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Bioactive lipid mediators in skin inflammation and immunity.  


The skin is the primary barrier from the outside environment, protecting the host from injury, infectious pathogens, water loss and solar ultraviolet radiation. In this role, it is supported by a highly organized system comprising elements of innate and adaptive immunity, responsive to inflammatory stimuli. The cutaneous immune system is regulated by mediators such as cytokines and bioactive lipids that can initiate rapid immune responses with controlled inflammation, followed by efficient resolution. However, when immune responses are inadequate or mounted against non-infectious agents, these mediators contribute to skin pathologies involving unresolved or chronic inflammation. Skin is characterized by active lipid metabolism and fatty acids play crucial roles both in terms of structural integrity and functionality, in particular when transformed to bioactive mediators. Eicosanoids, endocannabinoids and sphingolipids are such key bioactive lipids, intimately involved in skin biology, inflammation and immunity. We discuss their origins, role and influence over various cells of the epidermis, dermis and cutaneous immune system and examine their function in examples of inflammatory skin conditions. We focus on psoriasis, atopic and contact dermatitis, acne vulgaris, wound healing and photodermatology that demonstrate dysregulation of bioactive lipid metabolism and examine ways of using this insight to inform novel therapeutics. PMID:23124022

Kendall, Alexandra C; Nicolaou, Anna



Diphenylthiourea, a common rubber chemical, is bioactivated to potent skin sensitizers.  


Diphenylthiourea (DPTU) is a known skin sensitizer commonly used as a vulcanization accelerator in the production of synthetic rubber, for example, neoprene. The versatile usage of neoprene is due to the multifaceted properties of the material; for example, it is stretchable, waterproof, and chemical- and abrasion-resistant. The wide application of neoprene has resulted in numerous case reports of dermatitis patients allergic to DPTU. The mechanism by which DPTU works as a contact allergen has not been described; thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate if DPTU is a prohapten that can be activated by skin metabolism. The metabolic activation and covalent binding of (14)C-labeled DPTU to proteins were tested using a skinlike cytochrome P450 (P450) cocktail containing the five most abundant P450s found in human skin (CYP1A1, 1B1, 2B6, 2E1, and 3A5) and human liver microsomes. The incubations were carried out in the presence or absence of the metabolite trapping agents glutathione, methoxylamine, and benzylamine. The metabolism mixtures were analyzed by LC-radiochromatography, LC-MS, and LC-MS/MS. DPTU was mainly metabolically activated to reactive sulfoxides resulting in desulfurated adducts in both enzymatic systems used. Also, phenylisothiocyanate and phenylisocyanate were found to be metabolites of DPTU. The sensitizing capacity of the substrate (DPTU) and three metabolites was tested in the murine local lymph node assay. Two out of three metabolites tested were strong skin sensitizers, whereas DPTU itself, as previously known, was negative using this mouse model. In conclusion, DPTU forms highly reactive metabolites upon bioactivation by enzymes present in the skin. These metabolites are able to induce skin sensitization and are probable causes for DPTU allergy. To increase the possibilities of diagnosing contact allergy to DPTU-containing items, we suggest that suitable metabolites of DPTU should be used for screening testing. PMID:21073181

Samuelsson, Kristin; Bergström, Moa Andresen; Jonsson, Charlotte A; Westman, Gunnar; Karlberg, Ann-Therese



Pilot Study on the Bioactivity of Vitamin D in the Skin after Oral Supplementation

Meetings & Events Investigators' - Site Coordinators' Opportunity for Research Excellence (I-SCORE) Workshop March 20-21, 2014 Poster Presentations – Full List « Previous | Next »   Pilot Study on the Bioactivity of Vitamin D in the Skin after Oral


Versatile Use of Rhomboid Flaps for Closure of Skin Defects  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study is to present our clinical experience with rhomboid flaps. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four patients who were operated on between January 2006 and October 2010 were included in the study. All defects were reconstructed using rhomboid flaps. Results: Twenty-four patients were operated on for various reasons, and 26 rhomboid flaps were performed. Eleven of the 24 cases were male, and the median age of participants was 47.5 years. Eight cases were operated on under general anesthesia, and 13 were locally anesthetized; the remaining cases were operated on under regional anesthesia. In 17 cases, the defect was due to a benign or malignant tumor excision, and five cases were operated on due to burn contracture. There were no occurrences of partial or total flap necrosis or hematoma in our series. Conclusion: Our series indicates that rhomboid flaps can be safely used to reconstruct small to moderately sized skin defects. PMID:25610151

Aydin, Osman Enver; Tan, Onder; Algan, Said; Kuduban, Selma Denktas; Cinal, Hakan; Barin, Ensar Zafer



Healing effect of bioactive glass ointment on full-thickness skin wounds.  


This study aimed to investigate the effect of bioactive glasses on cutaneous wound healing in both normal rats and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Bioactive glass ointments, prepared by mixing the sol-gel bioactive glass 58S (SGBG-58S), nanobioactive glass (NBG-58S) and the melt-derived 45S5 bioactive glass (45S5) powder with Vaseline (V) at 18% weight percentage, were used to heal full thickness excision wounds. Pure V was used as control in this study. Compared to SGBG-58S, NBG-58S consists of relatively dispersible nanoparticles with smaller size. The analysis of wound healing rate and wound healing time showed that bioactive glasses promoted wound healing. The ointments containing SGBG-58S and NBG-58S healed the wounds more quickly and efficiently than the ointment containing 45S5. Histological examination indicated that bioactive glasses promoted the proliferation of fibroblasts and growth of granulation tissue. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the production of two growth factors, VEGF and FGF2, which are beneficial to wound healing, was also stimulated during the healing process. Transmission electron microscope observations showed that fibroblasts in wounds treated with bioactive glasses contained more rough endoplasmic reticula and had formed new capillary microvessels by the seventh day. The effects of SGBG-58S and NBG-58S were better than those of 45S5. All results suggest that bioactive glasses, especially SGBG-58S and NBG-58S, can accelerate the recovery of skin wounds in both normal and diabetes-impaired healing models and have a great potential for use in wound repair in the future. PMID:22736113

Lin, Cai; Mao, Cong; Zhang, Juanjuan; Li, Yuli; Chen, Xiaofeng



Cocoa Bioactive Compounds: Significance and Potential for the Maintenance of Skin Health  

PubMed Central

Cocoa has a rich history in human use. Skin is prone to the development of several diseases, and the mechanisms in the pathogenesis of aged skin are still poorly understood. However, a growing body of evidence from clinical and bench research has begun to provide scientific validation for the use of cocoa-derived phytochemicals as an effective approach for skin protection. Although the specific molecular and cellular mechanisms of the beneficial actions of cocoa phytochemicals remain to be elucidated, this review will provide an overview of the current literature emphasizing potential cytoprotective pathways modulated by cocoa and its polyphenolic components. Moreover, we will summarize in vivo studies showing that bioactive compounds of cocoa may have a positive impact on skin health. PMID:25116848

Scapagnini, Giovanni; Davinelli, Sergio; Di Renzo, Laura; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Olarte, Hector Hugo; Micali, Giuseppe; Cicero, Arrigo F.; Gonzalez, Salvador



Antioxidant activities and skin hydration effects of rice bran bioactive compounds entrapped in niosomes.  


Bioactive compounds [ferulic acid (F), gamma-oryzanol (O) and phytic acid (P)] in rice bran have been widely used as antioxidants in skin care products. However, one of the major problems of antioxidants is the deterioration of their activities during long exposure to air and light. Niosomes have been used to entrap many degradable active agents not only for stability improvement, but also for increasing skin hydration. The objective of this study was to determine antioxidant activities [by in vitro ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and ex vivo lipid peroxidation inhibition assay] and in vivo human skin hydration effects of gel and cream containing the rice bran extracts entrapped in niosomes. Gel and cream containing the rice bran extracts entrapped in niosomes showed higher antioxidant activity (ORAC value) at 20-28 micromol of Trolox equivalents (TE) per gram of the sample than the placebo gel and cream which gave 16-18 micromolTE/g. Human sebum treated with these formulations showed more lipid peroxidation inhibition activity than with no treatment of about 1.5 times. The three different independent techniques including corneometer, vapometer and confocal Raman microspectroscopy (CRM) indicated the same trend in human skin hydration enhancement of the gel or cream formulations containing the rice bran extracts entrapped in niosomes of about 20, 3 and 30%, respectively. This study has demonstrated the antioxidant activities and skin hydration enhancement of the rice bran bioactive compounds when entrapped in niosomes and incorporated in cream formulations. PMID:21449379

Manosroi, Aranya; Chutoprapat, Romchat; Sato, Yuji; Miyamoto, Kukizo; Hsueh, Kesyin; Abe, Masahiko; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej



House dust bioactivities predict skin prick test reactivity for children with high risk of allergy  

PubMed Central

Background Although evidence suggests that ambient exposures to endotoxin and other immunostimulants during early life influence allergic risk, efforts to understand this host-environment relationship have been hampered by a paucity of relevant assays. Objectives These investigations determined whether parameters of house dust extract (HDE) bioactivity were predictive of allergen skin prick test (SPT) reactivity for infants at high risk of allergy participating in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS). Methods We conducted a nested case-control study, selecting 99 CCAAPS children who had positive SPT results to at least 1 aeroallergen at age 3 years and 101 subjects with negative SPT results. HDEs were prepared from dust samples collected from the subjects' homes at age 1 year. Murine splenocytes and bone marrow–derived dendritic cells were incubated with HDEs, and supernatant cytokine concentrations were determined by means of ELISA. Alternatively, bone marrow–derived dendritic cells were preincubated with HDEs, and then LPS-induced IL-6 responses were assessed. HDE endotoxin levels were determined by using the limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Results HDEs derived from the homes of children with positive (cases) and negative (control subjects) SPT results had similar bioactivities. However, when cases were considered in isolation, HDEs with higher levels of bioactivity were significantly associated with children who had lower numbers of positive SPT results. Analogous statistical analyses did not identify any association between HDE endotoxin levels and the aeroallergen sensitization profiles of children included in this study. Conclusion HDE immunostimulatory activities predicted the aeroallergen sensitization status of CCAAPS subjects better than HDE endotoxin levels. These results provide the first published evidence that HDE bioassays have clinical relevance in predicting atopic risk. PMID:22385634

Kim, Haejin; Tse, Kevin; Levin, Linda; Bernstein, David; Reponen, Tiina; LeMasters, Grace; Lummus, Zana; Horner, Anthony A.



Plakins, a versatile family of cytolinkers: roles in skin integrity and in human diseases.  


The plakin family consists of giant proteins involved in the cross-linking and organization of the cytoskeleton and adhesion complexes. They further modulate several fundamental biological processes, such as cell adhesion, migration, and polarization or signaling pathways. Inherited and acquired defects of plakins in humans and in animal models potentially lead to dramatic manifestations in the skin, striated muscles, and/or nervous system. These observations unequivocally demonstrate the key role of plakins in the maintenance of tissue integrity. Here we review the characteristics of the mammalian plakin members BPAG1 (bullous pemphigoid antigen 1), desmoplakin, plectin, envoplakin, epiplakin, MACF1 (microtubule-actin cross-linking factor 1), and periplakin, highlighting their role in skin homeostasis and diseases. PMID:24352042

Bouameur, Jamal-Eddine; Favre, Bertrand; Borradori, Luca



Targeting Nrf2-Keap1 signaling for chemoprevention of skin carcinogenesis with bioactive phytochemicals.  


The incidence of skin cancer is increasing worldwide. Over the last several decades, attention has been focused on understanding the molecular basis of skin carcinogenesis and identifying substances for use in chemoprevention of skin cancer. Reactive oxygen species generated by chemical carcinogens or UV irradiation play a key role in skin tumorigenesis. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that cellular antioxidant and/or phase-2 detoxification enzymes, collectively known as cytoprotective proteins, can protect against skin carcinogenesis. A redox sensitive transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid related factor-2 (Nrf2), is a master regulator of transcriptional activation of genes encoding cytoprotective proteins. Many chemopreventive phytochemicals are known to activate Nrf2 either by oxidative or covalent modification of its cytosolic repressor Kelch-like ECH-associated protein (Keap1) or by phosphorylation of Nrf2. Upon activation, Nrf2 translocates to the nucleus and binds to the antioxidant response element (ARE) located in the promoter regions of genes encoding cytoprotective proteins. Mice genetically deficient in Nrf2 are highly susceptible to chemically induced skin tumorigenesis and are less responsive to the cytoprotective effects of some chemopreventive phytochemicals. This article highlights the Nrf2-ARE signaling as a prime target for chemoprevention of skin cancer with some phytochemicals. PMID:24875534

Chun, Kyung-Soo; Kundu, Juthika; Kundu, Joydeb Kumar; Surh, Young-Joon



The impact of grape skin bioactive functionality information on the acceptability of tea infusions made from wine by-products.  


The effect of information on the health benefits of bio-active compounds on the acceptability of 5 tea infusions made from grape skins generated from wine processing waste (from Vitis vinifera var. Pinot Noir and Pinot Gris) was investigated. Samples of tea infusions with natural additives (PNHGT25 and PGGT50) and without additives (control PN, control PG, and PNPG50) were evaluated by 45 in-home consumer panels (30 female, 15 male) before and after information on the health benefits of grape skins were provided. Information significantly increased the overall acceptability, overall aroma, flavor, and aftertaste of the infusions. The results obtained showed a clear tendency toward increased purchase intention (by 29%) when information on the health benefits of the tea infusion samples was provided to consumers. Interactions existed between gender/infusion samples and stage of information on the purchase intention. Females recorded a significant increase (by 53%) in purchase intention, whereas no change in the males' purchase intention was found after information was provided. PMID:20546418

Cheng, Vern Jou; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Sedcole, Richard; Hamid, Nazimah



Bioactive alkaloids of frog skin: Combinatorial bioprospecting reveals that pumiliotoxins have an arthropod source  

PubMed Central

Nearly 500 alkaloids have been detected in skin extracts from frogs of the family Dendrobatidae. All seem to have been sequestered unchanged into skin glands from alkaloid-containing arthropods. Ants, beetles, and millipedes seem to be the source of decahydroquinolines, certain izidines, coccinellines, and spiropyrrolizidine oximes. But the dietary source for a major group of frog-skin alkaloids, namely the pumiliotoxins (PTXs), alloPTXs, and homoPTXs, remained a mystery. In hopes of revealing an arthropod source for the PTX group, small arthropods were collected from eight different sites on a Panamanian island, where the dendrobatid frog (Dendrobates pumilio) was known to contain high levels of two PTXs. The mixed arthropod collections from several sites, each representing up to 20 arthropod taxa, contained PTX 307A and/or alloPTX 323B. In addition, the mixed arthropod collections from several sites contained a 5,8-disubstituted indolizidine (205A or 235B), representing another class of alkaloids previously unknown from an arthropod. An ant alkaloid, decahydroquinoline 195A, was detected in the mixed arthropod collections from several sites. Thus, “combinatorial bioprospecting” demonstrates that further collection and analysis of individual taxa of leaf-litter arthropods should reveal the taxa from which PTXs, alloPTXs, and 5,8-disubstituted indolizidines are derived. PMID:12381780

Daly, John W.; Kaneko, Tetsuo; Wilham, Jason; Garraffo, H. Martin; Spande, Thomas F.; Espinosa, Alex; Donnelly, Maureen A.



Surface functionalization of bioactive glasses with natural molecules of biological significance, part II: Grafting of polyphenols extracted from grape skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyphenols, as one of the most important family of phytochemicals protective substances from grape fruit, possess various biological activities and health-promoting benefits, for example: inhibition of some degenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancers, reduction of plasma oxidative stress and slowing aging. The combination of polyphenols and biomaterials may have good potential to reach good bioavailability and controlled release, as well as to give biological signaling properties to the biomaterial surfaces. In this research, conventional solvent extraction was developed for obtaining polyphenols from dry grape skins. The Folin&Ciocalteu method was used to determine the amount of total polyphenols in the extracts. Surface functionalization of two bioactive glasses (SCNA and CEL2) was performed by grafting the extracted polyphenols on their surfaces. The effectiveness of the functionalization was tested by UV spectroscopy, which analyzes the amount of polyphenols in the uptake solution (before and after functionalization) and on solid samples, and XPS, which analyzes the presence of phenols on the material surface.

Zhang, Xin; Ferraris, Sara; Prenesti, Enrico; Verné, Enrica



Full-Thickness Skin Wound Healing Using Human Placenta-Derived Extracellular Matrix Containing Bioactive Molecules  

PubMed Central

The human placenta, a complex organ, which facilitates exchange between the fetus and the mother, contains abundant extracellular matrix (ECM) components and well-preserved endogenous growth factors. In this study, we designed a new dermal substitute from human placentas for full-thickness wound healing. Highly porous, decellularized ECM sheets were fabricated from human placentas via homogenization, centrifugation, chemical and enzymatic treatments, molding, and freeze-drying. The physical structure and biological composition of human placenta-derived ECM sheets dramatically supported the regeneration of full-thickness wound in vivo. At the early stage, the ECM sheet efficiently absorbed wound exudates and tightly attached to the wound surface. Four weeks after implantation, the wound was completely closed, epidermic cells were well arranged and the bilayer structure of the epidermis and dermis was restored. Moreover, hair follicles and microvessels were newly formed in the ECM sheet-implanted wounds. Overall, the ECM sheet produced a dermal substitute with similar cellular organization to that of normal skin. These results suggest that human placenta-derived ECM sheets provide a microenvironment favorable to the growth and differentiation of cells, and positive modulate the healing of full-thickness wounds. PMID:22891853

Choi, Ji Suk; Kim, Jae Dong; Yoon, Hyun Soo



The versatility of a glycerol-preserved skin allograft as an adjunctive treatment to free flap reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Skin allografts have been used in medical practice for over a century owing to their unique composition as a biological dressing. Skin allografts can be obtained in several preparations such as cryopreserved, glycerol-preserved, and fresh allograft. A glycerol-preserved allograft (GPA) was introduced in the early 1980s. It has several advantages compared with other dressings such as ease of processing, storage and transport, lower cost, less antigenicity, antimicrobial properties, and neo-vascularisation promoting properties. Skin allografts are mainly used in the management of severe burn injuries, chronic ulcers, and complex, traumatic wounds. Published reports of the use of skin allografts in association with free flap surgery are few or non existent. We would like to share our experience of several cases of free tissue transfer that utilised GPA as a temporary wound dressing in multiple scenarios. On the basis of this case series, we would like to recommend that a GPA be used as a temporary dressing in conjunction with free flap surgery when required to protect the flap pedicle, allowing time for the edema to subside and the wound can then be closed for a better aesthetic outcome. PMID:19881027

Mat Saad, A. Z.; Khoo, T. L.; Dorai, A. A.; Halim, A. S.



Wound dressings composed of copper-doped borate bioactive glass microfibers stimulate angiogenesis and heal full-thickness skin defects in a rodent model.  


There is a need for better wound dressings that possess the requisite angiogenic capacity for rapid in situ healing of full-thickness skin wounds. Borate bioactive glass microfibers are showing a remarkable ability to heal soft tissue wounds but little is known about the process and mechanisms of healing. In the present study, wound dressings composed of borate bioactive glass microfibers (diameter = 0.4-1.2 ?m; composition 6Na2O, 8K2O, 8MgO, 22CaO, 54B2O3, 2P2O5; mol%) doped with 0-3.0 wt.% CuO were created and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. When immersed in simulated body fluid, the fibers degraded and converted to hydroxyapatite within ?7 days, releasing ions such as Ca, B and Cu into the medium. In vitro cell culture showed that the ionic dissolution product of the fibers was not toxic to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and fibroblasts, promoted HUVEC migration, tubule formation and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and stimulated the expression of angiogenic-related genes of the fibroblasts. When used to treat full-thickness skin defects in rodents, the Cu-doped fibers (3.0 wt.% CuO) showed a significantly better capacity to stimulate angiogenesis than the undoped fibers and the untreated defects (control) at 7 and 14 days post-surgery. The defects treated with the Cu-doped and undoped fibers showed improved collagen deposition, maturity and orientation when compared to the untreated defects, the improvement shown by the Cu-doped fibers was not markedly better than the undoped fibers at 14 days post-surgery. These results indicate that the Cu-doped borate glass microfibers have a promising capacity to stimulate angiogenesis and heal full-thickness skin defects. They also provide valuable data for understanding the role of the microfibers in healing soft tissue wounds. PMID:25890736

Zhao, Shichang; Li, Le; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Yadong; Cheng, Xiangguo; Zhou, Nai; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Liu, Zhongtang; Huang, Wenhai; Zhang, Changqing



Bioactive biomaterials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important advances in the field of biomaterials over the past few years have been in bioactive biomaterials. Materials have been developed to incorporate bioactivity through biological recognition, including incorporation of adhesion factors, polyanionic sites that mimic the electrostatics of biological regulatory polysaccharides, and cleavage sites for enzymes involved in cell migration. Materials have also been developed to be

Jeffrey A Hubbell



Assessing the Bioactivity of Cosmetic Products and Ingredients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cosmetic ingredients can produce physical effects on the skin as well as positive and negative bioactive effects. Such effects have now been identified, categorized and interpreted. Because of this ongoing research and increased understanding, cosmetics, especially skin care products, are being improved. Targeting specific bioactive effects from newly developed cosmetic products is now possible. This development is aided by refining

Edward M. Jackson



Fibrin: a versatile scaffold for tissue engineering applications.  


Tissue engineering combines cell and molecular biology with materials and mechanical engineering to replace damaged or diseased organs and tissues. Fibrin is a critical blood component responsible for hemostasis, which has been used extensively as a biopolymer scaffold in tissue engineering. In this review we summarize the latest developments in organ and tissue regeneration using fibrin as the scaffold material. Commercially available fibrinogen and thrombin are combined to form a fibrin hydrogel. The incorporation of bioactive peptides and growth factors via a heparin-binding delivery system improves the functionality of fibrin as a scaffold. New technologies such as inkjet printing and magnetically influenced self-assembly can alter the geometry of the fibrin structure into appropriate and predictable forms. Fibrin can be prepared from autologous plasma, and is available as glue or as engineered microbeads. Fibrin alone or in combination with other materials has been used as a biological scaffold for stem or primary cells to regenerate adipose tissue, bone, cardiac tissue, cartilage, liver, nervous tissue, ocular tissue, skin, tendons, and ligaments. Thus, fibrin is a versatile biopolymer, which shows a great potential in tissue regeneration and wound healing. PMID:18544016

Ahmed, Tamer A E; Dare, Emma V; Hincke, Max



Extracellular matrix formation in self-assembled minimalistic bioactive hydrogels based on aromatic peptide amphiphiles  

PubMed Central

The hitherto inconsistency in clinical performance for engineered skin drives the current development of novel cell-scaffolding materials; one challenge is to only extract essential characteristics from the complex native ECM (extracellular matrix) and incorporate them into a scaffold with minimal complexity to support normal cell functions. This study involved small-molecule-based bioactive hydrogels produced by the co-assembly of two aromatic peptide amphiphiles: Fmoc-FF (Fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine) and Fmoc-RGD (arginine–glycine–aspartic acid). Three-dimensionally cultured human dermal fibroblasts deposited dense ECM networks including fibronectin and collagen I within the hydrogels in a 14-day culture. The fibroblasts organized the fibrous ECM and contracted the gel without differentiating into myofibroblasts. The stiffness of the cell-gel constructs increased dramatically due to ECM formation and gel contraction. This created an economical biomimetic model-scaffold to further understand skin reconstruction in vitro and supplied a design pathway to create versatile cell-scaffolds with varied bioactivities and simplicity. PMID:24812581

Zhou, Mi; Ulijn, Rein V



Apigenin, a bioactive flavonoid from Lycopodium clavatum, stimulates nucleotide excision repair genes to protect skin keratinocytes from ultraviolet B-induced reactive oxygen species and DNA damage.  


