wenlin; Yang, Hailong; Lai, Ren



Engineering bioactive Peptide-based therapeutic molecules.  


Peptides are increasingly emerging as human therapeutic drugs. By screening very large phage display libraries, novel bioactive peptides that bind to the target of interest with desired biological properties can be identified. Peptides that are obtained in this fashion become the basis for therapeutic molecule development. However, naked peptides are usually not sufficient to be therapeutic molecules by themselves. They need to be chemically modified or conjugated to other molecules to obtain desired physicochemical and in vivo properties. In this chapter, we describe a general methodology of identifying bioactive peptides by biopanning of peptide phage libraries. As an example of therapeutic peptide modifications, we also describe a method for fusing the peptides to the Fc portion of antibody molecule to increase in vivo stability and activity. PMID:24146395

Ryu, Jong Sang; Cho, A Yeon; Seo, Sang Won; Min, Hosung



Skin decontamination with mineral cationic carrier against sarin determined in vivo.  


Our Institute's nuclear, biological, and chemical defense research team continuously investigates and develops preparations for skin decontamination against nerve agents. In this in vivo study, we evaluated skin decontamination efficacy against sarin by a synthetic preparation called Mineral Cationic Carrier (MCC) with known ion exchange, absorption efficacy and bioactive potential. Mice were treated with increasing doses of sarin applied on their skin, and MCC was administered immediately after contamination. The results showed that decontamination with MCC could achieve therapeutic efficacy corresponding to 3 x LD(50) of percutaneous sarin and call for further research. PMID:19581210

Vucemilovi?, Ante; Hadzija, Mirko; Juki?, Ivan



Efficacy of mineral cationic carrier against sulphur mustard in skin decontamination.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate decontamination (absorption) efficacy of a preparation called Mineral Cationic Carrier (MCC) against skin contamination with sulphur mustard in vivo. MCC is a synthetic preparation with known ion exchange, absorption efficiency, and bioactive potential. CBA mice were applied increasing doses of sulphur mustard on their skin and MCC was administered immediately after skin contamination. The results have confirmed the decontamination efficacy of MCC preparation, corresponding to 8.4 times the LD50 of percutaneous sulphur mustard, and call for further investigation. PMID:19064367

Vucemilovi?, Ante; Hadzija, Mirko; Juki?, Ivan



[Obtention of human skin sheets by means of tissue engineering].  


The aim of this "in vitro" study was to develop a new system for keratinocyte culture on a dermal equivalent that enables treatment of different skin injuries. The keratinocyte where obtained from primary cell cultures derived from skin biopsies, seeded over a fibrin matrix enhanced with live human fibroblast. Cells growing over the dermal equivalent, rapidly confluences and a stratified epithelium was obtained within 20-25 days culture. Detachment of composite culture from flask is a simple and quick procedure with no need for chemical or enzyme treatments. The method described provides a number of advantages which include the large expansion of keratinocyte from the primary cell cultures without the need of a feeder layer, the availability of plasma from blood banks, and the versatile and safe manipulation of composite obtained "in vitro". All these facts allow to assure that this system could result very efficient for the treatment of all type of skin injuries. PMID:15916167

Arvelo, Francisco; Pérez, Pedro; Cotte, Carlos



Bioactivity of tape cast and sintered bioactive glass-ceramic in simulated body fluid.  


A common ceramic processing technique, tape casting, was used to produce thin, flexible sheets of bioactive glass (Bioglass 45S5) particulate in an organic matrix. Tape casting offers the possibility of producing three-dimensional shapes, as the final material is built up layer by layer. Bioactive glass tapes were sintered together to form small discs for in vitro bioactivity testing in simulated body fluid (SBF). Four different sintering schedules were investigated: 800, 900, and 1000 degrees C for 3 h; and 1000 degrees C for 6 h. Each schedule produced a crystalline material of major phase Na2Ca2Si3O9. Tape cast and sintered bioactive glass-ceramic processed at 1000 degrees C formed crystalline hydroxyapatite layers after 20-24 h in SBF as indicated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, and EDS data. FTIR revealed that the greatest amount of hydroxyapatite formation after 2 h was observed for samples sintered at 900 degrees C. The differences in bioactive response were likely caused by the variation in the extent of sintering and, consequently, the amount of surface area available for reaction with SBF. PMID:12033609

Clupper, Daniel C; Mecholsky, John J; LaTorre, Guy P; Greenspan, David C



Bioactive natural products from endophytes: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytes, microorganisms that reside in the internal tissues of living plants without causing any immediate overt negative\\u000a effects, have been found in every plant species examined to date and recognized as potential sources of novel natural products\\u000a for exploitation in medicine, agriculture, and industry with more and more bioactive natural products isolated from the microorganisms.\\u000a In this review, we focus

B. Guo; Y. Wang; X. Sun; K. Tang



Novel bioactive constituents from Enhydra fluctuans LOUR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel bioactive isoflavone glycoside 4?,5,6,7-tetrahydroxy-8-methoxyisoflavone-7-O-?-D-galactopyranosyl-(1???3)-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(1???4)-O-?-l-rhamnopyranoside from the methanolic extract of the leaves of Enhydra fluctuans Lour. Its structure A was elucidated by various spectral analysis and chemical degradations. This compound exhibited microbial activity against various bacteria and fungi.

R. N. Yadava; S. K. Singh



Nanochemoprevention by Bioactive Food Components: A Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemoprevention through the use of bioactive food components is a practical approach for cancer control. Despite abundant\\u000a efficacy data under preclinical settings, this strategy has resulted in limited success for human cancer control. Amongst\\u000a many reasons, inefficient systemic delivery and bioavailability of promising chemopreventive agents are considered to significantly\\u000a contribute to such a disconnect. We recently introduced a novel concept

Imtiaz A. Siddiqui; Hasan Mukhtar



Tantalum—A bioactive metal for implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metallic biomaterials currently in use for load-bearing orthopedic applications are mostly bioinert and therefore lack sufficient\\u000a osseointegration. Although bioactive ceramics such as hydroxyapatite (HA) can spontaneously bond to living bone tissue, low\\u000a fracture toughness of HA limits their use as a bone substitute for load-bearing applications. Surface modification techniques\\u000a such as HA coating on metals are current options to improve

Vamsi Krishna Balla; Susmita Bose; Neal M. Davies; Amit Bandyopadhyay



Bioactive calcium silicate ceramics and coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

CaO–SiO2 based ceramics have been regarded as potential candidates for artificial bone due to their excellent bone bioactivity and biocompatibility. However, they cannot be used as implants under a heavy load because of their poor mechanical properties, in particular low fracture toughness. Plasma spraying CaO–SiO2 based ceramic coatings onto titanium alloys can expand their application to the hard tissue replacement

Xuanyong Liu; Marco Morra; Angelo Carpi; Baoe Li



Minimum information about a bioactive entity (MIABE).  


Bioactive molecules such as drugs, pesticides and food additives are produced in large numbers by many commercial and academic groups around the world. Enormous quantities of data are generated on the biological properties and quality of these molecules. Access to such data - both on licensed and commercially available compounds, and also on those that fail during development - is crucial for understanding how improved molecules could be developed. For example, computational analysis of aggregated data on molecules that are investigated in drug discovery programmes has led to a greater understanding of the properties of successful drugs. However, the information required to perform these analyses is rarely published, and when it is made available it is often missing crucial data or is in a format that is inappropriate for efficient data-mining. Here, we propose a solution: the definition of reporting guidelines for bioactive entities - the Minimum Information About a Bioactive Entity (MIABE) - which has been developed by representatives of pharmaceutical companies, data resource providers and academic groups. PMID:21878981

Orchard, Sandra; Al-Lazikani, Bissan; Bryant, Steve; Clark, Dominic; Calder, Elizabeth; Dix, Ian; Engkvist, Ola; Forster, Mark; Gaulton, Anna; Gilson, Michael; Glen, Robert; Grigorov, Martin; Hammond-Kosack, Kim; Harland, Lee; Hopkins, Andrew; Larminie, Christopher; Lynch, Nick; Mann, Romeena K; Murray-Rust, Peter; Lo Piparo, Elena; Southan, Christopher; Steinbeck, Christoph; Wishart, David; Hermjakob, Henning; Overington, John; Thornton, Janet



Plant bioactives for ruminant health and productivity.  


Plants have been used throughout history for their medicinal properties. This use has often focused on human health but plants have also been, and still are, applied in ethnoveterinary practice and animal health management. In recent times, the use of synthetic chemicals has become prevalent. Public awareness of the potential environmental and health risks associated with heavy chemical use has also increased. This has put pressure on regulatory bodies to reduce the use of chemicals in agriculture. The most striking example is the 2006 banning of antibiotics in animal feed by the European Union. Moves such as this have increased the drive to find alternatives to synthetic chemicals and research has again turned to the use of plant bioactives as a means of improving animal health. Current scientific evidence suggests there is significant potential to use plants to enhance animal health in general and that of ruminants (cattle, deer, sheep, etc.) in particular. Active areas of research for plant bioactives (particularly saponin and tannin containing plants) include reproductive efficiency, milk and meat quality improvement, foam production/bloat control and methane production. Nematode control is also a significant area of research and the evidence suggests a much broader range of phytochemicals may be effective. This review presents a summary of the literature and examines international research efforts towards the development of plant bioactives for animal health. PMID:17919666

Rochfort, Simone; Parker, Anthony J; Dunshea, Frank R



Bioactive peptides in amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) seed.  


Amaranth seeds are rich in protein with a high nutritional value, but little is known about their bioactive compounds that could benefit health. The objectives of this research were to investigate the presence, characterization, and the anticarcinogenic properties of the peptide lunasin in amaranth seeds. Furthermore, to predict and identify other peptides in amaranth seed with potential biological activities. ELISA showed an average concentration of 11.1 microg lunasin equivalent/g total extracted protein in four genotypes of mature amaranth seeds. Glutelin fraction had the highest lunasin concentration (3.0 microg/g). Lunasin was also identified in albumin, prolamin and globulin amaranth protein fractions and even in popped amaranth seeds. Western blot analysis revealed a band at 18.5 kDa, and MALDI-TOF analysis showed that this peptide matched more than 60% of the soybean lunasin peptide sequence. Glutelin extracts digested with trypsin, showed the induction of apoptosis against HeLa cells. Prediction of other bioactive peptides in amaranth globulins and glutelins were mainly antihypertensive. This is the first study that reports the presence of a lunasin-like peptide and other potentially bioactive peptides in amaranth protein fractions. PMID:18211015

Silva-Sánchez, C; de la Rosa, A P Barba; León-Galván, M F; de Lumen, B O; de León-Rodríguez, A; de Mejía, E González



Anti-inflammatory bioactivities in plant extracts.  


The medical ethnobotanical knowledge propagated over generations in the coastal regions of the Eastern Mediterranean, including Lebanon, is one that has built on several ancient cultures and civilizations of these regions. Recent interest in medical ethnobotany and the use of medicinal herbs in treating or preventing ailments has rejuvenated interest in folk medicine practices, especially those transcendent across generations. According to Eastern Mediterranean folk medicine practices, herbal remedies that treat many inflammation-related ailments were typically based on plant bioactive water extracts or decoctions. Studies have shown that active anti-inflammatory ingredients in water extracts include many natural chemicals such as phenols, alkaloids, glycosides, and carbohydrates. The intent of this manuscript is twofold: first, to review the literature that describes anti-inflammatory bioactivities in plant extracts of different plant genera; and second, to evaluate indigenous folk remedies used by folk doctors to treat inflammatory ailments in this region of the world. For this aim, the reported literature of five plant genera assumed to possess anti-inflammatory bioactivities and typically prescribed by folk doctors to treat inflammation-related ailments is reviewed. PMID:17472460

Talhouk, R S; Karam, C; Fostok, S; El-Jouni, W; Barbour, E K



Self-reinforced composites of bioabsorbable polymer and bioactive glass with different bioactive glass contents. Part I: Initial mechanical properties and bioactivity.  


Spherical bioactive glass 13-93 particles, with a particle size distribution of 50-125 microm, were combined with bioabsorbable poly-L,DL-lactide 70/30 using twin-screw extrusion. The composite rods containing 0, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt% of bioactive glass were further self-reinforced by drawing to a diameter of approximately 3 mm. The bioactive glass spheres were well dispersed and the open pores were formed on the composite surface during drawing. The initial mechanical properties were studied. The addition of bioactive glass reduced the bending strength, bending modulus, shear strength, compression strength and torsion strength of poly-L,DL-lactide. However, the strain at maximum bending load increased in self-reinforced composites. Initially brittle composites became ductile in self-reinforcing. The bioactivity was studied in phosphate buffered saline for up to 12 days. The formation of calcium phosphate precipitation was followed using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Results showed that the bioactive glass addition affected the initial mechanical properties and bioactivity of the composites. It was concluded that the optimal bioactive glass content depends on the applications of the composites. PMID:16701800

Niemelä, T; Niiranen, H; Kellomäki, M; Törmälä, P



A unique nickel system having versatile catalytic activity of biological significance.  


A new dinuclear nickel(II) complex, [Ni(2)(LH(2))(H(2)O)(2)(OH)(NO(3))](NO(3))(3) (1), of an "end-off" compartmental ligand 2,6-bis(N-ethylpiperazine-iminomethyl)-4-methyl-phenolato, has been synthesized and structurally characterized. The X-ray single crystal structure analysis shows that the piperazine moieties assume the expected chair conformation and are protonated. The complex 1 exhibits versatile catalytic activities of biological significance, viz. catecholase, phosphatase, and DNA cleavage activities, etc. The catecholase activity of the complex observed is very dependent on the nature of the solvent. In acetonitrile medium, the complex is inactive to exhibit catecholase activity. On the other hand, in methanol, it catalyzes not only the oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) but also tetrachlorocatechol (TCC), a catechol which is very difficult to oxidize, under aerobic conditions. UV-vis spectroscopic investigation shows that TCC oxidation proceeds through the formation of an intermediate. The intermediate has been characterized by an electron spray ionizaton-mass spectrometry study, which suggests a bidentate rather than a monodentate mode of TCC coordination in that intermediate, and this proposition have been verified by density functional theory calculation. The complex also exhibits phosphatase (with substrate p-nitrophenylphosphate) and DNA cleavage activities. The DNA cleavage activity exhibited by complex 1 most probably proceeds through a hydroxyl radical pathway. The bioactivity study suggests the possible applications of complex 1 as a site specific recognition of DNA and/or as an anticancer agent. PMID:20192227

Chattopadhyay, Tanmay; Mukherjee, Madhuparna; Mondal, Arindam; Maiti, Pali; Banerjee, Arpita; Banu, Kazi Sabnam; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Roy, Bappaditya; Chattopadhyay, D J; Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Nethaji, Munirathinam; Zangrando, Ennio; Das, Debasis



A hydrogel-based versatile screening platform for specific biomolecular recognition in a well plate format.  


Precise determination of biomolecular interactions in high throughput crucially depends on a surface coating technique that allows immobilization of a variety of interaction partners in a non-interacting environment. We present a one-step hydrogel coating system based on isocyanate functional six-arm poly(ethylene oxide)-based star polymers for commercially available 96-well microtiter plates that combines a straightforward and robust coating application with versatile bio-functionalization. This system generates resistance to unspecific protein adsorption and cell adhesion, as demonstrated with fluorescently labeled bovine serum albumin and primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDF), and high specificity for the assessment of biomolecular recognition processes when ligands are immobilized on this surface. One particular advantage is the wide range of biomolecules that can be immobilized and convert the per se inert coating into a specifically interacting surface. We here demonstrate the immobilization and quantification of a broad range of biochemically important ligands, such as peptide sequences GRGDS and GRGDSK-biotin, the broadly applicable coupler molecule biocytin, the protein fibronectin, and the carbohydrates N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetyllactosamine. A simplified protocol for an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was established for the detection and quantification of ligands on the coating surface. Cell adhesion on the peptide and protein-modified surfaces was assessed using HDF. All coatings were applied using a one-step preparation technique, including bioactivation, which makes the system suitable for high-throughput screening in a format that is compatible with the most routinely used testing systems. PMID:22367247

Beer, Meike V; Rech, Claudia; Diederichs, Sylvia; Hahn, Kathrin; Bruellhoff, Kristina; Möller, Martin; Elling, Lothar; Groll, Jürgen



CCR Connections - Skin Cancer

The epidermis, where the keratinocytes live, is a hotbed of cell turnover, Roop explained. This outer layer of our skin replaces itself every three to four weeks in humans. “Yet many of us develop skin cancer late in life.


Laser Skin Renewal  


... or Side Effects The range of potential side effects is listed below. Ablative: Redness Swelling Bleeding Oozing Crusting Infection Pain Skin color change (temporary or permanent) Acne flare Sensitive skin ...


Allergy Skin Tests  


Allergy skin tests Basics In-Depth Multimedia Resources Reprints A single copy of this article may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Allergy skin tests By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: ...


Learning about Skin Cancer  


... information, in skin cells, creating "misspellings" in their genetic code and, as a result, alter the function of those cells. Cancers generally are caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. With skin cancer, the environment plays a ...


Stress and Skin  


... their skin. For example, they often lack the energy and motivation to adhere to their skin care regimens, and there also might be signs of stress-related behaviors — such as scratching, pulling or rubbing — that can ...


Whatâs On My Skin?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, based on the Science Friday segment Life on Our Skin, students will formulate a hypothesis about which area of skin on their bodies may have the most or least amount or kinds of bacteria.

Science, Talking



Skin and Nerve Biopsies  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text VersionPage 1. Skin and Nerve Biopsies RA Malik Page 2. ... Nerve Biopsy • Evidence from Clinical Trials • Skin Biopsy • Evidence from Clinical Trials ... More results from


A Murine Living Skin Equivalent Amenable to Live-Cell Imaging: Analysis of the Roles of Connexins in the Epidermis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional (3D) organotypic models are increasingly used to study the aspects of epidermal organisation and cutaneous wound-healing events. However, these are largely dependent on laborious histological analysis and immunohistochemical approaches. Despite the large resource of transgenic and knockout mice harboring mutations relevant to skin disorders, few organotypic mouse skin models are available. We have developed a versatile in vitro 3D

Eve E Kandyba; Malcolm B Hodgins; Patricia E Martin



Automatic Skin Color Beautification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose an automatic skin beautification framework based on color-temperature-insensitive skin-color detection. To polish selected skin region, we apply bilateral filter to smooth the facial flaw. Last, we use Poisson image cloning to integrate the beautified parts into the original input. Experimental results show that the proposed method can be applied in varied light source environment. In addition, this method can naturally beautify the portrait skin.

Chen, Chih-Wei; Huang, Da-Yuan; Fuh, Chiou-Shann


On skin expansion.  


This article discusses skin expansion without considering cellular growth of the skin. An in vivo analysis was carried out that involved expansion at three different sites on one patient, allowing for the observation of the relaxation process. Those measurements were used to characterize the human skin of the thorax during the surgical process of skin expansion. A comparison between the in vivo results and the numerical finite elements model of the expansion was used to identify the material elastic parameters of the skin of the thorax of that patient. Delfino's constitutive equation was chosen to model the in vivo results. The skin is considered to be an isotropic, homogeneous, hyperelastic, and incompressible membrane. When the skin is extended, such as with expanders, the collagen fibers are also extended and cause stiffening in the skin, which results in increasing resistance to expansion or further stretching. We observed this phenomenon as an increase in the parameters as subsequent expansions continued. The number and shape of the skin expanders used in expansions were also studied, both mathematically and experimentally. The choice of the site where the expansion should be performed is discussed to enlighten problems that can lead to frustrated skin expansions. These results are very encouraging and provide insight into our understanding of the behavior of stretched skin by expansion. To our knowledge, this study has provided results that considerably improve our understanding of the behavior of human skin under expansion. PMID:23651568

Pamplona, Djenane C; Velloso, Raquel Q; Radwanski, Henrique N



Metabolically competent human skin models: activation and genotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene.  


The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo[a]pyrene (BP) is metabolized into a complex pattern of BP derivatives, among which the ultimate carcinogen (+)-anti-BP-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) is formed to certain extents. Skin is frequently in contact with PAHs and data on the metabolic capacity of skin tissue toward these compounds are inconclusive. We compared BP metabolism in excised human skin, commercially available in vitro 3D skin models and primary 2D skin cell cultures, and analyzed the metabolically catalyzed occurrence of seven different BP follow-up products by means of liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). All models investigated were competent to metabolize BP, and the metabolic profiles generated by ex vivo human skin and skin models were remarkably similar. Furthermore, the genotoxicity of BP and its derivatives was monitored in these models via comet assays. In a full-thickness skin, equivalent BP-mediated genotoxic stress was generated via keratinocytes. Cultured primary keratinocytes revealed a level of genotoxicity comparable with that of direct exposure to 50-100 nM of BPDE. Our data demonstrate that the metabolic capacity of human skin ex vivo, as well as organotypic human 3D skin models toward BP, is sufficient to cause significant genotoxic stress and thus cutaneous bioactivation may potentially contribute to mutations that ultimately lead to skin cancer. PMID:23148024

Brinkmann, Joep; Stolpmann, Kristin; Trappe, Susanne; Otter, Timo; Genkinger, Doris; Bock, Udo; Liebsch, Manfred; Henkler, Frank; Hutzler, Christoph; Luch, Andreas



Proangiogenic Potential of a Collagen\\/Bioactive Glass Substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Previous attempts to stimulate angiogenesis have focused on the delivery of growth factors and cytokines, genes encoding for\\u000a specific angiogenic inductive proteins or transcription factors, or participating cells. While high concentrations of bioactive\\u000a glasses have exhibited osteogenic potential, recent studies have demonstrated that low concentrations of particular bioactive\\u000a glasses are angiogenic. We hypothesized that a well known bioactive glass (Bioglass®

Ann Leu; J. Kent Leach



Electrospinning of Bioactive Dex-PAA Hydrogel Fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, a novel method is developed for making nano- and micro-fibrous hydrogels capable of preventing the rejection of implanted materials. This is achieved by either (1) mimicking the native cellular environment, to exert fine control over the cellular response or (2) acting as a protective barrier, to camouflage the foreign nature of a material and evade recognition by the immune system. Comprehensive characterization and in vitro studies described here provide a foundation for developing substrates for use in clinical applications. Hydrogel dextran and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) fibers are formed via electrospinning, in sizes ranging from nanometers to microns in diameter. While "as-electrospun" fibers are continuous in length, sonication is used to fragment fibers into short fiber "bristles" and generate nano- and micro- fibrous surface coatings over a wide range of topographies. Dex-PAA fibrous surfaces are chemically modified, and then optimized and characterized for non-fouling and ECM-mimetic properties. The non-fouling nature of fibers is verified, and cell culture studies show differential responses dependent upon chemical, topographical and mechanical properties. Dex-PAA fibers are advantageously unique in that (1) a fine degree of control is possible over three significant parameters critical for modifying cellular response: topography, chemistry and mechanical properties, over a range emulating that of native cellular environments, (2) the innate nature of the material is non-fouling, providing an inert background for adding back specific bioactive functionality, and (3) the fibers can be applied as a surface coating or comprise the scaffold itself. This is the first reported work of dex-PAA hydrogel fibers formed via electrospinning and thermal cross-linking, and unique to this method, no toxic solvents or cross-linking agents are needed to create hydrogels or for surface attachment. This is also the first reported work of using sonication to fragment electrospun hydrogel fibers, and in which surface coatings were made via simple electrostatic interaction and dehydration. These versatile features enable fibrous surface coatings to be applied to virtually any material. Results of this research broadly impact the design of biomaterials which contact cells in the body by directing the consequent cell-material interaction.

Louie, Katherine Boyook


Bioactive Peptides from Muscle Sources: Meat and Fish  

PubMed Central

Bioactive peptides have been identified in a range of foods, including plant, milk and muscle, e.g., beef, chicken, pork and fish muscle proteins. Bioactive peptides from food proteins offer major potential for incorporation into functional foods and nutraceuticals. The aim of this paper is to present an outline of the bioactive peptides identified in the muscle protein of meat to date, with a focus on muscle protein from domestic animals and fish. The majority of research on bioactives from meat sources has focused on angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antioxidant peptides.

Ryan, Joseph Thomas; Ross, Reynolds Paul; Bolton, Declan; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Stanton, Catherine



The versatile use of fenestrated adhesive disposable drapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of fenestrated adhesive disposable drapes (FADDs) in our practice has lead to the creation of an improved sterile\\u000a surgical field in many procedures. High turnover local anaesthetic outpatient lists often require a vast amount of reusable\\u000a drapes. Using FADDs can be more efficient and has practical advantages. They are versatile and using the adhesive backing\\u000a provides a stable

G. L. Ross; K. O. Taams



Mechanism of versatile peroxidase inactivation by Ca 2+ depletion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Versatile peroxidase (VP) from Bjerkandera adusta, as other class II peroxidases, is inactivated by Ca2+ depletion. In this work, the spectroscopic characterizations of Ca2+-depleted VP at pH 4.5 (optimum for activity) and pH 7.5 are presented. Previous works on other ligninolytic peroxidases, such as lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase, have been performed at pH 7.5; nevertheless, at this pH these

Jorge Verdín; Rebecca Pogni; Alejandro Baeza; M. Camilla Baratto; Riccardo Basosi; Rafael Vázquez-Duhalt



VERDI: A versatile readout ASIC for radiation detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we present the circuit VERDI (VErsatile Readout for Detector Integration), an integrated circuit developed for the readout of different families of radiation detectors, from nitrogen-cooled Ge and Si(Li) detectors, to silicon drift detectors (SDDs), scintillation detectors, photomultipliers tubes and others. The circuit may represent a suitable solution when a compact integration between a multi-element detector and the

A. Celani; L. Bombelli; C. Fiorini; T. Frizzi; R. Nava; J. Pavlick; M. Kastner; M. Morichi; B. Roberson; B. Zakrzewski; O. Evrard; C. Cherukuri; S. Assouak



Versatility and application of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the unique cell compartmentalization and the ability to simultaneously oxidize ammonium and reduce nitrite into nitrogen\\u000a gas, anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria have challenged our recognitions of microorganism. The research conducted\\u000a on these bacteria has been extended from bench-scale tryouts to full-scale reactor systems. This review addresses the recently\\u000a discovered versatile properties of anammox bacteria and the applications and obstacles

Da-Wen Gao; Yu Tao



Nanomechanical DNA origami devices as versatile molecular sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose versatile sensing systems for a variety of chemical and biological targets at molecular resolution. We have designed functional nanomechanical DNA origami devices that can be used as “single-molecule beacons”, which consist of two levers approximately 170 nm long connected at a fulcrum. Various single-molecule inorganic\\/organic targets ranging from metal ions to proteins as well as a unique binding

Akinori Kuzuya; Takahiro Yamazaki; Kohei Yasuda; Yusuke Sakai; Yusei Yamanaka; Yan Xu; Yuichiro Aiba; Yuichi Ohya; Makoto Komiyama



The Versatile Array of Neutron Detectors at Low Energy (VANDLE)  

SciTech Connect

The Versatile Array of Neutron Detectors at Low Energy (VANDLE) is a new array of plastic scintillator bars under development for measurements at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The array is highly modular allowing the configuration of the individual elements to be optimized for particular experimental requirements. Proposed experiments include (d,n) reactions and beta-delayed neutron emission studies relevant to nuclear astrophysics.

Matei, Catalin [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Bardayan, Daniel W [ORNL; Blackmon, Jeff C [ORNL; Cizewski, J. A. [Rutgers University; Grzywacz, R. K. [University of Tennessee; Liddick, Sean [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Peters, W. A. [Rutgers University; Sarazin, F. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden



Development of a versatile SMOKE system with electrochemical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the design, construction, and implementation of a simple and inexpensive, yet versatile surface magneto-optic Kerr effect (SMOKE) setup designed to operate in conjunction with the electrodeposition of magnetic layers both in situ and ex situ. The system is based on a homemade electromagnet and commercially available components. The sensitivity of the system is demonstrated by measuring ex situ SMOKE hysteresis loops of Co thin films (down to three monolayers thick) electrodeposited onto a Au(111) electrode substrate.

Hampton, Jennifer R.; Martínez-Albertos, José-Luis; Abruña, Héctor D.



Exploiting cholera vaccines as a versatile antigen delivery platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of safe, immunogenic and protective cholera vaccine candidates makes possible their use as a versatile antigen\\u000a delivery platform. Foreign antigens can be delivered to the immune system with cholera vaccines by expressing heterologous\\u000a antigens in live attenuated vectors, as fusion proteins with cholera toxin subunits combined with inactivated Vibrio cholerae whole cells or by exposing them on the

Anisia J. Silva; Francis O. Eko; Jorge A. Benitez



A versatile method for grafting polymers on nanoparticles.  


We report a simple and versatile method for grafting polymers on nanoparticles. A procedure was developed for the synthesis and subsequent functionalization of silica nanoparticles with a perfluorophenylazide. Polymers were then grafted by the photochemically induced insertion reactions of the perfluorophenylnitrene. Polystyrene, poly(4-vinylpyridine), and poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) were successfully grafted on silica nanoparticles. Grafting density was studied with regard to polymer concentration and molecular weight. PMID:18433181

Gann, John P; Yan, Mingdi



A Combinatorial Auction among Versatile Experts and Amateurs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Auctions have become an integral part of electronic commerce and a promising field for applying multi-agent technologies. Correctly judging the quality of auctioned goods is often difficult for amateurs, in particular, in Internet auctions. However, experts can correctly judge the quality of goods. In this situation, it is difficult to make experts tell the truth and attain an efficient allocation, since experts have a clear advantage over amateurs and they would not reveal their valuable information without some reward. In our previous work, we have succeeded in developing such auction protocols under the following two cases: (1) the case of a single-unit auction among experts and amateurs, and (2) the case of a combinatorial auction among single-skilled experts and amateurs. In this paper, we focus on versatile experts. Versatile experts have an interest in, and expert knowledge on the qualities of several goods. In the case of versatile experts, there would be several problems, e.g., free riding problems, if we simply extended the previous VCG-style auction protocol. Thus, in this paper, we employ PORF (price-oriented, rationing-free) protocol for designing our new protocol to realize a strategy-proof auction protocol for experts. In the protocol, the dominant strategy for experts is truth-telling. Also, for amateurs, truth-telling is the best response when two or more experts select the dominant strategy. Furthermore, the protocol is false-name-proof.