In this study, we examined the antioxidative and the DNA protective potentials of apigenin, a flavonoid polyphenol isolated from Lycopodium clavatum, in both in-vitro (HaCaT skin keratinocytes) and in-vivo (mice) models against UV-B radiation. We used DAPI staining in UV-B-irradiated HaCaT skin keratinocytes pre-treated with and without apigenin to assess DNA damage. We also used a flow-cytometric analysis in mice exposed to UV-B radiation with or without topical application of apigenin to assess, through a comet assay, chromosomal aberrations and quanta from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Data from the stability curves for the Gibb's free energy determined from a melting-temperature profile study indicated that apigenin increased the stability of calf thymus DNA. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that apigenin caused a reduction in the number of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) after 24 h, the time at which the nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes were activated. Thus, apigenin accelerated reversal of UV-B-induced CPDs through up-regulation of NER genes, removal of cyclobutane rings, inhibition of ROS generation, and down-regulation of NF-?B and MAPK, thereby revealing the precise mechanism of DNA repair. PMID:24139463

Das, Sreemanti; Das, Jayeeta; Paul, Avijit; Samadder, Asmita; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman



Managing Adaptive Versatile Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the MavHome project is to develop technologies to manage adaptive versatile environments. In this paper, we present a complete agent architecture for a single inhabitant intelligent environment and discuss the development, deployment, and techniques utilized in our working intelligent environments. Empirical evaluation of our approach has proven its effectiveness at reducing inhabitant interactions by 72.2%

G. Michael Youngblood; Lawrence B. Holder; Diane J. Cook



Eicosanoids in skin inflammation.  


Eicosanoids play an integral part in homeostatic mechanisms related to skin health and structural integrity. They also mediate inflammatory events developed in response to environmental factors, such as exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and inflammatory and allergic disorders, including psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. This review article discusses biochemical aspects related to cutaneous eicosanoid metabolism, the contribution of these potent autacoids to skin inflammation and related conditions, and considers the importance of nutritional supplementation with bioactives such as omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and plant-derived antioxidants as means of addressing skin health issues. PMID:22521864

Nicolaou, Anna



Bioactivation of particles  


Particles are bioactivated by attaching bioactivation peptides to the particle surface. The bioactivation peptides are peptide-based compounds that impart one or more biologically important functions to the particles. Each bioactivation peptide includes a molecular or surface recognition part that binds with the surface of the particle and one or more functional parts. The surface recognition part includes an amino-end and a carboxy-end and is composed of one or more hydrophobic spacers and one or more binding clusters. The functional part(s) is attached to the surface recognition part at the amino-end and/or said carboxy-end.

Pinaud, Fabien (Berkeley, CA); King, David (San Francisco, CA); Weiss, Shimon (Los Angeles, CA)



VAC: Versatile Advection Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Versatile Advection Code (VAC) is a freely available general hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic simulation software that works in 1, 2 or 3 dimensions on Cartesian and logically Cartesian grids. VAC runs on any Unix/Linux system with a Fortran 90 (or 77) compiler and Perl interpreter. VAC can run on parallel machines using either the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library or a High Performance Fortran (HPF) compiler.

Tóth, Gábor; Keppens, Rony



Skin Cancer Skin Cancer  

E-print Network

Gardening and Your Health: Gardening and Your Health: Sunburn & Skin Cancer Sunburn & Skin Cancer therapy and surface chemotherapy, but most skin cancers are removed by surgical exci sion. Precancers can groups can get tans, freckles, and wrinkles. Although skin cancer is rare with this skin type

Liskiewicz, Maciej


Skin graft  


Skin transplant; Skin autografting; FTSG; STSG; Split thickness skin graft; Full thickness skin graft ... donor site. Most people who are having a skin graft have a split-thickness skin graft. This takes ...


Sagging Skin  


... more"> 1.5 million Americans are diagnosed with skin cancer every year Any suspicious new growths or changes ... ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...


Bioactive oligosaccharide natural products.  


Covering up to December 2013. Oligosaccharide natural products target a wide spectrum of biological processes including disruption of cell wall biosynthesis, interference of bacterial translation, and inhibition of human ?-amylase. Correspondingly, oligosaccharides possess the potential for development as treatments of such diverse diseases as bacterial infections and type II diabetes. Despite their potent and selective activities and potential clinical relevance, isolated bioactive secondary metabolic oligosaccharides are less prevalent than other classes of natural products and their biosynthesis has received comparatively less attention. This review highlights the unique modes of action and biosynthesis of four classes of bioactive oligosaccharides: the orthosomycins, moenomycins, saccharomicins, and acarviostatins. PMID:24883430

McCranie, Emilianne K; Bachmann, Brian O



Versatile neutron NDA  

SciTech Connect

Non-destructive analysis (NDA) of bulk samples is a major tool in international safeguards and domestic MC&A. Yet, enhancements are needed to reduce inspection time, financial cost, and radiation exposure-while improving reliability and accuracy-particularly for mixtures of fissile and fertile isotopes. Perhaps the greatest remaining direction for NDA improvement is the development of a single controllable neutron source that would add versatility and capability. One of the primary prospects is a switchable radioactive neutron source (SRNS) that has been under advanced-concept development at Argonne with DOE funding. The SRNS would be in a sealed capsule that can be remotely switched on and off, or pulsed at a controllable rate. Li({alpha}, n) or Be({alpha}, n) reactions could give a choice of sub-threshold or hard-spectrum neutrons at yields ranging from 10{sup 4}/s to more than 10{sup 8}s. The SRNS would provide improved capabilities for (1) simultaneous or alternating interrogation with fast and slow neutrons, (2) detection of the first few seconds of delayed neutrons, (3) measurements in the presence of high neutron and/or gamma background, and (4) inspection of heterogeneous materials. When the neutrons are switched off, the source would be portable with vastly reduced shielding. Proof-of-concept with a single switchable plate has been established under laboratory conditions.

DeVolpi, A.



Electrostatic Control of Bioactivity  

SciTech Connect

The power of independence: When exhibited on the surface of self-assembling peptide-amphiphile nanofibers, the hydrophobic laminin-derived IKVAV epitope induced nanofiber bundling through interdigitation with neighboring fibers and thus decreased the bioactivity of the resulting materials. The inclusion of charged amino acids in the peptide amphiphiles disrupted the tendency to bundle and led to significantly enhanced neurite outgrowth.

Goldberger, Joshua E.; Berns, Eric J.; Bitton, Ronit; Newcomb, Christina J.; Stupp, Samuel I. (NWU)



Porous bioactive materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioactive materials chemically bond to tissues through the development of biologically active apatite. Porous structures in biomaterials are designed to enhance bioactivity, grow artificial tissues and achieve better integration with host tissues in the body. The goal of this research is to design, fabricate and characterize novel porous bioactive materials. 3D ordered macroporous bioactive glasses (3DOM-BGs, pore size: 200--1000 nm) were prepared using a sol-gel process and colloidal crystal templates. 3DOM-BGs are more bioactive and degradable than mesoporous (pore size <50 nm) sol-gel BGs in simulated body fluid (SBF). Apatite formation and 3DOM-BG degradation rates increased with the decrease of soaking ratio. Apatite induction time in SBF increased with 3DOM-BG calcination temperature (600--800°C). Apatite formation and 3DOMBG degradation were slightly enhanced for a phosphate containing composition. Large 3DOM-BG particles formed less apatite and degraded less completely as compared with small particles. An increase in macropore size slowed down 3DOM-BG degradation and apatite formation processes. After heating the converted apatite at a temperature higher than 700°C, highly crystalline hydroxyapatite and a minor tri-calcium phosphate phase formed. 3DOM-BGs have potential applications as bone/periodontal fillers, and drugs and biological factors delivery agents. Anchoring artificial soft tissues (e.g., cartilage) to native bone presents a challenge. Porous polymer/bioactive glass composites are candidate materials for engineering artificial soft tissue/bone interfaces. Porous composites consisting of polymer matrices (e.g., polysulfone, polylactide, and polyurethane) and bioactive glass particles were prepared by polymer phase separation techniques adapted to include ceramic particles. Composites (thickness: 200--500 mum) have asymmetric structures with dense top layers and porous structures beneath. Porous structures consist of large pores (>100 mum) in a network of smaller (<10 mum) interconnected pores. Dense layers can be removed and large pores exposed by abrasion or salt leaching techniques. Composite modulus was enhanced with the increase of glass content, due to the change in composition and pore content. The growth of bone-like apatite on and inside composites after soaking in SBF demonstrated their potential for integration with bone. Cell culture studies revealed that composite surfaces were suitable for attachment, spreading and proliferation of chondrocytes.

Zhang, Kai


Healthy Skin Matters Normal Skin  

E-print Network

Healthy Skin Matters Normal Skin What you know about your skin Your skin is the organ that comes-hahy-DREY-shun), and keeps harmful microbes (MYE- krobs) out--without it, we would get infections. Your skin is full of nerve get badly hurt and not even know it! What you might not know about your skin Skin is actually your

Baker, Chris I.


DVD - digital versatile disks  

SciTech Connect

An international standard has emerged for the first true multimedia format. Digital Versatile Disk (by its official name), you may know it as Digital Video Disks. DVD has applications in movies, music, games, information CD-ROMS, and many other areas where massive amounts of digital information is needed. Did I say massive amounts of data? Would you believe over 17 gigabytes on a single piece of plastic the size of an audio-CD? That`s the promise, at least, by the group of nine electronics manufacturers who have agreed to the format specification, and who hope to make this goal a reality by 1998. In this major agreement, which didn`t come easily, the manufacturers will combine Sony and Phillip`s one side double-layer NMCD format with Toshiba and Matsushita`s double sided Super-Density disk. By Spring of this year, they plan to market the first 4.7 gigabyte units. The question is: Will DVD take off? Some believe that read-only disks recorded with movies will be about as popular as video laser disks. They say that until the eraseable/writable DVD arrives, the consumer will most likely not buy it. Also, DVD has a good market for replacement of CD- Roms. Back in the early 80`s, the international committee deciding the format of the audio compact disk decided its length would be 73 minutes. This, they declared, would allow Beethoven`s 9th Symphony to be contained entirely on a single CD. Similarly, today it was agreed that playback length of a single sided, single layer DVD would be 133 minutes, long enough to hold 94% of all feature-length movies. Further, audio can be in Dolby`s AC-3 stereo or 5.1 tracks of surround sound, better than CD-quality audio (16-bits at 48kHz). In addition, there are three to five language tracks, copy protection and parental ``locks`` for R rated movies. DVD will be backwards compatible with current CD-ROM and audio CD formats. Added versatility comes by way of multiple aspect rations: 4:3 pan-scan, 4:3 letterbox, and 16:9 widescreen. MPEG-2 is the selected image compression format, with full ITU Rec. 601 video resolution (72Ox480). MPEG-2 and AC-3 are also part of the U.S. high definition Advance Television standard (ATV). DVD has an average video bit rate of 3.5 Mbits/sec or 4.69Mbits/sec for image and sound. Unlike digital television transmission, which will use fixed length packets for audio and video, DVD will use variable length packets with a maximum throughput of more than 1OMbits/sec. The higher bit rate allows for less compression of difficult to encode material. Even with all the compression, narrow-beam red light lasers are required to significantly increase the physical data density of a platter by decreasing the size of the pits. This allows 4.7 gigabytes of data on a single sided, single layer DVD. The maximum 17 gigabyte capacity is achieved by employing two reflective layers on both sides of the disk. To read the imbedded layer of data, the laser`s focal length is altered so that the top layer pits are not picked up by the reader. It will be a couple of years before we have dual-layer, double-sided DVDS, and it will be achieved in four stages. The first format to appear will be the single sided, single layer disk (4.7 gigabytes). That will allow Hollywood to begin releasing DVD movie titles. DVD-ROM will be the next phase, allowing 4.7 gigabytes of CD-ROM-like content. The third stage will be write-once disks, and stage four will be rewritable disks. These last stages presents some issues which have yet to be resolved. For one, copyrighted materials may have some form of payment system, and there is the issue that erasable disks reflect less light than today`s DVDS. The problem here is that their data most likely will not be readable on earlier built players.

Gaunt, R.



Health effects of probiotics on the skin.  


Skin is the largest organ of the body and is constantly exposed to physical, chemical, bacterial, and fungal challenges. It is well known that probiotics are helpful for specific disorders and different clinical studies have indicated that probiotics have special effects in cutaneous apparatus directly or indirectly that can be considerable from versatile aspects. Probiotic bacteriotherapy can have great potential in preventing and treating the skin diseases including eczema, atopic dermatitis, acne, and allergic inflammation or in skin hypersensitivity, UV-induced skin damage, wound protection, and as a cosmetic product. The current paper comprehensively reviews the different health effects of probiotics on the skin. PMID:24364369

Roudsari, M Rahmati; Karimi, R; Sohrabvandi, S; Mortazavian, A M



Dry skin  


Skin - dry; Winter itch ... Dry skin is common. It happens more often in the winter when cold air outside and heated air inside cause low humidity. Forced-air furnaces make skin even drier. The skin loses moisture and may ...


Skin Cancer  


... Diseases and treatments Q - T Skin cancer Skin cancer It is possible to find skin cancer early. ... a dermatologist. Learn more. Common types of skin cancer Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) This is the most ...


Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases  


... diseases and immune system problems can cause dermatitis, hives, and other skin conditions. Many skin problems, such ... rely on information about you and your family. Hives —Red and sometimes itchy bumps on your skin. ...


Bioactive glass in tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on recent advances in the development and use of bioactive glass for tissue engineering applications. Despite its inherent brittleness, bioactive glass has several appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. New bioactive glasses based on borate and borosilicate compositions have shown the ability to enhance new bone formation when compared to silicate bioactive glass. Borate-based bioactive glasses also have controllable degradation rates, so the degradation of the bioactive glass implant can be more closely matched to the rate of new bone formation. Bioactive glasses can be doped with trace quantities of elements such as Cu, Zn and Sr, which are known to be beneficial for healthy bone growth. In addition to the new bioactive glasses, recent advances in biomaterials processing have resulted in the creation of scaffold architectures with a range of mechanical properties suitable for the substitution of loaded as well as non-loaded bone. While bioactive glass has been extensively investigated for bone repair, there has been relatively little research on the application of bioactive glass to the repair of soft tissues. However, recent work has shown the ability of bioactive glass to promote angiogenesis, which is critical to numerous applications in tissue regeneration, such as neovascularization for bone regeneration and the healing of soft tissue wounds. Bioactive glass has also been shown to enhance neocartilage formation during in vitro culture of chondrocyte-seeded hydrogels, and to serve as a subchondral substrate for tissue-engineered osteochondral constructs. Methods used to manipulate the structure and performance of bioactive glass in these tissue engineering applications are analyzed. PMID:21421084

Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Day, Delbert E.; Bal, B. Sonny; Fu, Qiang; Jung, Steven B.; Bonewald, Lynda F.; Tomsia, Antoni P.



Bioactivities of chicken essence.  


The special flavor and health effects of chicken essence are being widely accepted by people. Scientific researches are revealing its truth as a tonic food in traditional health preservation. Chicken essence has been found to possess many bioactivities including relief of stress and fatigue, amelioration of anxiety, promotion of metabolisms and post-partum lactation, improvement on hyperglycemia and hypertension, enhancement of immune, and so on. These activities of chicken essence are suggested to be related with its active components, including proteins, dipeptides (such as carnosine and anserine), polypeptides, minerals, trace elements, and multiple amino acids, and so on. Underlying mechanisms responsible for the bioactivities of chicken essence are mainly related with anti-stress, anti-oxidant, and neural regulation effects. However, the mechanisms are complicated and may be mediated via the combined actions of many active components, more than the action of 1 or 2 components alone. PMID:22432477

Li, Y F; He, R R; Tsoi, B; Kurihara, H



Environment and the skin  

PubMed Central

The skin is an important interface between man and his environment; it is an important portal of entry for hazardous agents and a vulnerable target tissue as well. It is a uniquely accessible model system for detecting hazards and for studying mechanisms of a wide variety of biologic funcitons. Environmental causes of skin reactions comprise a vast array of physical, chemical and biological agents. To appreciate the role of the skin as an interface with man's environment, it is necessary to understand the multiple adaptive mechanisms, and the defenses of the skin against the environmental stresses. The skin is endowed with a versatile group of defenses against penetration, fluid loss from the body, thermal stress, solar radiation, physical trauma and microbial agents. Patterns of adverse response range in quality and intensity from uncomplicated itching to metastatic neoplasia. Environmental problems comprise a large segment of disabling skin disease. Although critical epidemiologic data is limited, cutaneous illnesses comprise a significant segment of occupational disease. This represents a significant loss in productivity and a major cause of disability. The most serious research needs include the development of surveillance systems for identifying skin hazards and determining frequency of environmental skin disease; the development of new models for studying cutaneous penetration; the elucidation of the mechanisms of nonallergic inflammatory reactions (primary irritation) and of the accommodation phenomenon; the development of more sensitive models for predicting adverse responses to marginal irritants; the utilization of modern skills of immunobiology and immunochemistry to elucidate mechanisms of allergic responses; the launching of epidemiologic studies to determine the long term effects of PCBs and associated compounds such as dioxins; and the expansion of research in the mechanisms of skin cancer in relation to susceptibility, genetic and metabolic considerations, ultraviolet light, and phototoxic agents. PMID:413711

Suskind, Raymond R.



Versatile solid-state relay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solid-state relay (SSR), containing multinode control logic, is operated as normally open, normally closed, or latched. Moreover several can be paralleled to form two-pole or double-throw relays. Versatile unit ends need to design custom control circuit for every relay application. Technique can be extended to incorporate selectable time delay, on operation or release, or pulsed output.

Fox, D. A.



Skin optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model representing skin geometry, as well as experimental methods to determine the optical properties of each skin

M. J. C. Van Gemert; S. L. Jacques; H. J. C. M. Sterenborg; W. M. Star



Just how versatile are domains?  

PubMed Central

Background Creating new protein domain arrangements is a frequent mechanism of evolutionary innovation. While some domains always form the same combinations, others form many different arrangements. This ability, which is often referred to as versatility or promiscuity of domains, its a random evolutionary model in which a domain's promiscuity is based on its relative frequency of domains. Results We show that there is a clear relationship across genomes between the promiscuity of a given domain and its frequency. However, the strength of this relationship differs for different domains. We thus redefine domain promiscuity by defining a new index, DV I ("domain versatility index"), which eliminates the effect of domain frequency. We explore links between a domain's versatility, when unlinked from abundance, and its biological properties. Conclusion Our results indicate that domains occurring as single domain proteins and domains appearing frequently at protein termini have a higher DV I. This is consistent with previous observations that the evolution of domain re-arrangements is primarily driven by fusion of pre-existing arrangements and single domains as well as loss of domains at protein termini. Furthermore, we studied the link between domain age, defined as the first appearance of a domain in the species tree, and the DV I. Contrary to previous studies based on domain promiscuity, it seems as if the DV I is age independent. Finally, we find that contrary to previously reported findings, versatility is lower in Eukaryotes. In summary, our measure of domain versatility indicates that a random attachment process is sufficient to explain the observed distribution of domain arrangements and that several views on domain promiscuity need to be revised. PMID:18854028



Skin Conditions  


Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...


Aging Skin  


... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from Varicose Veins ...


Bioactivity of certain Egyptian Ficus species.  


The fruit extracts of Ficus sycomorus L., F. benjamina L., F. bengalensis L. and F. religiosa L. were screened for bioactivity. F. bengalensis and F. religiosa demonstrated activity in the brine shrimp test (Artemia salina) which indicates toxicity, whereas F. sycomorus and F. benjamina showed no activity. All the fruit extracts exhibited antitumor activity in the potato disc bioassay. None of the tested extracts showed any marked inhibition on the uptake of calcium into rat pituitary cells GH4C1. The extracts of the four tested Ficus species had significant antibacterial activity, but no antifungal activity. The results of this preliminary investigation support the traditional use of these plants in folk medicine for respiratory disorders and certain skin diseases. PMID:8170162

Mousa, O; Vuorela, P; Kiviranta, J; Wahab, S A; Hiltunen, R; Vuorela, H



New bioactive fatty acids.  


Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) through 10-hydroxy-8-octadecenoic acid, and racinoleic acid to 7,10,12-trihydroxy-8-octadecenoic acid. DOD showed antibacterial activity including against food-borne pathogens. Bacillus megaterium ALA2 converted n-6 and n-3 PUFAs to many new oxygenated fatty acids. For example: linoleic acid was converted to12,13-epoxy-9-octadecenoic acid and then to 12,13-dihydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid (12,13-DHOA). From here, there are two bioconversion pathways. The major pathway is: 12,13-DHOA --> 12,13,17-trihydroxy-9(S)-octadecenoic acid (THOA) --> 12,17;13,17-diepoxy-16-hydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid (DEOA) --> 7-hydroxy-DEOA. The minor pathway is: 12,13-DHOA --> 12,13,16-THOA --> 12-hydroxy-13,16-epoxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid. 12,13,17-THOA has anti-plant pathogenic fungal activity. The tetrahydrofuranyl moiety is known in anti cancer drugs. Strain ALA2 also converts other n-3 and n-6 PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) to many new oxygenated unsaturated fatty acid products. All of these new products have high potential for antimicrobial agents or biomedical applications. We also screened 12 Mortierella fungal strains from the ARS Culture Collection for the production of bioactive fatty acids such as dihomo-gama-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid. All of the strains tested produced AA and DGLA from glucose or glycerol. The top five AA producers (mg AA/g CDW) were in the following order: M. alpina > M. zychae > M. hygrophila > M. minutissima > M. parvispora. Both AA and DGLA are important natural precursors of a large family of prostaglandin and thromboxane groups. PMID:18296335

Hou, Ching T



Folate in Skin Cancer Prevention  

PubMed Central

Skin, the largest, most exposed organ of the body, provides a protective interface between humans and the environment. One of its primary roles is protection against exposure to sunlight, a major source of skin damage where the UV radiation (UVR) component functions as a complete carcinogen. Melanin pigmentation and the evolution of dark skin is an adaptive protective mechanism against high levels of UVR exposure. Recently, the hypothesis that skin pigmentation balances folate preservation and Vitamin D production has emerged. Both micronutrients are essential for reproductive success. Photodegradation of bioactive folates suggests a mechanism for the increased tendency of populations of low melanin pigmentation residing in areas of high UV exposure to develop skin cancers. Folate is proposed as a cancer prevention target for its role in providing precursors for DNA repair and replication, as well as its ability to promote genomic integrity through the generation of methyl groups needed for control of gene expression. The cancer prevention potential of folate has been demonstrated by large-scale epidemiological and nutritional studies indicating that decreased folate status increases the risk of developing certain cancers. While folate deficiency has been extensively documented by analysis of human plasma, folate status within skin has not been widely investigated. Nevertheless, inefficient delivery of micronutrients to skin and photolysis of folate argue that documented folate deficiencies will be present if not exacerbated in skin. Our studies indicate a critical role for folate in skin and the potential to protect sun exposed skin by effective topical delivery as a strategy for cancer prevention. PMID:22116700

Williams, J.D.; Jacobson, Elaine L.; Kim, H.; Kim, M.; Jacobson, M.K.