Ito, Takayuki; Yokoo, Makoto; Matsubara, Shigeo


Skin too thin? The developing utility of zebrafish skin (neuro)pharmacology for CNS drug discovery research.  


Skin coloration can be affected by many genetic, environmental and pharmacological factors. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are a useful and versatile model organism in biomedical research due to their genetic tractability, physiological homology to mammals, low cost, reproducibility and high throughput. Zebrafish coloration is mediated by chromatophores - the skin color pigment cells largely controlled by endocrine and neural mechanisms. The characteristic darkening of zebrafish skin is caused by the dispersion (and paling - by aggregation) of melanosomes (pigment-containing organelles), which show high homology to mammalian structures. Various pharmacological agents potently affect zebrafish coloration - the phenotype that often accompanies behavioral effects of the drugs, and may be used for drug discovery. Although zebrafish behavior and skin responses are usually not directly related, they share common regulatory (neural, endocrine) mechanisms, and therefore may be assessed in parallel during psychotropic drug screening. For example, some psychoactive drugs can potently affect zebrafish skin coloration. Can we use this knowledge to refine phenotype-driven psychotropic drug discovery? Here, we present current models using zebrafish skin coloration assays, and discuss how these models may be applied to enhance in vivo CNS drug discovery. PMID:24007957

Nguyen, Michael; Poudel, Manoj K; Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V



Skin Exposure and Asthma  

PubMed Central

Numerous occupational and environmental exposures that increase asthma risk have been identified. Research and prevention have focused primarily on the respiratory tract. However, recent studies suggest that the skin may also be an important route of exposure and site of sensitization that contributes to asthma development. Factors that impair skin barrier function, such as filaggrin gene mutations or skin trauma, may facilitate allergen entry and promote Th2-like sensitization and subsequent asthma. Animal studies demonstrate that skin exposure to chemical and protein allergens is highly effective at inducing sensitization, with subsequent inhalation challenge eliciting asthmatic responses. A similar role for human skin exposure to certain sensitizing agents, such as isocyanates, is likely. Skin exposure methodologies are being developed to incorporate skin exposure assessment into epidemiology studies investigating asthma risk factors.

Redlich, Carrie A.



Role versatility among men who have sex with men in urban Peru.  


Role versatility refers to the practice in which individual men who have sex with men (MSM) play both insertive and receptive sexual roles over time. Versatility has been thought to be relatively uncommon among Latin American MSM but possibly rising. Versatility has also been shown to be a potentially large population-level risk factor for HIV infection. In this study we examine the correlates of versatile behavior and identity among 2,655 MSM in six Peruvian cities. Versatile behavior with recent male partners was found in 9% of men and versatile ("moderno") identity was reported by 16%. Significant predictors included high education, white-collar occupation, sex work, and residence in Lima. Age was not significant in any analysis. Since sex work is negatively correlated with other predictors, versatile men appear to comprise two distinct sub-populations. Insertive-only men appear to play a strong role in bridging the HIV epidemic between MSM and women. PMID:17879166

Goodreau, Steven M; Peinado, Jesus; Goicochea, Pedro; Vergara, Jorge; Ojeda, Nora; Casapia, Martin; Ortiz, Abner; Zamalloa, Victoria; Galvan, Rosa; Sanchez, Jorge R



Processing, properties, and in vitro bioactivity of polysulfone-bioactive glass composites.  


The mismatch between the mechanical properties of bioceramics and natural tissue has restricted in several cases a wider application of ceramics in medical and dental fields. To overcome this problem, polymer matrix composites can be designed to combine bioactive properties of some bioceramics with the superior mechanical properties of some engineering plastics. In this work, polymer particulate composites composed of a high mechanical-property polymer and bioactive glass particles were produced and both the in vitro bioactivity and properties of the system were investigated. Composites with different volume fraction and particle size were prepared. In vitro tests showed that hydroxy-carbonate-apatite can be deposited on the surface of a composite as early as 20 h in a simulated body fluid. Ionic evolution from a composite with 40% volume fraction of particles was demonstrated to be similar to bulk bioactive glasses. The mechanical properties of some of the obtained composites had values comparable with the ones reported for bone. Moreover, a physical model based on dynamical mechanical tests showed evidences that the interface of the composite was aiding in the stress transfer process. PMID:17031819

Oréfice, Rodrigo; Clark, Arthur; West, Jon; Brennan, Anthony; Hench, Larry



Skin Thickness Changes in Normal Aging Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The age-dependent decrease of skin thickness was studied with a morphometric procedure on upper inner arm skin biopsies. Epidermal thickness decreased somewhat faster in men (7.2 % of the original value\\/decade) than in women (5.7 %). The total dermal thickness decreased at about the same rate in men and women (6%\\/decade). The thickness of the superficial layer of the dermis

M. C. Branchet; S. Boisnic; C. Frances; A. M. Robert



Effect of nitrogen and fluorine on mechanical properties and bioactivity in two series of bioactive glasses.  


Bioactive glasses are able to bond to bone through formation of carbonated hydroxyapatite in body fluids, and fluoride-releasing bioactive glasses are of interest for both orthopaedic and, in particular, dental applications for caries inhibition. However, because of their poor strength their use is restricted to non-load-bearing applications. In order to increase their mechanical properties, doping with nitrogen has been performed on two series of bioactive glasses: series (I) was a "bioglass" composition (without P2O5) within the quaternary system SiO2-Na2O-CaO-Si3N4 and series (II) was a simple substitution of CaF2 for CaO in series (I) glasses keeping the Na:Ca ratio constant. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the variation in nitrogen and fluorine content on the properties of these glasses. The density, glass transition temperature, hardness and elastic modulus all increased linearly with nitrogen content which indicates that the incorporation of nitrogen stiffens the glass network because N is mainly in 3-fold coordination with Si atoms. Fluorine addition significantly decreases the thermal property values but the mechanical properties of these glasses remain unchanged with fluorine. The combination of both nitrogen and fluorine in oxyfluoronitride glasses gives better mechanical properties at much lower melting temperatures since fluorine reduces the melting point, allows higher solubility of nitrogen and does not affect the higher mechanical properties arising from incorporation of nitrogen. The characterization of these N and F substituted bioactive glasses using (29)Si MAS NMR has shown that the increase in rigidity of the glass network can be explained by the formation of SiO3N, SiO2N2 tetrahedra and Q(4) units with extra bridging anions at the expense of Q(3) units. Bioactivity of the glasses was investigated in vitro by examining apatite formation on the surface of glasses treated in acellular simulated body fluid (SBF) with ion concentrations similar to those in human blood plasma. Formation of a bioactive apatite layer on the samples treated in SBF was confirmed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The crystallinity of this layer decreases with increasing N content suggesting that N may decrease bioactivity slightly. PMID:23676624

Bachar, Ahmed; Mercier, Cyrille; Tricoteaux, Arnaud; Hampshire, Stuart; Leriche, Anne; Follet, Claudine



Biomimetic component coating on 3D scaffolds using high bioactivity of mesoporous bioactive ceramics  

PubMed Central

Background Mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) are very attractive materials for use in bone tissue regeneration because of their extraordinarily high bone-forming bioactivity in vitro. That is, MBGs may induce the rapid formation of hydroxy apatite (HA) in simulated body fluid (SBF), which is a major inorganic component of bone extracellular matrix (ECM) and comes with both good osteoconductivity and high affinity to adsorb proteins. Meanwhile, the high bioactivity of MBGs may lead to an abrupt initial local pH variation during the initial Ca ion-leaching from MBGs at the initial transplant stage, which may induce unexpected negative effects on using them in in vivo application. In this study we suggest a new way of using MBGs in bone tissue regeneration that can improve the strength and make up for the weakness of MBGs. We applied the outstanding bone-forming bioactivity of MBG to coat the main ECM components HA and collagen on the MBG-polycarplolactone (PCL) composite scaffolds for improving their function as bone scaffolds in tissue regeneration. This precoating process can also expect to reduce initial local pH variation of MBGs. Methods and materials The MBG-PCL scaffolds were immersed in the mixed solution of the collagen and SBF at 37°C for 24 hours. The coating of ECM components on the MBG-PCL scaffolds and the effect of ECM coating on in vitro cell behaviors were confirmed. Results The ECM components were fully coated on MBG-PCL scaffolds after immersing in SBF containing dilute collagen-I solution only for 24 hours due to the high bone-forming bioactivity of MBG. Both cell affinity and osteoconductivity of MBG-PCL scaffolds were dramatically enhanced by this precoating process. Conclusion The precoating process of ECM components on MBG-PCL scaffold using a high bioactivity of MBG was not only effective in enhancing the functionality of scaffolds but also effective in eliminating the unexpected side effect. The MBG-PCL scaffold-coated ECM components ideally satisfied the required conditions of scaffold in tissue engineering, including 3D well-interconnected pore structures with high porosity, good bioactivity, enhanced cell affinity, biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and sufficient mechanical properties, and promise excellent potential application in the field of biomaterials.

Yun, Hui-suk; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Khang, Dongwoo; Choi, Jungil; Kim, Hui-hoon; Kang, Minji



Si-doped multifunctional bioactive nanostructured films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Si-doped multifunctional bioactive nanostructured films (MuBiNaFs) were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering of composite TiC0.5+CaO+Si (A) and TiC0.5+CaO+Si3N4 (B) targets produced by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis method. The films were characterized in terms of their structure, elemental and phase composition using X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy, Raman, and IR spectroscopy.

D. V. Shtansky; N. A. Gloushankova; A. N. Sheveiko; Ph. V. Kiryukhantsev-Korneev; I. A. Bashkova; B. N. Mavrin; S. G. Ignatov; S. Yu. Filippovich; C. Rojas



The versatility of perforator-based propeller flap for reconstruction of distal leg and ankle defects.  


Introduction. Soft tissue coverage of distal leg and ankle region represents a challenge and such defect usually requires a free flap. However, this may lead to considerable donor site morbidity, is time consuming, and needs facility of microsurgery. With the introduction of perforator flap, management of small- and medium-size defects of distal leg and ankle region is convenient, less time consuming, and with minimal donor site morbidity. When local perforator flap is designed as propeller and rotated to 180 degree, donor site is closed primarily and increases reach of flap, thus increasing versatility. Material and Methods. From June 2008 to May 2011, 20 patients were treated with perforator-based propeller flap for distal leg and ankle defects. Flap was based on single perforator of posterior tibial and peroneal artery rotated to 180 degrees. Defect size was from 4?cm × 3.5?cm to 7?cm × 5?cm. Results. One patient developed partial flap necrosis, which was managed with skin grafting. Two patients developed venous congestion, which subsided spontaneously without complications. Small wound dehiscence was present in one patient. Donor site was closed primarily in all patients. Rest of the flaps survived well with good aesthetic results. Conclusion. The perforator-based propeller flap for distal leg and ankle defects is a good option. This flap design is safe and reliable in achieving goals of reconstruction. The technique is convenient, less time consuming, and with minimal donor site morbidity. It provides aesthetically good result. PMID:22567253

Karki, Durga; Narayan, R P



Submicron bioactive glass tubes for bone tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herein we describe a method to fabricate submicron bioactive glass tubes using sol–gel and coaxial electrospinning techniques for applications in bone tissue engineering. Heavy mineral oil and gel solution were delivered by two independent syringe pumps during the coaxial electrospinning process. Subsequently, submicron bioactive glass tubes were obtained by removal of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) and heavy mineral oil via calcination at

Jingwei Xie; Eric R. Blough; Chi-Hwa Wang


Alkaline phosphatase grafting on bioactive glasses and glass ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone integration of orthopaedic or dental implants and regeneration of damaged bone at the surgical site are still unresolved problems in prosthetic surgery. For this reason, biomimetic surfaces (i.e. both inorganic and biological bioactive surfaces) represent a challenge for bone implantation. In this research work a hydrolase enzyme (alkaline phosphatase) was covalently grafted to inorganic bioactive glass and glass ceramic

Enrica Verné; Sara Ferraris; Chiara Vitale-Brovarone; Silvia Spriano; Claudia L. Bianchi; Alberto Naldoni; Marco Morra; Clara Cassinelli



Bioactive natural products from blue-green algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1981 we have cultured and prepared lipophilic and hydrophilic extracts from more than 1500 strains representing some 400 species of blue-green algae. Screening for a wide variety of potentially useful bioactivities, including cytotoxic, multi-drug-resistance reversal, antifungal, and antiviral effects, has led to the discovery and identification of numerous novel bioactive metabolites including peptides, macrolides and glycosides.

Gregory M. L. Patterson; Linda K. Larsen; Richard E. Moore



Bioactive metabolites from the plant endophyte Pestalotiopsis fici  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant endophytes, Pestalotiopsis spp., are prolific producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Chemical studies on the fungus, Pestalotiopsis fici, have provided over 70 new natural products from different biosynthetic routes. Some metabolites have shown biological activities, including cytotoxic, antimicrobial and anti-HIV effects. This review covers the structure, bioactivities and putative biosynthetic pathways of selected metabolites published by us over the

Ling Liu



Ceramide at the hub of a network of bioactive sphingolipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive investigation over the past two decades has identified a number of specific sphingolipids as bioactive molecules with potential roles in cell regulation. In particular, ceramide has emerged as both a key regulator of eukaryotic stress responses and as a metabolic precursor to other bioactive sphingolipids including sphingosine, sphingosine phosphate and ceramide phosphate. Thus, enzymes of ceramide metabolism have emerged


Herbal bioactivation: The good, the bad and the ugly  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been well established that the formation of reactive metabolites of drugs is associated with drug toxicity. Similarly, there are accumulating data suggesting the role of the formation of reactive metabolites\\/intermediates through bioactivation in herbal toxicity and carcinogenicity. It has been hypothesized that the resultant reactive metabolites following herbal bioactivation covalently bind to cellular proteins and DNA, leading to

Shufeng Zhou; Hwee-Ling Koh; Yihuai Gao; Zhi-yuan Gong; Edmund Jon Deoon Lee



Bioavailability of bioactive food compounds: a challenging journey to bioefficacy.  


Bioavailability is a key step in ensuring bioefficacy of bioactive food compounds or oral drugs. Bioavailability is a complex process involving several different stages: liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination phases (LADME). Bioactive food compounds, whether derived from various plant or animal sources, need to be bioavailable in order to exert any beneficial effects. Through a better understanding of the digestive fate of bioactive food compounds we can impact the promotion of health and improvement of performance. Many varying factors affect bioavailability, such as bioaccessibility, food matrix effect, transporters, molecular structures and metabolizing enzymes. Bioefficacy may be improved through enhanced bioavailability. Therefore, several technologies have been developed to improve the bioavailability of xenobiotics, including structural modifications, nanotechnology and colloidal systems. Due to the complex nature of food bioactive compounds and also to the different mechanisms of absorption of hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactive compounds, unravelling the bioavailability of food constituents is challenging. Among the food sources discussed during this review, coffee, tea, citrus fruit and fish oil were included as sources of food bioactive compounds (e.g. (poly)phenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)) since they are examples of important ingredients for the food industry. Although there are many studies reporting on bioavailability and bioefficacy of these bioactive food components, understanding their interactions, metabolism and mechanism of action still requires extensive work. This review focuses on some of the major factors affecting the bioavailability of the aforementioned bioactive food compounds. PMID:22897361

Rein, Maarit J; Renouf, Mathieu; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Actis-Goretta, Lucas; Thakkar, Sagar K; da Silva Pinto, Marcia



Characterization of surface oxide films on titanium and bioactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological properties of titanium implant depend on its surface oxide film. In the present study, the surface oxide films on titanium were characterized and the relationship between the characterization and bioactivity of titanium was studied. The surface oxide films on titanium were obtained by heat-treatment in different oxidation atmospheres, such as air, oxygen and water vapor. The bioactivity of heat-treated

B. Feng; J. Y. Chen; S. K. Qi; L. He; J. Z. Zhao; X. D. Zhang



Bioactivation of biomorphous silicon carbide bone implants.  


Wood-derived silicon carbide (SiC) offers a specific biomorphous microstructure similar to the cellular pore microstructure of bone. Compared with bioactive ceramics such as calcium phosphate, however, silicon carbide is considered not to induce spontaneous interface bonding to living bone. Bioactivation by chemical treatment of biomorphous silicon carbide was investigated in order to accelerate osseointegration and improve bone bonding ability. Biomorphous SiC was processed from sipo (Entrandrophragma utile) wood by heating in an inert atmosphere and infiltrating the resulting carbon replica with liquid silicon melt at 1450°C. After removing excess silicon by leaching in HF/HNO? the biomorphous preform consisted of ?-SiC with a small amount (approximately 6wt.%) of unreacted carbon. The preform was again leached in HCl/HNO? and finally exposed to CaCl? solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared analyses proved that oxidation of the residual carbon at the surface induced formation of carboxyl [COO?] groups, which triggered adsorption of Ca(2+), as confirmed by XPS and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy measurements. A local increase in Ca(2+) concentration stimulated in vitro precipitation of Ca?(PO?)?OH (HAP) on the silicon carbide preform surface during exposure to simulated body fluid, which indicates a significantly increased bone bonding activity compared with SiC. PMID:20615484

Will, Julia; Hoppe, Alexander; Müller, Frank A; Raya, Carmen T; Fernández, Julián M; Greil, Peter



Dietary bioactive compounds and their health implications.  


There is strong scientific evidence suggesting that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is negatively associated with risk of developing chronic diseases. The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend at least 9 servings of fruits and vegetables a day based on a 2000 kcal diet. However, the average person in the United States consumes 3.6 servings of fruits and vegetables per day. In order to achieve the goal of at least 9 servings, we should continue educating Americans about the health benefits of fruits and vegetables and recommend consumers to eat a wide variety of fruits and vegetables. The key is to increase the amount up to 9 to 13 servings of fruits and vegetables a day in all forms. Fresh, cooked, and processed fruits and vegetables including frozen and canned, 100% fruit juices, 100% vegetable juices, and dried fruits are all considered as servings of fruits and vegetables. A wide variety of fruits and vegetables provide a range of nutrients and different bioactive compounds including phytochemicals (phenolics, flavonoids, and carotenoids), vitamins (vitamin C, folate, and provitamin A), minerals (potassium, calcium, and magnesium), and fibers. More and more evidence suggests that the health benefits of fruits and vegetables are attributed to the additive and synergistic interactions of the phytochemicals present in whole foods by targeting multiple signal transduction pathways. Therefore, consumers should obtain nutrients and bioactive compounds from a wide variety of whole foods for optimal nutrition and health well-being, not from expensive dietary supplements. PMID:23789932

Liu, Rui Hai



Bioactive Endophytes Warrant Intensified Exploration and Conservation  

PubMed Central

Background A key argument in favor of conserving biodiversity is that as yet undiscovered biodiversity will yield products of great use to humans. However, the link between undiscovered biodiversity and useful products is largely conjectural. Here we provide direct evidence from bioassays of endophytes isolated from tropical plants and bioinformatic analyses that novel biology will indeed yield novel chemistry of potential value. Methodology/Principal Findings We isolated and cultured 135 endophytic fungi and bacteria from plants collected in Peru. nrDNAs were compared to samples deposited in GenBank to ascertain the genetic novelty of cultured specimens. Ten endophytes were found to be as much as 15–30% different than any sequence in GenBank. Phylogenetic trees, using the most similar sequences in GenBank, were constructed for each endophyte to measure phylogenetic distance. Assays were also conducted on each cultured endophyte to record bioactivity, of which 65 were found to be bioactive. Conclusions/Significance The novelty of our contribution is that we have combined bioinformatic analyses that document the diversity found in environmental samples with culturing and bioassays. These results highlight the hidden hyperdiversity of endophytic fungi and the urgent need to explore and conserve hidden microbial diversity. This study also showcases how undergraduate students can obtain data of great scientific significance.

Smith, Stephen A.; Tank, David C.; Boulanger, Lori-Ann; Bascom-Slack, Carol A.; Eisenman, Kaury; Kingery, David; Babbs, Beatrice; Fenn, Kathleen; Greene, Joshua S.; Hann, Bradley D.; Keehner, Jocelyn; Kelley-Swift, Elizabeth G.; Kembaiyan, Vivek; Lee, Sun Jin; Li, Puyao; Light, David Y.; Lin, Emily H.; Ma, Cong; Moore, Emily; Schorn, Michelle A.; Vekhter, Daniel; Nunez, Percy V.; Strobel, Gary A.; Donoghue, Michael J.; Strobel, Scott A.



Bioactive borate glass coatings for titanium alloys.  


Bioactive borate glass coatings have been developed for titanium and titanium alloys. Glasses from the Na(2)O-CaO-B(2)O(3) system, modified by additions of SiO(2), Al(2)O(3), and P(2)O(5), were characterized and compositions with thermal expansion matches to titanium were identified. Infrared and X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that a hydroxyapatite surface layer forms on the borate glasses after exposure to a simulated body fluid for 2 weeks at 37 degrees C; similar layers form on 45S5 Bioglass((R)) exposed to the same conditions. Assays with MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cells show the borate glasses exhibit in vitro biocompatibility similar to that of the 45S5 Bioglass((R)). An enameling technique was developed to form adherent borate glass coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy, with adhesive strengths of 36 +/- 2 MPa on polished substrates. The results show these new borate glasses to be promising candidates for forming bioactive coatings on titanium substrates. PMID:18415004

Peddi, Laxmikanth; Brow, Richard K; Brown, Roger F



Germinated grains--sources of bioactive compounds.  


Germination of seven selected commercially important grains was studied to establish its effects on the nutritional and chemical composition. The changes in the concentration of the nutrients, bioactive compounds and the inhibitory effect of extracts on ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase activities were investigated. These were measured through proximate analysis, inhibition assays and HPLC. Germinated sorghum and rye extracts inhibited (p<0.05) ?-glucosidase activity, whereas barley and sorghum extracts exhibited higher inhibitory activities against ?-amylase. Germinated grains contained substantial amounts of total phenolics with rye having significantly higher content compared with the non-germinated grains. Radical scavenging activities of the phenolic extracts were between 13% and 73% for non-germinated and 14% and 53% for germinated. Inositol phosphate (InsP) 4, 5 and 6 were noted in all the grains, but InsP 6 was significantly lower in concentration. This study indicates the potential of germinated barley, sorghum and rye for the development of effective physiologically bioactive compounds for the reduction of the risk of diabetic agents and colon cancer. PMID:22953810

Donkor, O N; Stojanovska, L; Ginn, P; Ashton, J; Vasiljevic, T



Skin protection for hairdressers.  


The application of protective creams in the hairdressing trade forms part of a complex concept for the prevention of occupational skin disorders. To date, no comparative controlled intervention studies have been carried out using different skin-protective creams. Previously published skin protection plans concerning barrier creams for the hairdressing trade are fairly general or rudimentary, reflecting our still limited knowledge on the subject. Bioengineering studies have even demonstrated a paradoxical effect of a certain skin-protective foam designed for hairdressers. Regarding other barrier creams, a certain protective effect could however be shown in studies concerning exposure to wetness and detergents. Pre-exposition skin protection seems to be of particular relevance. Thus, in principle, the regular application of adequate skin protection creams can be recommended in the hairdressing trade, although the protective effect should not be overvalued. PMID:17312363

Skudlik, Christoph; John, Swen Malte



A novel quantum dot nanocluster as versatile probe for electrochemiluminescence and electrochemical assays of DNA and cancer cells.  


A novel dendritic quantum dot (QD) nanocluster was constructed and used as versatile electrochemiluminescence (ECL) and electrochemical probe for the detection of DNA and cancer cells. Owing to the many functional groups present in the nanoclusters, a large number of QDs were assembled on the nanoclusters, which could greatly amplify both the ECL and electrochemical signals of QDs. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/gold nanoparticles' (NPs) hybrids were used as amplified platform for assembling large numbers of DNA on the electrode, which also improve the bioactivity and stability of the electrode. After the QD-DNA signal probe was recognized with target DNA (t-DNA), the amplified ECL signal for the detection of target DNA was obtained. Furthermore, magnetic nanoparticles were employed for cell aptamers immobilization, the same QD nanocluster-DNA probe was also extended for electrochemical detection of cancer cells using sensitive anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) method, which simplified the separation procedures and improved the sensitivity. It is anticipated that the assays could provide promising and cost effective approach for the early and accurate detection of DNA and cancer cells. PMID:24021658

Jie, Guifen; Zhang, Jian; Jie, Guixia; Wang, Lei



Skin Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin is, in weight, the largest organ of the human body. Its primary role is that of a physical and biological barrier.\\u000a This principal function is most apparent in the skin’s relative lack of permeability for agents from outside, including microbes\\u000a and parasites, but also for water and water-soluble compounds. The resistance to exogenous influences is mainly the result

Jan D. Bos; Rosalie M. Luiten


Photobiology of the Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Everyone is familiar with the skin because it is the organ that is primarily responsible for the appearance of human beings.\\u000a In addition to this important role, skin also has a myriad of important maintenance functions. The specialized cells of the\\u000a skin work together to form the protective and supportive structures necessary for our bodily integrity [1]. The main structures

A. P. Pentland


Universal Seed Skin Segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present a principled approach for general skin segmentation using graph cuts. We present the idea of a highly adaptive\\u000a universal seed thereby exploiting the positive training data only. We model the skin segmentation as a min-cut problem on\\u000a a graph defined by the image color characteristics. The prior graph cuts based approaches for skin segmentation do not provide\\u000a general

Rehanullah Khan; Allan Hanbury; Julian Stöttinger



Bioengineered skin substitutes.  


Bioengineered skin has great potential for use in regenerative medicine for treatment of severe wounds such as burns or chronic ulcers. Genetically modified skin substitutes have also been used as cell-based devices or "live bioreactors" to deliver therapeutics locally or systemically. Finally, these tissue constructs are used as realistic models of human skin for toxicological testing, to speed drug development and replace traditional animal-based tests in a variety of industries. Here we describe a method of generating bioengineered skin based on a natural scaffold, namely, decellularized human dermis and epidermal stem cells. PMID:23494436

Lei, Pedro; You, Hui; Andreadis, Stelios T



Skin as an Organ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is part of the Skin Deep Project, which examines the science behind skin. Skin Deep is developed by AAAS and funded by NeutrogenaIn this lesson, students will examine the skin and how it functions as an organ and as part of a larger body system. By taking a closer look at the anatomy and function of the integumentary system, students will further their general knowledge of organ systems in general. Further, they will benefit from realizing that any part of a system may itself be considered as a systema subsystemwith its own internal parts and interactions. Additional links are given for further inquiry.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)



Skin disease in antiquity.  


Dermatological conditions and treatment in antiquity can be assessed by studying ancient skin, artefacts illustrating medical disorders and literature from the classified period as well as Egyptian papyri, cuneiform tablets and the Bible. It is often more useful and informative to study naturally preserved skin rather than artificially mummified skin. Great care must be taken in making retrospective diagnosis. Skin manifestations of internal diseases are, and have always been, of the greatest clinical importance. Study of the past may give an insight into the epidemiological aspects of diseases such as TB, leprosy and syphilis which have spread across the world with serious social consequences. PMID:16521362

Liddell, Keith


Neutral endopeptidase expression and distribution in human skin and wounds.  


Cutaneous sensory nerves mediate inflammation and wound healing by the release of neuropeptides such as substance P. Neutral endopeptidase is a cell surface enzyme that degrades substance P and thereby terminates its biologic actions. The distribution of neutral endopeptidase in normal skin and wounded human skin, however, has not been examined. The objectives of this study were to evaluate neutral endopeptidase expression in wounded and unwounded skin as well as in cells derived from human skin. Neutral endopeptidase was strikingly localized in normal skin by immunohistochemistry to keratinocytes of the epidermal basal layer, to hair follicles, eccrine and sebaceous glands as well as to endothelium of blood vessels and to large nerves. Standard incisional human wounds were studied at several time points between 1 h and 28 d after wounding. Staining for neutral endopeptidase was noted in the wound bed 6 h after wounding. In contrast to normal skin, staining of all the epidermal cell layers was noted in the migrating tongue of epithelium in l d wounds. Similar full-thickness staining was noted in 3 d and 7 d wounds in all layers of the new wound epithelium and in a "transition epithelium" near the wound edge. By 28 d post wounding neutral endopeptidase staining again was detected only in the basal layer of the epidermis. Neutral endopeptidase mRNA was detected in normal skin and wounds as well as cultured keratinocytes, fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Neutral endopeptidase enzymatic bioactivity was demonstrated in cultured keratinocytes. While it is known that several metalloproteinases important to tissue repair are produced by keratinocytes, this is the first evidence that keratinocytes produce neutral endopeptidase. Neutral endopeptidase may terminate the proinflammatory and mitogenic actions of neuropeptides in normal skin and wounds. PMID:10383732

Olerud, J E; Usui, M L; Seckin, D; Chiu, D S; Haycox, C L; Song, I S; Ansel, J C; Bunnett, N W



Fabrication of versatile nanocomponents using single-crystalline Au nanoplates  

SciTech Connect

We suggest an approach to the fabrication of versatile nanocomponents designed deliberately by selective Ga{sup +} focused-ion-beam etching or Ar{sup +} ion milling of single-crystalline Au nanoplates synthesized by the chemical reaction. The nanocomponents have various shapes like gear, wheel, dumbbell, square and letter 'A' with in-plane size of about 400 nm and thickness of 40-50 nm. They can be picked up or moved freely one by one to be assembled into sophisticated nanodevices or micromachines. The applicability of our approach both to the fundamental research and to the applied research is discussed.

Yun, Yong Ju; Park, Gwangseo; Ah, Chil Seong; Park, Hyung Ju; Yun, Wan Soo; Ha, Dong Han [Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Electronic Devices Group, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)



Fabrication of versatile nanocomponents using single-crystalline Au nanoplates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We suggest an approach to the fabrication of versatile nanocomponents designed deliberately by selective Ga+ focused-ion-beam etching or Ar+ ion milling of single-crystalline Au nanoplates synthesized by the chemical reaction. The nanocomponents have various shapes like gear, wheel, dumbbell, square and letter ``A'' with in-plane size of about 400 nm and thickness of 40-50 nm. They can be picked up or moved freely one by one to be assembled into sophisticated nanodevices or micromachines. The applicability of our approach both to the fundamental research and to the applied research is discussed.

Yun, Yong Ju; Park, Gwangseo; Ah, Chil Seong; Park, Hyung Ju; Yun, Wan Soo; Ha, Dong Han



Versatile Photosensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy at Infrared Excitation  

PubMed Central

A new type of photosensitizers used in photodynamic therapy, which is based on photon upconverting nanoparticles, is reported. These photosensitizers are excitable with infrared irradiation, which has several times larger tissue penetration depth than the currently available ones. They are brought close to the target cancer cells through antigen-antibody interaction with good specificity and versatility. The design is also flexible in that various photosensitive molecules can be potentially adopted into the design. Results from in vitro experiments demonstrate their promise of becoming the next generation photodynamic therapy drugs.

Zhang, Peng; Steelant, Wim; Kumar, Manoj; Scholfield, Matthew



A versatile stepping motor controller for systems with many motors  

SciTech Connect

A versatile system for controlling beamlines or complex experimental setups is described. The system as currently configured can control up to 32 motors, with all motors capable of full speed operation concurrently. There are 2 limit switch inputs for each motor, and a further input to accept a reference position marker. The motors can be controlled via a front panel keyboard with display, or by a host computer over an IEEE-488 interface. Both methods can be used together if required. There is an emergency stop'' key on the front panel keyboard to stop the motion of all motors without losing track of the motors' position. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Feng, S.K.; Siddons, D.P.



Versatile transmission ellipsometry to study linear ferrofluid magneto-optics.  


Linear birefringence and dichroism of magnetite ferrofluids are studied simultaneously using spectroscopic ellipsometry in transmission mode. It is shown that this versatile technique enables highly accurate characterisation of magneto-optical phenomena. Magnetic field-dependent linear birefringence and dichroism as well as the spectral dependence are shown to be in line with previous results. Despite the qualitative agreement with established models for magneto-optical phenomena, these fail to provide an accurate, quantitative description of our experimental results using the bulk dielectric function of magnetite. We discuss the results in relation to these models, and indicate how the modified dielectric function of the magnetite nanoparticles can be obtained. PMID:16997315

Kooij, E S; Gâlc?, A C; Poelsema, B



A versatile reactor for temperature controlled crystallization of biological macromolecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate control of crystallization conditions, and accordingly reproducibility of experiments, is often hampered by the lack of adequate instrumentation in the laboratory. A versatile and inexpensive crystallization reactor allowing crystal growth by vapor phase equilibration (sitting, hanging or sandwiched drops) or by the batch technique is described here. In this reactor, temperature is controlled accurately by a Peltier device and the crystallization process monitored by a time-lapse video recorder. An application for evaluating the growth kinetics of tetragonal lysozyme crystals as a function of temperature is given. It was observed that the apparent growth rate decreased when temperature was lowered, although under such conditions supersaturation was increased and crystals appeared sooner.

Lorber, Bernard; Giegé, Richard



Eugenol: a natural compound with versatile pharmacological actions.  


Eugenol, the major constituent of clove oil, has been widely used for its anesthetic and analgesic action in dentistry. Eugenol exhibits pharmacological effects on almost all systems and our aim is to review the research work that has identified these pharmacological actions. Eugenol possesses significant antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cardiovascular properties, in addition to analgesic and local anesthetic activity. The metabolism and pharmacokinetics of the compound in humans have been studied. Eugenol has also been used as a penetration enhancer. The compound is a very promising candidate for versatile applications, and the design of new drugs based on the pharmacological effects of eugenol could be beneficial. PMID:21299140

Pramod, Kannissery; Ansari, Shahid H; Ali, Javed



Development of a versatile multiaperture negative ion source  

SciTech Connect

A 60 kV ion source (9 beamlets of 15 mA each of H{sup -}) and plasma generators are being developed at Consorzio RFX and INFN-LNL, for their versatility in experimental campaigns and for training. Unlike most experimental sources, the design aimed at continuous operation. Magnetic configuration can achieve a minimum |B| trap, smoothly merged with the extraction filter. Modular design allows for quick substitution and upgrading of parts such as the extraction and postacceleration grids or the electrodes in contact with plasma. Experiments with a radio frequency plasma generator and Faraday cage inside the plasma are also described.

Cavenago, M. [INFN-LNL, viale dell'Universita n.2, I-35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Kulevoy, T.; Petrenko, S. [INFN-LNL, viale dell'Universita n.2, I-35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Serianni, G.; Antoni, V.; Bigi, M.; Fellin, F.; Recchia, M.; Veltri, P. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla fusione, S. Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)



A versatile detector for total fluorescence and electron yield experiments  

SciTech Connect

The combination of a non-coated silicon photodiode with electron repelling meshes makes a versatile detector for total fluorescence yield and electron yield techniques highly suitable for x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In particular, a copper mesh with a bias voltage allows to suppress or transmit the electron yield signal. The performance of this detection scheme has been characterized by near edge x-ray absorption fine structure studies of thermal oxidized silicon and sapphire. The results show that the new detector probes both electron yield and for a bias voltage exceeding the maximum photon energy the total fluorescence yield.

Thielemann, N. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hoffmann, P. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Foehlisch, A. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Physik und Astronomie, Universitaet Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)



Parallel optics technology assessment for the versatile link project  

SciTech Connect

This poster describes the assessment of commercially available and prototype parallel optics modules for possible use as back end components for the Versatile Link common project. The assessment covers SNAP12 transmitter and receiver modules as well as optical engine technologies in dense packaging options. Tests were performed using vendor evaluation boards (SNAP12) as well as custom evaluation boards (optical engines). The measurements obtained were used to compare the performance of these components with single channel SFP+ components operating at a transmission wavelength of 850 nm over multimode fibers.

Chramowicz, J.; Kwan, S.; Rivera, R.; Prosser, A.; /Fermilab



Development of a versatile multiaperture negative ion source.  


A 60 kV ion source (9 beamlets of 15 mA each of H(-)) and plasma generators are being developed at Consorzio RFX and INFN-LNL, for their versatility in experimental campaigns and for training. Unlike most experimental sources, the design aimed at continuous operation. Magnetic configuration can achieve a minimum ?B? trap, smoothly merged with the extraction filter. Modular design allows for quick substitution and upgrading of parts such as the extraction and postacceleration grids or the electrodes in contact with plasma. Experiments with a radio frequency plasma generator and Faraday cage inside the plasma are also described. PMID:22380216

Cavenago, M; Kulevoy, T; Petrenko, S; Serianni, G; Antoni, V; Bigi, M; Fellin, F; Recchia, M; Veltri, P



Surface plasmon resonance-enabled antibacterial digital versatile discs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the achievement of effective sterilization of exemplary bacteria including Escherichia coli and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on a digital versatile disc (DVD). The spiral arrangement of aluminum-covered pits generates strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption of near-infrared light, leading to high surface temperature that could even damage the DVD plastics. Localized protein denaturation and high sterilization efficiency have been demonstrated by using a fluorescence microscope and cell cultures. Numerical simulations have also been conducted to model the SPR properties and the surface temperature distribution of DVDs under laser illumination. The theoretical predictions agree reasonably well with the experimental results.

Dou, Xuan; Chung, Pei-Yu; Jiang, Peng; Dai, Jianli



A Versatile Monoclonal Antibody Specific to Human SERPINB5  

PubMed Central

Maspin (SERPINB5) is a member of the Clade B subgroup of the large superfamily of serine protease inhibitors. It is proposed that maspin is a tumor suppressor; however, its molecular role remains to be elucidated. Here we report the characterization of a mouse monoclonal antibody directed against human maspin. This antibody, 16F7, recognizes maspin in both its native and denatured form, unlike several other commercial antibodies tested in this study. It will be a useful and versatile tool for future analyses of the biological function of maspin.

Teoh, Sonia S.Y.; Wang, Hong; Risbridger, Gail P.; Bird, Phillip I.



The acoustic vector sensor: a versatile battlefield acoustics sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The invention of the Microflown sensor has made it possible to measure acoustic particle velocity directly. An acoustic vector sensor (AVS) measures the particle velocity in three directions (the source direction) and the pressure. The sensor is a uniquely versatile battlefield sensor because its size is a few millimeters and it is sensitive to sound from 10Hz to 10kHz. This article shows field tests results of acoustic vector sensors, measuring rifles, heavy artillery, fixed wing aircraft and helicopters. Experimental data shows that the sensor is suitable as a ground sensor, mounted on a vehicle and on a UAV.

de Bree, Hans-Elias; Wind, Jelmer W.



Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Fluoridated and Unfluoridated Bioactive Glass Composites: Structural Analysis and Bioactivity Evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biphasic bioceramic composites containing nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP) and nanosized bioactive glasses have been prepared in the form of pellets and have been examined for the effects of bioglass concentrations and sintering temperature on the structural transformations and bioactivity behavior. Pure stoichiometric nano-HAP was synthesized using sol-gel technique. Two bioglasses synthesized in this work--fluoridated bioglass (Cao-P2O5-Na2O3-CaF2) and unfluoridated bioglass (Cao-P2O5-Na2O3) designated as FBG and UFBG respectively, were added to nano-HAP with concentrations of 5, 10, 12 and 15%. The average particle sizes of synthesized HAP and bioglasses were 23 nm and 35 nm, respectively. The pellets were sintered at four different temperatures i.e. 1000 °C, 1150 °C, 1250 °C and 1350 °C. The investigations involved study of structural and bioactivity behavior of green and sintered pellets and their deviations from original materials i.e. HAP, FBG and UFBG, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The phase composition of the sintered pellets was found to be non-stoichiometric HAP with ?-TCP (tricalcium phosphate) and ?-TCP. It was revealed from SEM images that bonding mechanism was mainly solid state sintering for all pellets sintered at 1000 °C and 1150 °C and also for pellets with lower concentrations of bioglass i.e. 5% and 10% sintered at 1250 °C. Partly liquid phase sintering was observed for pellets with higher bioglass concentrations of 12% and 15% sintered at 1250 °C and same behaviour was noted for pellets at all concentrations of bioglasses at 1350 °C. The sintered density, hardness and compression strength of pellets have been influenced both by the concentration of the bioglasses and sintering temperature. It was observed that the biological HAP layer formation was faster on the green pellets surface than on pure HAP and sintered pellets, showing higher bioactivity in the green pellets.

Batra, Uma; Kapoor, Seema; Sharma, J. D.



Characterization and bioactivity of nano-submicro octacalcium phosphate/gelatin composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study was designed to investigate the physicochemical and bioactive properties of a nano-submicro sized octacalcium phosphate (OCP)-dispersed gelatin (Gel) composite (nano-submicro OCP/Gel) used as a bone substitute material in various bone defects. Well-grown, synthesized OCP was mechanically ground from 100 to 300 ?m-sieved granules to particles that were approximately 500 nm in size. Then, 50 wt% of the nano-submicro OCP was mixed with porcine skin-derived acid extracted gelatin. The mixture was molded and lyophilized and then subjected to dehydrothermal crosslinking. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that the structure of OCP was retained even after mechanical grinding to a nano-submicro scale level as well as inclusion in the Gel matrix. The bioactivity of nano-submicro OCP/Gel was examined by immersing the composite in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 days and by implanting it in rat critical-sized calvaria defects for 8 weeks. The nano-submicro OCP tended to convert to low crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) in SBF as assessed by XRD. The nano-submicro OCP/Gel exhibited osteoconductivity in vivo, yielding new bone formation that was closely associated with the implanted composite. These results suggest that the nano-submicro OCP/Gel composite exhibits similar osteoconductivity as observed in other OCP-based materials previously reported and could be used as a bone substitute material for repairing various defects in bone.

Miura, Kei-ichiro; Anada, Takahisa; Honda, Yoshitomo; Shiwaku, Yukari; Kawai, Tadashi; Echigo, Seishi; Takahashi, Tetsu; Suzuki, Osamu



Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix  


Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is ...


Skin Cancer: Need for Skin Exam Increases with Age  


... are middle-aged and older. Why Age Increases Skin Cancer Risk By the time we reach middle ... freckle should be examined by a dermatologist. Regular Skin Exams Can Detect Skin Cancer The purpose of ...


The skin microbiome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin is the human body's largest organ, colonized by a diverse milieu of microorganisms, most of which are harmless or even beneficial to their host. Colonization is driven by the ecology of the skin surface, which is highly variable depending on topographical location, endogenous host factors and exogenous environmental factors. The cutaneous innate and adaptive immune responses can modulate

Elizabeth A. Grice; Julia A. Segre



Torsional Measurements on Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis--An apparatus is described for measuring the STIFFNESS and ELASTICITY of thin strips of SKIN. Physical properties of skin in TORSION show decreases in sliffness with increased humidity of the ambient environment. The elasticity of the strips under- went a minimum between 50-80% relative humidity. Extraction of naturally occurring humectant was demonstrated to increase the physical stiffness of CALIUS and




Microsoft Academic Search

Micro-organisms that are known or suspected to cause skin diseases in cetaceans are briefly reviewed. Viruses belonging to four families i.e. Caliciviridae, Herpesviridae, Papillomaviridae and Poxviridae were detected by electron microscopy, histology and molecular techniques in vesicular skin lesions, black dots perceptible by the touch, warts and tattoos in several species of odontocetes and mysticetes. Herpesviruses, poxviruses and likely a

Marie-Françoise Van Bressem; Koen Van Waerebeek; Leonardo Flach; Julio César Reyes; Marcos César de Oliveira; Salvatore Siciliano; Monica Echegaray; Francisco Viddi; Fernando Felix; Enrique Crespo; Gian Paolo Sanino; Isabel Cristina Avila; Natalia Fraijia; Cristina Castro


CSD skin test  


Cat scratch disease skin test ... An antigen related to the bacteria that cause cat scratch disease is injected just under the skin. ... This test was once used to diagnose cat scratch disease, before Bartonella henselae, the bacteria that causes CSD, was identified.


Secondary metabolites and bioactivities of Albizia anthelmintica  

PubMed Central

Background: Albizia species are rich in phenolics and terpenes in the different plant organs. They are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. So this study investigated the phytochemical and biological activities of Albizia Anthelmintica. Materials and Methods: Column chromatography has been performed for the isolation of compounds. Bioactivity studies of A. anthelmintica leaves were carried out on aqueous ethanol extract and some pure compounds were tested for their antioxidant activities. Results: Eight compounds have been isolated for the first time from A. anthelmintica. The aqueous ethanol extract of A. anthelmintica showed moderate anti-inflammatory activity and significant for both analgesic and antioxidant activities. Quercetin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-(6?-O-galloyl-?-D-glucopyranoside and quercetin-3-O-(6?-O-galloyl-?-D-glucopyranoside) exhibited potent antioxidant scavenging activity towards diphenyl-picrylhydrazine.

Mohamed, Tahia K.; Nassar, Mahmoud I.; Gaara, Ahmed H.; El-Kashak, Walaa A.; Brouard, Inaki; El-Toumy, Sayed A.



Marine bioactive peptides as potential antioxidants.  


Bioactive peptides derived from marine organisms are the focus of current studies because of their numerous health beneficial effects. They exert various biological roles, one of the most crucial of which is the antioxidant effect. Reverse relationship between antioxidant intake and diseases has been approved through plenty of studies. Antioxidant activity of marine peptides can be attributed to in vitro and in vivo free radical scavenging activities. Antioxidant peptides isolated from marine sources may be used as functional ingredients in food formulations to promote consumer health and improve the shelf life of food products. This chapter presents an overview of the antioxidant peptides derived marine resources with the potential utilization in the food as well as pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23721315

Ngo, Dai-Hung; Kim, Se-Kwon



A compilation of Bioactive Compounds from Ayurveda  

PubMed Central

This review deals with the key bioactive compounds and the role of medicinal plants in Ayurvedic systems of medicine in India and their earlier investigation. There has been an increase in demand for the Phytopharmaceutical products of Ayurv?da in Western countries, because of the fact that the allopathic drugs have more side effects. Many pharmaceutical companies are now concentrating on manufacturing of Ayurv?dic Phytopharmaceutical products. Ayurv?da is the Indian traditional system of medicine, which also deals about pharmaceutical science. Different type of plant parts used for the Ayurvedic formulation; overall out line of those herbal scenario and its future prospects for the scientific evaluation of medicinal plants used by traditional healers are also discussed. In India most of them, where Ayurvedic treatment is frequently used, for their ailments and provides instructions to local people how to prepare medicine from the herbs. As much as possible importance is also given for the taxonomic literature.

Samy, Ramar Perumal; Pushparaj, Peter Natesan; Gopalakrishnakone, Ponnampalam



Bioactive glass coatings for orthopedic metallic implants  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work is to develop bioactive glass coatings for metallic orthopedic implants. A new family of glasses in the SiO2-Na2O-K2O-CaO-MgO-P2O5 system has been synthesized and characterized. The glass properties (thermal expansion, softening and transformation temperatures, density and hardness) are in line with the predictions of established empirical models. The optimized firing conditions to fabricate coatings on Ti-based and Co-Cr alloys have been determined and related to the glass properties and the interfacial reactions. Excellent adhesion to alloys has been achieved through the formation of 100-200 nm thick interfacial layers (Ti5Si3 on Ti-based alloys and CrOx on Co-Cr). Finally, glass coatings, approximately 100 mu m thick, have been fabricated onto commercial Ti alloy-based dental implants.

Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Saiz, Eduardo; Fujino, Sigheru; Oku, Takeo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Tomsia, Antoni P.



Secondary metabolites and bioactivities of Myrtus communis  

PubMed Central

Background: Myrtus species are characterized by the presence of phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, volatile oils and fatty acids. They are remedies for variety of ailments. This study therefore investigated medicinal effects of Myrtus communis L. Methods: Bioactivity studies of Myrtus communis L. leaves were carried out on volatile oil, 7% methanol and aqueous extracts and the isolated compounds myricetin 3-O-?-glucopyranoside, myricetin 3-O-?–rhamnopyranoside and gallic acid. Results: Determination of the median lethal dose (LD50) revealed that the volatile oil, alcoholic and aqueous extracts were practically nontoxic and highly safe as no lethality was observed. The tested materials (volatile oil, alcoholic and aqueous extracts, myricetin 3-O-?-glucopyranoside, myricetin 3-O-?–rhamnopyranoside and gallic acid) showed significant antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects as compared with control groups and reference drugs. Conclusion: Administration of extracts of M. communis leaves could be safe at the dose used in this study.

Nassar, Mahmoud I.; Aboutabl, El-Sayed A.; Ahmed, Rania F.; El-Khrisy, Ezzel-Din A.; Ibrahim, Khaled M.; Sleem, Amany A.



Versatile Aggressive Mimicry of Cicadas by an Australian Predatory Katydid  

PubMed Central

Background In aggressive mimicry, a predator or parasite imitates a signal of another species in order to exploit the recipient of the signal. Some of the most remarkable examples of aggressive mimicry involve exploitation of a complex signal-response system by an unrelated predator species. Methodology/Principal Findings We have found that predatory Chlorobalius leucoviridis katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) can attract male cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) by imitating the species-specific wing-flick replies of sexually receptive female cicadas. This aggressive mimicry is accomplished both acoustically, with tegminal clicks, and visually, with synchronized body jerks. Remarkably, the katydids respond effectively to a variety of complex, species-specific Cicadettini songs, including songs of many cicada species that the predator has never encountered. Conclusions/Significance We propose that the versatility of aggressive mimicry in C. leucoviridis is accomplished by exploiting general design elements common to the songs of many acoustically signaling insects that use duets in pair-formation. Consideration of the mechanism of versatile mimicry in C. leucoviridis may illuminate processes driving the evolution of insect acoustic signals, which play a central role in reproductive isolation of populations and the formation of species.

Marshall, David C.; Hill, Kathy B. R.



A versatile optoelectronic aid for low vision patients.  


The purpose of this work is to describe a versatile optoelectronic aid for low vision rehabilitation based on reconfigurable hardware. This aid is easily adaptable to diverse pathologies (with different associated processing tasks) and to the progression of the visual impairment. This platform has a mobile configuration that uses a see-through head-mounted display (Nomad). We have implemented different types of vision enhancement on this versatile platform, and briefly summarize here their computational costs (in terms of hardware resource requirements). We have evaluated two representative capabilities of this aid (Augmented View and digital zoom) with measurements of visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and visual field. We have tested the Nomad head-mounted display and the Augmented View modality, in eight subjects with retinitis pigmentosa: the digital zoom was tested in six low vision subjects and nine normally-sighted subjects. We show that the Nomad display with Augmented View configuration does not impair the residual vision; and that there is an increase in visual acuity (VA) with the digital zoom configuration. The major advantage of this platform is that it can easily embed different image processing tasks and since it is based on a FPGA device, it can be specifically configured to tasks requiring real-time processing. PMID:19689551

Peláez-Coca, María Dolores; Vargas-Martín, Fernando; Mota, Sonia; Díaz, Javier; Ros-Vidal, Eduardo



Versatile Low Level RF System For Linear Accelerators  

SciTech Connect

The Low Level RF (LLRF) system is the source of all of the rf signals required for an rf linear accelerator. These signals are amplified to drive accelerator and buncher cavities. It can even provide the synchronizing signal for the rf power for a synchrotron. The use of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) techniques results in a versatile system that can provide multiple coherent signals at the same or different frequencies with adjustable amplitudes and phase relations. Pulsing the DDS allows rf switching with an essentially infinite on/off ratio. The LLRF system includes a versatile phase detector that allows phase-locking the rf frequency to a cavity at any phase angle over the full 360 deg. range. With the use of stepper motor driven slug tuners multiple cavity resonant frequencies can be phase locked to the rf source frequency. No external phase shifters are required and there is no feedback loop phase setup required. All that is needed is to turn the frequency feedback on. The use of Digital Signal Processing (DSP) allows amplitude and phase control over the entire rf pulse. This paper describes the basic principles of a LLRF system that has been used for both proton accelerators and electron accelerators, including multiple tank accelerators, sub-harmonic and fundamental bunchers, and synchrotrons.

Potter, James M. [JP Accelerator Works, Inc., 2245 47th Street, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States)



Versatile Low Level RF System For Linear Accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Low Level RF (LLRF) system is the source of all of the rf signals required for an rf linear accelerator. These signals are amplified to drive accelerator and buncher cavities. It can even provide the synchronizing signal for the rf power for a synchrotron. The use of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) techniques results in a versatile system that can provide multiple coherent signals at the same or different frequencies with adjustable amplitudes and phase relations. Pulsing the DDS allows rf switching with an essentially infinite on/off ratio. The LLRF system includes a versatile phase detector that allows phase-locking the rf frequency to a cavity at any phase angle over the full 360° range. With the use of stepper motor driven slug tuners multiple cavity resonant frequencies can be phase locked to the rf source frequency. No external phase shifters are required and there is no feedback loop phase setup required. All that is needed is to turn the frequency feedback on. The use of Digital Signal Processing (DSP) allows amplitude and phase control over the entire rf pulse. This paper describes the basic principles of a LLRF system that has been used for both proton accelerators and electron accelerators, including multiple tank accelerators, sub-harmonic and fundamental bunchers, and synchrotrons.

Potter, James M.



Versatile optical coherence tomography for imaging the human eye.  


We demonstrated the feasibility of a CMOS-based spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) for versatile ophthalmic applications of imaging the corneal epithelium, limbus, ocular surface, contact lens, crystalline lens, retina, and full eye in vivo. The system was based on a single spectrometer and an alternating reference arm with four mirrors. A galvanometer scanner was used to switch the reference beam among the four mirrors, depending on the imaging application. An axial resolution of 7.7 ?m in air, a scan depth of up to 37.7 mm in air, and a scan speed of up to 70,000 A-lines per second were achieved. The approach has the capability to provide high-resolution imaging of the corneal epithelium, contact lens, ocular surface, and tear meniscus. Using two reference mirrors, the zero delay lines were alternatively placed on the front cornea or on the back lens. The entire ocular anterior segment was imaged by registering and overlapping the two images. The full eye through the pupil was measured when the reference arm was switched among the four reference mirrors. After mounting a 60 D lens in the sample arm, this SD-OCT was used to image the retina, including the macula and optical nerve head. This system demonstrates versatility and simplicity for multi-purpose ophthalmic applications. PMID:23847729

Tao, Aizhu; Shao, Yilei; Zhong, Jianguang; Jiang, Hong; Shen, Meixiao; Wang, Jianhua



Luminescent kinase activity biosensors based on a versatile bimolecular switch  

PubMed Central

Real-time tracking of kinase activity in living systems has revealed new modes of encoding signaling information into the spatiotemporal activity patterns and opened new avenues for screening kinase modulators. However, the sensitivity of kinase activity detection, which is commonly coupled to a FRET-based readout, has often been a limiting factor. Here we show a kinase-inducible bimolecular switch, consisting of a substrate for the kinase of interest and a phosphoamino acid binding domain, can be designed to sense different kinase activities and coupled to various readouts, thereby allowing for examination of dynamic kinase activity with increased sensitivity and versatility. Specifically, we demonstrate that bimolecular switches designed to sense Protein Kinase A (PKA) or Protein Kinase C (PKC) activities can turn on FRET as well as bioluminescence signals. Notably, the FRET-based sensors gain larger dynamic ranges when compared to their unimolecular counterparts; the novel bioluminescence-based reporters for PKA and PKC show high sensitivity and a unique capability to detect basal kinase activities and should enable new applications in in vivo imaging of kinase activity and high-throughput compound screening. Thus, this generalizable design advances the molecular toolkit of kinase activity detection and provides a means for versatile and sensitive detection of kinase activity in various biological systems.

Herbst, Katie J.; Allen, Michael D.; Zhang, Jin



Versatility and Invariance in the Evolution of Homologous Heteromeric Interfaces  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary pressures act on protein complex interfaces so that they preserve their complementarity. Nonetheless, the elementary interactions which compose the interface are highly versatile throughout evolution. Understanding and characterizing interface plasticity across evolution is a fundamental issue which could provide new insights into protein-protein interaction prediction. Using a database of 1,024 couples of close and remote heteromeric structural interologs, we studied protein-protein interactions from a structural and evolutionary point of view. We systematically and quantitatively analyzed the conservation of different types of interface contacts. Our study highlights astonishing plasticity regarding polar contacts at complex interfaces. It also reveals that up to a quarter of the residues switch out of the interface when comparing two homologous complexes. Despite such versatility, we identify two important interface descriptors which correlate with an increased conservation in the evolution of interfaces: apolar patches and contacts surrounding anchor residues. These observations hold true even when restricting the dataset to transiently formed complexes. We show that a combination of six features related either to sequence or to geometric properties of interfaces can be used to rank positions likely to share similar contacts between two interologs. Altogether, our analysis provides important tracks for extracting meaningful information from multiple sequence alignments of conserved binding partners and for discriminating near-native interfaces using evolutionary information.

Andreani, Jessica; Faure, Guilhem; Guerois, Raphael



Assembly of bioactive peptide-chitosan nanocomplexes.  


The assembly of nanocomplexes from bioactive peptides, namely, caseinophosphopeptides (CPPs) and chitosan (CS), at physiological conditions and various CS/CPP mass ratios has been systematically studied using a combination of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), turbidimetric titration, dynamic light scattering (DLS), electrophoretic mobility (?-potential) measurements, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and fluorescence spectroscopy. Peptides incorporated with CS forming nanoparticles were prepared and identified using LC-MS/MS. They were characterized by different amounts of clusters of phosphorylated seryl residues. At low salt concentrations, an increase in CS/CPP mass ratio shifted the critical pH(?1) value, which was designated as the formation of CS/CPP nanocomplexes, as well as pH(max), which represents the neutralization of positive and negative charges at higher pH values. The sizes, charges, morphologies, binding mechanisms, and binding constants of the bioactive peptide-chitosan nanocomplexes were analyzed, and our results suggest that three processes are involved in nanocomplex formation: First, negatively charged CPPs absorb to positively charged CS molecular chains to form intrapolymer nanocomplexes saturated with CPPs (CPPNPs). Subsequently, the negatively charged CPPNPs are bridged by the addition of positively charged CS, resulting in the formation of nearly neutral associative biopolymer complexes. Finally, further addition of excess chitosan breaks down the bridges of associative complexes and causes the formation of positively charged isolated spherical nanocomplexes. The binding between the peptides and CS is mainly driven by electrostatic interactions with a binding constant of K(cs) = 4.6 × 10(4) M(-1). Phosphorylated groups and other negatively charged amino acids, such as aspartic acid (Asp) and glutamic acid (Glu), in the CPPs might be the dominant sites for interaction with -NH(3)(+) groups on the CS molecular chains. PMID:21608974

Hu, B; Wang, S S; Li, J; Zeng, X X; Huang, Q R



Bioactive scaffolds mimicking natural dentin structure.  


Organic scaffolds of poly(ethyl methacrylate-co-hydroxyethyl acrylate) [P(EMA-co-HEA)] 70/30 wt % ratio, with varying proportions of silica SiO(2) from 0 to 20 wt % and aligned tubular pores, were prepared using a fiber-templating fabrication method, with the aim of mimicking structure and properties of the mineralized tissue of natural dentin. Precursors of the copolymer and silica were simultaneously polymerized in a sol-gel process within the fiber template, which was eventually eliminated to generate homogeneously distributed parallel micrometer-sized pores in the material. Scaffolds of PEMA and PHEA were obtained by the same approach. The scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The specific volume was determined by Archimedes' method and the porosity calculated from the geometry. The mechanical properties were analyzed in tensile and compressive modes. The bioactivity of the scaffolds with 15 wt % SiO(2) was tested by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 days followed by immersion in 2x SBF for 7 days. These scaffolds were afterwards characterized by SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and compression assays. Percentages of silica above 10 wt % reinforced mechanically the copolymer, evidenced by the hindrance of the long range motions of the organic chains, altered shrinkage and swelling, and meanwhile conferred bioactivity to its surface. These tubular porous structures, which resemble natural dentin with regard to its structure and properties and induce the precipitation of apatite on their surfaces in vitro, are expected to facilitate the integration in the host mineralized tissue, to stimulate cell growth and to be useful as guiding scaffolds for in vivo dentin regeneration. PMID:19072987

Lluch, A Vallés; Fernández, A Campillo; Ferrer, G Gallego; Pradas, M Monleón



Structural characterization and thermal and chemical stability of bioactive molecule-hydrotalcite (LDH) nanocomposites.  