Dendrimeric Nanoarchitectures Mediated Transdermal and Oral Delivery of Bioactives  

PubMed Central

Transdermal route is an evolving panorama in novel drug deliverance and with oral route they proffer immense potential. Most recently there is hastening in approaches for delivering bioactives via these routes, amongst them revolution has been made by dendrimers. Encapsulation and conjugation of bioactives with these virus sized robots have shown immense employment for delivery of hydrophobic and labile remedies. Transport of these nano-cruises from corner to corner of skin and through epithelial hurdle of gastrointestinal tract depends upon dendrimer characteristics. An improved thoughtful of these characteristics is an obligation for their use in these rambling fields. These characteristics embrace generation size, molecular weight, surface charge, incubation time and concentration. This context demarcates the imperative role of dendrimers in transdermal and oral drug delivery. This review also highlights concerning mechanism of convey of nanoarrays via epithelial hurdle of GIT. PMID:20046766

Gajbhiye, V.; Kumar, P. Vijayaraj; Sharma, A.; Agarwal, A.; Asthana, A.; Jain, N. K.



Skin flicks  

E-print Network

The written and artistic part of this thesis are both separated into the two categories of "SKIN" and "FLICKS". The Artistic part of my thesis consists of five artificial skins made on my body, and a series of video tapes ...

Orth, Margaret A. (Margaret Ann), 1964-



Skin Complications  


... drugs that can help clear up this condition. Day-to-Day Skin Care See our tips for daily skin ... Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your ...


Skin Size  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Get all wrapped up in a lesson about skin! In this activity, learners measure and calculate the approximate surface area of skin on someone's body as well as the amount of atmospheric force pushing on their body.

Eric Muller



Skin Aging  


... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...


Skin Pigment  


... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals available ... Disorders Overview of Skin Pigment Albinism Vitiligo Melasma Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Skin Disorders > Pigment Disorders 4 Overview ...


Skin immunity.  


As the major barrier of the body to the outside, the skin is constantly confronted with microbial, chemical and physical insults. However, the skin does not only function as a mechanical barrier but also uses the immune system for protection. Therefore, the skin is endowed with the capacity to generate immune responses of the innate as well as of the adaptive type. PMID:14616336

Schwarz, T



The versatility and universality of calcium signalling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The universality of calcium as an intracellular messenger depends on its enormous versatility. Cells have a calcium signalling toolkit with many components that can be mixed and matched to create a wide range of spatial and temporal signals. This versatility is exploited to control processes as diverse as fertilization, proliferation, development, learning and memory, contraction and secretion, and must be

Michael J. Berridge; Peter Lipp; Martin D. Bootman



Artificial skin.  


Replacement of skin has been one of the most challenging aims for surgeons ever since the introduction of skin grafts in 1871. It took more than one century until the breakthrough of Rheinwald and Green in 1975 that opened new possibilities of skin replacement. The combination of cell culture and polymer chemistry finally led to the field of tissue engineering. Many researchers all over the world have been fascinated by the chance of creating a skin-like substitute ex vivo without any further harm to the patients, especially those with massive burns. Many different approaches to create new substitutes and further improvements in genetical and stem cell research led to today's skin equivalents. But still, the "gold standard" for wound coverage is the autologous split-thickness skin graft. Future research will aim at originating biologically and physiologically equal skin substitutes for the treatment of severe burns and chronic ulcers. PMID:18085209

Föhn, M; Bannasch, H



BIOCHEMISTRY: Versatile Collagens in Invertebrates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. In his Perspective, Engel discusses the diverse structural features of collagens, a ubiquitous fibrillar protein that forms the main support of skin and tendons. A unique example is reported in this issue by Coyne et al., who describe the amino acid sequence of the specialized collagen that forms the byssal threads that anchor mussels to rocks.

Jürgen Engel (Biozentrum of the University; Department of Biophysical Chemistry)



Novel bioactive materials with different mechanical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some ceramics, such as Bioglass®, sintered hydroxyapatite, and glass-ceramic A-W, spontaneously bond to living bone. They are called bioactive materials and are already clinically used as important bone substitutes. However, compared with human cortical bone, they have lower fracture toughness and higher elastic moduli. Therefore, it is desirable to develop bioactive materials with improved mechanical properties. All the bioactive materials

Tadashi Kokubo; Hyun-Min Kim; Masakazu Kawashita



Resveratrol and Bioactive Flavonoids in Immune Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Resveratrol and other bioactive flavonoids play an important role in our health and immune system and could also have beneficial\\u000a effects against many diseases. Biological effects of resveratrol and bioactive compounds include those affecting immunity.\\u000a Resveratrol and bioactive flavonoids in human immune function are related to chemokines, macrophages, and caspases.

Nasiruddin Khan; Rafael Llorach; Mireia Urpi-Sarda; Raul Zamora-Ros; Antonio Cherubini; Cristina Andres-Lacueva


Antimicrobial Peptides: Versatile Biological Properties  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial peptides are diverse group of biologically active molecules with multidimensional properties. In recent past, a wide variety of AMPs with diverse structures have been reported from different sources such as plants, animals, mammals, and microorganisms. The presence of unusual amino acids and structural motifs in AMPs confers unique structural properties to the peptide that attribute for their specific mode of action. The ability of these active AMPs to act as multifunctional effector molecules such as signalling molecule, immune modulators, mitogen, antitumor, and contraceptive agent makes it an interesting candidate to study every aspect of their structural and biological properties for prophylactic and therapeutic applications. In addition, easy cloning and recombinant expression of AMPs in heterologous plant host systems provided a pipeline for production of disease resistant transgenic plants. Besides these properties, AMPs were also used as drug delivery vectors to deliver cell impermeable drugs to cell interior. The present review focuses on the diversity and broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of AMPs along with its multidimensional properties that could be exploited for the application of these bioactive peptides as a potential and promising drug candidate in pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23935642

Pushpanathan, Muthuirulan; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash



Bare Bones of Bioactive Glass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Paul Ducheyne, a principal investigator in the microgravity materials science program and head of the University of Pernsylvania's Center for Bioactive Materials and Tissue Engineering, is leading the trio as they use simulated microgravity to determine the optimal characteristics of tiny glass particles for growing bone tissue. The result could make possible a much broader range of synthetic bone-grafting applications. Even in normal gravity, bioactive glass particles enhance bone growth in laboratory tests with flat tissue cultures. Ducheyne and his team believe that using the bioactive microcarriers in a rotating bioreactor in microgravity will produce improved, three-dimensional tissue cultures. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and University of Pennsylvania Center for Bioactive Materials and Tissue Engineering.



VEGAS: VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Science Foundation Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation (NSF-ATI) program is funding a new spectrometer backend for the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). This spectrometer is being built by the CICADA collaboration - collaboration between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the Center for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) at the University of California Berkeley.The backend is named as VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) and will replace the capabilities of the existing spectrometers. This backend supports data processing from focal plane array systems. The spectrometer will be capable of processing up to 1.25 GHz bandwidth from 8 dual polarized beams or a bandwidth up to 10 GHz from a dual polarized beam.The spectrometer will be using 8-bit analog to digital converters (ADC), which gives a better dynamic range than existing GBT spectrometers. There will be 8 tunable digital sub-bands within the 1.25 GHz bandwidth, which will enhance the capability of simultaneous observation of multiple spectral transitions. The maximum spectral dump rate to disk will be about 0.5 msec. The vastly enhanced backend capabilities will support several science projects with the GBT. The projects include mapping temperature and density structure of molecular clouds; searches for organic molecules in the interstellar medium; determination of the fundamental constants of our evolving Universe; red-shifted spectral features from galaxies across cosmic time and survey for pulsars in the extreme gravitational environment of the Galactic Center.

Bussa, Srikanth; VEGAS Development Team



Methanol: A Versatile Fuel for Immediate Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates the large-scale production and use of methanol as a substitute for the diminishing reserves of low-cost petroleum resources. Describes the manufacturing process and advantages of the versatile fuel. (JR)

Reed, T. B.; Lerner, R. M.



Skin Substitutes  

PubMed Central

In a relatively short timespan, a wealth of new skin substitutes made of synthetic and biologically derived materials have arisen for the purpose of wound healing of various etiologies. This review article focuses on providing an overview of skin substitutes including their indications, contraindications, benefits, and limitations. The result of this overview was an appreciation of the vast array of options available for clinicians, many of which did not exist a short time ago. Yet, despite the rapid expansion this field has undergone, no ideal skin substitute is currently available. More research in the field of skin substitutes and wound healing is required not only for the development of new products made of increasingly complex biomolecular material, but also to compare the existing skin substitutes. PMID:25371771

Howe, Nicole; Cohen, George



A nanotectonics approach to produce hierarchically organized bioactive glass nanoparticles-based macrospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioactive particles have been widely used in a series of biomedical applications due to their ability to promote bone-bonding and elicit favorable biological responses in therapies associated with the replacement and regeneration of mineralized tissues. In this work hierarchical architectures are prepared by an innovative methodology using SiO2-CaO sol-gel based nanoparticles. Inspired by colloidal crystals, spherical aggregates were formed on biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces using bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG-NPs) able to promote bone regeneration. A highly ordered organization, a common feature of mineralized structures in Nature, was achieved at both nano- and microlevels, being the crystallization degree of the structures controlled by the evaporation rates taking place at room temperature (RT) or at 4 °C. The crystallization degree of the structures influenced the Ca/P ratio of the apatitic film formed at their surface, after 7 days of immersion in SBF. This allows the regulation of bioactive properties and the ability to release potential additives that could be also incorporated in such particles with a high efficiency. Such a versatile method to produce bioactive particles with controlled size and internal structure could open new possibilities in designing new spherical devices for orthopaedic applications, including tissue engineering.

Luz, Gisela M.; Mano, João F.



Stem Cells and Bioactive Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major advances in biological and materials research have created the possibilities for tissue engineering and regenerative\\u000a medicine. Finding the most effective ways of utilising stem cells, of several types, and triggering their differentiatoin\\u000a in a controlled manner will provide cell sources for cell replacement therapy. Materials will be bioresorbable in vivo and bioactive, contributing to differentiation, implantation and long-term engraftment

Robert C. Bielby; Julia M. Polak


Flavanols: digestion, absorption and bioactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavanols, or flavan-3-ols, are a family of bioactive compounds present in cocoa, red wine, green tea, red grapes, berries\\u000a and apples. With a basic monomer unit of (?)-epicatechin or (+)-catechin, flavanols can be present in foods and beverages\\u000a as monomers or oligomers (procyanidins). Most, but not all, procyanidins are degraded into monomer or dimer units prior to\\u000a absorption. The bioavailability

Robert M. Hackman; John A. Polagruto; Qin Yan Zhu; Buxiang Sun; Hajime Fujii; Carl L. Keen



Skin Photorejuvenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term ‘photorejuvenation’ describes the simultaneous improvement of various epidermal changes related to aging. Sun exposure\\u000a and smoking are the main factors that induce premature skin aging. Rhytides are due to a decrease in facial skin elasticity\\u000a causing accentuation of lines and wrinkles. There are three main mechanisms of non-ablative technology involved in skin rejuvenation:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Heating that leads to

Lucian Fodor; Yehuda Ullmann; Monica Elman


Stem cells in embryonic skin development.  


The skin is a complex stratified organ which acts not only as a permeability barrier and defense against external agents, but also has essential thermoregulatory, sensory and metabolic functions. Due to its high versatility and activity, the skin undergoes continuous self-renewal to repair damaged tissue and replace old cells. Consequently, the skin is a reservoir for adult stem cells of different embryonic origins. Skin stem cell populations reside in the adult hair follicle, sebaceous gland, dermis and epidermis. However, the origin of most of the stem cell populations found in the adult epidermis is still unknown. Far more unknown is the embryonic origin of other stem cells that populate the other layers of this tissue. In this review we attempt to clarify the emergence, structure, markers and embryonic development of diverse populations of stem cells from the epidermis, dermis and related appendages such as the sebaceous gland and hair follicle. PMID:23283431

Forni, Maria F; Trombetta-Lima, Marina; Sogayar, Mari C



Lunasin Is Prevalent in Barley and Is Bioavailable and Bioactive in In Vivo and In Vitro Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lunasin, a unique 43-amino acid peptide found in a number of seeds, has been shown to be chemopreventive in mammalian cells and in a skin cancer mouse model. To elucidate the role of cereals in cancer prevention, we report here the prevalence, bioavailability, and bioactivity of lunasin from barley. Lunasin is present in all cultivars of barley analyzed. The liver

Hyung Jin Jeong; Jin Boo Jeong; Chia Chien Hsieh; Blanca Hernández-Ledesma; Ben O. de Lumen



Skin Cancer  


... exposure to ultraviolet light, which is found in sunlight and in lights used in tanning salons. What ... the safe-sun guidelines. 1. Avoid the sun. Sunlight damages your skin. The sun is strongest during ...


Skin Cancer  


... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...


Skin Cancer  


... contacts Public service advertisements Stats and facts Gold Triangle Awards Stories and news News releases Press kits ... Skin cancer Prevention and care Cosmetic treatments Gold Triangle Awards Media contacts Public service advertisements View PSAs ...


Skin Infections  


... to the touch may have yellow drainage Of cellulitis: a red, inflamed area on the skin that ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Cellulitis Erythema Multiforme Pityriasis Rosea Paronychia A to Z: ...


Senescent Skin  

PubMed Central

The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067

Kushniruk, William



Sun & Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson from Science NetLinks, students discuss what they already know about the impact sun exposure has on their skin and what they typically do to protect themselves, if anything. Using a number of online resources, they then learn how to care for their skin, about the damaging effects of sunburns and tanning, and how sunscreens provide protection from the sun's harmful UV rays.

Science Netlinks



Skin color - patchy  


Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. Mottling or mottled skin refers to blood vessel changes in ... in the skin cells that gives skin its color Growth of bacteria or other organisms on the ...


Skin care and incontinence  


Incontinence - skin care ... in a wheelchair, regular chair, or bed TAKING CARE OF THE SKIN Using diapers and other products ... skin. Over time, the skin breaks down. Special care must be taken to keep the skin clean ...


Bioactive glass-coated silicone for percutaneous devices with improved tissue interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of bioactive glasses, in the early 1970s, has produced a material that develops a strong adherent bond with soft tissue. Many medical applications currently use silicone as an implant material, but are hindered by the formation of fibrous scar tissue surrounding the device. This fibrous scar tissue can lead to pain, infection, and/or extrusion of these devices. Bioactive ceramic materials are inherently brittle and can not be used in applications where a flexible material is needed. Therefore, the coating of existing flexible silicone medical devices, like catheters, with a bioactive glass material would give the advantages of both. The research presented here is of methods used to coat silicone with a bioactive glass powder (Bioglass°ler) and the in vitro testing of those coatings. The bioactivity of these coatings was measured using scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It was observed that hydroxyapatite, a bonelike apatite, was formed in vitro on both the bioactive glass particles and the silicone surface between these particles. From these results a new theory was developed that related the distance between particles on a surface with the formation of an apatite layer. A critical distance between particles for the formation of an apatite layer on the substrate exists. This critical distance is a function of both the particle size and composition. In addition, a method to coat silicone catheters with bioactive glass powder is also discussed. This coated catheter could ultimately be used for improved percutaneous access in peritoneal dialysis. The one barrier to greater peritoneal dialysis use and the reason many patients switch from peritoneal to hemodialysis is recurrent exit-site infections and subsequent peritonitis. These infections are caused by the lack of a tight seal and downgrowth of epidermal tissue around the catheter at the catheter-skin interface.

Marotta, James Scott


Cytochrome P450: A Target for Drug Development for Skin Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymes of the cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) super family are the most versatile and important class of drug-metabolizing enzymes that are induced in mammalian skin in response to xenobiotic exposure. At the same time, CYP have numerous important roles in endogenous and exogenous substrate metabolism in the skin. For example, they participate in the metabolism of therapeutic drugs, fatty

Nihal Ahmad; Hasan Mukhtar



Bioactivity evolution of the surface functionalized bioactive glasses.  


The formation of a calcium phosphate layer on the surface of the SiO2 -CaO-P2 O5 glasses after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) generally demonstrates the bioactivity of these materials. Grafting of the surface by chemical bonding can minimize the structural changes in protein adsorbed on the surface. Therefore, in this study our interest was to evaluate the bioactivity and blood biocompatibility of the SiO2 -CaO-P2 O5 glasses after their surface modification by functionalization with aminopropyl-triethoxysilane and/or by fibrinogen. It is shown that the fibrinogen adsorbed on the glass surfaces induces a growing of the apatite-like layer. It is also evidenced that the protein content from SBF influences the growth of the apatite-like layer. Furthermore, the good blood compatibility of the materials after fibrinogen and bovine serum albumin adsorption is proved from the assessment of the ?-sheet-?-turn ratio. PMID:24820252

Magyari, Klára; Baia, Lucian; Vulpoi, Adriana; Simon, Simion; Popescu, Octavian; Simon, Viorica



Quinazoline derivatives: synthesis and bioactivities  

PubMed Central

Owing to the significant biological activities, quinazoline derivatives have drawn more and more attention in the synthesis and bioactivities research. This review summarizes the recent advances in the synthesis and biological activities investigations of quinazoline derivatives. According to the main method the authors adopted in their research design, those synthetic methods were divided into five main classifications, including Aza-reaction, Microwave-assisted reaction, Metal-mediated reaction, Ultrasound-promoted reaction and Phase-transfer catalysis reaction. The biological activities of the synthesized quinazoline derivatives also are discussed. PMID:23731671



A miniaturized and flexible optoelectronic sensing system for tactile skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a hybrid sensing module consisting of a general purpose electro-optical converter and three MEMS force sensors integrated into flexible substrates for tactile skin applications. The features of the converter, namely its flexible and thin substrate and small dimensions, programmability, optical coding and transmission of the information allow this versatile device to host different sensors,

L. Ascari; P. Corradi; L. Beccai; C. Laschi



Osteoinduction of porous bioactive titanium metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first report of bone induction in a non-osseous site by titanium metal, which has long been recognized as a non-bioactive material. After undergoing specific chemical and thermal treatments, porous bioactive titanium induced bone formation without the need of additional osteogenic cells or osteoinductive agents. Four types of titanium implants were implanted in the dorsal muscles of mature

Shunsuke Fujibayashi; Masashi Neo; Hyun-Min Kim; Tadashi Kokubo; Takashi Nakamura



Skin Cancer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This patient education program explains skin cancer and how it is treated. It reviews the anatomy of the skin, what to look for during self-examination, and gives tips for preventing skin cancer. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

Patient Education Institute


Unmasking Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site is the online companion to Unmasking Skin, a feature article in the November 2000 issue of National Geographic Magazine, which offers an in-depth look at the body's largest organ. Visitors are invited to "go skin deep and beyond" with a photo gallery, a multimedia interview with the story's photographer, and related Web sites. The site also includes a portion of the feature article, a related Online Extra article, and a short piece about goosebumps. While not as comprehensive as the print article itself, this Web site provides an intriguing look at a part of the body that's often taken for granted.



Skin to skin care:heat balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin to skin care has been practised in primitive and high technology cultures for body temperature preservation in neonates. Regional skin temperature and heat flow was measured in moderately hypothermic term neonates to quantitate the heat transfer occurring during one hour of skin to skin care. Nine healthy newborns with a mean rectal temperature of 36.3 degrees C were placed

H Karlsson



A Versatile Technique for Solving Quintic Equations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we present a versatile technique to solve several types of solvable quintic equations. In the technique described here, the given quintic is first converted to a sextic equation by adding a root, and the resulting sextic equation is decomposed into two cubic polynomials as factors in a novel fashion. The resultant cubic equations are…

Kulkarni, Raghavendra G.




E-print Network

A ROADMAP TOWARDS VERSATILE MIR Emmanuel Vincent INRIA Stanislaw A. Raczy´nski, Nobutaka Ono, Shigeki Sagayama The University of Tokyo ABSTRACT Most MIR systems are specifically designed for one appli, meaningful and accu- rate MIR system integrating all levels of information. We propose a roadmap

Boyer, Edmond


Skin Deep  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how to protect their skin while applying pesticides to plants. Learners conduct a series of simulation experiments and discover that some clothing fabrics provide only minimal protection from the dangers of pesticides. Learners work in groups during this activity and use a data table to record their observations.



Ex vivo percutaneous absorption of ketamine, bupivacaine, diclofenac, gabapentin, orphenadrine, and pentoxifylline: comparison of versatile cream vs. reference cream.  


This ex vivo human percutaneous absorption study evaluated a set of six model drugs (ketamine hydrochloride, bupivacaine hydrochloride, diclofenac sodium, gabapentin, orphenadrine citrate, pentoxifylline) from two popular formulations for topically applied compounding preparations. The compounded preparations used in this study were Versatile cream and a reference cream. Each formulation was applied to human trunk skin mounted on Franz Diffusion Cells, 50 mg/chamber (or 28.2 mg/cm2). Serial dermal receiver solutions were collected for 48 hours. Analysis of the resultant data supports the concept that the Versatile base formulation provides improved characteristics relative to the reference base. This is of key importance where the patient does not show clinical improvement when a conventional topical delivery vehicle is used in the formulation. From the results, it is reasonable to anticipate that, relative to the reference formulation, the Versatile formulation provides enhanced transdermal delivery of some analgesic medications. PMID:24579304

Wang, Xuexuan; Black, Laura



Nutritional compositions and bioactivities of Dacryodes species: a review.  