Layered double hydroxides (LDH) are versatile materials used for intercalating bioactive molecules, both in pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields, with the purpose of protecting them from degradation, enhancing their water solubility to increase bioavailability, and/or obtaining modified release properties. The properties of the intercalation compounds of Mg/Al_LDH and Zn/Al_LDH with different drugs and sunscreens, namely diclofenac, ketoprofen, gliclazide, retinoic acid, furosemide, para-aminobenzoic acid and 2-phenylbenzimidazolsulfonic (Eusolex) acid, have been studied by crystallographic, spectroscopic and thermogravimetric techniques and by solid state NMR, to shed light on their structure, their molecular interactions and their stability from the thermal and chemical viewpoint. The structural features were described with particular attention to the interaction between the organic and inorganic components and to the stability of the intercalation products. For the first time two synchrotron radiation powder diffraction patterns of organic-containing LDH were solved and refined by Rietveld methods to obtain an experimental crystal structure. PMID:23873340

Conterosito, Eleonora; Croce, Gianluca; Palin, Luca; Pagano, Cinzia; Perioli, Luana; Viterbo, Davide; Boccaleri, Enrico; Paul, Geo; Milanesio, Marco



Understanding skin care and skin barrier function in infants.  


Skin care practices involving the application of products to the skin are common. This article focuses on these aspects of infant skin care, the importance of skin barrier function and how the use of products and therapies applied to the skin can affect skin?barrier function. It also challenges current practice and tradition, and highlights the evolving body of research into practice and tradition. PMID:24021151

Lawton, Sandra



You and Your Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The You and Your Skin interactive was developed by Science NetLinks with funding from Neutrogena as part of the Skin Deep project. This resource provides an introduction to the basic structure of the skin, information about how the skin protects us, and some information on how to care for the skin. There are four main sections to the resource: Function, Anatomy, Protection, and Care. When you click on one of the main sections, you'll be taken to an enlarged view of that section, which contains several subsections represented by the highlighted ring around the circle. Roll your mouse over the ring to see the subsections. To go to one of the subsections, simply click on it. To move from one of the main sections to another, simply click on one of the red arrows found by the ring.

Science NetLinks (AAAS;)



A Kazal prolyl endopeptidase inhibitor isolated from the skin of Phyllomedusa sauvagii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Searching for bioactive peptides, we analyzed acidic extracts of Phyllomedusa sauvagii skin and found two new proteins, PSKP-1 and PSKP-2, of 6.7 and 6.6 kDa, respectively, which, by sequence homology, belong to the Kazal family of serine protease inhibitors. PSKP-1 and PSKP-2 exhibit the unprecedented feature of having proline at P1 and P2 positions. A gene encoding PSKP-1 was synthesized

Leopoldo G. Gebhard; Federico U. Carrizo; Ana L. Stern; Noelia I. Burgardt; Julian Faivovich; Esteban Lavilla; Mario R. Ermacora



Review of bioactive glass: from Hench to hybrids.  


Bioactive glasses are reported to be able to stimulate more bone regeneration than other bioactive ceramics but they lag behind other bioactive ceramics in terms of commercial success. Bioactive glass has not yet reached its potential but research activity is growing. This paper reviews the current state of the art, starting with current products and moving onto recent developments. Larry Hench's 45S5 Bioglass® was the first artificial material that was found to form a chemical bond with bone, launching the field of bioactive ceramics. In vivo studies have shown that bioactive glasses bond with bone more rapidly than other bioceramics, and in vitro studies indicate that their osteogenic properties are due to their dissolution products stimulating osteoprogenitor cells at the genetic level. However, calcium phosphates such as tricalcium phosphate and synthetic hydroxyapatite are more widely used in the clinic. Some of the reasons are commercial, but others are due to the scientific limitations of the original Bioglass 45S5. An example is that it is difficult to produce porous bioactive glass templates (scaffolds) for bone regeneration from Bioglass 45S5 because it crystallizes during sintering. Recently, this has been overcome by understanding how the glass composition can be tailored to prevent crystallization. The sintering problems can also be avoided by synthesizing sol-gel glass, where the silica network is assembled at room temperature. Process developments in foaming, solid freeform fabrication and nanofibre spinning have now allowed the production of porous bioactive glass scaffolds from both melt- and sol-gel-derived glasses. An ideal scaffold for bone regeneration would share load with bone. Bioceramics cannot do this when the bone defect is subjected to cyclic loads, as they are brittle. To overcome this, bioactive glass polymer hybrids are being synthesized that have the potential to be tough, with congruent degradation of the bioactive inorganic and the polymer components. Key to this is creating nanoscale interpenetrating networks, the organic and inorganic components of which have covalent coupling between them, which involves careful control of the chemistry of the sol-gel process. Bioactive nanoparticles can also now be synthesized and their fate tracked as they are internalized in cells. This paper reviews the main developments in the field of bioactive glass and its variants, covering the importance of control of hierarchical structure, synthesis, processing and cellular response in the quest for new regenerative synthetic bone grafts. The paper takes the reader from Hench's Bioglass 45S5 to new hybrid materials that have tailorable mechanical properties and degradation rates. PMID:22922331

Jones, Julian R



Lunasin is prevalent in barley and is bioavailable and bioactive in in vivo and in vitro studies.  


Lunasin, a unique 43-amino acid peptide found in a number of seeds, has been shown to be chemopreventive in mammalian cells and in a skin cancer mouse model. To elucidate the role of cereals in cancer prevention, we report here the prevalence, bioavailability, and bioactivity of lunasin from barley. Lunasin is present in all cultivars of barley analyzed. The liver and kidney of rats fed with lunasin-enriched barley (LEB) show the presence of lunasin in Western blot. Lunasin extracted from the kidney and liver inhibits the activities of HATs (histone acetyl transferases), yGCN5 by 20% and 18% at 100 nM, and PCAF activity by 25% and 24% at 100 nM, confirming that the peptide is intact and bioactive. Purified barley lunasin localizes in the nuclei of NIH 3T3 cells. Barley lunasin added to NIH 3T3 cells in the presence of the chemical carcinogen MCA activates the expression of tumor suppressors p21 and p15 by 45% and 47%, decreases cyclin D1 by 98%, and inhibits Rb hyperphosphorylation by 45% compared with the MCA treatment alone. We conclude that lunasin is prevalent in barley, bioavailable, and bioactive and that consumption of barley could play an important role of cancer prevention in barley-consuming populations. PMID:21058199

Jeong, Hyung Jin; Jeong, Jin Boo; Hsieh, Chia Chien; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca; de Lumen, Ben O



Skin Substitutes and Uses Thereof.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to in vitro cultured skin substitutes, and in particular to improved methods for organotypic culture of skin substitutes. In some embodiments, the dermal equivalent of the skin substitute is lifted to air interface of the cul...

C. A. R. Ivarie L. A. Hoffman P. Barth



The Environment and the Skin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The skin is an important interface between people and their physical, chemical, and biologic environment. Skin diseases comprise 35% to 85% of all occupational disease. The majority of environmental skin problems are eczematous in character and result fro...

R. R. Suskind



Mom and Baby Skin Care  


... and baby skin care Mom and baby skin care Skin care concerns during and after pregnancy Melasma Also known ... chilled product can help alleviate the itch. Hair care concerns during and after pregnancy Excessive hair growth ...


Ranachensinin: a novel aliphatic tachykinin from the skin secretion of the Chinese brown frog, Rana chensinensis.  


Amphibian skin secretions contain a plethora of pharmacologically-active substances and represent established sources of bioactive peptides, including tachykinins. Tachykinins are one of the most widely-studied peptide families in animals and are found in neuroendocrine tissues from the lowest vertebrates to mammals. They are characterized by the presence of a highly-conserved C-terminal pentapeptide amide sequence motif (-FXGLM-amide) that also constitutes the bioactive core of the peptide. Amidation of the C-terminal methioninyl residue appears to be mandatory in the expression of biological activity. Here, we describe the isolation, characterization and molecular cloning of a novel tachykinin named ranachensinin, from the skin secretion of the Chinese brown frog, Rana chensinensis. This peptide, DDTSDRSN QFIGLM-amide, contains the classical C-terminal pentapeptide amide motif in its primary structure and an Ile (I) residue in the variable X position. A synthetic replicate of ranachensinin, synthesized by solid-phase Fmoc chemistry, was found to contract the smooth muscle of rat urinary bladder with an EC50 of 20.46 nM. However, in contrast, it was found to be of low potency in contraction of rat ileum smooth muscle with an EC50 of 2.98 µM. These data illustrate that amphibian skin secretions continue to provide novel bioactive peptides with selective effects on functional targets in mammalian tissues. PMID:24073664

Wu, Yuxin; Li, Renjie; Ma, Jie; Zhou, Mei; Wang, Lei; McClure, Timothy I; Cai, Jiqun; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris



Wharton's jelly stem cells: a novel cell source for oral mucosa and skin epithelia regeneration.  


Perinatal stem cells such as human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly stem cells (HWJSCs) are excellent candidates for tissue engineering because of their proliferation and differentiation capabilities. However, their differentiation potential into epithelial cells at in vitro and in vivo levels has not yet been reported. In this work we have studied the capability of HWJSCs to differentiate in vitro and in vivo to oral mucosa and skin epithelial cells using a bioactive three-dimensional model that mimics the native epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. To achieve this, primary cell cultures of HWJSCs, oral mucosa, and skin fibroblasts were obtained in order to generate a three-dimensional heterotypical model of artificial oral mucosa and skin based on fibrin-agarose biomaterials. Our results showed that the cells were unable to fully differentiate to epithelial cells in vitro. Nevertheless, in vivo grafting of the bioactive three-dimensional models demonstrated that HWJSCs were able to stratify and to express typical markers of epithelial differentiation, such as cytokeratins 1, 4, 8, and 13, plakoglobin, filaggrin, and involucrin, showing specific surface patterns. Electron microscopy analysis confirmed the presence of epithelial cell-like layers and well-formed cell-cell junctions. These results suggest that HWJSCs have the potential to differentiate to oral mucosa and skin epithelial cells in vivo and could be an appropriate novel cell source for the development of human oral mucosa and skin in tissue engineering protocols. PMID:23817131

Garzón, Ingrid; Miyake, Juliano; González-Andrades, Miguel; Carmona, Ramón; Carda, Carmen; Sánchez-Quevedo, María del Carmen; Campos, Antonio; Alaminos, Miguel



Skin and antioxidants.  


It is estimated that total sun exposure occurs non-intentionally in three quarters of our lifetimes. Our skin is exposed to majority of UV radiation during outdoor activities, e.g. walking, practicing sports, running, hiking, etc. and not when we are intentionally exposed to the sun on the beach. We rarely use sunscreens during those activities, or at least not as much and as regular as we should and are commonly prone to acute and chronic sun damage of the skin. The only protection of our skin is endogenous (synthesis of melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and exogenous (antioxidants, which we consume from the food, like vitamins A, C, E, etc.). UV-induced photoaging of the skin becomes clinically evident with age, when endogenous antioxidative mechanisms and repair processes are not effective any more and actinic damage to the skin prevails. At this point it would be reasonable to ingest additional antioxidants and/or to apply them on the skin in topical preparations. We review endogenous and exogenous skin protection with antioxidants. PMID:23384037

Poljsak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja; Godic, Aleksandar



Sensitive skin: an overview.  


Sensitive skin is a condition of subjective cutaneous hyper-reactivity to environmental factors. Subjects experiencing this condition report exaggerated reactions when their skin is in contact with cosmetics, soaps and sun screens, and they often report worsening after exposure to dry and cold climate. Although no sign of irritation is commonly detected, itching, burning, stinging and a tight sensation are constantly present. Generally substances that are not commonly considered irritants are involved in this abnormal response.Sensitive skin and subjective irritation are widespread but still far from being completely defined and understood. A correlation between sensitive skin and constitutional anomalies and/or other triggering factors such as occupational skin diseases or chronic exposure to irritants has been hypothesized. Recent findings suggest that higher sensitivity can be due to different mechanisms. Hyper-reactors may have a thinner stratum corneum with a reduced corneocyte area causing a higher transcutaneous penetration of water-soluble chemicals. Alterations in vanilloid receptors and changes in neuronal transmission have been described. Monitoring skin parameters such as barrier function, proclivity to irritation, corneocyte size and sensorial transmission can also be useful to identify regional differences in skin sensitivity. PMID:22928591

Berardesca, E; Farage, M; Maibach, H



The aging skin.  


In the past, sun exposure has been an integral part of the American life style. Along with increased leisure time, outdoor recreational sports, and sun bathing has come greater exposure to the sun. The cumulative effects of unprotected sun exposure coupled with the changes in the ozone layer have resulted in a large photodamaged population and an epidemic of the most dangerous skin cancer, malignant melanoma. Photodamage begins early, with a child's first unprotected sun exposure. Clinical studies show that 50% of an individual's ultraviolet light exposure occurs before the age of 18 years. This damage from acute and chronic ultraviolet light exposure has produced the explosion of skin cancers. Over the next 4 years, it is expected that skin cancer will become the most common type of cancer, and malignant melanoma will become the leading cause of death from skin cancer. This growing hazard to the public has profound medical and psychological ramifications. This paper will focus on prevention, identification, evaluation and treatment of photodamage to skin, as well as skin cancer. Special emphasis will be given to the National Skin Cancer Prevention Education Program. PMID:9160214

Bergfeld, W F


Archaea on Human Skin  

PubMed Central

The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin.

Probst, Alexander J.; Auerbach, Anna K.; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine



Carotenoids in human skin.  


The interaction of free radicals with antioxidants is a topic of increasing interest in the development of prevention strategies against skin ageing. Carotenoids can serve as marker substances for the complete antioxidative network of human skin. Recently, it has become possible to measure the carotenoids non-invasively and online using resonance Raman spectroscopy. This method has been used in various studies to investigate the interaction of carotenoid antioxidants and free radicals in human skin. In this review, the results of the selected studies are summarized and compared. It could be demonstrated that the carotenoid concentration of the skin reflects the lifestyle of individuals. A high level of carotenoids can be achieved with a healthy diet rich, for instance, in fruit and vegetables. Stress factors such as illness, UV and IR radiation of the sun, and smoking and alcohol consumption reduce the concentration of the carotenoids in the skin. It could be demonstrated that premature skin ageing was less in people with a high level of antioxidants in their tissue. Consequently, the furrows and wrinkles were not so deep and dense as in the skin of individuals with a low antioxidant level. The measurements are highly suited for the development of anti-ageing strategies and can be efficiently used in the medical diagnostics and therapy control. PMID:21366698

Lademann, Juergen; Meinke, Martina C; Sterry, Wolfram; Darvin, Maxim E



Occupational skin disease.  


Contact dermatitis, the most common occupational skin disease, is characterized by clearly demarcated areas of rash at sites of exposure. The rash improves on removal of the offending agent. In allergic contact dermatitis, even minute exposures to antigenic substances can lead to a skin rash. Common sensitizing agents include nickel and members of the Rhus genus (e.g., poison ivy, poison oak). Severe skin irritants tend to cause immediate red blisters or burns, whereas weaker irritants produce eczematous skin changes over time. An occupational cause should be suspected when rash occurs in areas that are in contact with oil, grease, or other substances. Direct skin testing (patch or scratch) or radioallergosorbent testing may help to identify a specific trigger. Skin cancer can have an occupational link in workers with prolonged exposure to sunlight and certain chemicals, although it can take decades for lesions to develop. In workers with occupational skin disease, workplace changes and protective measures are important to prevent future exposure. PMID:12358214

Peate, W E



A New Frontier in Soy Bioactive Peptides that May Prevent Age-related Chronic Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

regulatory compounds with hormone-like activities. Numerous biologically active peptides (bioactive peptides) have been regulatory compounds with hormone-like activities. Numerous biologically active peptides (bioactive peptides) have been regulatory compounds with hormone-like activities. Numerous biologically active peptides (bioactive peptides) have been regulatory compounds with hormone-like activities. Numerous biologically active peptides (bioactive peptides) have been identified. Most bioactive peptides are derived from milk

Wenyi Wang; Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia



[Dermatoendocrinology. Skin aging].  


Hormones and their imbalances have significant effects on the morphology and physiology of the skin and influence various skin functions, especially wound healing and lipogenesis. With increasing age, the concentrations of important circulating hormones, including growth hormone and sex-related steroids, decrease continuously. As a result, physiologic processes are negatively influenced and various age-associated disorders may develop. As the population aged 80 and over is expected to rise in the next decades, the understanding of the molecular mechanisms accompanying skin aging and disease prevention will become even more important and play a role in preventing disease. PMID:20480124

Makrantonaki, E; Zouboulis, C C



Bioactive, semi-degradable hydrogels for cartilage tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(vinyl-alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels have long been investigated as replacement materials for articular cartilage, but their lack of bioactivity has impeded their utility. We have prepared bioactive PVA hydrogels by incorporating a degradable phase of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) that enhances porosity and controls the release of growth factors. Hydrogel properties such as porosity, pore size, and degradability were dependent on the

K. L. Spiller; Y. Liu; W. Liu; Y. Cao; A. M. Lowman



Antimicrobial Effect of Nanometric Bioactive Glass 45S5  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most recent advances in nanomaterials fabrication have given access to complex materials such as SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5 bioactive glasses in the form of amorphous nanoparticles of 20-to 60-nm size. The clinically interesting antimicrobial properties of commercially available, micron-sized bioactive glass 45S5 have been attributed to the continuous liberation of alkaline species during application. Here, we tested the hypothesis that, based on its

T. Waltimo; T. J. Brunner; M. Vollenweider; W. J. Stark; M. Zehnder



Light-induced bioactive TiO2 surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have achieved bioactivity enhancement of nanostructured titania using ultraviolet (uv) light irradiation. The titania coating fabricated by nanoparticle plasma spraying consists of a nano-TiO2 coating surface composed of primarily nanosized anatase. After irradiation by ultraviolet light in air for 24 h, the as-sprayed and UV-irradiated TiO2 coatings were soaked in simulated body fluids (SBF) to investigate their bioactivity. The

Xuanyong Liu; Xiaobing Zhao; Chuanxian Ding; Paul K. Chu



Versatility of RNA-Binding Proteins in Cancer  

PubMed Central

Posttranscriptional gene regulation is a rapid and efficient process to adjust the proteome of a cell to a changing environment. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are the master regulators of mRNA processing and translation and are often aberrantly expressed in cancer. In addition to well-studied transcription factors, RBPs are emerging as fundamental players in tumor development. RBPs and their mRNA targets form a complex network that plays a crucial role in tumorigenesis. This paper describes mechanisms by which RBPs influence the expression of well-known oncogenes, focusing on precise examples that illustrate the versatility of RBPs in posttranscriptional control of cancer development. RBPs appeared very early in evolution, and new RNA-binding domains and combinations of them were generated in more complex organisms. The identification of RBPs, their mRNA targets, and their mechanism of action have provided novel potential targets for cancer therapy.

Wurth, Laurence



Development of versatile molecular transport model for modeling spacecraft contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a MATLAB-based molecular transport model developed for modeling contamination of spacecraft and optical instruments in space. The model adopts the Gebhart inverse-matrix theory for thermal radiation to analyze mass (molecular) transfer due to direct and reflected flux processes by balancing the mass fluxes instead of heat fluxes among surfaces with prescribed boundary conditions (contamination sticking fractions). The model can easily input view factor results from current thermal tools as well as measured outgassing data from ASTM E 1559 tests or vacuum bake-outs of flight components. Application examples of a geosynchronous satellite and an optical telescope are given to demonstrate versatile applications of the developed model.

Chang, Chien W.; Kannenberg, Keith; Chidester, Michael H.



Preparation of a Versatile Bifunctional Zeolite for Targeted Imaging Applications  

PubMed Central

Bifunctional zeolite Y was prepared for use in targeted in vivo molecular imaging applications. The strategy involved functionalization of the external surface of zeolite Y with chloropropyltriethoxysilane followed by reaction with sodium azide to form azide-functionalized NaY, which is amenable to copper(1) catalyzed click chemistry. In this study, a model alkyne (4-pentyn-1-ol) was attached to the azide-terminated surface via click chemistry to demonstrate feasibility for attachment of molecular targeting vectors (e.g., peptides, aptamers) to the zeolite surface. The modified particle efficiently incorporates the imaging radioisotope gallium-68 (68Ga) into the pores of the azide-functionalized NaY zeolite to form a stable bifunctional molecular targeting vector. The result is a versatile “clickable” zeolite platform that can be tailored for future in vivo molecular targeting and imaging modalities.

Ndiege, Nicholas; Raidoo, Renugan; Schultz, Michael K.; Larsen, Sarah



A versatile method for controlled synthesis of porous hollow spheres.  


A versatile method was developed to synthesize nickel silicate, silica, and silica-nickel composite porous hollow spheres by using silica spheres as templates. In the preparation, silica spheres were treated with a mixture of NiSO(4)·6H(2)O and NH(3)·H(2)O. The nickel-based ingredient reacted with the silica to form a shell while the alkaline solution could remove the silica core, thus forming the nickel silicate hollow spheres. After these spheres were further treated with hydrogen in reduction or with HCl in etching, they became silica-nickel hollow spheres or silica hollow spheres, respectively. The sizes of these hollow spheres depended on the concentration of the precursor. Our investigation also found that their surface properties or magnetic properties could be tailored by adjusting the fabrication parameters. PMID:20722442

Wang, Yongqiang; Tang, Chunjuan; Deng, Quan; Liang, Changhao; Ng, Dickon H L; Kwong, Fung-luen; Wang, Hongqiang; Cai, Weiping; Zhang, Lide; Wang, Guozhong



Extraordinary phylogenetic diversity and metabolic versatility in aquifer sediment.  


Microorganisms in the subsurface represent a substantial but poorly understood component of the Earth's biosphere. Subsurface environments are complex and difficult to characterize; thus, their microbiota have remained as a 'dark matter' of the carbon and other biogeochemical cycles. Here we deeply sequence two sediment-hosted microbial communities from an aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River, CO, USA. No single organism represents more than ~1% of either community. Remarkably, many bacteria and archaea in these communities are novel at the phylum level or belong to phyla lacking a sequenced representative. The dominant organism in deeper sediment, RBG-1, is a member of a new phylum. On the basis of its reconstructed complete genome, RBG-1 is metabolically versatile. Its wide respiration-based repertoire may enable it to respond to the fluctuating redox environment close to the water table. We document extraordinary microbial novelty and the importance of previously unknown lineages in sediment biogeochemical transformations. PMID:23979677

Castelle, Cindy J; Hug, Laura A; Wrighton, Kelly C; Thomas, Brian C; Williams, Kenneth H; Wu, Dongying; Tringe, Susannah G; Singer, Steven W; Eisen, Jonathan A; Banfield, Jillian F



Advanced Sorbents as a Versatile Platform for Gas Separation  

SciTech Connect

The program objective was to develop materials and processes for industrial gas separations to reduce energy use and enable waste reduction. The approach chosen combined novel oxygen selective adsorbents and pressure swing adsorption (PSA) processes. Preliminary materials development and process simulation results indicated that oxygen selective adsorbents could provide a versatile platform for industrial gas separations. If fully successful, this new technology offered the potential for reducing the cost of producing nitrogen/oxygen co-products, high purity nitrogen, argon, and possibly oxygen. The potential energy savings for the gas separations are appreciable, but the end users are the main beneficiaries. Lowering the cost of industrial gases expands their use in applications that can employ them for reducing energy consumption and emissions.

Neil Stephenson



Preparation of a Versatile Bifunctional Zeolite for Targeted Imaging Applications.  


Bifunctional zeolite Y was prepared for use in targeted in vivo molecular imaging applications. The strategy involved functionalization of the external surface of zeolite Y with chloropropyltriethoxysilane followed by reaction with sodium azide to form azide-functionalized NaY, which is amenable to copper(1)-catalyzed click chemistry. In this study, a model alkyne (4-pentyn-1-ol) was attached to the azide-terminated surface via click chemistry to demonstrate feasibility for attachment of molecular targeting vectors (e.g., peptides, aptamers) to the zeolite surface. The modified particle efficiently incorporates the imaging radioisotope gallium-68 ((68)Ga) into the pores of the azide-functionalized NaY zeolite to form a stable bifunctional molecular targeting vector. The result is a versatile "clickable" zeolite platform that can be tailored for future in vivo molecular targeting and imaging modalities. PMID:21306141

Ndiege, Nicholas; Raidoo, Renugan; Schultz, Michael K; Larsen, Sarah



Versatile generation of optical vortices based on paraxial mode expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a simple and versatile method for generating various configurations of optical vortices from a Gaussian light beam by using glass plates and an astigmatic mode converter (AMC). The glass plates are inserted into the Gaussian beam to imprint nodal lines along the edges, and the AMC then transforms the beam with the nodes into a vortex beam. The procedures are discussed in terms of a transverse-mode expansion of the paraxial light beam, in which each HermiteGaussian mode is converted into the corresponding LaguerreGaussian mode by the AMC. We generated several vortex configurations, and the results show good agreement with the theoretical predictions. 2002 Optical Society of America

Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Sasada, Hiroyuki



Graphyne: Hexagonal network of carbon with versatile Dirac cones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study ?, ?, and ? graphyne, a class of graphene allotropes with carbon triple bonds, using a first-principles density-functional method and tight-binding calculation. We find that graphyne has versatile Dirac cones and it is due to remarkable roles of the carbon triple bonds in electronic and atomic structures. The carbon triple bonds modulate effective hopping matrix elements and reverse their signs, resulting in Dirac cones with reversed chirality in ? graphyne, momentum shift of the Dirac point in ? graphyne, and switch of the energy gap in ? graphyne. Furthermore, the triple bonds provide chemisorption sites of adatoms which can break sublattice symmetry while preserving planar sp2-bonding networks. These features of graphyne open new possibilities for electronic applications of carbon-based two-dimensional materials and derived nanostructures.

Kim, Bog G.; Choi, Hyoung Joon



DIFCARS: A versatile model of CARS signal generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A versatile model of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signal generation is presented. The model combines the novel treatment of CARS signal generation given by Teets with the realistic electric field distributions produced by the model of focused laser beams given by Evans and Grey-Morgan. The model provides a detailed picture of local contributions to the total CARS signal, including interference effects, as well as the total CARS power and the CARS spectrum. Illustrative applications of the model are given for each of the common CARS phase-matching configurations, collinear CARS, USED CARS and folded BOXCARS. A particular feature of the model is that the input data derives from readily accessible features of the pump and Stokes input beams arriving at the focusing lens and of the lens itself.

Kaabar, W.; Devonshire, R.



The versatile Legionella effector protein DrrA.  


The human pathogen Legionella pneumophila is a bacterium that infects human cells and interferes with intracellular signaling. The Legionella protein DrrA is one of the numerous effectors that the bacterium translocates into the host cytosol. DrrA binds to the Legionella containing vacuole (LCV), an organelle in which Legionella survives and replicates, and recruits and activates the vesicular trafficking regulator Rab1 to redirect vesicular trafficking between the endoplasmatic reticulum and the Golgi. After depositing Rab1 at the LCV, DrrA covalently modifies Rab1 with an AMP moiety at a specific tyrosine residue (Tyr77), which is centrally located in the functionally important switch II region. This adenylylation reaction interferes with the deactivation of Rab1 by GTPase activating proteins (GAPs), thereby presumably prolonging the active state of the protein at the LCV. Here, we summarize the versatile properties of DrrA and speculate on the effects of Rab1-adenylylation. PMID:21509184

Goody, Roger S; Müller, Matthias P; Schoebel, Stefan; Oesterlin, Lena K; Blümer, Julia; Peters, Heide; Blankenfeldt, Wulf; Itzen, Aymelt



The TopClosure® 3S System, for skin stretching and a secure wound closure.  


The principle of stretching wound margins for primary wound closure is commonly practiced and used for various skin defects, leading at times to excessive tension and complications during wound closure. Different surgical techniques, skin stretching devices and tissue expanders have been utilized to address this issue. Previously designed skin stretching devices resulted in considerable morbidity. They were invasive by nature and associated with relatively high localized tissue pressure, frequently leading to necrosis, damage and tearing of skin at the wound margins. To assess the clinical effectiveness and performance and, to determine the safety of TopClosure® for gradual, controlled, temporary, noninvasive and invasive applications for skin stretching and secure wound closing, the TopClosure® device was applied to 20 patients for preoperative skin lesion removal and to secure closure of a variety of wound sizes. TopClosure® was reinforced with adhesives, staples and/or surgical sutures, depending on the circumstances of the wound and the surgeon's judgment. TopClosure® was used prior to, during and/or after surgery to reduce tension across wound edges. No significant complications or adverse events were associated with its use. TopClosure® was effectively used for preoperative skin expansion in preparation for dermal resection (e.g., congenital nevi). It aided closure of large wounds involving significant loss of skin and soft tissue by mobilizing skin and subcutaneous tissue, thus avoiding the need for skin grafts or flaps. Following surgery, it was used to secure closure of wounds under tension, thus improving wound aesthetics. A sample case study will be presented. We designed TopClosure®, an innovative device, to modify the currently practiced concept of wound closure by applying minimal stress to the skin, away from damaged wound edges, with flexible force vectors and versatile methods of attachment to the skin, in a noninvasive or invasive manner. PMID:22719176

Topaz, Moris; Carmel, Narin-Nard; Silberman, Adi; Li, Ming Sen; Li, Yong Zhong



A comparative analysis of metal transportomes from metabolically versatile Pseudomonas  

PubMed Central

Background The availability of complete genome sequences of versatile Pseudomonas occupying remarkably diverse ecological niches enabled to gain insights into their adaptative assets. The objective of this study was to analyze the complete genetic repertoires of metal transporters (metal transportomes) from four representative Pseudomonas species and to identify metal transporters with "Genomic Island" associated features. Methods A comparative metal transporter inventory was built for the following four Pseudomonas species: P.putida (Ppu) KT2440, P.aeruginosa (Pae) PA01, P.fluorescens (Pfl) Pf-5 and P.syringae (Psy)pv.tomato DC3000 using TIGR-CMR and Transport DB. Genomic analysis of essential and toxic metal ion transporters was accomplished from the above inventory. Metal transporters with "Genomic Island" associated features were identified using Islandpath analysis. Results Dataset cataloguing has been executed for 262 metal transporters from the four spp. Additional metal ion transporters belonging to NiCoT, Ca P-type ATPase, Cu P-type ATPases, ZIP and MgtC families were identified. In Psy DC3000, 48% of metal transporters showed strong GI features while it was 45% in Ppu KT2440. In Pfl Pf-5 and Pae PA01 only 26% of their metal transporters exhibited GI features. Conclusion Our comparative inventory of 262 metal transporters from four versatile Pseudomonas spp is the complete suite of metal transportomes analysed till date in a prokaryotic genus. This study identified differences in the basic composition of metal transportomes from Pseudomonas occupying diverse ecological niches and also elucidated their novel features. Based on this inventory we analysed the role of horizontal gene transfer in expansion and variability of metal transporter families.

Haritha, Adhikarla; Rodrigue, Agnes; Mohan, Pamarthi Maruthi



Assessment of biomechanical skin properties: Is cellulitic skin different?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: An objective in vivo measurement of viscoelastic skin properties is difficult. Consequently, the clinician's ability to evaluate the effectiveness of therapies that may affect skin pliability and skin surface characteristics is limited. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the Biomechanical Tissue Characterization BTC-2000 System for objective, noninvasive assessment of viscoelastic skin properties, specifically

Marek K. Dobke; Barry DiBernardo; R. Carl Thompson; Hakan Usal



Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin  


Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...


Bleeding into the skin  


... under the tissue in larger flat areas (called purpura ), or in a very large bruised area (called ... in the newborn) Aging skin (ecchymosis) Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (petechiae and purpura) Henoch-Schonlein purpura (purpura) Leukemia ( ...


Skin Cancer (PDQ): Prevention  


... The most common types of skin cancer are squamous cell carcinoma , which forms in the squamous cells and basal cell carcinoma , which forms in the basal cells. Squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma are also called nonmelanoma ...


Skin Cancer (PDQ): Screening  


... Cancer that forms in squamous cells is called squamous cell carcinoma . Basal cells : Round cells under the squamous cells. ... in the United States. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are also called nonmelanoma skin cancer and are ...


Skin tumors on squirrels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Skin tumors having the gross appearance of previously reported fibromas are reported on gray squirrels from N. Y., Md., Va., N. C., and W. Va. and from a fox squirrel from W. Va. and a porcupine from Pa.

Herman, C.M.; Reilly, J.R.



Skin Reactions to Cold  

PubMed Central

Although skin reactions to cold are seen surprisingly infrequently in Canada, it is important to manage them correctly when they do occur. Frostbite, cold urticarias, Raynaud's disease and phenomenon, and several miscellaneous changes are discussed.

Talpash, Orest



Chromophores in human skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human skin, especially the epidermis, contains several major solar ultraviolet-radiation- (UVR-) absorbing endogenous chromophores including DNA, urocanic acid, amino acids, melanins and their precursors and metabolites. The lack of solubility of melanins prevents their absorption spectra being defined by routine techniques. Indirect spectroscopic methods show that their spectral properties depend on the stimulus for melanogenesis. The photochemical consequences of UVR absorption by some epidermal chromophores are relatively well understood whereas we lack a detailed understanding of the consequent photobiological and clinical responses. Skin action spectroscopy is not a reliable way of relating a photobiological outcome to a specific chromophore but is important for UVR hazard assessment. Exogenous chromophores may be administered to the skin in combination with UVR exposure for therapeutic benefit, or as sunscreens for the prevention of sunburn and possibly skin cancer.

Young, Antony R.



Barrier Surfaces of Skin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Stratum corneum, the nonliving layer of skin, is refractory as a substrate for chemical reactions, but it has a strong physical affinity for water. The chemical stability of stratum corneum is evident in its mechanical barriers which include insoluble cel...

M. M. Mershon



Recipe for uncovering the bioactive components in herbal medicine.  


Using whole chromatographic profiles and measurements of total bioactivity as input, a quantitative pattern-activity relationship (QPAR) approach is proposed as a general method for providing two pieces of crucial information about complex bioactive mixtures available: (i) a model for predicting total bioactivity from the chromatographic fingerprint and (ii) the features in the chromatographic profile responsible for the bioactivity. While the first piece of information is already available through existing approaches, the second one results from our ability to remove dominant features in the chromatographic fingerprints which mask the components specifically related to pharmacological activity. Our targeted approach makes information about bioactivity available at the molecular level and provides possibilities for assessment of herbal medicine (HM) possible beyond just authentication and total bioactivity. As an example, the antioxidant property of the HM Radix Puerariae lobatae is measured through its reducing power toward a ferric ion complex. A partial least-squares (PLS) model is created to predict the antioxidant activity from the chromatographic fingerprint. Using the antioxidant activity as a target, the most discriminatory projection in the multivariate space spanned by the chromatographic profiles is revealed. From this target-projected component, the chromatographic regions most strongly connected to antioxidant activity are identified using the so-called selectivity ratio (SR) plot. The results are validated by prediction of samples not included in the modeling step. PMID:19634860

Chau, Foo-Tim; Chan, Hoi-Yan; Cheung, Chui-Yee; Xu, Cheng-Jian; Liang, Yizeng; Kvalheim, Olav M



Versatile integrated tunable diode laser system for high precision - Application for ambient measurements of OCS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A versatile and integrated tunable diode laser system for high precision measurements of the important sulfur gas carbonyl sulfide is described. Some of the major factors affecting tunable diode laser measurement precision as well as accuracy are addressed explicitly, and a number of new features for increased system control and versatility have been implemented. The system provides the capability for

Alan Fried; Bruce Henry; Jack Fox; James R. Drummond



Development and Application of a Direct Drive Motor for Performance Enhancement of Versatile Machine Tool Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

For highly productive machining operations, multi-axis versatile machine tools are drawing more attention in today's market. In order to maintain the stability and the motion accuracy over a long operation time, it is important for such a versatile machine tool to avoid complicated mechanisms, such as an indirect drive, from the viewpoint of machine design. This paper presents a design

M. Mori; M. Fujishima; K. Kashihara; M. Horikawa



ePaddle mechanism: Towards the development of a versatile amphibious locomotion mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

To achieve versatile locomotion in complex am- phibious environments, a robot should be capable of performing different gaits. In this paper we present such a versatile amphibious robot based on a novel eccentric paddle mechanism (ePaddle). We first illustrate the concept of the ePaddle with five major possible gaits and conceptual gait sequences. We then summarize five types of configurations

Yi Sun; Shugen Ma



Dynamic Modeling and Control of a Grid-Connected Hybrid Generation System With Versatile Power Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents power-control strategies of a grid-connected hybrid generation system with versatile power transfer. The hybrid system is the combination of photovoltaic (PV) array, wind turbine, and battery storage via a common dc bus. Versatile power transfer was defined as multimodes of operation, including normal operation without use of battery, power dispatching, and power averaging, which enables grid- or

Seul-Ki Kim; Jin-Hong Jeon; Chang-Hee Cho; Jong-Bo Ahn; Sae-Hyuk Kwon



Common Skin Cancers  

PubMed Central

Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma are the three most common forms of skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer is increasing at an alarming rate. Early detection is the key to successful management. In this article, the salient clinical features and diagnostic clues for these tumors and their precursor lesions are presented. Current management guidelines are also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figures 2-3Figures 4-6Figures 7-9

Ho, Vincent C.



Skin penetration enhancers.  


The skin has evolved to prevent excessive water loss from the internal organs and to limit the ability of xenobiotics and hazardous substances to enter the body. Notwithstanding this barrier function, a number of strategies have been developed by scientists to deliver drugs to and through the skin. The aim of this review is to consider the various types of chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs) which have been investigated in the scientific literature. Potential pathways for CPEs to exert their action are examined with reference to the physical chemistry of passive skin transport. The emphasis is on those studies which have focussed on human and porcine skin because of the limitations associated with skin permeation data collated from other species. Where known, the mechanisms of action of these compounds are also discussed. Examples of enhancers used in commercial topical and transdermal formulations are provided. It is proposed that overall the effects of CPEs on the skin barrier may best be explained by a Diffusion-Partition-Solubility theory. Finally, some of the limitations of studies in the literature are considered and the importance of monitoring the fate of the penetration enhancer as well as the active is highlighted. PMID:23462366

Lane, Majella E



Skin pigmentation enhancers.  


The highest incidences of cancer are found in the skin, but endogenous pigmentation is associated with markedly reduced risk. Agents that enhance skin pigmentation have the potential to reduce both photodamage and skin cancer incidence. The purpose of this review is to evaluate agents that have the potential to increase skin pigmentation. These include topically applied substances that simulate natural pigmentation: dihydroxyacetone and melanins; and substances that stimulate the natural pigmentation process: psoralens with UVA (PUVA), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), L-tyrosine, L-Dopa, lysosomotropic agents, diacylglycerols, thymidine dinucleotides, DNA fragments, melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) analogs, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), nitric oxide donors, and bicyclic monoterpene (BMT) diols. These agents are compared with regards to efficacy when administered to melanoma cells, normal human epidermal melanocytes, animal skin, and human skin. In addition, mechanisms of action are reviewed since these may reveal issues related to both efficacy and safety. Both dihydroxyacetone and topically applied melanins are presently available to the consumer, and both of these have been shown to provide some photoprotection. Of the pigmentation stimulators, only PUVA and MSH analogs have been tested extensively on humans, but there are concerns about the safety and side effects of both. At least some of the remaining pigmentation stimulators under development have the potential to safely induce a photoprotective tan. PMID:11684462

Brown, D A



Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Fluoridated and Unfluoridated Bioactive Glass Composites: Structural Analysis and Bioactivity Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Biphasic bioceramic composites containing nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP) and nanosized bioactive glasses have been prepared in the form of pellets and have been examined for the effects of bioglass concentrations and sintering temperature on the structural transformations and bioactivity behavior. Pure stoichiometric nano-HAP was synthesized using sol-gel technique. Two bioglasses synthesized in this work--fluoridated bioglass (Cao-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Na{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaF{sub 2}) and unfluoridated bioglass (Cao-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Na{sub 2}O{sub 3}) designated as FBG and UFBG respectively, were added to nano-HAP with concentrations of 5, 10, 12 and 15%. The average particle sizes of synthesized HAP and bioglasses were 23 nm and 35 nm, respectively. The pellets were sintered at four different temperatures i.e. 1000 deg. C, 1150 deg. C, 1250 deg. C and 1350 deg. C. The investigations involved study of structural and bioactivity behavior of green and sintered pellets and their deviations from original materials i.e. HAP, FBG and UFBG, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The phase composition of the sintered pellets was found to be non-stoichiometric HAP with {alpha}-TCP (tricalcium phosphate) and {beta}-TCP. It was revealed from SEM images that bonding mechanism was mainly solid state sintering for all pellets sintered at 1000 deg. C and 1150 deg. C and also for pellets with lower concentrations of bioglass i.e. 5% and 10% sintered at 1250 deg. C. Partly liquid phase sintering was observed for pellets with higher bioglass concentrations of 12% and 15% sintered at 1250 deg. C and same behaviour was noted for pellets at all concentrations of bioglasses at 1350 deg. C. The sintered density, hardness and compression strength of pellets have been influenced both by the concentration of the bioglasses and sintering temperature. It was observed that the biological HAP layer formation was faster on the green pellets surface than on pure HAP and sintered pellets, showing higher bioactivity in the green pellets.

Batra, Uma [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh-160012 (India); Kapoor, Seema [University Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India); Sharma, J. D. [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh (India)



An analysis of the self-control and criminal versatility of gang and dating violence offenders.  


How versatile are gang and dating violence offenders? Current gang research highlights the versatility of gang members, yet the versatility of intimate violence offenders is often unexamined. Gottfredson and Hirschi, A General Theory of Crime (1990), support the idea of versatile rather than specialized offenders and suggests that low self-control is associated with a host of criminal and noncriminal risk-taking activities. Using data from a self-report sample of 1139 youths in grades 9 through 11, we investigated both the versatility of gang and dating violence offenders and theoretical variables associated with each. We find disproportionate offending by dating and gang violence offenders in a variety of crimes, as well as considerable overlap in the independent variables associated with both types of violence. Low levels of self-control and exposure to general and crime-specific criminal opportunities are significantly associated with engaging in dating and gang violence. PMID:15109120

Chapple, Constance L; Hope, Trina L



Tribological behavior of scar skin and prosthetic skin in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interfacial rub phenomena between scar skin and other external surfaces are a prevalent problem in everyday life. Literature on the tribological behavior of scar skin is scarce to date. In this study, the tribological behavior and comfort sensations of residual limb scar skin, prosthetic wearing skin and healthy limb skin were investigated in vivo by using UMT-II multi-specimen Micro-Tribometer

W. Li; M. Kong; X. D. Liu; Z. R. Zhou



Topochemical analysis of morphiceptin and dermorphin bioactivities.  


To elucidate the topochemical requirements for bioactivities of morphiceptin (Tyr-Pro-Phe-Pro-NH2) and dermorphin (Tyr-D-Ala-Phe-Gly-Tyr-Pro-Ser-NH2), we have designed and synthesized two diastereomers Tyr-(L and D)-(NMe)Ala-Phe-D-Pro-NH2. Both the analogs display high activities in the guinea pig ileum assay. The only difference in the composition of these two diastereomers arises from the chirality at residue 2. The high mu-receptor activities are attributed to structures where the Tyr1-L-(NMe)Ala2 amide bond assumes a cis configuration while the Tyr1-D-(NMe)Ala2 amide bond assumes a trans configuration. Accessible space studied for the second residues of these molecules confirms the fact that the L-(NMe)Ala2 analog belongs to the morphiceptin family of opioids while the D-(NMe)Ala2 analog belongs to the dermorphin class of opioids. The similarity in the spacial array of the analogs explains their high mu-receptor activities and indicates that they are likely recognized at the same opioid receptor. PMID:1661586

Yamazaki, T; Ro, S; Goodman, M



Smart-skin antenna technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using smart materials and skins, one could design a smart structure with suitable feedback system architecture. This paper is designed to address some technical advances and applications of smart materials, smart skins and coatings covering a broad spectrum of electromagnetic fields. The Smart Skin Antenna Technology Program's objectives are to (1) use smart skin technologies to develop an antenna system

Vijay K. Varadan; Vasundara V. Varadan



Thyroid hormone action on skin  

PubMed Central

The skin characteristics associated with thyroid hormone are classic. The name “myxedema” refers to the associated skin condition caused by increased glycosaminoglycan deposition in the skin. Generalized myxedema is still the classic cutaneous sign of hypothyroidism. It is caused by deposition of dermal acid mucopolysaccharides, notably hyaluronic acid. Despite its appearance, the skin does not pit with pressure.



75 FR 52755 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for Treatment...entitled ``Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for Treatment...treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI), impetigo,...



Plasma-sprayed calcium phosphate particles with high bioactivity and their use in bioactive scaffolds.  


Highly crystalline feedstock hydroxyapatite (HA) particles with irregular shapes were spheroidized by plasma spraying them onto the surface of ice blocks or into water. The spherical Ca-P particles thus produced contained various amounts of the amorphous phase which were controlled by the stand-off distance between the spray nozzle and the surface of ice blocks or waiter. The smooth surface morphology without cracks of spherical Ca-P particles indicated that there were very low thermal stresses in these particles. Plasma-sprayed Ca-P particles were highly bioactive due to their amorphous component and hence quickly induced the formation of bone-like apatite on their surfaces after they were immersed in an acellular simulated body fluid at 36.5 C. Bone-like apatite nucleated on dissolved surface (due to the amorphous phase) of individual Ca-P particles and grew to coalesce between neighboring Ca-P particles thus forming an integrated apatite plate. Bioactive and biodegradable composite scaffolds were produced by incorporating plasma-spray ed Ca-P particles into a degradable polymer. In vitro experiments showed that plasma-sprayed Ca-P particles enhanced the formation of bone-like apatite on the pore surface of Ca-P/PLLA composite scaffolds. PMID:12059011

Weng, Jie; Wang, Min; Chen, Jiyong



Bioactivity studies on Musa seminifera Lour  

PubMed Central

Background: Musa seminifera Lour is a tree-like perennial herb that has been used in folk medicine in Bangladesh to heal a number of ailments. Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant, analgesic, antidiarrheal, anthelmintic activities, and general toxicity of the ethanol extract of the roots. Materials and Methods: The extract was assessed for free-radical-scavenging activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, total phenolic content (TPC) by the Folin Ciocalteu reagent, antioxidant activity by the ferric reducing power assay, analgesic activity by the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests, antidiarrheal activity by the castor oil-induced diarrhea model in mice, anthelmintic activity on Paramphistomum cervi and Haemonchus contortus, and general toxicity by the brine shrimp lethality assay. Results: The extract showed free-radical-scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 44.86 ?g/mL. TPC was 537.89 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g of dried plant material. It showed concentration-dependent reducing power, and displayed 42.11 and 69.32% writhing inhibition at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The extract also significantly raised the pain threshold at the above-mentioned dose levels. In vivo antidiarrheal property was substantiated by significant prolongation of latent period and decrease in total number of stools compared with the control. The LC50 against brine shrimp nauplii was 36.21 ?g/mL. The extract exhibited dose-dependent decrease in paralysis and death time of the helminths. Conclusion: The above results demonstrated that the plant possesses notable bioactivities and somewhat supports its use in folk medicine.

Saha, Sanjib; Shilpi, Jamil A.; Mondal, Himangsu; Gofur, Royhan; Billah, Morsaline; Nahar, Lutfun; Sarker, Satyajit D.



Enhanced bioactivity of silybin B methylation products.  


Flavonolignans from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) have been investigated for their cellular modulatory properties, including cancer chemoprevention and hepatoprotection, as an extract (silymarin), as partially purified mixtures (silibinin and isosilibinin), and as pure compounds (a series of seven isomers). One challenge with the use of these compounds in vivo is their relatively short half-life due to conjugation, particularly glucuronidation. In an attempt to generate analogues with improved in vivo properties, particularly reduced metabolic liability, a semi-synthetic series was prepared in which the hydroxy groups of silybin B were alkylated. A total of five methylated analogues of silybin B were synthesized using standard alkylation conditions (dimethyl sulfate and potassium carbonate in acetone), purified using preparative HPLC, and elucidated via spectroscopy and spectrometry. Of the five, one was monomethylated (3), one was dimethylated (4), two were trimethylated (2 and 6), and one was tetramethylated (5). The relative potency of all compounds was determined in a 72 h growth-inhibition assay against a panel of three prostate cancer cell lines (DU-145, PC-3, and LNCaP) and a human hepatoma cell line (Huh7.5.1) and compared to natural silybin B. Compounds also were evaluated for inhibition of both cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) activity in human liver microsomes and hepatitis C virus infection in Huh7.5.1 cells. The monomethyl and dimethyl analogues were shown to have enhanced activity in terms of cytotoxicity, CYP2C9 inhibitory potency, and antiviral activity (up to 6-fold increased potency) compared to the parent compound, silybin B. In total, these data suggested that methylation of flavonolignans can increase bioactivity. PMID:23260576

Sy-Cordero, Arlene A; Graf, Tyler N; Runyon, Scott P; Wani, Mansukh C; Kroll, David J; Agarwal, Rajesh; Brantley, Scott J; Paine, Mary F; Polyak, Stephen J; Oberlies, Nicholas H



Bioactive steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana flowers.  


Bioguided studies of flowers of Agave offoyana allowed the isolation of five steroidal saponins never described previously, Magueyosides A-E (1-5), along with six known steroidal saponins (6-11). The structures of compounds were determined as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2?,3?-diol-12-one 3-O-{?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-2?,3?-diol-12-one 3-O-{?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-2?,3?,12?-triol 3-O-{?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-5?-spirostan-2?,3?-diol-12-one 3-O-{?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (4), and (25R)-5?-spirostan-2?,3?-diol-9(11)-en-12-one 3-O-{?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (5), by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The bioactivities of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa were evaluated. A dose-dependent phytotoxicity and low dose stimulation were observed. PMID:23859261

Pérez, Andy J; Calle, Juan M; Simonet, Ana M; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A



Bioactive steroids from Oryza sativa L.  


Rice is one of the most interesting crops in the world from both the social and the economic point of views. The monoculture practices along with the heavy use of herbicides are characteristic of modern agriculture and are inducing the appearance of tolerant and/or herbicide resistant weed biotypes. This is the case the world's main weed of rice barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli). Alternative strategies for weed suppression consist of the use of chemicals from rice due to necessity of obtaining new herbicides with new modes of action that could prevent resistance phenomena. In order to carry out a study that guides to the isolation of the most active compounds from rice, different extracts were achieved, and their activities evaluated. So, all the plant material was divided into three parts: fresh plant, dried plant, and fresh plant from Pluviotron. The aerial part was separated from roots in all cases and extracted in water, in organic solvents as well as with the Pluviotron device. The activity of the 12 extracts obtained was evaluated using a generalist bioassay, wheat etiolated coleoptiles bioassay, and a phytotoxic bioassay on barnyardgrass as target species. The bioactive extracts were fractionated and 15 compounds were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods. Eight of these compounds were isolated for the first time in Oryza sativa. The most phytotoxic compounds on E. crus-galli were ergosterol peroxide and 7-oxo-stigmasterol. In the case of ergosterol peroxide the activity was higher than the commercial herbicide Logran. This is the first report of potential allelopathic activity of steroids on weeds based on their phytotoxicity. PMID:16620896

Macías, Francisco A; Chinchilla, Nuria; Varela, Rosa M; Molinillo, José M G



Skin conditions: common skin rashes in infants.  


Infants exhibit many skin rashes. Erythema toxicum neonatorum presents as erythematous macules, papules, and pustules on the face, trunk, and extremities; it typically resolves spontaneously within 1 week. Neonatal acne presents as comedones or erythematous papules on the face, scalp, chest, and back. Infantile acne is similar but starts after the neonatal period. Both conditions typically resolve spontaneously; failure to resolve within 1 year warrants evaluation for androgen excess. Neonatal cephalic pustulosis is an acne variant caused by hypersensitivity to Malassezia furfur. It is typically self-limited, but severe cases are managed with topical ketoconazole. Miliaria and milia are caused by sweat retention and present as tiny vesicles or papules; they resolve spontaneously. Contact diaper dermatitis is managed by keeping the diaper area clean and with open air exposure. Diaper dermatitis due to Candida albicans is managed with topical antifungals. Seborrheic dermatitis causes scaling on the scalp. Management involves shampooing and removing scales with a soft brush after applying mineral oil or petrolatum; severe cases are managed with tar or ketoconazole shampoo. Atopic dermatitis is related to food allergy in approximately one-third of children. Food allergy can be confirmed with oral food challenges or skin prick tests. Management includes elimination of irritants and triggers and use of low-potency topical steroids. PMID:23600337

Zuniga, Ramiro; Nguyen, Tam



Environment and the skin  

SciTech Connect

The skin is an important organ of defense adaptation and a portal of entry for xenobiotics. It is vulnerable to physical, chemical, and biologic agents and capable of expressing responses to these agents in a variety of pathologic patterns. These patterns are characterized by morphologic and functional features which are elicited by careful examination and test procedures. Cutaneous cancer may result from exposure to nonionizing as well as ionizing radiation, to specific identifiable chemical hazards, and may be enhanced by trauma. Cutaneous hazards of chemical sources are largely found in the workplace and among consumer products, including drugs and toilet goods. Environmental skin diseases and injuries are preventable. Prior to use assessment for safety and for possible risks from exposure to an agent, product, or process is of primary importance in the prevention and control of environmental skin disease and injury.

Suskind, R.R. (Univ. of Cincinnati Health Science Center, OH (USA))



Plant-derived bioactive compounds produced by endophytic fungi.  


Plant endophytic fungi are an important and novel resource of natural bioactive compounds with their potential applications in agriculture, medicine and food industry. In the past two decades, many valuable bioactive compounds with antimicrobial, insecticidal, cytotoxic, and anticancer activities have been successfully discovered from endophytic fungi. During the long period of co-evolution, a friendly relationship was formed between each endophyte and its host plant. Some endophytes have the ability to produce the same or similar bioactive compounds as those originated from their host plants. This review mainly deals with the research progress on endophytic fungi for producing plant-derived bioactive compounds such as paclitaxel, podophyllotoxin, camptothecine, vinblastine, hypericin, and diosgenin. The relations between endophytic fungi and their host plants, biological activities and action mechanisms of these compounds from endophytic fungi, some available strategies for efficiently promoting production of these bioactive compounds, as well as their potential applications in the future will also be discussed. It is beneficial for us to better understand and take advantage of plant endophytic fungi. PMID:21222580

Zhao, J; Shan, T; Mou, Y; Zhou, L



Immense Essence of Excellence: Marine Microbial Bioactive Compounds  

PubMed Central

Oceans have borne most of the biological activities on our planet. A number of biologically active compounds with varying degrees of action, such as anti-tumor, anti-cancer, anti-microtubule, anti-proliferative, cytotoxic, photo protective, as well as antibiotic and antifouling properties, have been isolated to date from marine sources. The marine environment also represents a largely unexplored source for isolation of new microbes (bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, microalgae-cyanobacteria and diatoms) that are potent producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Extensive research has been done to unveil the bioactive potential of marine microbes (free living and symbiotic) and the results are amazingly diverse and productive. Some of these bioactive secondary metabolites of microbial origin with strong antibacterial and antifungal activities are being intensely used as antibiotics and may be effective against infectious diseases such as HIV, conditions of multiple bacterial infections (penicillin, cephalosporines, streptomycin, and vancomycin) or neuropsychiatric sequelae. Research is also being conducted on the general aspects of biophysical and biochemical properties, chemical structures and biotechnological applications of the bioactive substances derived from marine microorganisms, and their potential use as cosmeceuticals and nutraceuticals. This review is an attempt to consolidate the latest studies and critical research in this field, and to showcase the immense competence of marine microbial flora as bioactive metabolite producers. In addition, the present review addresses some effective and novel approaches of procuring marine microbial compounds utilizing the latest screening strategies of drug discovery.

Bhatnagar, Ira; Kim, Se-Kwon



Bioactive glass fiber/polymeric composites bond to bone tissue.  


Bioactive glass fibers were investigated for use as a fixation vehicle between a low modulus, polymeric composite and bone tissue. In an initial pilot study, bioactive glass fiber/polysulfone composites and all-polysulfone control rods were implanted into the rabbit tibia; the study was subsequently expanded with implantation into the rabbit femur. Bone tissue exhibited direct contact with the glass fibers and adjacent polymer matrix and displayed a mechanical bond between the composite and bone tissue after six weeks implantation. Interfacial bond strengths after six weeks implantation averaged 12.4 MPa, significantly higher than those of the all-polymer controls. Failure sites for the composite at six weeks generally occurred in the bone tissue or composite, whereas the failure site for the polymer implants occurred exclusively at the implant/tissue interface. The bioactive glass fiber/polysulfone composite achieved fixation to bone tissue through a triple mechanism: a bond to the bioactive glass fiber, mechanical interlocking between the tissue and glass fibers, and close apposition and possible chemical bond between the portions of the polymer and bone tissue. This last mechanism resulted from an overspill of bioactivity reactions from the fibers onto the surface of the surrounding polymer which we call the "halo" effect. PMID:9429107

Marcolongo, M; Ducheyne, P; Garino, J; Schepers, E



Chlorosulfonated polyethylene: A versatile polymer for damping acoustic waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viscoelastic polymers are used extensively in acoustics to reduce structureborne, airborne, and waterborne sound fields. Applications include free or constrained layers used to damp vibrating structures, as the compliant layer in tuned dampers, and as closed cell foams used to render water-filled tanks nonreverberant. In addition to the wide frequency ranges usually imposed in these applications, environmental conditions are frequently severe: temperatures may vary by more than an order of magnitude; solvents may exist which degrade many polymers; and the polymers may be constantly exposed to ozone and ultraviolet radiation. Chlorosulfonated polyethylenes are sufficiently versatile to be used under all of these conditions, can be easily fabricated into films, sheets, and closed cell foams, and offer excellent damping properties over the full spectrum of frequency/temperature combinations encountered during most damping applications, as will be shown. Discussed will be the dependence of the damping properties, such as the elastic modulus, loss factor, and glass transition temperature, upon the chlorine content and the amount and type of filler.

Reader, Wayne T.; Megill, Robert W.



Tudor: a versatile family of histone methylation 'readers'.  


The Tudor domain comprises a family of motifs that mediate protein-protein interactions required for various DNA-templated biological processes. Emerging evidence demonstrates a versatility of the Tudor family domains by identifying their specific interactions to a wide variety of histone methylation marks. Here, we discuss novel functions of a number of Tudor-containing proteins [including Jumonji domain-containing 2A (JMJD2A), p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1), SAGA-associated factor 29 (SGF29), Spindlin1, ubiquitin-like with PHD and RING finger domains 1 (UHRF1), PHD finger protein 1 (PHF1), PHD finger protein 19 (PHF19), and SAWADEE homeodomain homolog 1 (SHH1)] in 'reading' unique methylation events on histones in order to facilitate DNA damage repair or regulate transcription. This review covers our recent understanding of the molecular bases for histone-Tudor interactions and their biological outcomes. As deregulation of Tudor-containing proteins is associated with certain human disorders, pharmacological targeting of Tudor interactions could provide new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24035451

Lu, Rui; Wang, Gang Greg



The versatile link, a common project for super-LHC  

SciTech Connect

Radiation tolerant, high speed optoelectronic data transmission links are fundamental building blocks in today's large scale High Energy Physics (HEP) detectors, as exemplified by the four experiments currently under commissioning at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), see for example. New experiments or upgrades will impose even more stringent demands on these systems from the point of view of performance and radiation tolerance. This can already be seen from the developments underway for the Super Large Hadron Collider (SLHC) project, a proposed upgrade to the LHC aiming at increasing the luminosity of the machine by factor of 10 to 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, and thus providing a better chance to see rare processes and improving statistically marginal measurements. In the past, specific data transmission links have been independently developed by each LHC experiment for data acquisition (DAQ), detector control as well as trigger and timing distribution (TTC). This was justified by the different types of applications being targeted as well as by technological limitations preventing one single solution from fitting all requirements. However with today's maturity of optoelectronic and CMOS technologies it is possible to envisage the development of a general purpose optical link which can cover most transmission applications: a Versatile Link. Such an approach has the clear advantage of concentrating the development effort on one single project targeting an optical link whose final functionality will only result from the topology and configuration settings adopted.

Amaral, Luis; Dris, Stefanos; Gerardin, Alexandre; Huffman, Todd; Issever, Cigdem; Pacheco, Alberto Jimenez; Jones, Mark; Kwan, Simon; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lian, Zhijun; Liu, Tiankuan; /CERN /Oxford U. /Fermilab /Taipei, Computing Ctr. /Southern Methodist U.



A versatile sample holder for single plane illumination microscopy.  