Dacryodes species are evergreen, perennial trees with fleshy fruits and belong to the family Buseraseae. Many Dacryodes species are underutilized but are widely applied in traditional folk medicine to treat malaria, fever and skin diseases. The nutritional compositions, phytochemicals and biological activities of Dacryodes edulis, Dacryodes rostrata, Dacryodes buettneri, Dacryodes klaineana and Dacryodes hexandra are presented. The edible fruits of D. edulis are rich in lipids, proteins, vitamins, fatty acids and amino acids. Its extracts (leaf, fruit and resin) exhibit antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-carcinogenic and other bioactivities. D. rostrata fruit has significant nutrient content, and is rich in proteins, lipids and minerals. These fruits are also highly rich in polyphenols, anthocyanins and antioxidant activities. This comprehensive review will assist the reader in understanding the nutritional benefits of Dacryodes species and in identifying current research needs. PMID:25038673

Tee, Lee Hong; Yang, Bao; Nagendra, Krishnamurthy Prasad; Ramanan, Ramakrishnan Nagasundara; Sun, Jian; Chan, Eng-Seng; Tey, Beng Ti; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Lau, Cheng Yuon; Jiang, Yueming



Bioactive coating with low-fouling polymers for the development of biocompatible vascular implants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The replacement of occluded blood vessels and endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) are performed with the use of synthetic vascular grafts and stent grafts, respectively. Both implants lead to frequent clinical complications that are different but due to a similar problem, namely the inadequate surface properties of the polymeric biomaterials used (generally polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE)). Therefore the general objective of this thesis was to create a versatile bioactive coating on vascular biomaterials that reduce material-induced thrombosis and promote desired cell interactions favorable to tissue healing around implants. The use of low-fouling backgrounds was decided in order to reduce platelet adhesion as well as the non-specific protein adsorption and thus increase the bioactivity of immobilized biomolecules. As part of the preliminary objective, a multi-arm polyethylene glycol (PEG) was chosen to create a versatile low-fouling surface, since the current coating methods are far from being versatile and rely on the availability of compatible functional groups on both PEG and the host surface. This PEG coating method was developed by taking advantage of novel primary amine-rich plasma polymerized coatings (LP). As demonstrated by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), fluorescence measurements and platelet adhesion assays, our PEG coatings exhibited low protein adsorption and almost no platelet adhesion after 15 min perfusion in whole blood. Although protein adsorption was not completely abrogated and short-term platelet adhesion assay was clearly insufficient to draw conclusions for long-term prevention of thrombosis in vivo, the low-fouling properties of this PEG coating were sufficient to be exploited for further coupling of bioactive molecules to create bioactive coatings. Therefore, as a part of the second objective, an innovative and versatile bioactive coating was developed on PEG and carboxymethylated dextran (CMD), using the combination of an adhesive peptide (KQAGDV/RGD) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). CMD was chosen as an alternative to PEG due to its better low-fouling properties and the presence of abundant carboxyl terminal groups. Although the QCM-D technique enabled us to optimize the combined immobilization of KQAGDV/RGD and EGF, cell adhesion assay results did not show improvement of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) adhesion on peptide-modified PEG or CMD surfaces. Among the reasons explaining low cell adhesion on peptides grafted low-fouling surfaces is the difficulty of preventing protein adsorption/platelet adhesion without significantly reducing cell adhesion. Preliminary data in our laboratory indicated that CS could be an ideal substrate to find this compromise. For that reason, the final objective of this PhD consisted in evaluating the potential of chondroitin sulfate (CS) coating by comparing its properties with well-known low-fouling polymers such as PEG and CMD. It was shown that CS presents selective low-fouling properties, low-platelet adhesion and pro-endothelial cell (EC) adhesive properties As demonstrated by QCM-D and fluorescence measurements, CS was as effective as PEG in reducing fibrinogen adsorption, but it reduced adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) to a lower extent than PEG and CMD surfaces. Whole blood perfusion assays indicated that all three surfaces drastically decreased platelet adhesion and activation to levels significantly lower than PET surfaces. However, while EC adhesion and growth were found to be very limited on PEG and CMD, cell attachment on CS was strong, with focal adhesion points and resistance to shear stress. CS coatings therefore form a low-thrombogenic background promoting the formation of a confluent endothelium layer, which may then act as an active anti-thrombogenic surface. CS coating can also be used to further graft biomolecules. Combination of LP, CS coating followed by GF immobilization shows great promise as a bioactive coating to optimize the bio

Thalla, Pradeep Kumar


Skin Cancer Screening  


... Dictionary Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®) Skin Cancer Screening Key Points for This Section Tests ... trials is available from the NCI Web site . Skin exams are used to screen for skin cancer. ...


Neuromodulators for Aging Skin  


... Choose the Best Skin Care Products Neuromodulators for Aging Skin Treatment Options Learn more about treatment options ... of the overlying skin. Why choose neuromodulators for aging skin Non-invasive — does not require surgery. Can ...


Skin Care and Aging  


... page please turn Javascript on. Skin Care and Aging How Aging Affects Skin Your skin changes with age. It ... if they bother you. See additional resources on aging skin, including information on treatment options, specific conditions, ...


Bacterial Skin Infections  


... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals available ... Lymphangitis Necrotizing Skin Infections Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Skin Disorders > Bacterial Skin Infections 4 ...


Bioactive lipids in pathological retinopathy.  


Diabetic retinopathy is a common condition that occurs in patients with diabetes with long-standing hyperglycemia that is characterized by inappropriate angiogenesis. This pathological angiogenesis could be a sort of physiological proliferative response to injury by the endothelium. Recent studies suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a significant role in this angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic growth factor that plays a significant role in diabetic retinopathy. The interaction between VEGF and ROS, and theirs in turn with pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory bioactive lipid molecules such as lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins is particularly relevant to understand the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy and develop future therapeutic interventions. PMID:24188230

Ma, Qi; Shen, Jun-Hui; Shen, Sheng-Rong; Das, Undurti N



Analysis of surface layers on bioactive glasses.  


FT-Raman spectroscopy proves to be a powerful technique to study surface reactions on bioactive glasses and it eliminates the fluorescence of the organic phase of whole bone, thereby making it possible to compare the reaction layers formed on bioactive glasses with the mineral phase of bone. The spectrum of hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) developed on the bioactive glasses is closer to that of bone than synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) and closely matches that of bone mineral obtained by deproteination of whole human femoral cortical bone. PMID:7986953

Rehman, I; Hench, L L; Bonfield, W; Smith, R



Sol-gel derived porous bioactive nanocomposites: Synthesis and in vitro bioactivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous bioactive composites consisting of SiO2-CaO-Na2O-P2O5 bioactive glass-ceramic and synthetic water soluble polymer Polyvinylpyrrolidone [PVP (C6H9NO)n, MW˜40000 g/mol] have been synthesized by sol-gel route. As-prepared polymeric composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Two major bone mineral phases, viz., hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] and wollastonite [calcium silicate (CaSiO3)] have been identified in the XRD patterns of the composites. Presence of these bone minerals indicates the bioactive nature of the composites. In vitro bioactivity tests confirm bioactivity in the porous composites. The flexibility offered by these bioactive polymer composites is advantageous for its application as implant material.

Shankhwar, Nisha; Kothiyal, G. P.; Srinivasan, A.



Cutaneous skin tag  


Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...


The Science Inside Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science Inside Skin, created as part of the Skin Deep Project, offers readers a closer peek at the body's surface. Inside they'll find information about the three layers of skin, how skin changes during a lifetime, various skin ailments (ranging from acne to the three types of skin cancer), and sun safety.

Kirstin Fearnley (AAAS; )



Amphibian Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the concept of permeability to better understand why amphibians are extremely sensitive to pollution. Learners soak one regular hard-boiled egg and one peeled hard-boiled egg in dyed water and then record how the eggs' circumference and appearance change after 24 hours. Learners investigate how the peeled egg represents amphibian skin and how amphibians are affected by pollution.



Synthesis and in vitro bioactivity of novel mesoporous hollow bioactive glass microspheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

The remarkable tissue-repairing bioactivity and biocompatibility of bioactive glass make it suitable for a wide range of applications. Here, novel mesoporous hollow bioactive glass microspheres (MHBGMs) with a uniform diameter range of 2–5 µm were prepared by a sol–gel method. Structural characterization indicated that the shell of hollow sphere had a mesopore size range between 2 and 10 nm and a thickness

Bo Lei; Xiaofeng Chen; Yingjun Wang; Naru Zhao



Versatile microfluidic droplets array for bioanalysis.  


We propose a novel method to obtain versatile droplets arrays on a regional hydrophilic chip that is fabricated by PDMS soft lithography and regional plasma treatment. It enables rapid liquid dispensation and droplets array formation just making the chip surface in contact with solution. By combining this chip with a special Christmas Tree structure, the droplets array with concentrations in gradient is generated. It possesses the greatly improved performance of convenience and versatility in bioscreening and biosensing. For example, high throughput condition screening of toxic tests of CdSe quantum dots on HL-60 cells are conducted and cell death rates are successfully counted quickly and efficiently. Furthermore, a rapid biosensing approach for cancer biomarkers carcinoma embryonic antigen (CEA) is developed via magnetic beads (MBs)-based sandwich immunoassay methods. PMID:25525675

Hu, Shan-Wen; Xu, Bi-Yi; Ye, Wei-Ke; Xia, Xing-Hua; Chen, Hong-Yuan; Xu, Jing-Juan



A versatile scalable PET processing system  

SciTech Connect

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) historically has major clinical and preclinical applications in cancerous oncology, neurology, and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, in a new direction, an application specific PET system is being developed at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in collaboration with Duke University, University of Maryland at Baltimore (UMAB), and West Virginia University (WVU) targeted for plant eco-physiology research. The new plant imaging PET system is versatile and scalable such that it could adapt to several plant imaging needs - imaging many important plant organs including leaves, roots, and stems. The mechanical arrangement of the detectors is designed to accommodate the unpredictable and random distribution in space of the plant organs without requiring the plant be disturbed. Prototyping such a system requires a new data acquisition system (DAQ) and data processing system which are adaptable to the requirements of these unique and versatile detectors.

H. Dong, A. Weisenberger, J. McKisson, Xi Wenze, C. Cuevas, J. Wilson, L. Zukerman



Versatile biofunctionalization of polypeptide-based thermosensitive hydrogels via click chemistry.  


In this study, we report thermosensitive hydrogels based on poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(?-propargyl-l-glutamate) (PEG-PPLG). (13)C NMR spectra, DLS, and circular dichroism spectra were employed to study the mechanism of the sol-gel phase transition. Mouse fibroblast L929 cells were encapsulated and cultured within the hydrogel matrices, and the encapsulated cells were shown to be highly viable in the gel matrices, suggesting that the hydrogels have excellent cytocompatibilities. The mass loss of the hydrogels in vitro was accelerated by the presence of proteinase K compared to the control group. In vivo biocompatibility studies revealed that the in situ formed gels in the subcutaneous layer last for ?21 days, and H&E staining study suggested acceptable biocompatibility of our materials in vivo. The presence of alkynyl side groups in the PEG-PPLG copolymers allowed convenient further functionalization with azide-modified bioactive molecules, such as biotin and galactose. The biofunctionalized PEG-polypeptide block copolymers showed sol-gel phase transitions similar to the parent copolymers. Interestingly, the incorporation of galactose groups into the hydrogels was found to improve cell adhesion, likely due to the adsorption of fibronectin (FN) in cell-extracellular matrix (ECM). Because bioactive materials have shown unique advantages in biomedical applications, especially tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications, we believe our novel functionalizable thermosensitive hydrogels have potential to serve as a versatile platform for the development of new biofunctional materials, for example, bioadhesive and bioresponsive hydrogels. PMID:23311471

Cheng, Yilong; He, Chaoliang; Xiao, Chunsheng; Ding, Jianxun; Cui, Haitao; Zhuang, Xiuli; Chen, Xuesi



A parallel, portable and versatile treecode  

SciTech Connect

Portability and versatility are important characteristics of a computer program which is meant to be generally useful. We describe how we have developed a parallel N-body treecode to meet these goals. A variety of applications to which the code can be applied are mentioned. Performance of the program is also measured on several machines. A 512 processor Intel Paragon can solve for the forces on 10 million gravitationally interacting particles to 0.5% rms accuracy in 28.6 seconds.

Warren, M.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Salmon, J.K. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)]|[California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)



Ursa Minor: Versatile Cluster-based Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

No single encoding scheme or fault model is optimal for all data. A versatile storage system allows them to be matched to access patterns, reliability requirements, and cost goals on a per-data item basis. Ursa Minor is a cluster-based storage system that allows data-specific selection of, and on-line changes to, encoding schemes and fault models. Thus, different data types can

Michael Abd-el-malek; William V. Courtright II; Chuck Cranor; Gregory R. Ganger; James Hendricks; Andrew J. Klosterman; Michael P. Mesnier; Manish Prasad; Brandon Salmon; Raja R. Sambasivan; Shafeeq Sinnamohideen; John D. Strunk; Eno Thereska; Matthew Wachs; Jay J. Wylie



Digestion in the peritrich ciliate Ophrydium versatile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Digestion in the peritrich ciliateOphrydium versatile O.F.M. involves a complex sequence of intracytotic and exocytotic membrane fusion and recycling events. Food particulates are concentrated in the lower cytopharynx which forms a fusiform-shaped food vacuole. Upon release from the cytopharynx, this food vacuole begins to condense, concentrating the food particulates. Excess membrane is removed intracytotically. These released membranes pieces form

Lynda J. Goff; Janet R. Stein



A versatile two-stage hypospadias repair.  


One-stage repair of hypospadias is currently fashionable and is undoubtedly attractive in concept but the methods that are presently available all have inherent limitations and drawbacks. The author presents a two-stage method which offers a unique combination of versatility, reliability and refinement, and can be used for almost any hypospadias deformity, be it primary repair in a child or salvage surgery in an adult. A personal series of 600 cases is analysed. PMID:7551506

Bracka, A



Novel bioactive materials with different mechanical properties.  


Some ceramics, such as Bioglass, sintered hydroxyapatite, and glass-ceramic A-W, spontaneously bond to living bone. They are called bioactive materials and are already clinically used as important bone substitutes. However, compared with human cortical bone, they have lower fracture toughness and higher elastic moduli. Therefore, it is desirable to develop bioactive materials with improved mechanical properties. All the bioactive materials mentioned above form a bone-like apatite layer on their surfaces in the living body, and bond to bone through this apatite layer. The formation of bone-like apatite on artificial material is induced by functional groups, such as Si-OH, Ti-OH, Zr-OH, Nb-OH, Ta-OH, -COOH, and PO(4)H(2). These groups have specific structures revealing negatively charge, and induce apatite formation via formations of an amorphous calcium compound, e.g., calcium silicate, calcium titanate, and amorphous calcium phosphate. These fundamental findings provide methods for preparing new bioactive materials with different mechanical properties. Tough bioactive materials can be prepared by the chemical treatment of metals and ceramics that have high fracture toughness, e.g., by the NaOH and heat treatments of titanium metal, titanium alloys, and tantalum metal, and by H(3)PO(4) treatment of tetragonal zirconia. Soft bioactive materials can be synthesized by the sol-gel process, in which the bioactive silica or titania is polymerized with a flexible polymer, such as polydimethylsiloxane or polytetramethyloxide, at the molecular level to form an inorganic-organic nano-hybrid. The biomimetic process has been used to deposit nano-sized bone-like apatite on fine polymer fibers, which were textured into a three-dimensional knit framework. This strategy is expected to ultimately lead to bioactive composites that have a bone-like structure and, hence, bone-like mechanical properties. PMID:12699652

Kokubo, Tadashi; Kim, Hyun-Min; Kawashita, Masakazu



The inhibitory effect of natural bioactives on the growth of pathogenic bacteria  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory activity of natural products, against growth of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Salmonella typhimurium (KCCM 11862). Chitosan, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and garlic were used as natural bioactives for antibacterial activity. The testing method was carried out according to the disk diffusion method. All of chitosan, EGCG, and garlic showed inhibitory effect against the growth of E. coli and Salmonella typhi. To evaluate the antibacterial activity of natural products during storage, chicken skins were inoculated with 106 of E. coli or Salmonella typhi. The inoculated chicken skins, treated with 0.5, 1, or 2% natural bioactives, were stored during 8 day at 4?. The numbers of microorganisms were measured at 8 day. Both chitosan and EGCG showed significant decrease in the number of E. coli and Salmonella typhi in dose dependent manner (P < 0.05). These results suggest that natural bioactives such as chitosan, EGCG may be possible to be used as antimicrobial agents for the improvement of food safety. PMID:20368950

Kim, Ji-Sun



Bioactivity-guided study of antiproliferative activities of Salvia extracts.  


The cytotoxic activities of the n-hexane, chloroform and aqueous methanolic fractions prepared from the methanolic extract of the leaves of 23 Salvia taxa were studied for their cell growth-inhibitory activity against human cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), skin carcinoma (A431) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) cells using the MTT assay. The n-hexane fractions of six Salvia taxa (S. hispanica, S. nemorosa, S. nemorosa 1. albiflora, S. pratensis, S. recognita and S. ringens) and the chloroform fraction ofS. officinalis 1. albiflora produced over 50% growth inhibition of the skin carcinoma cell line. None of the tested extracts showed substantial (above 50%) antiproliferative effects against HeLa and MCF7 cells. S. ringens was the most powerful among the studied Salvia species with a 61.8% cell growth inhibitory activity on A431 cells. In the case of S. ringens, other plant parts were also tested for antiproliferative effect, and the highest activities were recorded for the root extract. This was subjected to bioactivity-guided fractionation, which yielded four abietane diterpenes (royleanone, horminone, 7-O-methyl-horminone and 7-acetyl-horminone), one triterpene (erythrodiol-3-acetate) and beta-sitosterol. Horminone, 7-acetyl-horminone and erythrodiol-3-acetate displayed marked concentration-dependent antiproliferative effects, while royleanone and 7-O-methyl-horminone produced weaker activities. PMID:21615011

Janicsák, Gábor; Zupkó, István; Nikolovac, Milena T; Forgo, Peter; Vasas, Andrea; Mathé, Imre; Blunden, Gerald; Hohmann, Judit



Bioactive Constituents of Indigofera spicata  

PubMed Central

Four new flavanones, designated as (+)?5?-deacetylpurpurin (1), (+)?5-methoxypurpurin (2), (2S)-2,3-dihydrotephroglabrin (3), and (2S)-2,3-dihydrotephroapollin C (4), together with two known flavanones (5 and 6), three known rotenoids (7–9), and one known chalcone (10) were isolated from a chloroform-soluble partition of a methanol extract from the combined flowers, fruits, leaves, and twigs of Indigofera spicata, collected in Vietnam. The compounds were obtained by bioactivity-guided isolation using HT-29 human colon cancer, 697 human acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and Raji human Burkitt’s lymphoma cell lines. The structures of 1–4 were established by extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments and the absolute configurations were determined by the measurement of specific rotations and CD spectra. The cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds were tested against the HT-29, 697, Raji and the CCD-112CoN human normal colon cells. Also, the quinone reductase induction activities of the isolates were determined using the Hepa 1c1c7 murine hepatoma cell line. In addition, cis-6a??12a?-hydroxyrotenone (7) was evaluated in an in vivo hollow fiber bioassay using HT-29, MCF-7 human breast cancer, and MDA-MB-435 human melanoma cells. PMID:23895019

Pérez, Lynette Bueno; Li, Jie; Lantvit, Daniel D.; Pan, Li; Ninh, Tran Ngoc; Chai, Hee-Byung; Soejarto, Djaja Djendoel; Swanson, Steven M.; Lucas, David M.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas



Investigating the protective properties of milk phospholipids against ultraviolet light exposure in a skin equivalent model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current research on bioactive molecules in milk has documented health advantages of bovine milk and its components. Milk Phospholipids, selected for this study, represent molecules with great potential benefit in human health and nutrition. In this study we used confocal reflectance and multiphoton microscopy to monitor changes in skin morphology upon skin exposure to ultraviolet light and evaluate the potential of milk phospholipids in preventing photodamage to skin equivalent models. The results suggest that milk phospholipids act upon skin cells in a protective manner against the effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Similar results were obtained from MTT tissue viability assay and histology.

Russell, Ashley; Laubscher, Andrea; Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Laiho, Lily H.



SCI: Skin Cancer Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Skin Care Investigations offers students the chance to learn more about skin and skin cancer before entering the virtual world of Glowell Clinic, where they will spend time at the helpdesk answering callers' questions about skin protection and in the laboratory assessing whether skin abnormalities are cancerous or not. An interactive assessment allows students and teachers to gauge understanding at this level.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )



A Versatile Rocket Engine Hot Gas Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capabilities of a versatile rocket engine facility, located in the Rocket Laboratory at the NASA Lewis Research Center, are presented. The gaseous hydrogen/oxygen facility can be used for thermal shock and hot gas testing of materials and structures as well as rocket propulsion testing. Testing over a wide range of operating conditions in both fuel and oxygen rich regimes can be conducted, with cooled or uncooled test specimens. The size and location of the test cell provide the ability to conduct large amounts of testing in short time periods with rapid turnaround between programs.

Green, James M.



A Versatile Synthesis of Substituted Isoquinolines**  

PubMed Central

A new and versatile synthesis of substituted isoquinolines: lithiated o-tolualdehyde tert-butylimines are shown to condense with nitriles to form eneamido anion intermediates that can be trapped in situ with various electrophiles, affording a diverse array of highly substituted isoquinolines, many of which are difficult to access by known methods. Further substitutional diversification can be achieved by modification of the work-up conditions and by subsequent transformations. This method should be useful for the preparation of biological active isoquinolines, such as analogs of the isoquinoline-containing natural product cortistatin A. PMID:21910199

Si, Chong



Wideband versatile radio-frequency spectrum analyzer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operation of a wideband, versatile optical spectrum analyzer for radio-frequency (RF) signals is demonstrated. The device is based on spectral hole burning (SHB). The demonstration features 2.3-GHz instantaneous bandwidth, 500-kHz resolution, and a 32-dB dynamic range. A true RF signal, transferred to the optical carrier with the help of a Mach-Zehnder modulator, is analyzed with optical carrier suppression and zooming capabilities. This is to the authors' knowledge the largest instantaneous bandwidth ever demonstrated for a SHB-based processor in rare-earth-doped crystals.

Lavielle, V.; Lorgeré, I.; Le Gouët, J.-L.; Tonda, S.; Dolfi, D.



Microencapsulation of bioactives for food applications.  


Health issues are an emerging concern to the world population, and therefore the food industry is searching for novel food products containing health-promoting bioactive compounds, with little or no synthetic ingredients. However, there are some challenges in the development of functional foods, particularly in which the direct use of some bioactives is involved. They can show problems of instability, react with other food matrix ingredients or present strong odour and/or flavours. In this context, microencapsulation emerges as a potential approach to overcome these problems and, additionally, to provide controlled or targeted delivery or release. This work intends to contribute to the field of functional food development by performing a comprehensive review on the microencapsulation methods and materials, the bioactives used (extracts and isolated compounds) and the final application development. Although several studies dealing with microencapsulation of bioactives exist, they are mainly focused on the process development and the majority lack proof of concept for final applications. These factors, together with the lack of regulation, in Europe and in the United States, delay the development of new functional foods and, consequently, their market entry. In conclusion, the potential of microencapsulation to protect bioactive compounds ensuring their bioavailability is shown, but further studies are required, considering both its applicability and incentives by regulatory agencies. PMID:25710906

Dias, Maria Inês; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Barreiro, Maria Filomena



CSD skin test  


Cat scratch disease skin test ... cat scratch disease is injected just under the skin. After 48 to 72 hours, a health care ... no special preparation. People with dermatitis or other skin irritations should have the test performed on an ...


Skin lesion biopsy  


Punch biopsy; Shave biopsy; Skin biopsy; Biopsy - skin ... There are several ways to do a skin biopsy. Most procedures are easily done in your doctor's office or an outpatient medical office. Which procedure you have depends on the location, ...


Skin Cancer Foundation  


... Gala Young Associates After-Party A Night the Stars Shine On Road to Healthy Skin Tour International ... The Skin Cancer Foundation Gala A Night the Stars Shine On The Road to Healthy Skin Tour ...


Skin (Pressure) Sores  


... Topic Skin dryness Next Topic Sleep problems Skin (pressure) sores A skin or pressure sore develops when the blood supply to an ... is bedridden or always in a wheelchair puts pressure on the same places much of the time. ...


Components of skin  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... with immunity against foreign invaders like germs and bacteria. The very bottom layer of the skin is ... glands also helps to soften hair and kill bacteria that get in the skin’s pores. These oil ...


Exploring versatile applications of cyclodextrins: an overview.  


Abstract Context: Ever since the discovery of cyclodextrins, a family of cyclic oligosaccharides based on ? (1???4) linkage among glucopyranose subunits, these versatile supramolecular hosts have received tremendous attention for scientific explorations. Due to their property of forming host-guest type inclusion complex, cyclodextrins and their synthetic derivatives exhibit wide range of utilities in different areas viz. pharmaceuticals, drug delivery systems, cosmetics, food and nutrition, textile and chemical industry etc. Objective: The purpose of this review is to highlight properties, advantages, recent studies and versatile benefits of cyclodextrins and to re-strengthen their prospective applications in novel directions for future research. Methods: This article summarizes a variety of applications of cyclodextrins in various industrial products, technologies, analytical and chemical processes and recent industrial advancements by extensively literature search on various scientific databases, Google and websites of various associated pharmaceutical industries and patenting authorities across the world. Results and conclusion: Due to possibility of multidimensional changes in physical and chemical properties of molecules upon inclusion complexation in cyclodextrins, these compounds are of great commercial interest and may offer solution to many of the scientific problems of the current world. PMID:25051096

Sharma, Neha; Baldi, Ashish



Increased levels of palmitoylethanolamide and other bioactive lipid mediators and enhanced local mast cell proliferation in canine atopic dermatitis  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the precise pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) is unknown, an immune dysregulation that causes Th2-predominant inflammation and an intrinsic defect in skin barrier function are currently the two major hypotheses, according to the so-called outside-inside-outside model. Mast cells (MCs) are involved in AD both by releasing Th2 polarizing cytokines and generating pruritus symptoms through release of histamine and tryptase. A link between MCs and skin barrier defects was recently uncovered, with histamine being found to profoundly contribute to the skin barrier defects. Palmitoylethanolamide and related lipid mediators are endogenous bioactive compounds, considered to play a protective homeostatic role in many tissues: evidence collected so far shows that the anti-inflammatory effect of palmitoylethanolamide depends on the down-modulation of MC degranulation. Based on this background, the purpose of the present study was twofold: (a) to determine if the endogenous levels of palmitoylethanolamide and other bioactive lipid mediators are changed in the skin of AD dogs compared to healthy animals; (b) to examine if MC number is increased in the skin of AD dogs and, if so, whether it depends on MC in-situ proliferation. Results The amount of lipid extract expressed as percent of biopsy tissue weight was significantly reduced in AD skin while the levels of all analyzed bioactive lipid mediators were significantly elevated, with palmitoylethanolamide showing the highest increase. In dogs with AD, the number of MCs was significantly increased in both the subepidermal and the perifollicular compartments and their granule content was significantly decreased in the latter. Also, in situ proliferation of MCs was documented. Conclusions The levels of palmitoylethanolamide and other bioactive lipid mediators were shown to increase in AD skin compared to healthy samples, leading to the hypothesis that they may be part of the body’s innate mechanisms to maintain cellular homeostasis when faced with AD-related inflammation. In particular, the increase may be considered a temptative response to down-regulating the observed elevation in the number, functionality and proliferative state of MCs in the skin of AD dogs. Further studies are warranted to confirm the hypothesis. PMID:24423192




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Consumption of tree nuts such as almonds has been associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. Flavonoids, found predominantly in the skin, may contribute to this putative health benefit of almonds, but their bioactivity and bioavailability have not previously been studied. Almond skin ...


Bioactive metals: preparation and properties.  


Some ceramics, such as Bioglass, sintered hydroxyapatite, and glass-ceramic A-W, spontaneously form a bone-like apatite layer on their surface in the living body, and bond to bone through the apatite layer. These materials are called bioactive ceramics, and are clinically important for use as bone-repairing materials. However, they cannot be used at high-load sites, such as is found in femoral and tibial bones, because their fracture toughness values are not as high as that of human cortical bone. Titanium metal and its alloys have high fracture toughness, and form a sodium titanate layer on its surface when soaked in a 5 M-NaOH solution at 60 degrees C for 24 h, followed by a heat treatment at 600 degrees C for 1 h. On moving toward the metal interior, the sodium titanate layer gradually changes into the pure metal within a distance of 1 microm from the surface. The mechanical strength of the titanium metal or a titanium alloy is not adversely affected by these chemical and thermal treatments. The titanium metal and its alloys resulting from the above treatment can release Na+ ions from its surface into a surrounding body fluid via an ion exchange reaction with H3O+ ions, resulting in many Ti-OH groups forming on its surface. These Ti-OH groups initially combine with Ca2+ ions to form amorphous calcium titanate in the body environment, and later the calcium titanate combines with phosphate ions to form amorphous calcium phosphate. The amorphous calcium phosphate eventually transforms into bone-like apatite, and by this process the titanium metals are soon tightly bonded to the surrounding living bone through the bone-like apatite layer. The treated metals have already been subjected to clinical trials for applications in artificial total hip joints. Metallic tantalum has also been found to bond to living bone after it has been subjected to the NaOH and heat treatment to form a sodium tantalate layer on its surface. PMID:15330042

Kokubo, T; Kim, H M; Kawashita, M; Nakamura, T



Microbial biotransformation of bioactive flavonoids.  


The bioactive flavonoids are considered as the most important phytochemicals in food, which exert a wide range of biological benefits for human being. Microbial biotransformation strategies for production of flavonoids have attracted considerable interest because they allow yielding novel flavonoids, which do not exist in nature. In this review, we summarize the existing knowledge on the production and biotransformation of flavonoids by various microbes. The main reactions during microbial biotransformation are hydroxylation, dehydroxylation, O-methylation, O-demethylation, glycosylation, deglycosylation, dehydrogenation, hydrogenation, C ring cleavage of the benzo-?-pyrone system, cyclization, and carbonyl reduction. Cunninghamella, Penicillium, and Aspergillus strains are very popular to biotransform flavonoids and they can perform almost all the reactions with excellent yields. Aspergillus niger is one of the most applied microorganisms in the flavonoids' biotransformation; for example, A. niger can transfer flavanone to flavan-4-ol, 2'-hydroxydihydrochalcone, flavone, 3-hydroxyflavone, 6-hydroxyflavanone, and 4'-hydroxyflavanone. The hydroxylation of flavones by microbes usually happens on the ortho position of hydroxyl group on the A ring and C-4' position of the B ring and microbes commonly hydroxylate flavonols at the C-8 position. The microorganisms tend to hydroxylate flavanones at the C-5, 6, and 4' positions; however, for prenylated flavanones, dihydroxylation often takes place on the C4?=C5? double bond on the prenyl group (the side chain of A ring). Isoflavones are usually hydroxylated at the C-3' position of the B ring by microorganisms. The microbes convert flavonoids to their 7-O-glycosides and 3-O-glycosides (when flavonoids have a hydroxyl moiety at the C-3 position). The demethylation of multimethoxyl flavonoids by microbes tends to happen at the C-3' and C-4' positions of the B ring. Multimethoxyl flavanones and isoflavone are demethylated at the C-7 and C-4' positions. The O-methylation of flavonols happens at the C-3' and C-4' and microorganisms O-methylate flavones at the C-6 position and the O-methylation of flavanones, usually took place on the hydroxyl groups of the A ring. The prenyl flavanones were cyclized at the prenyl side chain to form a new five-member ring attached to the A ring. Chalcones were regioselectively cyclized to flavanones. Hydrogenation of flavonoids was only reported on transformation of chalcones to dihydrochalcones. The dehydrogenation of flavanoids to flavonoids was not comprehensively studied. PMID:25447420

Cao, Hui; Chen, Xiaoqing; Jassbi, Amir Reza; Xiao, Jianbo



Methods of Manufacturing Bioactive Gels from Extracellular Matrix Material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention is directed to methods of manufacturing bioactive gels from ECM material, i.e., gels which retain bioactivity, and can serve as scaffolds for preclinical and clinical tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches to tissue reconstruction. The manufacturing methods take advantage of a new recognition that bioactive gels from ECM material can be created by digesting particularized ECM material in an alkaline environment and neutralizing to provide bioactive gels.

Kentner, Kimberly A. (Inventor); Stuart, Katherine A. (Inventor); Janis, Abram D. (Inventor)



How to Check Your Skin for Skin Cancer  


... Publications Español How to Check Your Skin for Skin Cancer To detect skin cancer early, examine your skin all over your body ... Common Moles, Dysplastic Nevi, and Risk of Melanoma Skin Cancer Posted: September 16, 2011 We Can Answer Your ...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Public health concerns related to heart disease and other chronic diseases have led to successful developments of bioactive food ingredients including Oatrim and Nutrim. The bioactive properties of soluble oat beta-glucan are well recognized for their health benefits. New bioactive oat hydrocolloi...


Three-dimensional, bioactive, biodegradable, polymerbioactive glass composite scaffolds with  

E-print Network

- teointegrative potential compared to degradable polymers of poly(lactic acid-glycolic acid) alone. Future workThree-dimensional, bioactive, biodegradable, polymer­bioactive glass composite scaffolds a degradable, porous, polymer bioactive glass com- posite possessing improved mechanical properties and os

Lu, Helen H.


How versatile are inositol phosphate kinases?  

PubMed Central

This review assesses the extent and the significance of catalytic versatility shown by several inositol phosphate kinases: the inositol phosphate multikinase, the reversible Ins(1,3,4) P (3)/Ins(3,4,5,6) P (4) kinase, and the kinases that synthesize diphosphoinositol polyphosphates. Particular emphasis is placed upon data that are relevant to the situation in vivo. It will be shown that catalytic promiscuity towards different inositol phosphates is not typically an evolutionary compromise, but instead is sometimes exploited to facilitate tight regulation of physiological processes. This multifunctionality can add to the complexity with which inositol signalling pathways interact. This review also assesses some proposed additional functions for the catalytic domains, including transcriptional regulation, protein kinase activity and control by molecular 'switching', all in the context of growing interest in 'moonlighting' (gene-sharing) proteins. PMID:14567754

Shears, Stephen B



Skin Cancer: Signs and Symptoms  


... treatments Q - T Skin cancer Signs, symptoms Skin cancer: Signs and symptoms The most common warning sign ... appears in many ways. Learn more about skin cancer: Skin cancer Skin cancer: Who gets and causes ...


Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles  

E-print Network

Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles W. Brullot a in revised form 20 December 2011 Available online 3 February 2012 Keywords: Ferrofluid Polyethylene glycol Magneto-optics Magnetite Rheology a b s t r a c t Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol


The DLR MIRO: a versatile lightweight robot for surgical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Surgical robotics can be divided into two groups: specialized and versatile systems. Versatile systems can be used in different surgical applications, control architectures and operating room set-ups, but often still based on the adaptation of industrial robots. Space consumption, safety and adequacy of industrial robots in the unstructured and crowded environment of an operating room and in close

U. Hagn; M. Nickl; S. Jörg; G. Passig; T. Bahls; A. Nothhelfer; F. Hacker; L. Le-Tien; A. Albu-Schäffer; R. Konietschke; M. Grebenstein; R. Warpup; R. Haslinger; M. Frommberger; G. Hirzinger




E-print Network

-Q mechanical design with the packaging process resulted in a stable quality factor of greater than 91VERSATILE VACUUM PACKAGING FOR EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF RESONANT MEMS Adam R. Schofield, Alexander A a versatile sub-mTorr vacuum packaging approach ideally suited for R&D of high performance dynamic MEMS

Tang, William C


Nanotech: Propensity in Foods and Bioactives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanotechnology is seeing higher propensity in various industries, including food and bioactives. New nanomaterials are constantly developed from both natural biodegradable polymers of plant and animal origins such as polysaccharides and derivatives, peptides and proteins, lipids and fats, and biocompatible synthetic biopolyester polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA), polyhydroxyalkonoates (PHA) and polycaprolactone (PCL). Applications in food industries include molecular synthesis

Chiu-Yin Kuan; Wai Yee-Fung; Kah-Hay Yuen; Min-Tze Liong



Methoxylation enhances stilbene bioactivity in Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Stilbenes are 1,2-diphenylethylene congeners produced by plants in response to stress. Many stilbenes also exhibit xenobiotic activities in animal cells, such as inhibition of cancer cell growth, neuroprotection, and immune modulation. In vivo, hydroxylated stilbenes are metabolized by glucuronidation to facilitate excretion. Methoxylated stilbenes are metabolized more slowly, which may have a positive effect on in vivo bioactivity. Here,

Mark A Wilson; Agnes M Rimando; Catherine A Wolkow



Nanotech: Propensity in Foods and Bioactives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanotechnology is seeing higher propensity in various industries, including food and bioactives. New nanomaterials are constantly being developed from both natural biodegradable polymers of plant and animal origins such as polysaccharides and derivatives, peptides and proteins, lipids and fats, and biocompatible synthetic biopolyester polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA), polyhydroxyalkonoates (PHA), and polycaprolactone (PCL). Applications in food industries include molecular

Chiu-Yin Kuan; Wai Yee-Fung; Kah-Hay Yuen; Min-Tze Liong



Journal of Bioactive and Compatible Polymers  

E-print Network

/nanofibers, entrapped within a macroporous poly(l-lactic acid)/poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) foam coated with Ca+2/ nanofibers, alginic acid, poly(l-lactic acid), poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) 1DepartmentJournal of Bioactive and Compatible Polymers 2014, Vol. 29(3) 235­253 © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints

Hasýrcý, Vasýf


Bioactive annonaceous acetogenins from Rollinia mucosa.  


Two new bioactive Annonaceous acetogenins, rollitacin (1) and rollinacin (2), along with one known acetogenin, javoricin, were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Rollinia mucosa. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited selective inhibitory effects among six human solid tumour cell lines. The structural elucidations of 1 and 2 were achieved by various spectroscopic analyses and chemical derivatizations. PMID:9195761

Shi, G; MacDougal, J M; McLaughlin, J L



Citrus Limonoids: Analysis, Bioactivity, and Biomedical Prospects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This publication is a review of the chemistry, biochemistry and bioactivity of limonoids occurring in citrus. The review chronologically relates the evolution of research in citrus limonoids beginning with their association with bitterness development in citrus juices. The chemical and biochemical...


Marine Bioactives and Potential Application in Sports  

PubMed Central

An enriched diet with antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, ?-carotene and phenolic compounds, has always been suggested to improve oxidative stress, preventing related diseases. In this respect, marine natural product (MNP), such as COX inhibitors, marine steroids, molecules interfering with factors involved in the modulation of gene expression (such as NF-?B), macrolides, many antioxidant agents, thermogenic substances and even substances that could help the immune system and that result in the protection of cartilage, have been recently gaining attention. The marine world represents a reserve of bioactive ingredients, with considerable potential as functional food. Substances, such as chitin, chitosan, n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive peptides, can provide several health benefits, such as the reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. In addition, new marine bioactive substances with potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and thermogenic capacity may provide health benefits and performance improvement, especially in those who practice physical activity, because of their increased free radical and Reacting Oxygen Species (ROS) production during exercise, and, particularly, in athletes. The aim of this review is to examine the potential pharmacological properties and application of many marine bioactive substances in sports. PMID:24796298

Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Gemello, Eugenio; Riccioni, Graziano; D’Orazio, Nicolantonio



Bioactive alkaloids in vertically transmitted fungal endophytes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plants form mutualistic symbioses with a variety of microorganisms, including endophytic fungi that live inside the plant and cause no symptoms of infection. Some endophytic fungi form defensive mutualisms based on the production of bioactive metabolites that protect the plant from herbivores in exc...


Thermal analysis and in vitro bioactivity of bioactive glass-alumina composites  

SciTech Connect

Bioactive glass-alumina composite (BA) pellets were fabricated in the range 95/5-60/40 wt.% respectively and were heat-treated under a specific thermal treatment up to 950 {sup o}C. Control (unheated) and heat-treated pellets were immersed in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) for bioactivity testing. All pellets before and after immersion in SBF were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. All composite pellets presented bioactive response. On the surface of the heat-treated pellets the development of a rich biological hydroxyapatite (HAp) layer was delayed for one day, compared to the respective control pellets. Independent of the proportion of the two components, all composites of each group (control and heat-treated) presented the same bioactive response as a function of immersion time in SBF. It was found that by the applied methodology, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be successfully applied in bioactive glass composites without obstructing their bioactive response. - Research Highlights: {yields} Isostatically pressed glass-alumina composites presented apatite-forming ability. {yields} The interaction with SBF resulted in an aluminium phosphate phase formation. {yields} The formation of an aluminium phosphate phase enhanced the in vitro apatite growth.

Chatzistavrou, Xanthippi, E-mail: [Solid State Physics Section, Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kantiranis, Nikolaos, E-mail: [School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kontonasaki, Eleana, E-mail: [School of Dentistry, Department of Fixed Prosthesis and Implant Prosthodontics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Chrissafis, Konstantinos, E-mail: [Solid State Physics Section, Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Papadopoulou, Labrini, E-mail: [School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Koidis, Petros, E-mail: [School of Dentistry, Department of Fixed Prosthesis and Implant Prosthodontics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Boccaccini, Aldo R., E-mail: [Department of Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Imperial College, SW7 2AZ London (United Kingdom); Paraskevopoulos, Konstantinos M., E-mail: [Solid State Physics Section, Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)



Skin cancer in skin of color.  


In general, skin cancer is uncommon in people of color when compared to Caucasians. When it does occur, it is often associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Differences in survival rates may be attributed to skin cancers being diagnosed at a more advanced stage, and socioeconomic factors such as lack of adequate insurance coverage and lack of transportation can function as barriers to timely diagnosis and early treatment. In addition to advanced stage at presentation, malignant skin lesions in skin of color often present in an atypical fashion. Because skin cancer prevention and screening practices historically have been lower among Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians, and given the changing demographics in the United States, interventions that are tailored to each of these groups will be needed. Public educational campaigns should be expanded to educate people of all skin types with emphasis on skin cancers occurring in areas not exposed to the sun (Byrd-Miles et al., 2007), since sunlight is not as important an etiologic factor in the pathogenesis of skin cancer in people of color. Dermatologists and primary care physicians should instruct their darker-skinned patients on how to perform routine skin self-examinations. Physicians should also encourage patients to ask their specialists such as their gynecologist, dentist, and ophthalmologist to look for abnormal pigmentation during routine exams. To reduce the burden of skin cancer, several prevention methods for all people have been strongly encouraged, including monthly self-examinations, daily use of SPF 30 or greater sunscreen, sunglasses with UV-absorbing lenses, and avoiding tanning booths (American Cancer Society, 2008) (see Table 7). In addition, recommendations for clinicians to promote the prevention of skin cancer in skin of color have also been made, including closely monitoring changing pigmented lesions on the palms and soles and hyperkeratotic or poorly healing ulcers in immunosuppressed patients (Halder & Bridgeman-Shah, 1995) (see Table 7). PMID:19691228

Bradford, Porcia T



Reactivity and kinetics of vinyl sulfone-functionalized self-assembled monolayers for bioactive ligand immobilization.  