Single Plane Illumination Microscopy is an emerging and powerful technology for live imaging of whole living organisms. However, sample handling that relies on specimen embedding in agarose or gel is often a key limitation, especially for time-lapse monitoring. To address this issue, we developed a new concept for a holder device allowing us to prepare a sample container made of hydrogel. The production process of this holder is based on 3D printing of both a frame and casting devices. The simplicity of production and the advantages of this versatile new sample holder are shown with time-lapse recording of multicellular tumour spheroid growth. More importantly, we also show that cell division is not impaired in contrast to what is observed with gel embedding. The benefit of this new holder for other sample types, applications and experiments remains to be evaluated, but this innovative concept of fully customizable sample holder preparation potentially represents a major step forward to facilitate the large diffusion of single plane illumination microscopy technology. PMID:23691992

Desmaison, Annaïck; Lorenzo, Corinne; Rouquette, Jacques; Ducommun, Bernard; Lobjois, Valérie



A new versatile method for modelling geomagnetic induction in pipelines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomagnetic induction drives telluric currents in pipelines and creates fluctuations in pipe-to-soil potentials (PSP) that interfere with pipeline surveys and create conditions where corrosion is more likely to occur. To understand the process of geomagnetic induction and determine the severity and location of troublesome effects requires the ability to model geomagnetic induction in realistic pipeline networks. Previous modelling work, based on transmission line theory, has provided some insights into the process but has to be customized for each situation. This paper presents a new versatile modelling technique that can be easily applied to any pipeline network. The essential part of the new method is the development of an equivalent-pi circuit for geomagnetic induction in a pipeline section. A complex pipeline network can then be represented as a set of equivalent-pi circuits that are combined to form a nodal admittance network comprising connections between nodes and to ground from each node. The nodal admittance matrix method is then used to determine the voltages everywhere in the pipeline system. Sample results are presented for geomagnetic induction in an example pipeline. It is shown how the modelling results can be combined with electric fields calculated from geomagnetic observatory data to determine the PSP variations that occur during geomagnetic disturbances.

Boteler, D. H.



Scalable and versatile graphene functionalized with the Mannich condensate.  


The functionalized graphene (JTPG) is fabricated by chemical conversion of graphene oxide (GO), using tea polyphenols (TP) as the reducer and stabilizer, followed by further derivatization through the Mannich reaction between the pyrogallol groups on TP and Jeffamine M-2070. JTPG exhibits solubility in a broad spectrum of solvents, long-term stability and single-layered dispersion in water and organic solvents, which are substantiated by AFM, TEM, and XRD. The paper-like JTPG hybrids prepared by vacuum-assisted filtration exhibits an unusual combination of high toughness (tensile strength of ~275 MPa and break strain of ~8%) and high electrical conductivity (~700 S/m). Still, JTPG is revealed to be very promising in the fabrication of polymer/graphene composites due to the excellent solubility in the solvent with low boiling point and low toxicity. Accordingly, as an example, nitrile rubber/JTPG composites are fabricated by the solution compounding in acetone. The resulted composite shows low threshold percolation at 0.23 vol.% of graphene. The versatilities both in dispersibility and performance, together with the scalable process of JTPG, enable a new way to scale up the fabrication of the graphene-based polymer composites or hybrids with high performance. PMID:23465413

Liao, Ruijuan; Tang, Zhenghai; Lin, Tengfei; Guo, Baochun



The genus Pseudovibrio contains metabolically versatile bacteria adapted for symbiosis.  


The majority of strains belonging to the genus Pseudovibrio have been isolated from marine invertebrates such as tunicates, corals and particularly sponges, but the physiology of these bacteria is poorly understood. In this study, we analyse for the first time the genomes of two Pseudovibrio strains - FO-BEG1 and JE062. The strain FO-BEG1 is a required symbiont of a cultivated Beggiatoa strain, a sulfide-oxidizing, autotrophic bacterium, which was initially isolated from a coral. Strain JE062 was isolated from a sponge. The presented data show that both strains are generalistic bacteria capable of importing and oxidizing a wide range of organic and inorganic compounds to meet their carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous and energy requirements under both, oxic and anoxic conditions. Several physiological traits encoded in the analysed genomes were verified in laboratory experiments with both isolates. Besides the versatile metabolic abilities of both Pseudovibrio strains, our study reveals a number of open reading frames and gene clusters in the genomes that seem to be involved in symbiont-host interactions. Both Pseudovibrio strains have the genomic potential to attach to host cells, interact with the eukaryotic cell machinery, produce secondary metabolites and supply the host with cofactors. PMID:23601235

Bondarev, Vladimir; Richter, Michael; Romano, Stefano; Piel, Jörn; Schwedt, Anne; Schulz-Vogt, Heide N



A versatile synthetic approach toward diversity libraries using monosaccharide scaffolds.  


The pyranose scaffold is unique in its ability to position pharmacophore substituents in various ways in 3D space, and unique pharmacophore scanning libraries could be envisaged that focus on scanning topography rather than diversity in the type of substituents. Approaches have been described that make use of amine and acid functionalities on the pyranose scaffolds to append substituents, and this has enabled the generation of libraries of significant structural diversity. Our general aim was to generate libraries of pyranose-based drug-like mimetics, where the substituents are held close to the scaffold, in order to obtain molecules with better defined positions for the pharmacophore substituents. Here we describe the development of a versatile synthetic route toward peptide mimetics build on 2-amino pyranose scaffolds. The method allows introduction of a wide range of substituent types, it is regio- and stereospecific, and the later diversity steps are performed on solid phase. Further, the same process was applied on glucose and allose scaffolds, in the exemplified cases, and is likely adaptable to other pyranose building blocks. The methods developed in this work give access to molecules that position the three selected binding elements in various 3D orientations on a pyranose scaffold and have been applied for the production of a systematically diverse library of several hundred monosaccharide-based mimetics. PMID:19961235

Thanh, Giang Le; Abbenante, Giovanni; Adamson, George; Becker, Bernd; Clark, Chris; Condie, Glenn; Falzun, Tania; Grathwohl, Matthias; Gupta, Praveer; Hanson, Michael; Huynh, Ngoc; Katavic, Peter; Kuipers, Krystle; Lam, Ann; Liu, Ligong; Mann, Maretta; Mason, Jeff; McKeveney, Declan; Muldoon, Craig; Pearson, Andrew; Rajaratnam, Premraj; Ryan, Sarah; Tometzki, Gerry; Verquin, Geraldine; Waanders, Jennifer; West, Michael; Wilcox, Neil; Wimmer, Norbert; Yau, Annika; Zuegg, Johannes; Meutermans, Wim



PackBot: a versatile platform for military robotics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The iRobot PackBot is a combat-tested, man-portable UGV that has been deployed in Afghanistan and Iraq. The PackBot is also a versatile platform for mobile robotics research and development that supports a wide range of payloads suitable for many different mission types. In this paper, we describe four R&D projects that developed experimental payloads and software using the PackBot platform. CHARS was a rapid development project to develop a chemical/radiation sensor for the PackBot. We developed the CHARS payload in six weeks and deployed it to Iraq to search for chemical and nuclear weapons. Griffon was a research project to develop a flying PackBot that combined the capabilities of a UGV and a UAV. We developed a Griffon prototype equipped with a steerable parafoil and gasoline-powered motor, and we completed successful flight tests including remote-controlled launch, ascent, cruising, descent, and landing. Valkyrie is an ongoing research and development project to develop a PackBot payload that will assist medics in retrieving casualties from the battlefield. Wayfarer is an applied research project to develop autonomous urban navigation capabilities for the PackBot using laser, stereo vision, GPS, and INS sensors.

Yamauchi, Brian M.



Identification of danger signals in nevirapine-induced skin rash.  


Nevirapine (NVP) can cause serious skin rashes and hepatotoxicity. It also causes an immune-mediated skin rash in rats but not hepatotoxicity. This rash is caused by a metabolite of NVP; specifically, NVP is oxidized in the liver to a benzylic alcohol (12-OH-NVP), which travels to the skin where it forms a reactive benzylic sulfate. This could both act as a hapten and induce a danger signal. In contrast, most of the covalent binding in the liver involves oxidation of the methyl group leading to a reactive quinone methide. In this study, we examined the effects of NVP and 12-OH-NVP on gene expression in the liver and skin. Both NVP and 12-OH-NVP induced changes in the liver, but the list of genes was different, presumably reflecting different bioactivation pathways. In contrast, many more genes were up-regulated in the skin by 12-OH-NVP than by NVP, which is consistent with the fact that 12-OH-NVP is an obligate intermediate in the formation of the reactive sulfate in the skin. Genes up-regulated by 12-OH-NVP in the skin included TRIM63 (18-fold increase), S100a7a (7-fold increase), IL22-RA2 (4-fold increase), and DAPK1 (3-fold increase). TRIM63 acts as a ubiquitin ligase, which is consistent with protein damage leading to an increase in protein turnover. In addition, TRIM proteins are involved in inflammasome activation, and it appears that inflammasome activation is an essential step in the induction of NVP-induced skin rash. S100A7 is considered a danger signal, and its upregulation supports the danger hypothesis. Upregulation of the IL-22 RA2 gene marks an immune response. DAPK1 is involved with inflammasome assembly through binding directly to NLRP3, a NOD-like receptor expressed in keratinocytes. These results provide important clues to how NVP causes the induction of an immune response, in this case leading to skin rash. PMID:23947594

Zhang, Xiaochu; Sharma, Amy M; Uetrecht, Jack



Skin and Sports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about the importance of proper protection from common skin conditions when they engage in sports-related activities. This lesson draws attention to fact that the body's own first line of defense against infectious agents is to keep them from entering or settling in the body. The students break into groups to provide a list of risk factors for each sports-related activity. They come together and compare notes. This sparks the lesson and instruction on how one should protect the skin when participating in sports. Links to other resources for further inquiry are given.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)



Inch of Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the different nerve receptors located in the skin and where are they? This material is part of a series of hands-on science activities designed to arouse student interest. Here students mark off a square-inch section of skin and gently poke the area, stimulating different nerve receptors. The activity includes a description, a list of science process skills and complex reasoning strategies being used, and a compilation of applicable K-12 national science education standards. Also provided are content topics, a list of necessary supplies, instructions, and presentation techniques. The content of the activity is explained, and assessment suggestions are provided.

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL); Jacobs, Steve



Opaque skin sanitizing composition  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A skin sanitizing composition includes an effective amount of an alcohol having 1 to 4 carbon atoms for providing sanitizing activity to the sanitizing composition as well as an effective amount of at least one moisturizing agent having opacifying properties for both making the sanitizing composition uniformly opaque when mixed and reducing water loss from the skin. The composition also includes an effective amount of a polymeric thickener for providing a viscosity of from about 1000 to about 65,000 cps and water.

Fendler; Eleanor J. (Hudson, OH); Dunkerton; Lois V. (Maumee, OH); Zirnis; Aija (Solon, OH)



Skin irritancy and sensitivity to laundry detergents containing proteolytic enzymes. Part I.  


In the present study the contact irritative--eczematogenic--effect of alkaline protease enzymes (PE) contained in syndet laundry detergents has been investigated. The method employed was the occlusive epicutaneous test (ET) involving the use of increasing serial dilutions of PE and various times of exposure. The tests were made on sympton-free skin, on skin showing premorbid or slight irritative changes, on skin previously acid- or base-treated, in the presence of increased skin permeability and following the skin stripping method. The results obtained in the 912 test series indicate that the PEs tested ("Tenzym prilled" Grindstedvoerkek, and "Maxatase" Gist-Brocases) caused no irritation or other damage to the intact or slightly lesioned skin even in response to close contact lasting several days. When as a result of increased irritation, or for other reasons, the PEs may be assumed to penetrate into the subcorneal layers, they may exert a proteolytic effect, as manifested in the increasing number of positive ETs. In such cases the PE concentrations exceeded by far those employed in the commercial detergents. It is most likely that the skin changes noted in connection with the use of bioactive laundry detergents are due not to the PE content of these detergents, but to other factors. PMID:1124998

Valér, M



About Skin-to-Skin Care (Kangaroo Care)  


... Care Ages & Stages Listen About Skin-to-Skin Care Article Body You may be able to hold ... care, also called kangaroo care. What is Kangaroo Care? Kangaroo care was developed in South America as ...


In vitro bioactivity, cytocompatibility, and antibiotic release profile of gentamicin sulfate-loaded borate bioactive glass/chitosan composites.  


Borate bioactive glass-based composites have been attracting interest recently as an osteoconductive carrier material for local antibiotic delivery. In the present study, composites composed of borate bioactive glass particles bonded with a chitosan matrix were prepared and evaluated in vitro as a carrier for gentamicin sulfate. The bioactivity, degradation, drug release profile, and compressive strength of the composite carrier system were studied as a function of immersion time in phosphate-buffered saline at 37 °C. The cytocompatibility of the gentamicin sulfate-loaded composite carrier was evaluated using assays of cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of osteogenic MC3T3-E1 cells. Sustained release of gentamicin sulfate occurred over ~28 days in PBS, while the bioactive glass converted continuously to hydroxyapatite. The compressive strength of the composite loaded with gentamicin sulfate decreased from the as-fabricated value of 24 ± 3 MPa to ~8 MPa after immersion for 14 days in PBS. Extracts of the soluble ionic products of the borate glass/chitosan composites enhanced the proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3-E1 cells. These results indicate that the gentamicin sulfate-loaded composite composed of chitosan-bonded borate bioactive glass particles could be useful clinically as an osteoconductive carrier material for treating bone infection. PMID:23820937

Cui, Xu; Gu, Yifei; Li, Le; Wang, Hui; Xie, Zhongping; Luo, Shihua; Zhou, Nai; Huang, Wenhai; Rahaman, Mohamed N



Developments around the bioactive diketopiperazines: a patent review.  


Introduction: 2,5-Diketopiperazines (DKPs) are cyclic dipeptides from two amino acids with or without further structural modifications in DKP nucleus. These DKPs demonstrated attractive bioactive diversity and potential in drug discovery. Areas covered: This review summarized those bioactive DKPs in patents, and provided the analysis of the structure types (N-substitution, secondary cyclization, isopentenylation, S-substitution, dehydrogenation, and dimerization) and bioactivities including anti-tumor, neuroprotective, immune and metabolic regulatory, oxytocin inhibitory and anti-inflammatory effects, antibiotic activity, PAF inhibition, inhibition of plasminogen activator and T-cell mediated immunity, and insecticidal activity, etc. Expert opinion: Though DKPs did not show very complicated chemical structures, their rigid structure, chiral nature and varied side chains led to their various medicinal applications. PMID:23961990

Wang, Yi; Wang, Pei; Ma, Hongguang; Zhu, Weiming



Bioactive Molecules in Soil Ecosystems: Masters of the Underground  

PubMed Central

Complex biological and ecological processes occur in the rhizosphere through ecosystem-level interactions between roots, microorganisms and soil fauna. Over the past decade, studies of the rhizosphere have revealed that when roots, microorganisms and soil fauna physically contact one another, bioactive molecular exchanges often mediate these interactions as intercellular signal, which prepare the partners for successful interactions. Despite the importance of bioactive molecules in sustainable agriculture, little is known of their numerous functions, and improving plant health and productivity by altering ecological processes remains difficult. In this review, we describe the major bioactive molecules present in below-ground ecosystems (i.e., flavonoids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics and quorum-sensing signals), and we discuss how these molecules affect microbial communities, nutrient availability and plant defense responses.

Zhuang, Xuliang; Gao, Jie; Ma, Anzhou; Fu, Shenglei; Zhuang, Guoqiang



Dietary plant bioactives for poultry health and productivity.  


1. Plants and their biologically active chemical constituents, sometimes called secondary metabolites or bioactives, present numerous opportunities for the improvement of livestock production by inclusion in the diet. 2. Many such plant derived materials have well established therapeutic values in man; however, their potential as feed additives in animal production, particularly of poultry, remains largely unexploited. 3. There is increasing evidence indicating that they can be efficient in controlling diseases, and plant bioactives may also influence production parameters such as feed efficiency and product quality. 4. It has been reported that they may even replicate some of the effects of antibiotic growth promoters, which were banned from use in Europe from 2006. 5. This review assesses the status of plant bioactives in poultry production and their mode of action on avian physiology, particularly in the digestive tract. PMID:20924841

Wallace, R J; Oleszek, W; Franz, C; Hahn, I; Baser, K H C; Mathe, A; Teichmann, K



Potential of Fruit Wastes as Natural Resources of Bioactive Compounds  

PubMed Central

Fruit wastes are one of the main sources of municipal waste. In order to explore the potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant potency and total phenolic contents (TPC) of lipophilic and hydrophilic components in wastes (peel and seed) of 50 fruits were systematically evaluated. The results showed that different fruit residues had diverse antioxidant potency and the variation was very large. Furthermore, the main bioactive compounds were identified and quantified, and catechin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, epicatechin, galangin, gallic acid, homogentisic acid, kaempferol, and chlorogenic acid were widely found in these residues. Especially, the values of ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and TPC in the residues were higher than in pulps. The results showed that fruit residues could be inexpensive and readily available resources of bioactive compounds for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

Deng, Gui-Fang; Shen, Chen; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Kuang, Ru-Dan; Guo, Ya-Jun; Zeng, Li-Shan; Gao, Li-Li; Lin, Xi; Xie, Jie-Feng; Xia, En-Qin; Li, Sha; Wu, Shan; Chen, Feng; Ling, Wen-Hua; Li, Hua-Bin



Protective Effect of Detoxified Rhus verniciflua Stokes on Human Keratinocytes and Dermal Fibroblasts against Oxidative Stress and Identification of the Bioactive Phenolics.  


Oxidative stress due to the over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is associated with human skin aging. This study was designed to identify the bioactive phenolics in detoxified Rhus verniciflua Stokes (DRVS) that may protect human skin against oxidative stress. Under oxidative stress caused by H2O2, the 40% (v/v) aqueous methanol extract of DRVS protected human keratinocytes in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) was also inhibited by the DRVS extract in human dermal fibroblasts-neonatal cells exposed to ultraviolet A. The major bioactive phenolics of DRVS were tentatively identified by LC/Q-TOF-ESI-MS/MS, and included gallic acid, 2-(ethoxymethoxy)-3-hydroxyphenol, fustin, a fustin isomer, tetragalloyl glucose, pentagalloyl glucose, fisetin, sulfuretin, a sulfuretin isomer, and butein. The results suggest that a DRVS extract may be effective in slowing skin aging through its antioxidative properties and by down-regulating MMP-1 expression. Further studies are needed to examine whether this effect would be mediated by the phenolics identified in this study. PMID:23924730

Liu, Chun-Shan; Nam, Tae-Gyu; Han, Min-Woo; Ahn, Soo-Mi; Choi, Han Seok; Kim, Tae Young; Chun, Ock K; Koo, Sung I; Kim, Dae-Ok



Bioactive polymers for cardiac tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prevalent in the US and worldwide, acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) can cause ischemic injuries to the heart that persist and lead to progressive degradation of the organ. Tissue engineering techniques exploiting biomaterials present a hopeful means of treating these injuries, either by mechanically stabilizing the injured ventricle, or by fostering cell growth to replace myocytes lost to damage. This thesis describes the development and testing of a synthetic extracellular matrix for cardiac tissue engineering applications. The first stage of this process was using an advanced finite element model of an injured ovine left ventricle to evaluate the potential benefits of injecting synthetic materials into the heart. These simulations indicated that addition of small amounts non-contractile material (on the order of 1--5% total wall volume) to infarct border zone regions reduced pathological systolic fiber stress to levels near those found in normal remote regions. Simulations also determined that direct addition to the infarct itself caused increases in ventricle ejection fraction while the underlying performance of the pump, ascertained by the Starling relation, was not improved. From these theoretical results, biomaterials were developed specifically for injection into the injured myocardium, and were characterized and tested for their mechanical properties and ability to sustain the proliferation of a stem cell population suitable for transplantation. Thermoresponsive synthetic copolymer hydrogels consisting of N-isopropylacrylamide and acrylic acid, p(NIPAAm-co-AAc), crosslinked with protease degradable amino acid sequences and modified with integrin binding ligands were synthesized, characterized in vitro, and used for myocardial implantation. These injectable materials could maintain a population of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in both two dimensional and three dimensional culture, and when tested in vivo in a murine infarct model they stabilized injured ventricles, reducing functional loss over 6 weeks, and promoted the survival of transplanted stem cells. In addition, modifications to the hydrogel to impart novel bioactivity through a developed tethered form of the protein sonic hedgehog were synthesized and characterized. This tethered form increased protein potency, induced angiogenesis, and could be incorporated into the hydrogel material for future implantation studies in the injured ventricle.

Wall, Samuel Thomas


Natural pesticides and bioactive components in foods.  


In this review, some common food plants and their toxic or otherwise bioactive components and mycotoxin contaminants have been considered. Crucifers contain naturally occurring components that are goitrogenic, resulting from the combined action of allyl isothiocyanate, goitrin, and thiocyanate. Although crucifers may provide some protection from cancer when taken prior to a carcinogen, when taken after a carcinogen they act as promoters of carcinogenesis. The acid-condensed mixture of indole-3-carbinol (a component of crucifers) binds to the TCDD receptor and causes responses similar to those of TCDD. Herbs contain many biologically active components, with more than 20% of the commercially prepared human drugs coming from these plants. Onion and garlic juices can help to prevent the rise of serum cholesterol. Most herbs used in treatments may have many natural constituents that act oppositely from their intended use. Some herbs like Bishop's week seed contain carcinogens, and many contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids that can cause cirrhosis of the liver. The general phytoalexin response in plants (including potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, celery, and sweet potatoes) induced by external stimuli can increase the concentrations of toxic chemical constituents in those plants. In potatoes, two major indigenous compounds are alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, which are human plasma cholinesterase inhibitors and teratogens in animals. Because of its toxicity, the potato variety Lenape was withdrawn from the market. Celery, parsley, and parsnips contain the linear furanocoumarin phytoalexins psoralen, bergapten, and xanthotoxin that can cause photosensitization and also are photomutagenic and photocarcinogenic. Celery field workers and handlers continually have photosensitization problems as a result of these indigenous celery furanocoumarins. A new celery cultivar (a result of plant breeding to produce a more pest-resistant variety) was responsible for significant incidences of phytophotodermatitis of grocery employees. Since there is no regulatory agency or body designated to oversee potential toxicological issues associated with naturally occurring toxicants, photodermatitis continues to occur from celery exposure. Sweet potatoes contain phytoalexins that can cause lung edema and are hepatotoxic to mice. At least one of these, 4-ipomeanol, can cause extensive lung clara cell necrosis and can increase the severity of pneumonia in mice. Some phytoalexins in sweet potatoes are hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic to mice. The common mushroom Agaricus bisporus contains benzyl alcohol as its most abundant volatile, and A. bisporus and Gyromitra esculenta both contain hydrazine analogues. Mycotoxins are found in corn, cottonseed, fruits, grains, grain sorghums, and nuts (especially peanuts); therefore, they also occur in apple juice, bread, peanut butter, and other products made from contaminated starting materials.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2404325

Beier, R C



Skin-to-skin contact. Part two: the evidence.  


Health professionals are increasingly recognising that skin-to-skin contact between mother and baby immediately after birth has important and significant health benefits for all babies. UNICEF UK Baby Friendly Initiative has recently increased recommended minimum time spent in skin contact after birth from 30 minutes to one hour. This article looks at recent research into the benefits of skin contact and summarises the findings. PMID:21739738

Vincent, Sarah



Enhanced bioactivity and osteoconductivity of hydroxyapatite through chloride substitution.  


The effect of chloride-substitution on bioactivity and osteoconductivity of hydroxyapatite (OHAp) was newly investigated. Chloride-substituted hydroxyapatites (ClAp) with low and high chloride concentrations were synthesized by reacting Ca(OH)2 and H3 PO4 with NH4 Cl of low and high concentrations, with subsequent sintering. As a control, pure OHAp was prepared under the same conditions but without addition of NH4 Cl. The ClAp showed markedly enhanced bioactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF) as the chloride substitution was increased. In contrast, OHAp did not show any bioactivity at all within the testing period. The solubility tests in deionized water also showed that the higher the chloride-substituting amount, the higher the dissolution amounts of the constituent elements of apatite, which directly affect bioactivity by increasing the degree of supersaturation of apatite in SBF. In addition, ClAp also showed noticeably higher osteoconductivity within the 4 weeks of implantation in calvarial defects of New Zealand white rabbits, compared with that of OHAp. The total system energy of the apatite calculated by the ab initio method showed that the higher the chloride-substituting amount, the higher the total system energy, which suggests that the ClAp was energetically less stable compared with OHAp. This result demonstrates the higher solubility of ClAp over that of OHAp in SBF and deionized water. The improved solubility of the OHAp enhances its bioactivity and consequent osteoconductivity. Taken together, it can be concluded that ClAp has encouraging potential for use as a bone grafting material due to its highly enhanced bioactivity and osteoconductivity compared with pure OHAp. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013. PMID:23533198

Cho, Jung Sang; Yoo, Dong Su; Chung, Yong-Chae; Rhee, Sang-Hoon



Skin Problems in Construction  


... when you put on the gloves. If your hands have any of the harsh materials on them when you put on gloves, you can make your skin problems worse. (Don’t let the materials get inside your boots, either.) Make sure you use the right gloves for the job. Some gloves will not protect you from some ...


Shark skin laceration.  


We present a case of multiple lacerations occurring from an encounter with a bull shark in which violent contact was made with the animal's rough skin. Conservative treatment of the injury resulted in good clinical outcome without any complications. Such events are only rarely reported in the medical literature. PMID:17083886

Doherty, Sean D; Rosen, Ted



Skin disorders in amputees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dermatologic problems restrict the normal use of a prosthetic limb. The importance of contact dermatitis to skin morbidity in a population of amputees and the selection criteria for patch testing have not been clearly defined.Objective: We describe the range of dermatoses seen in a population of amputees and examine the incidence, causes, and patterns of contact dermatitis.Methods: This is

Calum C. Lyon; Jai Kulkarni; Erik Zimerson; Ernest Van Ross; Michael H. Beck



Skin Allergy Quiz  


... itchy. Question 10 Can I get tested for food or medication allergy? Yes No Yes: Your local allergist can do a skin prick test or blood test to find out if you are allergic to several foods and drugs. You answered questions correctly. Learn more ...


Candida albicans skin abscess.  


Subcutaneous candidal abscess is a very rare infection even in immunocompromised patients. Some cases are reported when breakdown in the skin occurs, as bacterial cellulites or abscess, iatrogenic procedures, trauma and parenteral substance abuse. We describe a case of Candida albicans subcutaneous abscess without fungemia, which can be associated with central venous catheter. PMID:17086322

Tuon, Felipe Francisco; Nicodemo, Antonio Carlos


Skin Cancer Curriculum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This high school curriculumâÂÂa part of Emory University's CancerQuest website, which focuses on the biology, detection and treatment of cancerâÂÂoffers resources for teaching about skin cancer, the most frequently diagnosed cancer in the United States.

Patricia Ann Marsteller (Emory University;)



Measuring and Protecting Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about their skin and the importance of protecting it. It is part of the My World activities from Baylor College of Medicine. Additional activities can be accessed at

Baylor College of Medicine (Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center)



Flexible electronics: Sophisticated skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in materials science and layout design have enabled the realization of flexible and multifunctional electronic devices. Two demonstrations of electronic skins, which combine temperature and pressure sensing with integrated thermal actuators and organic displays, unveil the potential of these devices for robotics and clinical applications.

Bauer, Siegfried



Versatility of the circumumbilical incision in neonatal surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Following the advent of laparoscopic surgery, cosmesis has become an important factor in surgical decision making. The circumumbilical\\u000a incision combines the advantages of an open approach with an aesthetically pleasing scar on the abdomen. The aim of this paper\\u000a is to examine the results of this incision in neonatal laparotomy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  All neonates who underwent a supraumbilical circumferential skin incision for

Fiona J. Murphy; A. Mohee; Basem Khalil; Anupam Lall; Antonino Morabito; Adrian Bianchi



Chemical and bioactive diversities of the genus Chaetomium secondary metabolites.  


The genus Chaetomium fungi are considered to be a rich source of novel and bioactive secondary metabolites of great importance. Up till now, a variety of more than 200 secondary metabolites belonging to diverse structural types of chaetoglobosins, epipolythiodioxopiperazines, azaphilones, xanthones, anthraquinones, chromones, depsidones, terpenoids, and steroids have been discovered. Most of these fungal metabolites exhibited antitumor, cytotoxic, antimalarial, enzyme inhibitory, antibiotic, and other activities. This review covers the extraction, structure elucidation, structural diversity, and biological activities of natural products isolated from about 30 fungi associated with marine- and terrestrial- origins, and highlights some bioactive compounds as well as their mechanisms of action and structure-activity relationships. PMID:22372603

Zhang, Q; Li, H-Q; Zong, S-C; Gao, J-M; Zhang, A-L



[Research on bioactivity of magnesium and its alloys].  


Magnesium is an essential microelement which is not harmful to human body. As a light-weight metal with properties similar to natural bone, magnesium material possesses the characteristics of its degradability, little biotoxicity, as well as its regulatory strength and controllable degradation-speed. After the tissue has healed sufficiently, the burden of a second surgical procedure can be avoided. Therefore, there is need of investigation on the possible use of magnesium and its alloys as medical biomaterials, and the study of its bioactivity is the foundation of further application. This article reviews the bioactivity of magnesium and its alloys. PMID:19634698

Liu, Kui; Guo, Lei



[Preparation of porous Ti metal composite scaffold with bioactivity].  


In this work, the titanium powder was used for preparing highly interconnected porous scaffolds by impregnating polymer method. Subsequently, the electrochemical method and the biomimetic mineralization method were adopted to deposit calcium phosphate coatings on the sintered scaffold which was supposed to improve the scaffold bioactivity. The experimental results show, with the use of the two methods, the scaffolds are successfully covered by the deposition of the nano-net structure calcium phosphate coating, and they hold their three dimensional interconnected porous structures. Therefore, this kind of bioactive composite scaffold with such mechanical strength as that of woven bone should be a promising bone graft in clinical applications. PMID:19813613

Zhao, Jing; Lu, Xiong; Wang, Jianxin; Weng, Jie



A new method for skin color enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Skin tone is the most important color category in memory colors. Reproducing it pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the skin color preference on photographic color reproduction. Two key factors to successfully enhance skin colors are: a method to detect original skin colors effectively even if they are shifted far away from the regular skin color region, and a method to morph skin colors toward a preferred skin color region properly without introducing artifacts. A method for skin color enhancement presented by the authors in the same conference last year applies a static skin color model for skin color detection, which may miss to detect skin colors that are far away from regular skin tones. In this paper, a new method using the combination of face detection and statistical skin color modeling is proposed to effectively detect skin pixels and to enhance skin colors more effectively.

Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier



Commisioning of the Superconducting ECR Ion Source VENUS (Versatile ECR Ion Source for NUclear Science).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

VENUS (Versatile ECR ion source for NUclear Science) is a next generation superconducting ECR ion source, designed to produce high current, high charge state ions for the 88-Inch Cyclotron at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. VENUS also serves as...

D. Leitner S. R. Abbott R. D. Dwinell M. Leitner C. M. Taylor



Tissue response to bioactive glass and autogenous bone in the rabbit spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive glass S53P4 and autogenous bone were used as bone graft materials in an experimental rabbit model for spinal fusion.\\u000a The study focused on differences in bone formation using bioactive glass and autogenous bone as bone graft materials. Bioactive\\u000a glass, a mixture of bioactive glass and autogenous bone or autogenous bone was implanted for 4 and 12 weeks at the

N. C. Lindfors; A. J. Aho



Strength and toughness of tape cast bioactive glass 45S5 following heat treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tape cast and sintered (TCS) bioactive glass 45S5 has been shown to exhibit in vitro bioactivity in SBF and Tris, despite the formation of a crystalline phase (Na2Ca2Si3O9) during heat treatment. In this work, the effective porosity, hardness and flexural strength of TCS bioactive ceramic (composed of bioactive glass 45S5 prior to heat treatment) was determined as a function of

D. C Clupper; L. L Hench; J. J Mecholsky



Skin Cancer: Signs and Symptoms  


... skin cancer appears in many shapes and sizes. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) This is a very common type of ... lip; skin on the lip can get thick Squamous cell carcinoma . These patients all have forms of squamous cell ...


Radiochemistry: A versatile diagnostic for the NIF ignition campaign  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to provide quick, clear, concise information about radiochemical diagnostics for the NIF program. Radiochemistry is perhaps the most versatile, flexible and dynamic of all nuclear diagnostics because it provides quantitative data on multiple capsule performance parameters such as mix, asymmetry of implosion, shell and fuel {rho}R, yield, neutron spectral information, high energy neutron information, fill tube jets, charged particle stopping, and the fission yield of the hohlraum by employing a variety of nuclear reactions on materials either present naturally in the capsule or specifically doped into the capsule. The choice and location of the doped material, together with the specific nuclear reaction used to produce a measurable product nuclide or ratio of nuclides, provides significant diagnostic information on the performance of the capsule during the experiment. The nature of the experiment, design of the capsule including fuel(s), and desired diagnostic information would dictate the radiochemical dopants used on any given shot--not all reactions would be possible nor monitored on any given experiment. Some of this diagnostic information is obtainable with other diagnostics, for example, the neutron yield is measured using Cu-activation pucks or nTOF. The unique niche of radiochemistry, for which few other measurements are currently planned, is the quantification of ablator/fuel mix. This diagnostic can supply complementary information on ablator {rho}R, asymmetry and unique information on mix--three of the four important concerns of the ignition campaign. This paper will not discuss the additional nuclear chemistry and physics possible by utilizing radiochemistry collection and similar nuclear reactions.

Stoyer, M A; Cerjan, C J; Moody, K J; Hoffman, R D; Bernstein, L A; Shaughnessy, D A



A novel versatile multilayer hybrid stress solid-shell element  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a versatile multilayer locking free hybrid stress solid-shell element that can be readily employed for a wide range of geometrically linear elastic structural analyses, i.e. from shell-like isotropic structures to multilayer anisotropic composites. This solid-shell element has eight nodes with only displacement degrees of freedom and a few internal parameters that provide the locking free behavior and accurate interlaminar stress resolution through the element thickness. These elements can be stacked on top of each other to model multilayer structures, fulfilling the interlaminar stress continuity at the interlayer surfaces and zero traction conditions on the top and bottom surfaces of composite laminates. The element formulation is based on the modified form of the well-known Fraeijs de Veubeke-Hu-Washizu (FHW) multifield variational principle with enhanced assumed strains (EAS formulation) and assumed natural strains (ANS formulation) to alleviate the different types of locking phenomena in solid-shell elements. The distinct feature of the present formulation is its ability to accurately calculate the interlaminar stress field in multilayer structures, which is achieved by incorporating an assumed stress field in a standard EAS formulation based on the FHW principle. To assess the present formulation's accuracy, a variety of popular numerical benchmark examples related to element patch tests, convergence, mesh distortion, shell and laminated composite analyses are investigated and the results are compared with those available in the literature. This assessment reveals that the proposed solid-shell formulation provides very accurate results for a wide range of structural analyses.

Rah, K.; Van Paepegem, W.; Degrieck, J.



Lithium: a versatile tool for understanding renal physiology.  


By virtue of its unique interactions with kidney cells, lithium became an important research tool in renal physiology and pathophysiology. Investigators have uncovered the intricate relationships of lithium with the vasopressin and aldosterone systems, and the membrane channels or transporters regulated by them. While doing so, their work has also led to 1) questioning the role of adenylyl cyclase activity and prostaglandins in lithium-induced suppression of aquaporin-2 gene transcription; 2) unraveling the role of purinergic signaling in lithium-induced polyuria; and 3) highlighting the importance of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Lithium-induced remodeling of the collecting duct has the potential to shed new light on collecting duct remodeling in disease conditions, such as diabetes insipidus. The finding that lithium inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK3?) has opened an avenue for studies on the role of GSK3? in urinary concentration, and GSK isoforms in renal development. Finally, proteomic and metabolomic profiling of the kidney and urine in rats treated with lithium is providing insights into how the kidney adapts its metabolism in conditions such as acquired NDI and the multifactorial nature of lithium-induced NDI. This review provides state-of-the-art knowledge of lithium as a versatile tool for understanding the molecular physiology of the kidney, and a comprehensive view of how this tool is challenging some of our long-standing concepts in renal physiology, often with paradigm shifts, and presenting paradoxical situations in renal pathophysiology. In addition, this review points to future directions in research where lithium can lead the renal community. PMID:23408166

Kishore, Bellamkonda K; Ecelbarger, Carolyn M



SCIMPI: A versatile seafloor observatory for changing environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Simple Cabled Instrument for Measuring Parameters In-situ (SCIMPI) is a new seafloor observatory instrument. SCIMPI is designed to take subsurface time series measurements of temperature, pressure and resistivity in the sub-seafloor. This instrument has a battery operational life of approximately two years, which can be replaced with a battery pack using a remotely-operated vehicle, and provides high resolution measurements of physical properties in the sediment. With either periodic battery replacement or connection to a fiber-optic cable, SCIMPI is a long-term observatory for understanding sub-seafloor dynamics. The main advantage of this system is the reduced equipment and installation requirements making this tool an affordable and versatile system for scientific research. The pressure and temperature sensors, integrated into the system, have been successfully used in other marine industrial and scientific applications. Its electrical resistivity sensor, casing, and array assembly are uniquely designed and can be adapted for each mission. SCIMPI is currently in its last phase of testing prior to deployment in an Integrated Ocean Drilling Program borehole. This first SCIMPI is designed for a water depth of 1000 m and a sediment depth up to ~300 m below seafloor. But future assemblies can be tailored for deeper conditions and environments. Here we present the SCIMPI design, deployment options, and its scientific potential in a long-term ocean observatory. Science applications include studies of fluid flow, hydrate formation, and seismically induced pore pressure changes. The cost of this instrument will enable these measurements to become more commonplace, thereby improving our temporal and spatial knowledge of sub-seafloor gas, fluid and pore pressure activity. Most notable of the target deployments for SCIMPI are sub-seafloor gas hydrate sites and sites with biogenic methane. Understanding the dynamics of methane's role in the oceans as climate change proceeds will contribute to a better understanding of Earth's carbon budget.

Moran, K.; Lado Insua, T.; Kulin, I.; Farrington, S.; Newman, J.



A Versatile High-Permittivity Phantom for EIT  

PubMed Central

Phantoms are frequently used in medical imaging systems to test hardware, reconstruction algorithms, and the interpretation of data. This report describes and characterizes the use of powdered graphite as a means of adding a significant reactive component or permittivity to useful phantom media for electrical impedance imaging. The phantom materials produced have usable complex admittivity at the electrical impedance tomography (EIT) frequencies from a few kilohertz to 1 MHz, as measured by our EIT system (ACT4) and by a commercial bioimpedance analyzer (BIS 4000, Xitron). We have also studied a commercial ultrasound coupling gel, which is highly electrically conductive and semisolid but that permits objects to move within it. The mixture of agar–graphite and gel–graphite, increases in permittivity and conductivity are proportional to the graphite concentration. We also report the use of a porous polymer membrane to simulate skin. A thin layer of this membrane increased resistance and the characteristic frequency of the phantoms, providing a promising candidate to simulate the effect of skin and the layered structure of a breast or other anatomical structure. The graphite also provides a realistic level of “speckle” in ultrasound images of the phantom, which may be useful in developing dual-mode imaging systems with ultrasound and the EIT.

Saulnier, Gary J.; Isaacson, David; Szabo, Tomas L.; Newell, Jonathan C.



Investigation of the bioactivity and biocompatibility of different glass interfaces with hydroxyapatite, fluorohydroxyapatite and 58S bioactive glass.  


The current review investigates the bioactivity of different glass interfaces created on thin glass cover slips as substrates. The interfaces studied are plain glass, functionalized glass using 0.5 M and 5 M of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) for 24 hrs, and glass coated with bioactive 58S Bioglass (58S). A biomimetic method, involving the exposure of the three interfaces to 1.5 times simulated body fluid (SBF) tests the bioactivity of the interfaces via creation of layer of Hydroxyapatite (HA). Fluorinated SBF will precipitate fluorine doped HA (FHA) on a bioactive interface. Higher concentration of 1.5 times of SBF used in this study intended to accelerate the formation of HA and FHA layer over the substrate. HA and FHA is found to be precipitated on the thinly coated 58S. This paper, study also the thin film coatings of three forms of bioceramics - bioactive 58S, HA and FHA. The study, also proposes to draw a relation between the morphology of HA particles with duration of exposure to SBF, the effects of fluorine on the morphology and the cell interaction with bioactive 58S, HA and FHA interfaces using pre-differentiated osteoblastic MC3T3 cells. The analysis of cells in this study is confined to three parameters that include the attachment, proliferation and viability of cells. Tests employed for the analysis of the thin film coating of HA and FHA is restricted to qualitative X-Ray Diffraction and quantitative Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope. Other mechanical tests such as shear test are not used to test the mechanical properties of this thin layer, due to the fact that the thin film is too thin for such analysis. PMID:18607070

Han, Yuling Jamie; Loo, Say Chye Joachim; Lee, Joel; Ma, Jan



Broad-Spectrum Bactericidal Activity of Ag2O-Doped Bioactive Glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive glass has found extensive application as an orthopedic and dental graft material and most recently also as a tissue engineering scaffold. Here we report an initial investigation of the in vitro antibacterial properties of AgBG, a novel bioactive glass composition doped with Ag2O. The bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties of this new material and of two other bioactive glass compositions,

Maria Bellantone; Huw D. Williams; Larry L. Hench



Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the…

Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth



Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the…

Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth



NIOSH Skin Notation Profiles: Phenol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Skin Notation Profile presents (1) a brief summary of technical data associated with skin contact with Phenol and (2) the rationale behind the hazard-specific skin notation (SK) assignment for Phenol. The SK assignment is based on the scientific rati...

A. Maier B. Gadagbui C. L. Geraci E. Esswein G. S. Dotson L. Tapp P. Schulte R. Niemeier T. J. Lentz



Image-based Skin Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative characterization of skin appearance is an im- portant but difficult task. The skin surface is a detailed landscape, with features that depend on many variables such as body location (knuckle vs. torso), subject parameters (age\\/gender\\/health) and imaging parameters (lighting and camera). Computational modeling of skin texture has potential uses in many fields and applications including realistic render- ing for

Oana G. Cula; Kristin J. Dan



Warfarin-induced skin necrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin necrosis is a rare but serious side-effect of treatment with warfarin. At particular risk are those with various thrombophilic abnormalities, especially when warfarinisation is undertaken rapidly with large loading doses of warfarin. With the increasing number of patients anticoagulated as out-patients for thromboprophylaxis, we are concerned that the incidence of skin necrosis may increase. If skin necrosis does occur,

Andrew J Stewart; Ian D Penman; Margaret K Cook; Christopher A Ludlam



Neuroendocrine System of the Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is accumulating that the skin can serve as a peripheral neuroendocrine organ. The skin neuroendocrine activities are predominantly independent of regulation from the central level (which controls classical hormone secretion) but are rather regulated by local cutaneous factors. These endocrine factors would represent an exquisite regulatory layer addressed at restricting maximally the effect of noxious agents in the skin

Andrzej Slominski



Versatility of retroauricular mastoid donor site: a convenient valuable warehouse of various free graft tissues in cosmetic and reconstructive surgery.  


Soft-tissue deficiency is a critical issue in facial cosmetic and reconstructive surgery. Harvesting autografts from other anatomical sites has been a common practice in overcoming soft-tissue insufficiency for many years. However, donor-site complications and visible scars are of important concerns. Therefore, we would like to introduce an alternative donor site of free-tissue grafts and its inherent advantages: the retroauricular mastoid area located along the mastoid hair line. From August 1991 to June 2011, we performed facial reconstructive surgeries for cosmetic correction of disfigurements from both congenital and complications of previous cosmetic procedures on a total of 213 patients. These patients had undergone either 1 or more facial cosmetic surgeries in the past. In this study, our primary goal focused on revising facial asymmetries or defects from previous surgical scars, tissue contraction, undercorrection, or underdevelopment. For autograft harvesting, we incised an elliptical shape along the retroauricular hairline. We then harvested sufficient amount of skin, dermal fat, fascia, or a piece of the mastoid bone if needed. After harvesting, we closed the incisional area and covered it with a compressive dressing. In evaluation of our results, we compared the preoperative photographs with postoperative and constructed a survey on patient satisfaction. Overall, the patients in this study were greatly satisfied with their surgical results. No major complications were reported. As a result of our long-term study, we believe that the retroauricular mastoid area has been shown to be an indispensable donor site for a variety of autograft tissues in terms of safety, convenience, and versatility of its unique structural composition consisting of skin, dermal fat, fascia, and bone. PMID:24036825

Cho, Jeong Mok; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Woo, Kevin Volt; Lee, Yoon Ho



RNAi functionalized collagen-chitosan/silicone membrane bilayer dermal equivalent for full-thickness skin regeneration with inhibited scarring.  


Scar inhibition of dermal equivalent is one of the key issues for treatment of full thickness skin defects. To yield a bioactive RNAi functionalized matrix for skin regeneration with inhibited scarring, collagen-chitosan/silicone membrane bilayer dermal equivalent (BDE) was combined with trimetylchitosan (TMC)/siRNA complexes which could induce suppression of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) pathway. The RNAi-BDE functioned as a reservoir for the incorporated TMC/siRNA complexes, enabling a prolonged siRNA release. The seeded fibroblasts in the RNAi-BDE showed good viability, internalized the TMC/siRNA complexes effectively and suppressed TGF-?1 expression constantly until 14 d. Application of the RNAi-BDE on the full-thickness skin defects of pig backs confirmed the in vivo inhibition of TGF-?1 expression by immunohistochemistry, real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting during 30 d post surgery. The levels of other scar-related factors such as collagen type I, collagen type III and ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) were also down-regulated. In combination with the ultra-thin skin graft transplantation for 73 d, the regenerated skin by RNAi-BDE had an extremely similar structure to that of the normal one. Our study reflects the latest paradigm of tissue engineering by incorporating the emerging biomolecule siRNA. The 3-D scaffolding materials for siRNA delivery may have general implications in generation of bioactive matrix as well. PMID:23261213

Liu, Xing; Ma, Lie; Liang, Jun; Zhang, Bing; Teng, Jianying; Gao, Changyou



Biology of estrogens in skin: implications for skin aging.  


Estrogens have a profound influence on skin. The relative hypoestrogenism that accompanies menopause exacerbates the deleterious effects of both intrinsic and environmental aging. Estrogens clearly have a key role in skin aging homeostasis as evidenced by the accelerated decline in skin appearance seen in the perimenopausal years. Estrogens improve skin in many ways. Among these, they increase collagen content and skin thickness and improve skin moisture. However, despite the knowledge that estrogens have such important effects on skin, the cellular and subcellular sites and mechanisms of estrogen action are still poorly understood. Estrogen receptors (ERs) have been detected in skin, and recent studies suggest that estrogens exert their effect in skin through the same molecular pathways used in other non-reproductive tissues. Although systemic hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been used for many years, recent trials have reported a significant increased risk of breast cancer and other pathologies with this treatment. This has led to reconsider the risks and benefits of HRT. For this reason, systemic HRT cannot be recommended today to treat skin aging. Currently, intensive research is conducted to develop new drugs called selective ER modulators (SERMs). These drugs exert mixed estrogenic and antiestrogenic effects depending on the tissue and cell type. One might expect in the future such a drug targeting specifically the skin without systemic side effects. PMID:16433679

Verdier-Sévrain, Sylvie; Bonté, Frédéric; Gilchrest, Barbara



Nano/macro porous bioactive glass scaffold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioactive glass (BG) and ceramics have been widely studied and developed as implants to replace hard tissues of the musculo-skeletal system, such as bones and teeth. Recently, instead of using bulk materials, which usually do not degrade rapidly enough and may remain in the human body for a long time, the idea of bioscaffold for tissue regeneration has generated much interest. An ideal bioscaffold is a porous material that would not only provide a three-dimensional structure for the regeneration of natural tissue, but also degrade gradually and, eventually be replaced by the natural tissue completely. Among various material choices the nano-macro dual porous BG appears as the most promising candidate for bioscaffold applications. Here macropores facilitate tissue growth while nanopores control degradation and enhance cell response. The surface area, which controls the degradation of scaffold can also be tuned by changing the nanopore size. However, fabrication of such 3D structure with desirable nano and macro pores has remained challenging. In this dissertation, sol-gel process combined with spinodal decomposition or polymer sponge replication method has been developed to fabricate the nano-macro porous BG scaffolds. Macropores up to 100microm are created by freezing polymer induced spinodal structure through sol-gel transition, while larger macropores (>200um) of predetermined size are obtained by the polymer sponge replication technique. The size of nanopores, which are inherent to the sol-gel method of glass fabrication, has been tailored using several approaches: Before gel point, small nanopores are generated using acid catalyst that leads to weakly-branched polymer-like network. On the other hand, larger nanopores are created with the base-catalyzed gel with highly-branched cluster-like structure. After the gel point, the nanostructure can be further modified by manipulating the sintering temperature and/or the ammonia concentration used in the solvent exchange process. Although both techniques lower the surface area of BG scaffolds, the temperature-dependent sintering process closes nanopores through densification, while the concentration-dependent solvent exchange process enlarges nanopores through Ostwald-ripening type coarsening. Therefore, nanopore size and surface area of BG scaffold are independently controlled using these methods. In vitro cell and in vivo animal tissue responses have been investigated to evaluate the performance of the nano-macro porous BG scaffold. The cells are found to migrate and penetrate deep into the 3D nano-macro porous structure, while exhibiting excellent adhesion to the bioscaffold surface. Importantly, the new tissue with both blood vessels and collagen fibers is formed deep inside the implanted scaffolds without obvious inflammatory reaction. Furthermore, our observations show biological benefits of the nanopores in the BG scaffold. In comparison to BG scaffold without nanopores, cells migrate and penetrate into nano-macro dual-porous BG scaffold faster and deeper mainly because of the increase of surface area. To study the effect of nanopore topography, we fabricated BG scaffolds with the same surface area but different nanopore sizes. It is found that the initial cell attachment is significantly enhanced on the BG scaffold with the same surface area but smaller nanopores size, indicating that the nanopore topography strongly influences the performance of BG scaffold. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate most clearly the usefulness of our nano-macro dual-porous BG as a novel and superior 3D bioscaffold for regenerative medicine and hard tissue engineering.

Wang, Shaojie


Methods and compositions for treating skin  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method for formulating products to normalize skin or treat irritated or inflamed skin, a method for normalizing skin or treating irritated or inflamed skin for improvement, and compositions therefor.



Eugenol--from the remote Maluku Islands to the international market place: a review of a remarkable and versatile molecule.  


Eugenol is a major volatile constituent of clove essential oil obtained through hydrodistillation of mainly Eugenia caryophyllata (=Syzygium aromaticum) buds and leaves. It is a remarkably versatile molecule incorporated as a functional ingredient in numerous products and has found application in the pharmaceutical, agricultural, fragrance, flavour, cosmetic and various other industries. Its vast range of pharmacological activities has been well-researched and includes antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-oxidant and anticancer activities, amongst others. In addition, it is widely used in agricultural applications to protect foods from micro-organisms during storage, which might have an effect on human health, and as a pesticide and fumigant. As a functional ingredient, it is included in many dental preparations and it has also been shown to enhance skin permeation of various drugs. Eugenol is considered safe as a food additive but due to the wide range of different applications, extensive use and availability of clove oil, it is pertinent to discuss the general toxicity with special reference to contact dermatitis. This review summarises the pharmacological, agricultural and other applications of eugenol with specific emphasis on mechanism of action as well as toxicity data. PMID:22728369

Kamatou, Guy P; Vermaak, Ilze; Viljoen, Alvaro M



Lower eyelid reconstruction in a paediatric face: a one-stage aesthetic approach using the versatile temporoparietal fascia flap.  


There are many different lower eyelid reconstruction techniques defined in the literature. Almost all of the published techniques have been described on elderly patients and use upper eyelid, periorbital or facial tissues as donor sites. However, in case of a paediatric patient or a young adult who has a crease-free and scarless face, camouflage of the facial donor-site scar is usually impossible. In order to avoid possible facial donor-site scars and upper eyelid deformities, a technique which uses the temporoparietal fascia (TPF) flap as the framework of a new eyelid was used for the reconstruction of an adolescent patient's postoncologic defect. The inner side of the flap was covered with nasal septal chondromucosal graft and the external side was covered with a retroauricular full-thickness skin graft. Eighteen months of unproblematic follow-up of this overlooked usage of the versatile TPF flap indicates that our technique has proved successful in terms of good functional and cosmetic outcome that is obtained at one stage. PMID:22459794

Hocao?lu, Emre; Özden, Burcu Çelet; Ayd?n, Hülya



Does the sailfish skin reduce the skin friction like the shark skin?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shape of shark skin - riblet - reduces the skin friction up to 8% in a turbulent boundary layer, as compared to a smooth surface. The sailfish is the fastest sea animal, reaching its maximum speed of 110km\\/h. On the sailfish skin, we observe a number of V-shaped protrusions pointing downstream. So, we investigate the possibility of skin-friction reduction

Woong Sagong; Sangho Choi; Chulkyu Kim; Woo-Pyung Jeon; Haecheon Choi



Marine microorganisms as a source of bioactive agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several ecological factors of the marine environment were used in developing a strategy for discovering useful bioactive agents from marine microorganisms. By consideration of sea water requirements, production and degradation of marine polymers, and plasmid content, several novel anti-malarial antibiotics, anti-tumor polysaccharides, glucan-degrading enzymes, and aminoglycoside antibiotics were found.

Yoshiro Okami



Bioactivity and Structure of Biophenols as Mediators of Chronic Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biophenols and their associated activity have generated intense interest. Current topics of debate are their bioavailability and bioactivity. It is generally assumed that their plasma concentrations are insufficient to produce the health benefits previously attributed to their consumption. However, data on localized in vivo concentrations are not available and many questions remain unanswered. Potential mechanisms by which they may exert

Gregory Tucker; Kevin Robards



Bioactivity of essential oils and their volatile aroma components: Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioactivity of essential oils and their flavor and fragrance components have been known since ancient times. Essential oils are a mixture of numerous compounds characterized by an essence of aromatic plants. Currently, approximately 3000 essential oils are known, 300 of which are commercially important, in particular for the pharmaceutical, food, household and cosmetic industries. Essential oils have been known

Hamdy A. E. Shaaban; Ahmed H. El-Ghorab; Takayuki Shibamoto



Total syntheses of bioactive natural products from carbohydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total syntheses of bioactive natural products recently accomplished in our laboratories are described. They are classified by structures of target molecules and are focused on our original approach to their own structures. The target molecules include nanaomycin, kalafungin, BE-54238B, tetracycline, rosmarinecine, thienamycin, luminacines C1 and C2, tetrodecamycin, cochleamycin A, and tubelactomicin A, which have been synthesized as optically pure form

Kuniaki Tatsuta; Seijiro Hosokawa



Bioactive natural products from southern African marine invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coastline of southern Africa is divided into three bio-geographical zones, with each zone sustaining a unique diversity of marine fauna and flor Associated with this marine biodiversity are relatively high levels of species endemism, often a useful pre-requisite for the discovery of novel, bioactive ma natural products. This review is the first comprehensive presentation of the structures of 143

Michael T. Davies-Coleman



Bioactive natural products from marine cyanobacteria for drug discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prokaryotic marine cyanobacteria continue to be an important source of structurally bioactive secondary metabolites. A majority of these molecules are nitrogen-containing compounds biosynthesized by large multimodular nonribosomal polypeptide (NRP) or mixed polyketide-NRP enzymatic systems. A total of 128 marine cyanobacterial alkaloids, published in the literature between January 2001 and December 2006, are presented in this review with emphasis on

Lik Tong Tan



Bioactive fungal natural products through classic and biocombinatorial approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kingdom of fungi is an important source of bioactive natural products, which have been a driving force in the development of modern pharmaceutical industry. Fungal natural products have provided revolutionary Pharmaceuticals against various diseases, and have provided unique and inspirational chemicals for innovative drugs.Fungi are essentially an untapped source of drugs in spite of many remarkable therapeutic agents discovered

Zhi-Dong Jiang; Zhiqiang An



Definition of the Mediterranean Diet Based on Bioactive Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant (polyphenols and carotenoids) and nonantioxidant (phytosterols) bioactive compounds and dietary fiber may have a significant role in health. The intake of these compounds is strongly linked with the high consumption of fruits, vegetables, and unrefined cereals. A whole-diet approach to these food constituents is intended to render the current definition of Mediterranean diet based on food consumption more comprehensive.The

Fulgencio Saura-Calixto; Isabel Goñi



Mango Bioactive Compounds and Related Nutraceutical Properties—A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mangos' popularity is on the rise due to its high nutraceutic and pharmaceutical value. The mango is unique because each of its parts—fruit, pulp, peel, seed, leaves, flowers and the bark—are utilizable. Polyphenolic compounds and related bioactivity in the fruit are higher in peel than pulp and highest in mango leaves and stem barks. There are various polyphenols in

Martin Masibo; Qian He



Preparation of bioactive titanium metal via anodic oxidation treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titania with specific structures of anatase and rutile was found to induce apatite formation in vitro. In this study, anodic oxidation in H2SO4 solution, which could form anatase and rutile on titanium metal surface by conditioning the process, was employed to modify the structure and bioactivity of biomedical titanium. After the titanium metal was subjected to anodic oxidation treatment, thin

Bangcheng Yang; Masaiki Uchida; Hyun-Min Kim; Xingdong Zhang; Tadashi Kokubo



Conformation of oleuropein, the major bioactive compound of Olea europea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oleuropein is the major bioactive component of Olea europea (the olive tree) and possesses strong antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic and anticancer properties whereas it has been shown to bind to endogenous peptides. Thus the understanding of its conformation is important and could shed some light into its mechanism of action. The aim of the current study was to

Evangelos Gikas; Fotini N. Bazoti; Anthony Tsarbopoulos



Greener and Expeditious Synthesis of Bioactive Heterocycles using Microwave Irradiation  

EPA Science Inventory

The utilization of green chemistry techniques is dramatically reducing chemical waste and reaction times as has recently been proven in several organic syntheses and chemical transformations. To illustrate these advantages in the synthesis of bio-active heterocycles, we have stud...


Plastids of Marine Phytoplankton Produce Bioactive Pigments and Lipids  

PubMed Central

Phytoplankton is acknowledged to be a very diverse source of bioactive molecules. These compounds play physiological roles that allow cells to deal with changes of the environmental constrains. For example, the diversity of light harvesting pigments allows efficient photosynthesis at different depths in the seawater column. Identically, lipid composition of cell membranes can vary according to environmental factors. This, together with the heterogenous evolutionary origin of taxa, makes the chemical diversity of phytoplankton compounds much larger than in terrestrial plants. This contribution is dedicated to pigments and lipids synthesized within or from plastids/photosynthetic membranes. It starts with a short review of cyanobacteria and microalgae phylogeny. Then the bioactivity of pigments and lipids (anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-allergic activities, and cardio- neuro-, hepato- and photoprotective effects), alone or in combination, is detailed. To increase the cellular production of bioactive compounds, specific culture conditions may be applied (e.g., high light intensity, nitrogen starvation). Regardless of the progress made in blue biotechnologies, the production of bioactive compounds is still limited. However, some examples of large scale production are given, and perspectives are suggested in the final section.