A new vinyl sulfone (VS) disulfide, 1,2-bis(11-(vinyl sulfonyl)undecyl)disulfane, was synthesized to enable the preparation of VS-presenting self-assembled monolayers (VS SAMs) on Au substrates. The VS SAMs were used as a model system to assess the reaction kinetics of bioactive ligands, i.e., glutathione (GSH), N-(5-amino-1-carboxypentyl)iminodiacetic acid (ab-NTA), and mannose, toward the VS groups on the SAM surface. The VS SAMs and the ligand immobilization were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle goniometry, and protein-binding experiments using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Kinetic studies showed that the surface VS groups undergo pseudo-first-order reactions with various ligands, with the observed rate constant being 0.057 min(-1) for GSH at pH 7.5, 0.011 min(-1) for ab-NTA at pH 8.5, and 0.009 min(-1) for mannose at pH 10.5. This work advanced our understanding of the reactivity of VS-bearing functional surfaces and further demonstrated the versatile potential of VS chemistry to prepare ligand-immobilized bioactive surfaces. PMID:25736428

Wang, Hanqi; Cheng, Fang; Li, Mingyang; Peng, Wei; Qu, Jingping



Methoxylation enhances stilbene bioactivity in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Background Stilbenes are 1,2-diphenylethylene congeners produced by plants in response to stress. Many stilbenes also exhibit xenobiotic activities in animal cells, such as inhibition of cancer cell growth, neuroprotection, and immune modulation. In vivo, hydroxylated stilbenes are metabolized by glucuronidation to facilitate excretion. Methoxylated stilbenes are metabolized more slowly, which may have a positive effect on in vivo bioactivity. Here, we have directly compared in vivo bioactivities of methoxylated and hydroxylated stilbenes in a whole organism using the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, an advantageous experimental system for such studies due to its rapid lifecycle, genetic amenability and relatively low-cost. Results Toxicity towards C. elegans adults was observed for trimethoxylated and dimethoxylated stilbenes, as well as the monomethoxylated stilbene desoxyrhapontigenin. Toxicity was not observed for the monomethoxylated stilbene, pinostilbene, nor for hydroxylated stilbenes. The methoxylated stilbenes that exhibited toxicity also showed stronger inhibitory effects than the hydroxylated stilbenes on germline tumor growth in gld-1(q485) adults. However, steady-state levels of three inhibitory methoxylated stilbenes did not directly correlate to their relative bioactivities. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that, for the group of stilbenes investigated, methoxylation generally increased bioactivity in vivo in a whole organism, with the exception of pinostilbene. Differences in bioactivity in C. elegans adults did not appear to correlate with differential uptake. Rather, we speculate that methoxylated stilbenes may have increased interactions with biological targets in vivo or may interact with specific targets unaffected by hydroxylated stilbenes. The potent activities of methoxylated stilbenes provide a basis for further investigations to identify in vivo targets for these compounds. PMID:18700960

Wilson, Mark A; Rimando, Agnes M; Wolkow, Catherine A



Estrogens and aging skin  

PubMed Central

Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity. Its protective function becomes compromised and aging is associated with impaired wound healing, hair loss, pigmentary changes and skin cancer.   Skin aging can be significantly delayed by the administration of estrogen. This paper reviews estrogen effects on human skin and the mechanisms by which estrogens can alleviate the changes due to aging. The relevance of estrogen replacement, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and phytoestrogens as therapies for diminishing skin aging is highlighted. Understanding estrogen signaling in skin will provide a basis for interventions in aging pathologies. PMID:24194966

Thornton, M. Julie



Design of a versatile clinical aberrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed an ocular aberrometer based on the Hartmann-Shack (HS) type wavefront sensor for use in optometry clinics. The optical system has enhanced versatility compared with commercial aberrometers, yet it is compact and user-friendly. The system has the capability to sense both on-axis and off-axis aberrations in the eye within an unobstructed 20 degree field. This capability is essential to collect population data for off-axis aberrations. This data will be useful in designing future adaptive optics (AO) systems to improve image quality of eccentric retinal areas, in particular, for multi-conjugate AO systems. The ability of the examiner to control the accommodation demand is a unique feature of the design that commercial instruments are capable of only after modification. The pupil alignment channel is re-combined with the sensing channel in a parallel path and imaged on a single CCD. This makes the instrument more compact, less expensive, and it helps to synchronize the pupil center with the HS spot coordinate system. Another advantage of the optical design is telecentric re-imaging of the HS spots, increasing the robustness to small longitudinal alignment errors. The optical system has been optimized with a ray-tracing program and its prototype is being constructed. Design considerations together with a description of the optical components are presented. Difficulties and future work are outlined.

Sheehan, Matthew; Goncharov, Alexander; Dainty, Chris



Buried nanoantenna arrays: versatile antireflection coating.  


Reflection is usually a detrimental phenomenon in many applications such as flat-panel-displays, solar cells, photodetectors, infrared sensors, and lenses. Thus far, to control and suppress the reflection from a substrate, numerous techniques including dielectric interference coatings, surface texturing, adiabatic index matching, and scattering from plasmonic nanoparticles have been investigated. A new technique is demonstrated to manage and suppress reflection from lossless and lossy substrates. It provides a wider flexibility in design versus previous methods. Reflection from a surface can be suppressed over a narrowband, wideband, or multiband frequency range. The antireflection can be dependent or independent of the incident wave polarization. Moreover, antireflection at a very wide incidence angle can be attained. The reflection from a substrate is controlled by a buried nanoantenna array, a structure composed of (1) a subwavelength metallic array and (2) a dielectric cover layer referred to as a superstrate. The material properties and thickness of the superstrate and nanoantennas' geometry and periodicity control the phase and intensity of the wave circulating inside the superstrate cavity. A minimum reflectance of 0.02% is achieved in various experiments in the mid-infrared from a silicon substrate. The design can be integrated in straightforward way in optical devices. The proposed structure is a versatile AR coating to optically impedance matches any substrate to free space in selected any narrow and broadband spectral response across the entire visible and infrared spectrum. PMID:24266700

Kabiri, Ali; Girgis, Emad; Capasso, Federico



Applications of a versatile new instrument module  

SciTech Connect

The authors have found a number of interesting applications for the Pulse Arrival Time Recording Module (PATRM). This CAMAC module is capable of recording the arrival time of up to 4 million pulses. The result is a list of 32-bit binary numbers in which each number represents the arrival time of a single pulse expressed in terms of the number of {open_quotes}ticks{close_quotes} of a 10MHz clock which have elapsed since the beginning of the count. The versatility arises from the fact that the data list can be analyzed by whatever algorithm the authors can put into software, and that they can {open_quotes}play it back{close_quotes} as many times as desired. The authors already have the following applications: (1) Neutron multiplicity counting in waste assay. (2) Study of dead-time recovery and double pulsing in individual channels. (3) Auto-correlation analysis for Rossi-{alpha} measurements in critical systems. (4) Variable channel width multichannel scaler for delayed neutron counting. (5) Cross-correlation analysis and conventional multi-scaling. (6) Time dependent multiplicity measurements during neutron interrogation. The authors expect in the coming year to test an updated version of the PATRM which will incorporate a 100MH clock and label each pulse with the channel from which it came. The device will be configured as a single PC card installable in any high performance IBM type computer.

Brunson, G.S.; Arnone, G.J.



Type IV Pilin Proteins: Versatile Molecular Modules  

PubMed Central

Summary: Type IV pili (T4P) are multifunctional protein fibers produced on the surfaces of a wide variety of bacteria and archaea. The major subunit of T4P is the type IV pilin, and structurally related proteins are found as components of the type II secretion (T2S) system, where they are called pseudopilins; of DNA uptake/competence systems in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive species; and of flagella, pili, and sugar-binding systems in the archaea. This broad distribution of a single protein family implies both a common evolutionary origin and a highly adaptable functional plan. The type IV pilin is a remarkably versatile architectural module that has been adopted widely for a variety of functions, including motility, attachment to chemically diverse surfaces, electrical conductance, acquisition of DNA, and secretion of a broad range of structurally distinct protein substrates. In this review, we consider recent advances in this research area, from structural revelations to insights into diversity, posttranslational modifications, regulation, and function. PMID:23204365

Giltner, Carmen L.; Nguyen, Ylan



Photodermatoses in pigmented skin.  


Photodermatoses are a group of skin diseases primarily caused by, or exacerbated by exposure to ultraviolet and or visible radiation. The effect of sunlight on skin depends on a number of factors including skin colour, skin phototype and the content and type of melanin in the skin. There are only a few studies describing photodermatoses in populations with dark skin. A PubMed search was conducted to summarize currently available information on differences in biology of melanin in dark and light skin and photodermatoses in dark skin. Dark skin is characterised by higher content of melanin, higher eumelanin to pheomelanin ratio, lower tyrosinase activity, and more effective distribution of melanin for protection against ultraviolet light. Photodermatoses are common in dark skinned patients with some variation in the spectrum of photodermatoses. Polymorphous light eruption (PMLE) is the commonest, followed by chronic actinic dermatitis. Pin-point papular and lichenoid variants of PMLE and actinic lichen planus are more frequent in dark skin whereas actinic prurigo, solar urticaria and hydroa vacciniforme are uncommon. Photodermatoses are common in dark skinned patients despite better natural photoprotection. It is proposed that lichenoid photodermatoses may be added to the classification of photodermatoses in dark skin. PMID:23123922

Sharma, Vinod Kumar; Sahni, Kanika; Wadhwani, Ashok Roopchand



Microencapsulated Bioactive Agents and Method of Making  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention is directed to microcapsules encapsulating an aqueous solution of a protein, drug or other bioactive substance inside a semi-permeable membrane. The microcapsules are formed by interfacial coacervation where shear forces are limited to 0-100 dynes per square centimeter. The resulting uniform microcapsules can then be subjected to dewatering in order to cause the internal solution to become supersaturated with the dissolved substance. This dewatering allows controlled nucleation and crystallization of the dissolved substance. The crystal-filled microcapsules can be stored, keeping the encapsulated crystals in good condition for further direct use in x-ray crystallography or as injectable formulations of the dissolved drug, protein or other bioactive substance.

Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)



Bioactive glasses-structure and properties.  


Bioactive glasses were the first synthetic materials to show bonding to bone, and they are successfully used for bone regeneration. They can degrade in the body at a rate matching that of bone formation, and through a combination of apatite crystallization on their surface and ion release they stimulate bone cell proliferation, which results in the formation of new bone. Despite their excellent properties and although they have been in clinical use for nearly thirty years, their current range of clinical applications is still small. Latest research focuses on developing new compositions to address clinical needs, including glasses for treating osteoporosis, with antibacterial properties, or for the sintering of scaffolds with improved mechanical stability. This Review discusses how the glass structure controls the properties, and shows how a structure-based design may pave the way towards new bioactive glass implants for bone regeneration. PMID:25765017

Brauer, Delia S



Metabolically Competent Human Skin Models: Activation and Genotoxicity of Benzo[a]pyrene  

PubMed Central

The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo[a]pyrene (BP) is metabolized into a complex pattern of BP derivatives, among which the ultimate carcinogen (+)-anti-BP-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) is formed to certain extents. Skin is frequently in contact with PAHs and data on the metabolic capacity of skin tissue toward these compounds are inconclusive. We compared BP metabolism in excised human skin, commercially available in vitro 3D skin models and primary 2D skin cell cultures, and analyzed the metabolically catalyzed occurrence of seven different BP follow-up products by means of liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). All models investigated were competent to metabolize BP, and the metabolic profiles generated by ex vivo human skin and skin models were remarkably similar. Furthermore, the genotoxicity of BP and its derivatives was monitored in these models via comet assays. In a full-thickness skin, equivalent BP-mediated genotoxic stress was generated via keratinocytes. Cultured primary keratinocytes revealed a level of genotoxicity comparable with that of direct exposure to 50–100nM of BPDE. Our data demonstrate that the metabolic capacity of human skin ex vivo, as well as organotypic human 3D skin models toward BP, is sufficient to cause significant genotoxic stress and thus cutaneous bioactivation may potentially contribute to mutations that ultimately lead to skin cancer. PMID:23148024

Henkler, Frank



Bioactivation of knitted cellulose scaffolds by strontium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strontium has attained increasing interest in the treatment of osteoporosis due to its anabolic as well as antiresorptive\\u000a activity. Knitted cellulose scaffolds with a porosity suitable to promote bone tissue ingrowth and vascularisation were doped\\u000a with SrCO3. The in vitro bioactivity of the modified scaffolds was proven by formation of hydroxyapatite during exposure to simulated\\u000a body fluid. The Sr-release kinetics during

Heike Brandt; Frank A. Müller; Peter Greil



Nanochemoprevention by Bioactive Food Components: A Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemoprevention through the use of bioactive food components is a practical approach for cancer control. Despite abundant\\u000a efficacy data under preclinical settings, this strategy has resulted in limited success for human cancer control. Amongst\\u000a many reasons, inefficient systemic delivery and bioavailability of promising chemopreventive agents are considered to significantly\\u000a contribute to such a disconnect. We recently introduced a novel concept

Imtiaz A. Siddiqui; Hasan Mukhtar



Milk proteins as vehicles for bioactives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milk proteins are natural vehicles for bioactives. Many of their structural and physicochemical properties facilitate their functionality in delivery systems. These properties include binding of ions and small molecules, excellent surface and self-assembly properties; superb gelation properties; pH-responsive gel swelling behavior, useful for programmable release; interactions with other macromolecules to form complexes and conjugates with synergistic combinations of properties; various

Yoav D. Livney



Squamous cell skin cancer  


... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. The earliest form of ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight. Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...


Skin graft - series (image)  


... entire body, and acts as a protective barrier. Skin grafts may be recommended for: extensive wounds burns specific surgeries that may require skin grafts for healing to occur. The most common sites ...


Polymer photonic sensing skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A highly flexible sensing skin with embedded polymer optical fibre Bragg gratings is characterised The response to pressure and strain compare favourably to a similar skin instrumented with silica fibre Bragg grating sensors.

Chen, X.; Zhang, C.; Webb, D. J.; Van Hoe, B.; Van Steenberge, G.; Kalli, K.; Berghmans, F.; Thienpont, H.; Urbanczyk, W.; Sugden, K.; Peng, G.-D.



Aging changes in skin  


... Stress Other causes of skin changes: Allergies to plants and other substances Climate Clothing Exposures to industrial ... can cause: Loss of elasticity (elastosis) Noncancerous skin ... hormone production Aging changes in organs, tissues, and cells ...


Skin Pigmentation Disorders  


... skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or unhealthy, it affects melanin production. Some pigmentation disorders affect just patches of ...


Fungal Skin Infections  


... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals available ... Ringworm Beard Ringworm Dermatophytid Reaction Tinea Versicolor Intertrigo Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Skin Disorders > Fungal Skin Infections 4 ...


Versatile Rigid-Fluid Coupling for Incompressible SPH Nadir Akinci  

E-print Network

Versatile Rigid-Fluid Coupling for Incompressible SPH Nadir Akinci University of Freiburg Markus Ihmsen University of Freiburg Gizem Akinci University of Freiburg Barbara Solenthaler ETH Zürich Matthias

Teschner, Matthias


Metadata Authoring with Versatility and Extensibility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) assists the scientific community in the discovery of and linkage to Earth science data sets and related services. The GCMD holds over 13,800 data set descriptions in Directory Interchange Format (DIF) and 700 data service descriptions in Service Entry Resource Format (SERF), encompassing the disciplines of geology, hydrology, oceanography, meteorology, and ecology. Data descriptions also contain geographic coverage information and direct links to the data, thus allowing researchers to discover data pertaining to a geographic location of interest, then quickly acquire those data. The GCMD strives to be the preferred data locator for world-wide directory-level metadata. In this vein, scientists and data providers must have access to intuitive and efficient metadata authoring tools. Existing GCMD tools are attracting widespread usage; however, a need for tools that are portable, customizable and versatile still exists. With tool usage directly influencing metadata population, it has become apparent that new tools are needed to fill these voids. As a result, the GCMD has released a new authoring tool allowing for both web-based and stand-alone authoring of descriptions. Furthermore, this tool incorporates the ability to plug-and-play the metadata format of choice, offering users options of DIF, SERF, FGDC, ISO or any other defined standard. Allowing data holders to work with their preferred format, as well as an option of a stand-alone application or web-based environment, docBUlLDER will assist the scientific community in efficiently creating quality data and services metadata.

Pollack, Janine; Olsen, Lola



Versatile Membrane Deformation Potential of Activated Pacsin  

PubMed Central

Endocytosis is a fundamental process in signaling and membrane trafficking. The formation of vesicles at the plasma membrane is mediated by the G protein dynamin that catalyzes the final fission step, the actin cytoskeleton, and proteins that sense or induce membrane curvature. One such protein, the F-BAR domain-containing protein pacsin, contributes to this process and has been shown to induce a spectrum of membrane morphologies, including tubules and tube constrictions in vitro. Full-length pacsin isoform 1 (pacsin-1) has reduced activity compared to its isolated F-BAR domain, implicating an inhibitory role for its C-terminal Src homology 3 (SH3) domain. Here we show that the autoinhibitory, intramolecular interactions in pacsin-1 can be released upon binding to the entire proline-rich domain (PRD) of dynamin-1, resulting in potent membrane deformation activity that is distinct from the isolated F-BAR domain. Most strikingly, we observe the generation of small, homogenous vesicles with the activated protein complex under certain experimental conditions. In addition, liposomes prepared with different methods yield distinct membrane deformation morphologies of BAR domain proteins and apparent activation barriers to pacsin-1's activity. Theoretical free energy calculations suggest bimodality of the protein-membrane system as a possible source for the different outcomes, which could account for the coexistence of energetically equivalent membrane structures induced by BAR domain-containing proteins in vitro. Taken together, our results suggest a versatile role for pacsin-1 in sculpting cellular membranes that is likely dependent both on protein structure and membrane properties. PMID:23236520

Byrnes, Laura J.; Sondermann, Holger



Versatile Recognition Using Haar-Like Feature and Cascaded Classifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a world first versatile recognition algorithm suitable for processing images, sound and acceleration signals simultaneously with extremely low calculation cost while maintaining high recognition rates. There are three main contributions. The first is the introduction of a versatile recognition using Haar-like feature for images, sound and acceleration signals. The novel 1-D Haar-like features are proposed as very

Jun Nishimura; Tadahiro Kuroda



A mesoporous bioactive glass/polycaprolactone composite scaffold and its bioactivity behavior.  


Composite scaffolds of mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG)/polycaprolactone (PCL) and conventional bioactive glass (BG)/PCL were fabricated by a solvent casting-particulate leaching method, and the structure and properties of the composite scaffolds were characterized. The measurements of the water contact angles suggest that the incorporation of either MBG or BG into PCL can improve the hydrophilicity of the composites, and the former is more effective than the later. The bioactivity of the composite scaffold is evaluated by soaking the scaffolds in a simulated body fluid (SBF) and the results show that the MBG/PCL composite scaffolds can induce a dense and continuous layer of apatite after soaking in SBF for 3 weeks, as compared with the scattered and discrete apatite particles on the BG/PCL composite scaffolds. Such improvements (improvements of the hydrophilicity and apatite forming ability) should be helpful for the extensive applications of PCL scaffold in tissue engineering. PMID:17600329

Li, Xia; Shi, Jianlin; Dong, Xiaoping; Zhang, Lingxia; Zeng, Hongyu



Skin graft (image)  


A skin graft is a surgical procedure in which a piece of skin is transplanted from one area to another. ... a great loss of tissue, a full thickness graft, a flap of skin with underlying muscle and blood vessels, may be ...


Biology of Skin Color.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

Corcos, Alain



Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

No matter if your skin is light, dark, or somewhere in between, everyone is at risk for skin cancer. Learn what skin cancer looks like, how to find it early, and how to lower the chance of skin cancer.


Miniaturized Bioaffinity Assessment Coupled to Mass Spectrometry for Guided Purification of Bioactives from Toad and Cone Snail  

PubMed Central

A nano-flow high-resolution screening platform, featuring a parallel chip-based microfluidic bioassay and mass spectrometry coupled to nano-liquid chromatography, was applied to screen animal venoms for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor like (nAChR) affinity by using the acetylcholine binding protein, a mimic of the nAChR. The potential of this microfluidic platform is demonstrated by profiling the Conus textile venom proteome, consisting of over 1,000 peptides. Within one analysis (<90 min, 500 ng venom injected), ligands are detected and identified. To show applicability for non-peptides, small molecular ligands such as steroidal ligands were identified in skin secretions from two toad species (Bufo alvarius and Bufo marinus). Bioactives from the toad samples were subsequently isolated by MS-guided fractionation. The fractions analyzed by NMR and a radioligand binding assay with ?7-nAChR confirmed the identity and bioactivity of several new ligands. PMID:24833338

Heus, Ferry; Otvos, Reka A.; Aspers, Ruud L. E. G.; van Elk, Rene; Halff, Jenny I.; Ehlers, Andreas W.; Dutertre, Sébastien; Lewis, Richard J.; Wijmenga, Sybren; Smit, August B.; Niessen, Wilfried M. A.; Kool, Jeroen



Bioactive Peptides from Muscle Sources: Meat and Fish  

PubMed Central

Bioactive peptides have been identified in a range of foods, including plant, milk and muscle, e.g., beef, chicken, pork and fish muscle proteins. Bioactive peptides from food proteins offer major potential for incorporation into functional foods and nutraceuticals. The aim of this paper is to present an outline of the bioactive peptides identified in the muscle protein of meat to date, with a focus on muscle protein from domestic animals and fish. The majority of research on bioactives from meat sources has focused on angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antioxidant peptides. PMID:22254123

Ryan, Joseph Thomas; Ross, Reynolds Paul; Bolton, Declan; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Stanton, Catherine



Bioactive substances of plant origin in food impact on genomics  

E-print Network

Review Bioactive substances of plant origin in food ­ impact on genomics Arkadiusz ORZECHOWSKI of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw Agricultural University, Poland Abstract -- In the past decade, substantial

Boyer, Edmond


The Skin Deep Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From blemishes to suntans, young people are naturally fascinated by skin. The Skin Deep Project takes advantage of this curiosity, introducing students in grades 6 through 12 to the science of skin, including its role in protecting the body from invading microbes, maintaining temperature, and sensing the environment. As they learn how their skin protects them, they also learn how they can protect their skinâ??from the sunâ??s ultraviolet rays and from germs that can cause acne and other blemishes. With skin cancer cases increasing and more young people being affected, it is imperative that students understand what tools they have to protect themselves.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) (AAAS; )



Skin Exposure and Asthma  

PubMed Central

Numerous occupational and environmental exposures that increase asthma risk have been identified. Research and prevention have focused primarily on the respiratory tract. However, recent studies suggest that the skin may also be an important route of exposure and site of sensitization that contributes to asthma development. Factors that impair skin barrier function, such as filaggrin gene mutations or skin trauma, may facilitate allergen entry and promote Th2-like sensitization and subsequent asthma. Animal studies demonstrate that skin exposure to chemical and protein allergens is highly effective at inducing sensitization, with subsequent inhalation challenge eliciting asthmatic responses. A similar role for human skin exposure to certain sensitizing agents, such as isocyanates, is likely. Skin exposure methodologies are being developed to incorporate skin exposure assessment into epidemiology studies investigating asthma risk factors. PMID:20427586

Redlich, Carrie A.



Metabolism of butoxyethanol in excised human skin in vitro.  


Glycol ethers are widely used in industrial and household applications because their chemical and physical properties make them versatile solvents, miscible with both water and organic media. Due to the ease with which the glycol ethers are absorbed through the skin and the potential for development of adverse health effects it is important to understand the extent to which local metabolism can contribute to local and systemic toxicity. Sections of previously frozen, full thickness excised human skin samples were placed on transwell supports and placed with the underside of the skin in contact with receptor fluid. The skin surface was dosed with 115.2 mg of neat butoxyethanol and the absorption and metabolism of butoxyethanol to butoxyacetic acid monitored over time. In total 64.94+/-0.04 mg of butoxyethanol or its metabolites were removed from the surface of the skin at 24h, representing the equivalent of 56% of the applied dose, the equivalent of 17.5% of the applied dose was recovered from the receiver fluid, 3% from within the skin and the remaining 23.5% of the dose was lost to the atmosphere through evaporation. After 24h a total of 31.5 microg of butoxyacetic acid had been produced representing approximately 0.03% of the applied dose. Therefore approximately 0.16% (31.5 microg as a percentage of the total amount of butoxyethanol reaching the receiver fluid (20.17 mg) of the absorbed butoxyethanol was metabolised to butoxyacetic acid during its passage through the skin. This suggested that, although enzyme activities capable of converting butoxyethanol to butoxyacetic acid are present in skin, metabolic conversion during percutaneous absorption was small and systemic exposure to the parent compound rather than the metabolite would occur following dermal exposure to butoxyethanol. This experiment demonstrates that it is possible to maintain metabolic activity in skin samples in an in vitro setup for short, but experimentally useful, periods. PMID:18314281

Traynor, Matthew J; Wilkinson, Simon C; Williams, Faith M



Influence of barium substitution on bioactivity, thermal and physico-mechanical properties of bioactive glass.  


Barium with low concentration in the glasses acts as a muscle stimulant and is found in human teeth. We have made a primary study by substituting barium in the bioactive glass. The chemical composition containing (46.1-X) SiO2--24.3 Na2O-26.9 CaO-2.6 P2O5, where X=0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6mol% of BaO was chosen and melted in an electric furnace at 1400±5°C. The glasses were characterized to determine their use in biomedical applications. The nucleation and crystallization regimes were determined by DTA and the controlled crystallization was carried out by suitable heat treatment. The crystalline phase formed was identified by using XRD technique. Bioactivity of these glasses was assessed by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various time periods. The formation of hydroxy carbonate apatite (HCA) layer was identified by FTIR spectrometry, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and XRD which showed the presence of HCA as the main phase in all tested bioactive glass samples. Flexural strength and densities of bioactive glasses have been measured and found to increase with increasing the barium content. The human blood compatibility of the samples was evaluated and found to be pertinent. PMID:25686983

Arepalli, Sampath Kumar; Tripathi, Himanshu; Vyas, Vikash Kumar; Jain, Shubham; Suman, Shyam Kumar; Pyare, Ram; Singh, S P



Biomimetic component coating on 3D scaffolds using high bioactivity of mesoporous bioactive ceramics  

PubMed Central

Background Mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) are very attractive materials for use in bone tissue regeneration because of their extraordinarily high bone-forming bioactivity in vitro. That is, MBGs may induce the rapid formation of hydroxy apatite (HA) in simulated body fluid (SBF), which is a major inorganic component of bone extracellular matrix (ECM) and comes with both good osteoconductivity and high affinity to adsorb proteins. Meanwhile, the high bioactivity of MBGs may lead to an abrupt initial local pH variation during the initial Ca ion-leaching from MBGs at the initial transplant stage, which may induce unexpected negative effects on using them in in vivo application. In this study we suggest a new way of using MBGs in bone tissue regeneration that can improve the strength and make up for the weakness of MBGs. We applied the outstanding bone-forming bioactivity of MBG to coat the main ECM components HA and collagen on the MBG-polycarplolactone (PCL) composite scaffolds for improving their function as bone scaffolds in tissue regeneration. This precoating process can also expect to reduce initial local pH variation of MBGs. Methods and materials The MBG-PCL scaffolds were immersed in the mixed solution of the collagen and SBF at 37°C for 24 hours. The coating of ECM components on the MBG-PCL scaffolds and the effect of ECM coating on in vitro cell behaviors were confirmed. Results The ECM components were fully coated on MBG-PCL scaffolds after immersing in SBF containing dilute collagen-I solution only for 24 hours due to the high bone-forming bioactivity of MBG. Both cell affinity and osteoconductivity of MBG-PCL scaffolds were dramatically enhanced by this precoating process. Conclusion The precoating process of ECM components on MBG-PCL scaffold using a high bioactivity of MBG was not only effective in enhancing the functionality of scaffolds but also effective in eliminating the unexpected side effect. The MBG-PCL scaffold-coated ECM components ideally satisfied the required conditions of scaffold in tissue engineering, including 3D well-interconnected pore structures with high porosity, good bioactivity, enhanced cell affinity, biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and sufficient mechanical properties, and promise excellent potential application in the field of biomaterials. PMID:22072886

Yun, Hui-suk; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Khang, Dongwoo; Choi, Jungil; Kim, Hui-hoon; Kang, Minji



Bioactive furanocoumarins from stems of Clausena lansium.  


Clausena lansium Skeels, a member of the Rutaceae, is a shrub or small tree with grapelike fruits. Several parts of this plant have been used in folk medicine. A bioactive constituent investigation of the stems of C. lansium herein resulted in isolation of four furanocoumarins, claucoumarins A-D, and 13 known analogs. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including UV, IR, MS, and NMR experiments, and their absolute configurations were determined by CD experiments. Using an in vitro system, several of these compounds showed selective neuroprotective effects at a concentration of 10?M. PMID:25168358

Liu, Hang; Li, Fei; Li, Chuang-Jun; Yang, Jing-Zhi; Li, Li; Chen, Nai-Hong; Zhang, Dong-Ming



Marine Nucleosides: Structure, Bioactivity, Synthesis and Biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Nucleosides are glycosylamines that structurally form part of nucleotide molecules, the building block of DNA and RNA. Both nucleosides and nucleotides are vital components of all living cells and involved in several key biological processes. Some of these nucleosides have been obtained from a variety of marine resources. Because of the biological importance of these compounds, this review covers 68 marine originated nucleosides and their synthetic analogs published up to June 2014. The review will focus on the structures, bioactivities, synthesis and biosynthetic processes of these compounds. PMID:25474189

Huang, Ri-Ming; Chen, Yin-Ning; Zeng, Ziyu; Gao, Cheng-Hai; Su, Xiangdong; Peng, Yan



Contribution to the Determination of In Vivo Mechanical Characteristics of Human Skin by Indentation Test  

PubMed Central

This paper proposes a triphasic model of intact skin in vivo based on a general phenomenological thermohydromechanical and physicochemical (THMPC) approach of heterogeneous media. The skin is seen here as a deforming stratified medium composed of four layers and made out of different fluid-saturated materials which contain also an ionic component. All the layers are treated as linear, isotropic materials described by their own behaviour law. The numerical simulations of in vivo indentation test performed on human skin are given. The numerical results correlate reasonably well with the typical observations of indented human skin. The discussion shows the versatility of this approach to obtain a better understanding on the mechanical behaviour of human skin layers separately. PMID:24324525

Zahouani, Hassan



Biology and origin of bioactive peptides in milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milk is now recognized as containing an array of bioactivities that dramatically extend the range of influence of mother over young beyond simple nutrition. The bioactivities in milk include modulators of digestive and gastrointestinal (GI) functions, hemodynamic modulators with potential effects on the GI tract, hormones and growth factors likely involved in mammary gland or infant development, immunoregulation, and nonimmune

F. L. Schanbacher; R. S. Talhouk; F. A. Murray



Bioavailability of bioactive food compounds: a challenging journey to bioefficacy.  


Bioavailability is a key step in ensuring bioefficacy of bioactive food compounds or oral drugs. Bioavailability is a complex process involving several different stages: liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination phases (LADME). Bioactive food compounds, whether derived from various plant or animal sources, need to be bioavailable in order to exert any beneficial effects. Through a better understanding of the digestive fate of bioactive food compounds we can impact the promotion of health and improvement of performance. Many varying factors affect bioavailability, such as bioaccessibility, food matrix effect, transporters, molecular structures and metabolizing enzymes. Bioefficacy may be improved through enhanced bioavailability. Therefore, several technologies have been developed to improve the bioavailability of xenobiotics, including structural modifications, nanotechnology and colloidal systems. Due to the complex nature of food bioactive compounds and also to the different mechanisms of absorption of hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactive compounds, unravelling the bioavailability of food constituents is challenging. Among the food sources discussed during this review, coffee, tea, citrus fruit and fish oil were included as sources of food bioactive compounds (e.g. (poly)phenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)) since they are examples of important ingredients for the food industry. Although there are many studies reporting on bioavailability and bioefficacy of these bioactive food components, understanding their interactions, metabolism and mechanism of action still requires extensive work. This review focuses on some of the major factors affecting the bioavailability of the aforementioned bioactive food compounds. PMID:22897361

Rein, Maarit J; Renouf, Mathieu; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Actis-Goretta, Lucas; Thakkar, Sagar K; da Silva Pinto, Marcia



Herbal bioactivation: The good, the bad and the ugly  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been well established that the formation of reactive metabolites of drugs is associated with drug toxicity. Similarly, there are accumulating data suggesting the role of the formation of reactive metabolites\\/intermediates through bioactivation in herbal toxicity and carcinogenicity. It has been hypothesized that the resultant reactive metabolites following herbal bioactivation covalently bind to cellular proteins and DNA, leading to

Shufeng Zhou; Hwee-Ling Koh; Yihuai Gao; Zhi-yuan Gong; Edmund Jon Deoon Lee



Bioavailability of bioactive food compounds: a challenging journey to bioefficacy  

PubMed Central

Bioavailability is a key step in ensuring bioefficacy of bioactive food compounds or oral drugs. Bioavailability is a complex process involving several different stages: liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination phases (LADME). Bioactive food compounds, whether derived from various plant or animal sources, need to be bioavailable in order to exert any beneficial effects. Through a better understanding of the digestive fate of bioactive food compounds we can impact the promotion of health and improvement of performance. Many varying factors affect bioavailability, such as bioaccessibility, food matrix effect, transporters, molecular structures and metabolizing enzymes. Bioefficacy may be improved through enhanced bioavailability. Therefore, several technologies have been developed to improve the bioavailability of xenobiotics, including structural modifications, nanotechnology and colloidal systems. Due to the complex nature of food bioactive compounds and also to the different mechanisms of absorption of hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactive compounds, unravelling the bioavailability of food constituents is challenging. Among the food sources discussed during this review, coffee, tea, citrus fruit and fish oil were included as sources of food bioactive compounds (e.g. (poly)phenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)) since they are examples of important ingredients for the food industry. Although there are many studies reporting on bioavailability and bioefficacy of these bioactive food components, understanding their interactions, metabolism and mechanism of action still requires extensive work. This review focuses on some of the major factors affecting the bioavailability of the aforementioned bioactive food compounds. PMID:22897361

Rein, Maarit J.; Renouf, Mathieu; Cruz?Hernandez, Cristina; Actis?Goretta, Lucas; Thakkar, Sagar K.; da Silva Pinto, Marcia



The skin microbiome  

PubMed Central

The skin is the human body’s largest organ, colonized by a diverse milieu of microorganisms, most of which are harmless or even beneficial to their host. Colonization is driven by the ecology of the skin surface, which is highly variable depending on topographical location, endogenous host factors and exogenous environmental factors. The cutaneous innate and adaptive immune responses can modulate the skin microbiota, but the microbiota also functions in educating the immune system. The development of molecular methods to identify microorganisms has led to an emerging view of the resident skin bacteria as highly diverse and variable. An enhanced understanding of the skin microbiome is necessary to gain insight into microbial involvement in human skin disorders and to enable novel promicrobial and antimicrobial therapeutic approaches for their treatment. PMID:21407241

Grice, Elizabeth A.; Segre, Julia A.



Skin Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin is, in weight, the largest organ of the human body. Its primary role is that of a physical and biological barrier.\\u000a This principal function is most apparent in the skin’s relative lack of permeability for agents from outside, including microbes\\u000a and parasites, but also for water and water-soluble compounds. The resistance to exogenous influences is mainly the result

Jan D. Bos; Rosalie M. Luiten


Bioactive glasses: Importance of structure and properties in bone regeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review provides a brief background on the applications, mechanisms and genetics involved with use of bioactive glass to stimulate regeneration of bone. The emphasis is on the role of structural changes of the bioactive glasses, in particular Bioglass, which result in controlled release of osteostimulative ions. The review also summarizes the use of Raman spectroscopy, referred to hereto forward as bio-Raman spectroscopy, to obtain rapid, real time in vitro analysis of human cells in contact with bioactive glasses, and the osteostimulative dissolution ions that lead to osteogenesis. The bio-Raman studies support the results obtained from in vivo studies of bioactive glasses, as well as extensive cell and molecular biology studies, and thus offers an innovative means for rapid screening of new bioactive materials while reducing the need for animal testing.

Hench, Larry L.; Roki, Niksa; Fenn, Michael B.



Micropatterning of bioactive self-assembling gels†  

PubMed Central

Microscale topographical features have been known to affect cell behavior. An important target in this area is to integrate top down techniques with bottom up self-assembly to create three-dimensional (3D) patterned bioactive mimics of extracellular matrices. We report a novel approach toward this goal and demonstrate its use to study the behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). By incorporating polymerizable acetylene groups in the hydrophobic segment of peptide amphiphiles (PAs), we were able to micro-pattern nanofiber gels of these bioactive materials. PAs containing the cell adhesive epitope arginine–glycine–aspartic acid–serine (RGDS) were allowed to self-assemble within microfabricated molds to create networks of either randomly oriented or aligned ~30 nm diameter nanofiber bundles that were shaped into topographical patterns containing holes, posts, or channels up to 8 ?m in height and down to 5 ?m in lateral dimensions. When topographical patterns contained nanofibers aligned through flow prior to gelation, the majority of hMSCs aligned in the direction of the nanofibers even in the presence of hole microtextures and more than a third of them maintained this alignment when encountering perpendicular channel microtextures. Interestingly, in topographical patterns with randomly oriented nanofibers, osteoblastic differentiation was enhanced on hole microtextures compared to all other surfaces. PMID:20047022

Mata, Alvaro; Hsu, Lorraine; Capito, Ramille; Aparicio, Conrado; Henrikson, Karl



Discovering new bioactive molecules from microbial sources  

PubMed Central

There is an increased need for new drug leads to treat diseases in humans, animals and plants. A dramatic example is represented by the need for novel and more effective antibiotics to combat multidrug-resistant microbial pathogens. Natural products represent a major source of approved drugs and still play an important role in supplying chemical diversity, despite a decreased interest by large pharmaceutical companies. Novel approaches must be implemented to decrease the chances of rediscovering the tens of thousands of known natural products. In this review, we present an overview of natural product screening, focusing particularly on microbial products. Different approaches can be implemented to increase the probability of finding new bioactive molecules. We thus present the rationale and selected examples of the use of hypersensitive assays; of accessing unexplored microorganisms, including the metagenome; and of genome mining. We then focus our attention on the technology platform that we are currently using, consisting of approximately 70?000 microbial strains, mostly actinomycetes and filamentous fungi, and discuss about high-quality screening in the search for bioactive molecules. Finally, two case studies are discussed, including the spark that arose interest in the compound: in the case of orthoformimycin, the novel mechanism of action predicted a novel structural class; in the case of NAI-112, structural similarity pointed out to a possible in vivo activity. Both predictions were then experimentally confirmed. PMID:24661414

Monciardini, Paolo; Iorio, Marianna; Maffioli, Sonia; Sosio, Margherita; Donadio, Stefano



Bioactivation of biomorphous silicon carbide bone implants.  


Wood-derived silicon carbide (SiC) offers a specific biomorphous microstructure similar to the cellular pore microstructure of bone. Compared with bioactive ceramics such as calcium phosphate, however, silicon carbide is considered not to induce spontaneous interface bonding to living bone. Bioactivation by chemical treatment of biomorphous silicon carbide was investigated in order to accelerate osseointegration and improve bone bonding ability. Biomorphous SiC was processed from sipo (Entrandrophragma utile) wood by heating in an inert atmosphere and infiltrating the resulting carbon replica with liquid silicon melt at 1450°C. After removing excess silicon by leaching in HF/HNO? the biomorphous preform consisted of ?-SiC with a small amount (approximately 6wt.%) of unreacted carbon. The preform was again leached in HCl/HNO? and finally exposed to CaCl? solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared analyses proved that oxidation of the residual carbon at the surface induced formation of carboxyl [COO?] groups, which triggered adsorption of Ca(2+), as confirmed by XPS and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy measurements. A local increase in Ca(2+) concentration stimulated in vitro precipitation of Ca?(PO?)?OH (HAP) on the silicon carbide preform surface during exposure to simulated body fluid, which indicates a significantly increased bone bonding activity compared with SiC. PMID:20615484

Will, Julia; Hoppe, Alexander; Müller, Frank A; Raya, Carmen T; Fernández, Julián M; Greil, Peter



Exploring marine resources for bioactive compounds.  


Biodiversity in the seas is only partly explored, although marine organisms are excellent sources for many industrial products. Through close co-operation between industrial and academic partners, it is possible to successfully collect, isolate and classify marine organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, micro- and macroalgae, cyanobacteria, and marine invertebrates from the oceans and seas globally. Extracts and purified compounds of these organisms can be studied for several therapeutically and industrially significant biological activities, including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, and anticoagulant activities by applying a wide variety of screening tools, as well as for ion channel/receptor modulation and plant growth regulation. Chromatographic isolation of bioactive compounds will be followed by structural determination. Sustainable cultivation methods for promising organisms and biotechnological processes for selected compounds can be developed, as well as biosensors for monitoring the target compounds. The (semi)synthetic modification of marine-based bioactive compounds produces their new derivatives, structural analogs and mimetics that could serve as hit or lead compounds and be used to expand compound libraries based on marine natural products. The research innovations can be targeted for industrial product development in order to improve the growth and productivity of marine biotechnology. Marine research aims at a better understanding of environmentally conscious sourcing of marine biotechnology products and increased public awareness of marine biodiversity. Marine research is expected to offer novel marine-based lead compounds for industries and strengthen their product portfolios related to pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmetic, agrochemical, food processing, material and biosensor applications. PMID:25203732

Kiuru, Paula; D?Auria, M Valeria; Muller, Christian D; Tammela, Päivi; Vuorela, Heikki; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari



Angiogenesis stimulated by novel nanoscale bioactive glasses.  


The ability of biomaterials to induce rapid vascular formation is critical in tissue regeneration. Combining recombinant angiogenic growth factors with bioengineered constructs have proven to be difficult due to several issues, including the instability of recombinant proteins, the need for sustained delivery and the dosage of factors. New formulations of bioactive glass, 58S nanosized bioactive glass (58S-NBG), have been reported to enhance wound healing in animal models better than the first generation of 45S5 Bioglass. Therefore, we investigated the effects of extracts of 58S-NBG and 80S-NBG on cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cell viability was assessed by MTS assay. In vitro angiogenesis was measured using an ECM gel tube formation assay, and levels of mRNAs for five angiogenic related genes were measured by qRT-PCR. Extracts of 58S-NBG and 80S-NBG stimulated the proliferation of HUVECs, accelerated cell migration, up-regulated expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, their receptors, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase, resulting in enhanced tube formation in vitro. The enhanced angiogenic response correlated with increased levels of Ca and Si in the extracts of 58S-NBG and 80S-NBG. The ability of 58S-NBG and 80S-NBG to stimulate angiogenesis in vitro provides alternative approaches for stimulating neovascularization of tissue-engineered constructs. PMID:25805509

Mao, Cong; Chen, Xiaofeng; Miao, Guohou; Lin, Cai



Interaction of bioactive glass with clodronate.  


Bone tissue engineering is a rapidly growing area of research involving the use of bioactive glass (BG) alone and in combination with different materials. The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction of BG with clodronate. Characterisation of the interaction between BG and clodronate was undertaken using; scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The interaction was examined in vitro with respect to the ion exchange and surface modification on the surface of the bioactive glass in the combination product. The results showed clear ion exchange enhancement by clodronate. Additionally, this ion exchange was more extensive and long lasting in the combination product than in BG alone. Clodronate promotes the activity of the BG and a calcium clodronate precipitation is formed. It can be assumed that this solid combination could be used in clinical applications. Therefore, it can be concluded that clodronate makes a beneficial environment for BG and could enhance also the apatite formation of BG. PMID:23660371

Rosenqvist, Kirsi; Airaksinen, Sari; Fraser, Sara J; Gordon, Keith C; Juppo, Anne Mari



Antiapoptotic proteins as targets for bioactive compounds.  


One of the most promising strategies in colon cancer therapy is the sensitization of cancer cells to natural proapoptotic cytokines, such as death ligands and interferons, which are able to eliminate abnormal cells. The investigation of mechanisms determining the immune escape of cancer cells revealed the presence of antiapoptotic proteins, such as cFLIP, which inhibit cell death signal transduction. Numerous studies showed that the use of different metabolic inhibitors, such as cycloheximide (CHX), reduces the cFLIP protein level, thus restoring the susceptibility to TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis. However, high non-specific toxicity of CHX excludes the clinical use of this substance. The current efforts are focused on identification of bioactive compounds which could safely support immunotherapy. The review presents in vitro and in vivo evidence that butyrate (Bt), fatty acid produced in colon during fermentation process and parthenolide (PN), sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Tanacetum parthenium specifically affect different cancer cells. Among described various molecular mechanisms of Bt and PN action, one reduces the level of antiapoptotic proteins. This paper clearly demonstrates that bioactive compounds, especially combined with immune cytokines could be seriously considered as an alternative for routine colon anti-cancer therapy. PMID:17882939

Pajak, B



Ranking in interconnected multilayer networks reveals versatile nodes.  


The determination of the most central agents in complex networks is important because they are responsible for a faster propagation of information, epidemics, failures and congestion, among others. A challenging problem is to identify them in networked systems characterized by different types of interactions, forming interconnected multilayer networks. Here we describe a mathematical framework that allows us to calculate centrality in such networks and rank nodes accordingly, finding the ones that play the most central roles in the cohesion of the whole structure, bridging together different types of relations. These nodes are the most versatile in the multilayer network. We investigate empirical interconnected multilayer networks and show that the approaches based on aggregating-or neglecting-the multilayer structure lead to a wrong identification of the most versatile nodes, overestimating the importance of more marginal agents and demonstrating the power of versatility in predicting their role in diffusive and congestion processes. PMID:25904405

De Domenico, Manlio; Solé-Ribalta, Albert; Omodei, Elisa; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex



Skin tissue engineering.  