Heydarizadeh, Parisa; Poirier, Isabelle; Loizeau, Damien; Ulmann, Lionel; Mimouni, Virginie; Schoefs, Benoit; Bertrand, Martine



Bioactive potential of Streptomyces associated with marine sponges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work deals with isolation of Streptomyces associated with marine sponges and its bioactive potential. Streptomyces sp. were isolated from the marine sponges Callyspongia diffusa, Mycale mytilorum, Tedania anhelans and Dysidea fragilis. From the initial screening, 94 cultures of Streptomyces were obtained and from these 58 cultures exhibited antagonism against bacteria, 36 strains against fungi and 27 strains exhibited

Selvakumar Dharmaraj; Alagarsamy Sumantha



Planetary Interchange of Bioactive Material: Probability Factors and Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now well-accepted that both lunar andmartian materials are represented in the meteoritecollections. Early suggestions that viable organismsmight survive natural transport between planets havenot yet been thoroughly examined. The concept ofPlanetary Interchange of Bioactive Material (PIBM) ispotentially relevant to the conditions under whichlife originated. PIBM has been also invoked to inferthat the potential danger to Earth from martianmaterials is

Benton C. Clark



Analysis of bioactive fluoride-containing calcium aluminosilicate glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different decomposition methods in aqueous solutions were evaluated on their accuracy and reproducibility for the quantitative determination of the constituents of bioactive fluoride-containing glasses used in dental glass ionomer cements. The concentrations of metals can be determined rapidly and accurately by atomic absorption spectrophotometry after degrading the sample in hydrochloric or hydrofluoric acid. The latter degradation method is also suited

E. A. P De Maeyer; R. M. H Verbeeck



Bioactive cardenolides from the leaves of Nerium oleander  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bioactivity directed isolation of the methanolic extract of the fresh, uncrushed leaves of Nerium oleander showing a central nervous system (CNS) depressant effect in mice has been undertaken. As a result, four CNS depressant cardenolides including a new cardenolide, neridiginoside and three known constituents, nerizoside, neritaloside and odoroside-H, have been isolated which exhibited CNS depressant activity in mice at

Sabira Begum; Bina S Siddiqui; Razia Sultana; Atiya Zia; Amin Suria



Application of Bioactive Molecules in Pulp-capping Situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the effects of bioactive molecules in pulpal wound healing, we carried out experiments using the rat upper molars as an in vivo model. Cavities were prepared on the mesial aspect, and pulp perforation was accomplished by the application of pressure with the tip of a steel probe. After the pulp-capping procedure, the cavities were filled with a glass-ionomer

M. Goldberg; F. Decup; D. Buch; E. Soheili Majd; J.-J. Lasfargues; E. Salih; L. Stanislawski



Bioactive conducting polymers for neural interfaces application to vision prosthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive conducting polymers (CPs) have the potential to provide superior neural interfaces to conventional metal electrodes by lowering interfacial impedance, reducing strain-mismatch and controlling the interaction of surrounding tissue. Application to vision prosthesis is demonstrated in this study where cell adherence and neurite outgrowth were stimulated via biomolecules entrapped within the CP matrix. The responses of two different cell types

R. A. Green; G. J. Suaning; L. A. Poole-Warren; N. H. Lovell



Journey to the skin  

PubMed Central

The peripheral axons of vertebrate tactile somatosensory neurons travel long distances from ganglia just outside the central nervous system to the skin. Once in the skin these axons form elaborate terminals whose organization must be regionally patterned to detect and accurately localize different kinds of touch stimuli. This review describes key studies that identified choice points for somatosensory axon growth cones and the extrinsic molecular cues that function at each of those steps. While much has been learned in the past 20 years about the guidance of these axons, there is still much to be learned about how the peripheral axons of different kinds of somatosensory neurons adopt different trajectories and form specific terminal structures.

Wang, Fang; Julien, Donald P.; Sagasti, Alvaro



Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer  

PubMed Central

Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) represents the most common form of cancer in Caucasians, with continuing increase in incidence worldwide. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) accounts for 75% of cases of NMSC, and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) accounts for the remaining majority of NMSC cases. Whilst metastasis from BCC is extremely rare, metastasis from high-risk SCC may be fatal. In this article, we review the aetiology, diagnosis and management of NMSC.

Samarasinghe, Venura; Madan, Vishal



Soil as Living Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two-minute radio program, a soil scientist introduces listeners to reasons why soil is crucial to the planet. The scientist lists functions of soil that include nutrient cycling and water filtration, and he also uses living skin as an analogy for soil. The program, part of the Pulse of the Planet radio show, is available here in text and audio formats. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Planet, Pulse O.



Skin, Scales and Skulls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners examine body parts (including skin, scales, and skulls) from fish, mammals and reptiles. Questions are provided to help encourage learner investigations. Several activities are described, including object identification (what animal and what part of the animal?), free sorting of the objects, and a discussion of similarities, differences, and protective functions of the animal parts. It's written for use as a cart demo in a museum or aquarium, but could be done anywhere animal body parts are available.

Center, Virginia A.



Optimization and characterization of bioactive glass nanofibers and nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disease affects different areas of the bone and can impact individuals of all pathologies and ethnicities. These bone diseases can result in weakening which leads to trauma during ordinary function, the need for reconstructive surgery, and eventual bone replacement. Tissue engineering can provide a less traumatic and more fundamental solution to the current therapies. Bioactive glasses are promising materials in tissue engineering applications because of their ability to form hydroxycarbonate apatite in the presence of simulated body fluid, support cell adhesion, growth, and differentiation, induce bone formation, and concentrate bone morphogenic proteins in vivo. The research in this dissertation will attempt to improve the quality, yield, and toughness of bioactive glass nanofibrous scaffolds. The three specific aims of this research include, (1) Optimization and Characterization of Surfactant Modified Bioactive Glass (2) Optimization of Direct Synthesis Bioactive glass Nanofibers from Sols (3) Mechanical Properties and In-vitro Biomineralization of Bioglass-loaded Polyglyconate Nanocomposites Created Using the Particulate Leaching Method. The purpose of the first specific aim was to optimize the processing of bioactive glass nanofibers, resulting in greater fiber uniformity with a reduction in beading. The increase in viscosity coupled with the ability of the surfactant to limit polymeric secondary bonding led to improved fiber quality. The focal point of the second specific aim is the production of sol-gel derived glass fibers with high bioactivity prepared by electrospinning without the use of any polymer carrier system. Advantages of this method include decreased processing time, increased production of fibers, and a decrease in the loss of material due to the calcining process. The solvent cast/ particulate leaching method was used to create a nanocomposite of bioglass and the co-polymer polyglyconate (MaxonRTM) for bone tissue scaffolds The biocompatibility of the composite foams was observed and calcium phosphate presence was quantified. The incorporation of bioglass into the polymer matrix improved the strength (modulus - 21.47 MPa) and biocompatibility of the polyglyconate foam. Keywords: Bioactive glass, Electrospinning, Solvent Casting/Particulate Leaching Method, Nanocomposites

Scarber, Reginna E.


[Skin and menopause].  


Important changes related to declining level of several hormones occur during menopause: vasomotor instability, bone loss, anxiety, sexual dysfunction, skin aging... Our objective was a review of the literature concerning the histological and clinical changes seen in post menopausal skin, and also an analysis of the effect of hormonal replacement therapy in slowing down the aging process. Decline in progesterone increases the impact of androgen on the sebaceous glands and hair. Decreased estrogen slows down mitotic activity in the epidermal basal layer, reduces the synthesis of collagen and contributes to thickening of the dermo-epidermal junction. This hypoestrogenemia may be spontaneously attenuated by local synthesis of oestradiol in peripheral target tissues according to the intracrine process. This new hormonal pattern is associated with skin atrophy, hyperseborrhea, increased pilosity on the cheeks and upper lip, loss of scalp hair, increase in degeneration of elastic tissue, atrophy and dryness of the vaginal mucosa. Estrogen treatment in post menopausal women has been shown to increase collagen content, dermal thickness and elasticity. Biophysical properties are also significantly improved for the parameters reflecting hydration and sebum secretion. However, numerous side effects such as increased incidence of cancer and cardiovascular morbidity limit the use of this treatment. So non hormonal alternatives are proposed. Laser and lifting remain the most important options. PMID:17194967

Bensaleh, H; Belgnaoui, F Z; Douira, L; Berbiche, L; Senouci, K; Hassam, B



Axillary skin: biology and care.  


In skin care, the axilla is a biologically unique site requiring specialized attention and care. This area of skin is often subject to hair removal techniques, such as shaving and plucking. These procedures damage the skin leading to erythema and dryness in the short term, and in some cases, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIHP) in the long term. This study will (i) briefly review the biology and unique properties of axillary skin, and (ii) describe the characteristics of the irritation and damage induced by contemporary skin care habits and resolution of these responses by the use of efficacious skin moisturizing technology. With respect to the latter, we propose that there are five groups of compounds, defined according to their mechanism of action, which are particularly relevant to the care of damaged axillary skin. PMID:22612735

Evans, R L; Marriott, R E; Harker, M



Bifidobacterium fermented milk and galacto-oligosaccharides lead to improved skin health by decreasing phenols production by gut microbiota.  


A questionnaire survey found that women suffering from abnormal bowel movements have many skin problems such as a high frequency of dry skin. Although there are similarities between the structure and barrier function mechanism of the gut and skin, experimental data are insufficient to show an association between the intestinal environment and skin conditions. Phenols, for example phenol and p-cresol, as metabolites of aromatic amino acids produced by gut bacteria, are regarded as bioactive toxins and serum biomarkers of a disturbed gut environment. Recent studies have demonstrated that phenols disturb the differentiation of monolayer-cultured keratinocytes in vitro, and that phenols produced by gut bacteria accumulate in the skin via the circulation and disrupt keratinocyte differentiation in hairless mice. Human studies have demonstrated that restriction of probiotics elevated serum free p-cresol levels and harmed skin conditions (reduced skin hydration, disrupted keratinisation). In contrast, daily intake of the prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) restored serum free p-cresol levels and skin conditions in adult women. Moreover, a double-blind placebo-controlled trial demonstrated that the daily intake of fermented milk containing the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve strain Yakult and prebiotic GOS reduced serum total phenol levels and prevented skin dryness and disruption of keratinisation in healthy adult women. It is concluded that phenols produced by gut bacteria are one of the causes of skin problems. Probiotics and/or prebiotics, such as B. breve strain Yakult and/or GOS, are expected to help maintain a healthy skin by decreasing phenols production by gut microbiota. These findings support the hypothesis that probiotics and prebiotics provide health benefits to the skin as well as the gut. PMID:23685373

Miyazaki, K; Masuoka, N; Kano, M; Iizuka, R



Fucoxanthin, a Marine Carotenoid Present in Brown Seaweeds and Diatoms: Metabolism and Bioactivities Relevant to Human Health  

PubMed Central

The marine carotenoid fucoxanthin can be found in marine brown seaweeds, the macroalgae, and diatoms, the microalgae, and has remarkable biological properties. Numerous studies have shown that fucoxanthin has considerable potential and promising applications in human health. In this article, we review the current available scientific literature regarding the metabolism, safety, and bioactivities of fucoxanthin, including its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-obese, antidiabetic, antiangiogenic and antimalarial activities, and its protective effects on the liver, blood vessels of the brain, bones, skin, and eyes. Although some studies have shown the bioavailability of fucoxanthin in brown seaweeds to be low in humans, many studies have suggested that a dietary combination of fucoxanthin and edible oil or lipid could increase the absorption rate of fucoxanthin, and thus it might be a promising marine drug.

Peng, Juan; Yuan, Jian-Ping; Wu, Chou-Fei; Wang, Jiang-Hai



Quantification of the skin's topography by skin profilometry.  


Synopsis A method of skin profilometry is presented. The data generated using this method are used to (a) uncover sources of variation in skin profilometry, (b) provide information regarding the choice of roughness parameters best suited for characterizing the skin's topography, and (c) determine if skin profilometry is a valuable tool for quantitatively assessing changes in the skin's surface pattern. The data show the roughness parameter values to be dependent on the orientation of the tracings with regard to the major grooves and ridges present in the surface patterns. Large variabilities of roughness parameter values obtained for multiple scans within small areas of replicas are indicative of the nonhomogeneity of the skin's surface. The number of peaks, mean peak size, mean depth of roughness, depth of smoothness, and residual profile length appear to be the most utile roughness parameters for quantifying changes in the skin's topography. The ability of skin profilometry to detect subtle changes in the skin's surface pattern due to hydration indicates the method is a sensitive means of quantifying the skin's topography. PMID:19469963

Cook, T H; Craft, T J; Brunelle, R L; Norris, F; Griffin, W A



Bioactive ceramic-based materials with designed reactivity for bone tissue regeneration  

PubMed Central

Bioactive ceramics have been used clinically to repair bone defects owing to their biological affinity to living bone; i.e. the capability of direct bonding to living bone, their so-called bioactivity. However, currently available bioactive ceramics do not satisfy every clinical application. Therefore, the development of novel design of bioactive materials is necessary. Bioactive ceramics show osteoconduction by formation of biologically active bone-like apatite through chemical reaction of the ceramic surface with surrounding body fluid. Hence, the control of their chemical reactivity in body fluid is essential to developing novel bioactive materials as well as biodegradable materials. This paper reviews novel bioactive materials designed based on chemical reactivity in body fluid.

Ohtsuki, Chikara; Kamitakahara, Masanobu; Miyazaki, Toshiki



Skin moisturization mechanisms: new data.  


The main function of the skin is to protect the body against exogenous substances and excessive water loss. The skin barrier is located in the outermost layer of the skin, called the stratum corneum, which is composed of corneocytes, originating from the keratinocytes differentiation process, embedded in organized complex lipid domains. Moisturizing of the skin is recognized as the first anti-aging skin care. Skin moisturization is essential for its appearance, protection, complexion, softness and the reinforcement of its barrier properties against deleterious and exogenous environmental factors. The intrinsic water binding capacity of skin is not only due to the complex natural moisturizing factor present in corneocytes, but also to hyaluronic acid and a regulated water transport within the skin. Recent data shows that the water movements between the cells at the different levels of the epidermis are due to dedicated water and glycerol transport proteins named aquaporins. Their role in the skin moisturization is completed by corneodesmosomes and tight junctions. Water and pH are now shown to be of prime importance in the regulation of the epidermal enzymes linked to corneocytes desquamation and lipid synthesis. Furthermore, the level of moisturization of the skin is important in its protection against repeated exposure to various irritant agents or phenomena such as very frequent washing with strong tensioactive materials. PMID:21570537

Bonté, F



Skin color enhancement based on favorite skin color in HSV color space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin color enhancement based on favorite skin color is proposed to make skin color displayed on large screen flat panel TVs agree with human favorite skin color. A robust skin detection method in different intensity is obtained after analyzing the distribution of skin color in HSV color space. The favorite skin color region is found via a psychological experiment too.

Xiao-Ning Zhang; Jue Jiang; Zhi-Hu Liang; Chun-Liang Liu



Engineering bioactive polymers for the next generation of bone repair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bone disease is a serious health condition among the aged population. In some cases of bone damage it becomes necessary to replace, recontour, and assist in the healing of the bone. Many materials have been proposed as useful replacements but none have been proven to be ideal. In this thesis, two bioactive composites were investigated for bone replacements. First reported material is a hydroxyapatite (HA) particle reinforced polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) composite treated with a co-polymer coupling agent for mandible augmentations. The influence of the coupling agent on the local mechanical properties of the system before and after simulated biological conditions was determined by applying nano-indentation at the cross-sectional HA/PMMA interface. The local interfacial results were indicative of the global quasi static compression test results. While the coupling agent improved the interfacial and global mechanical properties before and after 24 hours in vitro immersion, it did not affect the surface bioactivity of the system. However, the addition of coupling agent did not provide long term in vitro improvement of both local and global mechanical properties of the composite. An alternative approach of combining a bioactive phase into polymer matrix was developed. The second analyzed material is an injectable composite with osteoconductivity and ideal mechanical biocompatibility for vertebral fracture fixations which we formulated and fabricated. A bioactive component was engineered into the macromolecular structure to facilitate the formation of apatite nucleation sites on a thermo-sensitive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacryamide)-co-poly(ethyleneglycol) dimethacrylate (PNIPAAm-PEGDM), through incorporation of tri-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS). PNIPAAm-PEGDM is capable of liquid to solid phase transformation at 32°C. In this study, the phase transformation temperature (LCSTs), the in vitro mechanical properties, swelling characteristics and bioactivity of the polymers were evaluated. The addition of NIPS to the polymer encouraged apatite formation and increased its compressive modulus while its LCST remained unchanged. The challenge of this material system is to balance the network-forming and bioactivity inducing MPS with the gain in elastic recovery induced by PEGDM addition to the PNIPAAm base, all while maintaining an injectable material system. This material platform offers a family of polymers that have a range of mechanical properties for various tissue replacements.

Ho, Emily Y.


Development of bioactive materials using reticulated ceramics for bone substitute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For hard tissue prosthetics, it is necessary to seek novel synthesis routes by which a real structural bone can be simulated in terms of bioactivity, porosity, and mechanical behavior. The work presented here deals with the development of such a component by a novel synthesis route for bone implantation. To enhance the mechanical properties, an industrial alumina has been selected as the substrate. Alumina is not only bio inert but also mechanically strong which makes it an ideal substrate for bone substitute. The high porosity is achieved via a sponge technique by which both pore size and density can be changed easily. The bioactivity is induced by coating a highly bioactive HA film onto the inner pore surfaces of the reticulated alumina. Based on this concept, the research has focused on the coating of HA onto inner pore surfaces of the reticulated alumina via several effective methods that are developed in our laboratory. No previous studies have so far been reported on coating inner surfaces of small-diameter pores ranging from 0.1--1.0 mm. The key materials processing issues dealt with in this work include precursor chemistry, coating procedures, synthesis of coated component, interface structure study, film adhesion strength testing, and mechanical properties of the component. This novel approach has shown great promise in synthesizing bone substitutes. To determine the applicability of the coated component in hard tissue prosthetics, a bioactivity study has been carried out. By immersing the synthetic HA into simulated body fluid (SBF), the bioresponse has been measured for a variety of samples with different processing conditions. Fundamental aspects of this study are centered on the effects of structural characteristics of HA on the bioactivity. Based on extensive IR and XRD experimental data, it has been found that the bioactivity of HA is sensitively controlled by the structural crystallinity of the HA and its specific surface area. Furthermore, based on the extensive experimental data obtained in this dissertation, detailed recommendations have been made for future research. It is recommended that the porous composite is to be further developed to possess a porosity gradient similar to the bone structure.

Jiang, Gengwei


The Sensitive Skin Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Sensitive skin syndrome (SSS) is a common and challenging condition, yet little is known about its underlying pathophysiology. Patients with SSS often present with subjective complaints of severe facial irritation, burning, and/or stinging after application of cosmetic products. These complaints are out of proportion to the objective clinical findings. Defined as a self-diagnosed condition lacking any specific objective findings, SSS is by definition difficult to quantify and, therefore, the scientific community has yet to identify an acceptable objective screening test. In this overview we review recent epidemiological studies, present current thinking on the pathophysiology leading to SSS, discuss the challenges SSS presents, and recommend a commonsense approach to management.

Lev-Tov, Hadar; Maibach, Howard I



Skin penetration enhancing components  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to a topical formulation for the treatment of a dermatological condition which comprises a macrocyclic lactone antibiotic, immunosuppresive macrolide or a biologically active analogue, derivative or pro-drug thereof; characterized in that it further comprises a permeation modulator and the permeation modulator and the macrocyclic lactone or macrolide or the biologically active analogue, derivative or pro-drug thereof are present in relative amounts such that when a therapeutic amount is applied to the skin a minimal systemic effect is produced. The immunosuppressive macrolide may be sirolimus.

Ormerod; Anthony David (Aberdeen, GB); Winfield; Arthur (Kuwait University, KW)



Antimicrobial effectiveness of silver nanoparticles co-stabilized by the bioactive copolymer pluronic F68  

PubMed Central

Background Silver nanoparticles (AgNps) have attracted much interest in biomedical engineering, since they have excellent antimicrobial properties. Therefore, AgNps have often been considered for incorporation into medical products for skin pathologies to reduce the risk of contamination. This study aims at evaluating the antimicrobial effectiveness of AgNps stabilized by pluronic™ F68 associated with other polymers such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Methods AgNps antimicrobial activity was evaluated using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. The action spectrum was evaluated for different polymers associated with pluronic™ F68 against the gram negative bacteria P. aeuroginosa and E. coli and the gram positive bacteria S. Aureus. Results AgNps stabilized with PVP or PVA and co-stabilized with pluronic™ F68 are effective against E. coli and P. aeruginosa microorganisms, with MIC values as low as 0.78% of the concentration of the original AgNps dispersion. The antimicrobial action against S. aureus is poor, with MIC values not lower than 25%. Conclusions AgNps stabilized by different polymeric systems have shown improved antimicrobial activity against gram-negative microorganisms in comparison to unstabilized AgNps. Co-stabilization with the bioactive copolymer pluronic™ F68 has further enhanced the antimicrobial effectiveness against both microorganisms. A poor effectiveness has been found against the gram-positive S. aureus microorganism. Future assays are being delineated targeting possible therapeutic applications.



Wnt signaling in skin organogenesis  

PubMed Central

While serving as the interface between an organism and its environment, the skin also can elaborate a wide range of skin appendages to service specific purposes in a region-specific fashion. As in other organs, Wnt signaling plays a key role in regulating the proliferation, differentiation and motility of skin cells during their morphogenesis. Here I will review some of the recent work that has been done on skin organogenesis. I will cover dermis formation, the development of skin appendages, cycling of appendages in the adult, stem cell regulation, patterning, orientation, regional specificity and modulation by sex hormone nuclear receptors. I will also cover their roles in wound healing, hair regeneration and skin related diseases. It appears that Wnt signaling plays essential but distinct roles in different hierarchical levels of morphogenesis and organogenesis. Many of these areas have not yet been fully explored but are certainly promising areas of future research.



Skin substitutes: An Indian perspective  

PubMed Central

There have been numerous alternatives developed to replace skin. These can either be permanent substitutes or temporary substitutes, which need to be replaced later by autologous grafts. These have been tried in recent times as an attempt to reduce the need or in the case of permanent substitutes ,altogether replace autologous skin grafts. However till date no ideal skin substitute has been developed. Various factors have to be considered while choosing one of these substitutes. In a developing country like India awareness and availability of these skin substitutes is not adequate considering the volume of cases that require this modality of treatment. Also there are skin substitutes developed in our country that need to be highlighted. This article is an attempt to review the vast array of skin substitutes that have been developed and consider their utility and feasibility for developing countries.

Singh, A. K.; Shenoy, Y. R.



Neuroendocrine System of the Skin  

PubMed Central

Evidence is accumulating that the skin can serve as a peripheral neuroendocrine organ. The skin neuroendocrine activities are predominantly independent of regulation from the central level (which controls classical hormone secretion) but are rather regulated by local cutaneous factors. These endocrine factors would represent an exquisite regulatory layer addressed at restricting maximally the effect of noxious agents in the skin to preserve local and consequently global homeostasis.

Slominski, Andrzej



[Thermal lasers and skin cicatrization].  


Any cutaneous damage triggers a cascade of biological effects in the skin responsible for re-establishing skin integrity. Wound healing is a complex biological process inducing dermal remodelling leading at least to a visible scar, and sometimes to hypertrophic or keloid scars. Recent studies suggest that using a laser generates a precisely defined thermal effect in the skin, improving the wound healing process and potentially opening the door to scarless healing. PMID:20132781

Mordon, Serge; Capon, Alexandre; Fournier, Nathalie; Iarmarcovai, Gwen



Fetal skin wound healing.  


The developing fetus has the ability to heal wounds by regenerating normal epidermis and dermis with restoration of the extracellular matrix (ECM) architecture, strength, and function. In contrast, adult wounds heal with fibrosis and scar. Scar tissue remains weaker than normal skin with an altered ECM composition. Despite extensive investigation, the mechanism of fetal wound healing remains largely unknown. We do know that early in gestation, fetal skin is developing at a rapid pace and the ECM is a loose network facilitating cellular migration. Wounding in this unique environment triggers a complex cascade of tightly controlled events culminating in a scarless wound phenotype of fine reticular collagen and abundant hyaluronic acid. Comparison between postnatal and fetal wound healing has revealed differences in inflammatory response, cellular mediators, cytokines, growth factors, and ECM modulators. Investigation into cell signaling pathways and transcription factors has demonstrated differences in secondary messenger phosphorylation patterns and homeobox gene expression. Further research may reveal novel genes essential to scarless repair that can be manipulated in the adult wound and thus ameliorate scar. PMID:19803418

Buchanan, Edward P; Longaker, Michael T; Lorenz, H Peter



Estrogen and skin: therapeutic options.  


Aging of the skin is associated with skin thinning, atrophy, dryness, wrinkling, and delayed wound healing. These undesirable aging effects are exacerbated by declining estrogen levels in postmenopausal women. With the rise in interest in long-term postmenopausal skin management, studies on the restorative benefits that estrogen may have on aged skin have expanded. Systemic estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) has been shown to improve some aspects of skin. Estrogen restores skin thickness by increasing collagen synthesis while limiting excessive collagen degradation. Wrinkling is improved following estrogen treatment since estrogen enhances the morphology and synthesis of elastic fibers, collagen type III, and hyaluronic acids. Dryness is also alleviated through increased water-holding capacity, increased sebum production, and improved barrier function of the skin. Furthermore, estrogen modulates local inflammation, granulation, re-epithelialization, and possibly wound contraction, which collectively accelerates wound healing at the expense of forming lower quality scars. Despite its promises, long-term ERT has been associated with harmful systemic effects. In the search for safe and effective alternatives with more focused effects on the skin, topical estrogens, phytoestrogens, and tissue-specific drugs called selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) have been explored. We discuss the promises and challenges of utilizing topical estrogens, SERMs, and phytoestrogens in postmenopausal skin management. PMID:21714580

Shu, Yu Yu; Maibach, Howard I



Variations in Human Skin Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, the students examine their skin types, similarities, differences, etc. and discuss the social implications of each group. They also examine the factors that influence variations in skin color in greater depth. The class is separated into groups and work on presentations, designed to foster peer-teaching with guidance from the instructor. The presentations to be worked on by the students are: Modern Human Variation: Overview, Skin Color Adaptation, and A new Light on Skin Color. All of the resources needed for the students presentations are included. Following each presentation, tips for review and discussion of the learning objectives are given.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)



Skin decontamination: principles and perspectives.  


Skin decontamination is the primary intervention needed in chemical, biological and radiological exposures, involving immediate removal of the contaminant from the skin performed in the most efficient way. The most readily available decontamination system on a practical basis is washing with soap and water or water only. Timely use of flushing with copious amounts of water may physically remove the contaminant. However, this traditional method may not be completely effective, and contaminants left on the skin after traditional washing procedures can have toxic consequences. This article focuses on the principles and practices of skin decontamination. PMID:22851522

Chan, Heidi P; Zhai, Hongbo; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I



Approaches to Automating the Dereplication of Bioactive Natural Products—The Key Step in High Throughput Screening of Bioactive Materials From Natural Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid identification of the bioactive component(s) of natural product mixtures in high throughput screening programs has become a critical factor to ensure that this source of diverse chemotypes can compete effectively with chemical compound libraries and combinatorial synthetic efforts. The effective use of automated procedures and databases in the isolation, identification and biological profiling of bioactive compounds will be

Derek J. Hook; Edward J. Pack; Joseph J. Yacobucci; Jeffrey Guss



Preparation of bioactive porous HA/PCL composite scaffolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic scaffold has been widely attracted the attention to act as a three-dimensional (3D) template for cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and thus promoting bone and cartilage regeneration because of its osteoinduction. However, the porous bioceramic scaffold is fragile so that it is not suitable to be applied in clinic for bone repair or replacement. Therefore, it is significant to improve the mechanical property of porous HA bioceramics while the interconnected structure is maintained for tissue ingrowth in vivo. In the present research, a porous composite scaffold composed of HA scaffold and polycaprolactone (PCL) lining was fabricated by the method of polymer impregnating to produce HA scaffold coated with PCL lining. Subsequently, the composite scaffolds were deposited with biomimetic coating for improving the bioactivity. The HA/PCL composite scaffolds with improved mechanical property and bioactivity is expected to be a promising bone substitute in tissue engineering applications.

Zhao, J.; Guo, L. Y.; Yang, X. B.; Weng, J.



Bioactive factors for tissue regeneration: state of the art  

PubMed Central

Summary There are three components for the creation of new tissues: cell sources, scaffolds, and bioactive factors. Unlike conventional medical strategies, regenerative medicine requires not only analytical approaches but also integrative ones. Basic research has identified a number of bioactive factors that are necessary, but not sufficient, for organogenesis. In skeletal development, these factors include bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), transforming growth factor ? TGF-?, Wnts, hedgehogs (Hh), fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), SRY box-containing gene (Sox) 9, Sp7, and runt-related transcription factors (Runx). Clinical and preclinical studies have been extensively performed to apply the knowledge to bone and cartilage regeneration. Given the large number of findings obtained so far, it would be a good time for a multi-disciplinary, collaborative effort to optimize these known factors and develop appropriate drug delivery systems for delivering them.

Ohba, Shinsuke; Hojo, Hironori; Chung, Ung-il



Sintered porous DP-bioactive glass and hydroxyapatite as bone substitute.  


There is extensive experimental and surgical experience with the use of bone tissue to fill defects in the skeleton, to bridge non-union sites, and to pack defects in bone created from cyst curettage. DP-bioactive glass with a chemical composition of Na2O 8.4%, SiO2 39.6%, P2O5 12% and CaO 40% has been reported as an alternative bone substitute of high mechanical strength, good biocompatibility. and which has a tight bond with living tissue. The bonding layer between DP-bioactive glass and bone tissue was considered to be formed by dissolution of calcium and phosphate ions from the DP-bioactive glass into the surrounding body fluids. The biological hydroxyapatite was suspected to deposit directly onto the bonding layer. In order to confirm the interaction between the DP-bioactive glass and bone tissue, the developed bioactive glass was implanted into rabbit femur condyle for 2-32 weeks. The histological evaluation of DP-bioactive glass as a bone substitute was also investigated in the study. Porous hydroxyapatite bioceramic was used in the control group and the results were compared with those of DP-bioactive glass. The interface between the DP-bioactive glass and bone tissue examined with SEM-EPMA showed that the bioactive glass formed a reaction layer on the surface within 2 weeks after operation and formed a direct bond with natural bone. The elements contained in the bioactive glass apparently interdiffuse with the living bone and biological hydroxyapatite deposited onto the diffusion area, which was proved by EPMA and TEM. After implantation for over 8 weeks, the DP-bioactive glass was gradually biodegraded and absorbed by the living bone. Histological examination using the optical microscope showed that osteocytes grow into the inside of the DP-bioactive glass and the bioactive glass would be expected to be a part of bone. PMID:7888580

Lin, F H; Lin, C C; Liu, H C; Huang, Y Y; Wang, C Y; Lu, C M



Extraction, structure and bioactivities of the polysaccharides from Fructus corni.  


Plant-derived bioactive polysaccharides have a long history of application in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The polysaccharides of Fructus Corni, secondary metabolites from Cornus officinalis Sieb. Et Zucc, possess various pharmacological activities, including immune regulation, anti-oxidation, anti-tumor, and anti-aging effects. The present review is trying to summarize the extraction process of polysaccharides of Fructus Corni, structural features and related patents. PMID:23013412

Wu, Yanfang; Wang, Xinsheng; Shen, Biao; Kang, Lei; Fan, Enguo