The coverage of extensive wounds with viable autologous keratinocytes remains the only option of treatment if autologous donor skin is not obtainable. There is evidence that proliferating keratinocytes, as suspended cells or as a single layer, are adequate for wound closure. Understanding keratinocyte-matrix interactions not only allows us to influence keratinocyte outgrowth, adhesion, and migration, but may also guide us to modify matrix molecules for enhancing keratinocyte take. Further approaches may include the generation of genetically manipulated keratinocytes, which allow the use of an off-the-shelf epidermal replacement. As surgeons, our goal is to help burn patients with the best quality of skin in the shortest time possible. As tissue engineers, we have not achieved the goal of a universal skin product. By continually reviewing the options and using them, we can at least use the proper material in the adequate situation. Because of the limited resources, the need for comparisons of clinical effectiveness and cost are ever more important. As anatomy and physiology of engineered skin substitutes improve, they will become more similar to native skin autografts. Improvement of skin substitutes will result from inclusion of additional cell types (eg, melanocytes) and from modifications of culture media and scaffolds. Skin-substitute materials may be able to stimulate regeneration rather than repair, and tissue-engineered skin may match the quality of split-skin autografts, our present gold standard. PMID:14621305

Bannasch, H; Föhn, M; Unterberg, T; Bach, A D; Weyand, B; Stark, G B



Skin as an Organ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is part of the Skin Deep Project, which examines the science behind skin. Skin Deep is developed by AAAS and funded by NeutrogenaIn this lesson, students will examine the skin and how it functions as an organ and as part of a larger body system. By taking a closer look at the anatomy and function of the integumentary system, students will further their general knowledge of organ systems in general. Further, they will benefit from realizing that any part of a system may itself be considered as a systema subsystemwith its own internal parts and interactions. Additional links are given for further inquiry.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )



Anomalous Skin Effect Igor Kaganovich  

E-print Network

Anomalous Skin Effect Revisited Igor Kaganovich Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory #12 to explain "simply" anomalous skin effect without abusing physics. #12;3 Outline Skin effect (Inductively Coupled Plasmas/ Lasers) ­ Normal skin effect ­ Concept of phase-mixing and scale ­ Anomalous skin effect

Kaganovich, Igor


Skin signs of systemic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin complaints are some of the commonest reasons patients and parents seek medical attention. Some may have skin changes as part of a multi-organ disease. For others, severe skin disease may predispose to secondary internal complications. In other circumstances, skin changes may be a sign of an immunological response to infection or medication. Recognizing skin signs provides a unique opportunity

R. Yogendra Prasad Hunasehally; Richard G. Goodwin



Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix  


... Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is something as simple as ...


Characterization and bioactivity of nano-submicro octacalcium phosphate/gelatin composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study was designed to investigate the physicochemical and bioactive properties of a nano-submicro sized octacalcium phosphate (OCP)-dispersed gelatin (Gel) composite (nano-submicro OCP/Gel) used as a bone substitute material in various bone defects. Well-grown, synthesized OCP was mechanically ground from 100 to 300 ?m-sieved granules to particles that were approximately 500 nm in size. Then, 50 wt% of the nano-submicro OCP was mixed with porcine skin-derived acid extracted gelatin. The mixture was molded and lyophilized and then subjected to dehydrothermal crosslinking. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that the structure of OCP was retained even after mechanical grinding to a nano-submicro scale level as well as inclusion in the Gel matrix. The bioactivity of nano-submicro OCP/Gel was examined by immersing the composite in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 days and by implanting it in rat critical-sized calvaria defects for 8 weeks. The nano-submicro OCP tended to convert to low crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) in SBF as assessed by XRD. The nano-submicro OCP/Gel exhibited osteoconductivity in vivo, yielding new bone formation that was closely associated with the implanted composite. These results suggest that the nano-submicro OCP/Gel composite exhibits similar osteoconductivity as observed in other OCP-based materials previously reported and could be used as a bone substitute material for repairing various defects in bone.

Miura, Kei-ichiro; Anada, Takahisa; Honda, Yoshitomo; Shiwaku, Yukari; Kawai, Tadashi; Echigo, Seishi; Takahashi, Tetsu; Suzuki, Osamu



Polygonum cuspidatum extracts as bioactive antioxidaion, anti-tyrosinase, immune stimulation and anticancer agents.  


In our study, it was applied for the technology of supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction to achieve biological constitutes from a Taiwan native plant, Polygonum cuspidatum. We developed bioactive effects of P. cuspidatum extracts via multiple examinations that established bio-purposes at a range of dosage ranges. The research of P. cuspidatum extracts indicated that they possessed anti-oxidative properties on radical-scavenging abilities, reducing activities and metal chelating powers in dose-dependant manners. The extracts also had minor in vitro mushroom tyrosinase suppression and decreased cellular tyrosinase activities and melanin production in B16-F10 cells. Immunologically, P. cuspidatum extracts enhanced the release of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) induced by THP-1 macrophage cell line. In addition, the cell proliferation showed anti-proliferation in dose-dependent manner on human skin melanoma cells, A375 and A375.S2, of the extracts suggesting biological constitutes employed the anti-cancer possessions. This is the first statement presenting bioactivities on P. cuspidatum extracts including anti-oxidation, immune stimulation, anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanoma as far as we know. PMID:25311751

Lee, Chih-Chen; Chen, Yen-Ting; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Liao, Wei-Ting; Liu, Yung-Chuan; David Wang, Hui-Min



A Kazal prolyl endopeptidase inhibitor isolated from the skin of Phyllomedusa sauvagii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Searching for bioactive peptides, we analyzed acidic extracts of Phyllomedusa sauvagii skin and found two new proteins, PSKP-1 and PSKP-2, of 6.7 and 6.6 kDa, respectively, which, by sequence homology, belong to the Kazal family of serine protease inhibitors. PSKP-1 and PSKP-2 exhibit the unprecedented feature of having proline at P1 and P2 positions. A gene encoding PSKP-1 was synthesized

Leopoldo G. Gebhard; Federico U. Carrizo; Ana L. Stern; Noelia I. Burgardt; Julian Faivovich; Esteban Lavilla; Mario R. Ermacora



Treating Skin Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latino migrant and seasonal farmworkers experience high rates of skin disease that result from their working and living conditions. Knowledge of the ways farmworkers treat skin disease symptoms will provide a foundation for developing culturally appropriate health education, improving the delivery of health services, and improving occupational health policy for agricultural workers. The purpose of this paper is to describe

Thomas A. Arcury; Quirina M. Vallejos; Steven R. Feldman; Sara A. Quandt



Measuring skin reflectance parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of determining skin reflectance parameters, and studies their stability and discriminating power for different individuals. Our study uses radiance data captured by a Cyberware 3030 range scanner. We analyse the data using a layered reflectance model based on the Beckmann-Kirchhoff wave scattering model. The parameters of this model are the thickness of the skin layers,

Matthew P. Dickens; William A. P. Smith; Hossein Ragheb; Edwin R. Hancock



Measuring and Protecting Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners compare and contrast their own skin (including the area covered) with that of an orange. This activity helps learners understand that skin is a vital part of the body and must be protected from sun damage. This lesson guide includes background information, resources, variation ideas and a bilingual (English and Spanish) handout.

Nancy P. Moreno



Bleeding into the skin  


Bleeding under the skin can occur from broken blood vessels that form tiny pinpoint red dots (called ... Aside from the common bruise, bleeding into the skin or mucous membranes is a very significant sign and should always be checked out by a health care ...


Ballistic skin simulant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogels prepared from water solutions containing 10–20 mass% gelatine are generally accepted muscle tissue simulants in terminal ballistic research. They, however, do not have a surface layer which simulates the effect of human skin. The purpose of this research was to find a suitable skin simulant for enhancing the testing fidelity and the credibility of the results with gelatine-based materials

Jorma Jussila; Ari Leppäniemi; Mikael Paronen; Erkki Kulomäki



Stages of Skin Cancer  


... not spread to other parts of the body. Squamous cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma. A skin cancer lesion on the face that ... leg that looks pink and raised (right panel). Squamous cell carcinoma occurs on areas of the skin that have ...


Stochastic simulation of structured skin cell population dynamics.  


The epidermis is the outmost skin tissue. It operates as a first defense system to process inflammatory signals and responds by producing inflammatory mediators that promote the recruitment of immune cells. Various skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis occur as a result of the defect of proper skin barrier function and successive impaired inflammatory responses. The onset of such a skin disease links to the disturbed epidermal homeostasis regulated by appropriate self-renewal and differentiation of epidermal stem cells. The theory of physiologically structured population models provides a versatile framework to formulate mathematical models which describe the growth dynamics of a cell population such as the epidermis. In this paper, we develop an algorithm to implement stochastic simulation for a class of physiologically structured population models. We demonstrate that the developed algorithm is applicable to several cell population models and typical age-structured population models. On the basis of the developed algorithm, we investigate stochastic dynamics of skin cell populations and spread of inflammation. It is revealed that demographic stochasticity can bring considerable impact on the outcome of inflammation spread at the tissue level. PMID:23255068

Nakaoka, Shinji; Aihara, Kazuyuki



Well-ordered mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBG): A promising bioactive drug delivery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The local drug release system is considered to be an alternative to treat the bone infection. In this paper, well-ordered mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBG) with high specific surface area have been synthesized in aqueous solution by a two-step acid-catalyzed self-assembly process combined with hydrothermal treatment. Gentamicin was encapsulated into the MBG by adsorption method and in vitro release of gentamicin

Wei Xia; Jiang Chang



You and Your Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The You and Your Skin interactive was developed by Science NetLinks with funding from Neutrogena as part of the Skin Deep project. This resource provides an introduction to the basic structure of the skin, information about how the skin protects us, and some information on how to care for the skin. There are four main sections to the resource: Function, Anatomy, Protection, and Care. When you click on one of the main sections, you'll be taken to an enlarged view of that section, which contains several subsections represented by the highlighted ring around the circle. Roll your mouse over the ring to see the subsections. To go to one of the subsections, simply click on it. To move from one of the main sections to another, simply click on one of the red arrows found by the ring.

Science NetLinks (AAAS; )



Topical skin targeting effect of penetration modifiers on hairless mouse skin, pig abdominal skin and pig ear skin.  


Abstract Objective: This study was to investigate the topical skin targeting effects and mechanism of combination penetration modifiers of 1,2-hexanediol (or 1,2-heptanediol) and 1,4-cyclohexanediol on transdermal absorption of metronidazole (MTZ) in different skin models. Methods: Six formulations were applied to pig abdominal skin and pig ear skin models, respectively, and the results were compared with the previous data on hairless mouse skin worked out by our laboratory. Four parameters (flux, Tlag, Q24 and targeting ratio) were used to evaluate permeability and targeting effect in skin. Results: The combined penetration modifiers played a general role on decreasing permeability without reducing skin retention. The most significant skin permeability decrement to MTZ was pig abdominal skin (permeability decrement was ?20% for hairless mouse skin, 60% for pig abdominal skin and 40% for pig ear skin, respectively) while the strongest skin targeting effect appeared in hairless mouse skin (targeting ratios were 1.79 for hairless mouse skin, 1.24 for pig abdominal skin and 1.05 for pig ear skin, respectively) under the role of penetration modifiers. Conclusions: Thickness of stratum corneum (SC) was the major factor impact on skin targeting effect. Selection criteria of skin models also have been discussed in this study. PMID:24329579

Yu, Meng; Guo, Fang; Ling, Ying; Li, Nan; Tan, Fengping



Ranachensinin: a novel aliphatic tachykinin from the skin secretion of the Chinese brown frog, Rana chensinensis.  


Amphibian skin secretions contain a plethora of pharmacologically-active substances and represent established sources of bioactive peptides, including tachykinins. Tachykinins are one of the most widely-studied peptide families in animals and are found in neuroendocrine tissues from the lowest vertebrates to mammals. They are characterized by the presence of a highly-conserved C-terminal pentapeptide amide sequence motif (-FXGLM-amide) that also constitutes the bioactive core of the peptide. Amidation of the C-terminal methioninyl residue appears to be mandatory in the expression of biological activity. Here, we describe the isolation, characterization and molecular cloning of a novel tachykinin named ranachensinin, from the skin secretion of the Chinese brown frog, Rana chensinensis. This peptide, DDTSDRSN QFIGLM-amide, contains the classical C-terminal pentapeptide amide motif in its primary structure and an Ile (I) residue in the variable X position. A synthetic replicate of ranachensinin, synthesized by solid-phase Fmoc chemistry, was found to contract the smooth muscle of rat urinary bladder with an EC50 of 20.46 nM. However, in contrast, it was found to be of low potency in contraction of rat ileum smooth muscle with an EC50 of 2.98 µM. These data illustrate that amphibian skin secretions continue to provide novel bioactive peptides with selective effects on functional targets in mammalian tissues. PMID:24073664

Wu, Yuxin; Li, Renjie; Ma, Jie; Zhou, Mei; Wang, Lei; McClure, Timothy I; Cai, Jiqun; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris



General Information about Skin Cancer  


... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...


Mom and Baby Skin Care  


... and baby skin care Mom and baby skin care Skin care concerns during and after pregnancy Melasma Also known ... chilled product can help alleviate the itch. Hair care concerns during and after pregnancy Excessive hair growth ...


6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer  


... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...


New bioactive compounds from korean native mushrooms.  


Mushrooms are ubiquitous in nature and have high nutritional attributes. They have demonstrated diverse biological effects and therefore have been used in treatments of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, bacterial and viral infections, and ulcer. In particular, polysaccharides, including ?-glucan, are considered as the major constituents responsible for the biological activity of mushrooms. Although an overwhelming number of reports have been published on the importance of polysaccharides as immunomodulating agents, not all of the healing properties found in these mushrooms could be fully accounted for. Recently, many research groups have begun investigations on biologically active small-molecular weight compounds in wild mushrooms. In this mini-review, both structural diversity and biological activities of novel bioactive substances from Korean native mushrooms are described. PMID:24493936

Kim, Seong-Eun; Hwang, Byung Soon; Song, Ja-Gyeong; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, In-Kyoung; Yun, Bong-Sik



Electrospinning Bioactive Supramolecular Polymers from Water  

PubMed Central

Electrospinning is a high-throughput, low-cost technique for manufacturing long fibers from solution. Conventionally, this technique is used with covalent polymers with large molecular weights. We report here the electrospinning of functional peptide-based supramolecular polymers from water at very low concentrations (<4 wt %). Molecules with low molecular weights (<1 kDa) could be electrospun because they self-assembled into one-dimensional supramolecular polymers upon solvation and the critical parameters of viscosity, solution conductivity, and surface tension were optimized for this technique. The supramolecular structure of the electrospun fibers could ensure that certain residues, like bioepitopes, are displayed on the surface even after processing. This system provides an opportunity to electrospin bioactive supramolecular materials from water for biomedical applications. PMID:24697625



Secondary metabolites and bioactivities of Albizia anthelmintica  

PubMed Central

Background: Albizia species are rich in phenolics and terpenes in the different plant organs. They are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. So this study investigated the phytochemical and biological activities of Albizia Anthelmintica. Materials and Methods: Column chromatography has been performed for the isolation of compounds. Bioactivity studies of A. anthelmintica leaves were carried out on aqueous ethanol extract and some pure compounds were tested for their antioxidant activities. Results: Eight compounds have been isolated for the first time from A. anthelmintica. The aqueous ethanol extract of A. anthelmintica showed moderate anti-inflammatory activity and significant for both analgesic and antioxidant activities. Quercetin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-(6?-O-galloyl-?-D-glucopyranoside and quercetin-3-O-(6?-O-galloyl-?-D-glucopyranoside) exhibited potent antioxidant scavenging activity towards diphenyl-picrylhydrazine. PMID:23798881

Mohamed, Tahia K.; Nassar, Mahmoud I.; Gaara, Ahmed H.; El-Kashak, Walaa A.; Brouard, Iñaki; El-Toumy, Sayed A.



A compilation of Bioactive Compounds from Ayurveda  

PubMed Central

This review deals with the key bioactive compounds and the role of medicinal plants in Ayurvedic systems of medicine in India and their earlier investigation. There has been an increase in demand for the Phytopharmaceutical products of Ayurv?da in Western countries, because of the fact that the allopathic drugs have more side effects. Many pharmaceutical companies are now concentrating on manufacturing of Ayurv?dic Phytopharmaceutical products. Ayurv?da is the Indian traditional system of medicine, which also deals about pharmaceutical science. Different type of plant parts used for the Ayurvedic formulation; overall out line of those herbal scenario and its future prospects for the scientific evaluation of medicinal plants used by traditional healers are also discussed. In India most of them, where Ayurvedic treatment is frequently used, for their ailments and provides instructions to local people how to prepare medicine from the herbs. As much as possible importance is also given for the taxonomic literature. PMID:19238245

Samy, Ramar Perumal; Pushparaj, Peter Natesan; Gopalakrishnakone, Ponnampalam



Secondary metabolites and bioactivities of Myrtus communis  

PubMed Central

Background: Myrtus species are characterized by the presence of phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, volatile oils and fatty acids. They are remedies for variety of ailments. This study therefore investigated medicinal effects of Myrtus communis L. Methods: Bioactivity studies of Myrtus communis L. leaves were carried out on volatile oil, 7% methanol and aqueous extracts and the isolated compounds myricetin 3-O-?-glucopyranoside, myricetin 3-O-?–rhamnopyranoside and gallic acid. Results: Determination of the median lethal dose (LD50) revealed that the volatile oil, alcoholic and aqueous extracts were practically nontoxic and highly safe as no lethality was observed. The tested materials (volatile oil, alcoholic and aqueous extracts, myricetin 3-O-?-glucopyranoside, myricetin 3-O-?–rhamnopyranoside and gallic acid) showed significant antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects as compared with control groups and reference drugs. Conclusion: Administration of extracts of M. communis leaves could be safe at the dose used in this study. PMID:21713133

Nassar, Mahmoud I.; Aboutabl, El-Sayed A.; Ahmed, Rania F.; El-Khrisy, Ezzel-Din A.; Ibrahim, Khaled M.; Sleem, Amany A.



Biomimetic and nanostructured hybrid bioactive glass.  


Inspired by nature's toughening mechanisms, we designed a new polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)-derived hybrid glass (PHG) that has covalent interactions on the molecular scale between the inorganic POSS cage and organic phase. These features allow "elastic deformation" of the inorganic POSS cage in limited scale. The final product is a bulk hybrid material with toughness (3.56 ± 0.25 MPa·m(1/2)) similar to natural bone (2.4-5.3 MPa·m(1/2)). PHG exhibited excellent bioactivity by promoting the formation of plate-like hydroxyapatite on its surface in simulated body fluid and showed good cell adhesion. PHG also can be a platform to guide adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiation and mineralization. The key structural features of this material can be used to guide the design of bio-inspired composites with unique toughness, which would be of great benefit to hard tissue engineering. PMID:25736490

Zhou, Xianfeng; Sahai, Nita; Qi, Lin; Mankoci, Steven; Zhao, Weilong



Sulfinate derivatives: dual and versatile partners in organic synthesis.  


Sulfinic acids and their salts have recently emerged as versatile coupling partners to efficiently access a wide variety of hetero- and carbocyclic compounds, under relatively mild conditions. Their growing importance is attributable to their dual capacity for acting as nucleophilic or electrophilic reagents. This report summarizes recent advances in the preparation and use of sulfinates in organic synthesis. PMID:25354469

Aziz, Jessy; Messaoudi, Samir; Alami, Mouad; Hamze, Abdallah



Dynamic Multibody Protein Interactions Suggest Versatile Pathways for Copper Trafficking  

E-print Network

Dynamic Multibody Protein Interactions Suggest Versatile Pathways for Copper Trafficking Aaron M, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: As part of intracellular copper trafficking pathways, the human copper chaperone Hah1 delivers Cu+ to the Wilson's Disease Protein (WDP) via weak and dynamic

Chen, Peng


Versatile Desktop Experiment Module (DEMo) on Heat Transfer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines a new Desktop Experiment Module (DEMo) engineered for a chemical engineering junior-level Heat Transfer course. This new DEMo learning tool is versatile, fairly inexpensive, and portable such that it can be positioned on student desks throughout a classroom. The DEMo system can illustrate conduction of various materials,…

Minerick, Adrienne R.



A Versatile Representation for Time and Events Brandon Bennett  

E-print Network

as Occurrences Over Intervals: An approach widely adopted in AI is to correlate events with the time intervalsA Versatile Representation for Time and Events Brandon Bennett #3; School of Computing University's theory of ac- #3; Supported by the EPSRC under grant GR/M56807. tion and time (Allen 1984) and the Event

Bennett, Brandon


A Versatile, Digitally-Controlled Function Generator for Electrochemical Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A versatile manually-operated function generator that can be used in electrochemical applications is described. The instrument combines a 16 bit digital to analog converter (DAC) with digital control of the switching, is completely self-contained, and requires no external measurements to set waveform potential limits or scan rates. Waveforms generated by the instrument include ramp and hold, sawtooth, and triangular (both

D. H. Cranney; N. Petty; E. A. Butler; A. U. Blackham



Ophthalmic wavefront measurements using a versatile pyramid sensor  

E-print Network

Ophthalmic wavefront measurements using a versatile pyramid sensor Elizabeth M. Daly* and Chris describe the operation of a pyramid wavefront sensor used to measure and correct aberrations of the human time as the first ophthalmic imple- mentation of AO [1], a new type of sensor, the pyramid wavefront

Dainty, Chris


Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty: A Versatile Alternative to Open Pyeloplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To report the safety, efficacy and versatility of laparoscopic pyeloplasty (LPP) in treatment of pelviureteric junction obstruction (PUJO). Patients and Methods: From January 2002 to November 2006, 185 patients (186 units; 182 with primary and 4 with secondary PUJO) underwent LPP (transperitoneal approach in 184; retroperitoneal approach in 2). A double J stent was placed antegradely in 121 (68.4%)

Aneesh Srivastava; Pratipal Singh; Ruchir Maheshwari; Mohd S. Ansari; Deepak Dubey; Rakesh Kapoor; Anant Kumar; Anil Mandhani



Gender and the versatile learning of trigonometry using computer software  

Microsoft Academic Search

This empirical study tests the hypothesis that the versatile learning of trigonometry using interactive computer graphics would lead to a greater improvement in the performance of girls over boys. The experiment was carried out with 15 year old pupils in two schools with matched entry standards, each subdivided by ability into four corresponding mixed gender groups. In every case, experimental

Norman Blackett; David Tall


Recurrence time statistics: Versatile tools for genomic DNA sequence analysis  

E-print Network

Recurrence time statistics: Versatile tools for genomic DNA sequence analysis Yinhe Cao1, Wen from DNA sequences. One of the more important structures in a DNA se- quence is repeat-related. Often they have to be masked before protein coding regions along a DNA sequence are to be identified or redundant

Gao, Jianbo


Breakthrough Makes LED Lights More Versatile Author: Andrea Thompson  

E-print Network

Breakthrough Makes LED Lights More Versatile Author: Andrea Thompson Source: LEDs have started to blink on all over the place in recent years, from car taillights to roadside these limitations by combining the best of two worlds of LEDs to make ultrathin, ultrasmall and flexible light

Rogers, John A.


Titanium Enolates of Thiazolidinethione Chiral Auxiliaries: Versatile Tools for  

E-print Network

Titanium Enolates of Thiazolidinethione Chiral Auxiliaries: Versatile Tools for Asymmetric Aldol of titanium tetrachloride and nature of the amine employed.3 However, more easily cleavable auxiliaries than (Figure 2). Formation of the enolate at 0 °C using titanium tetrachlo- ride and the appropriate amine base


Wharton's Jelly Stem Cells: A Novel Cell Source for Oral Mucosa and Skin Epithelia Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Perinatal stem cells such as human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly stem cells (HWJSCs) are excellent candidates for tissue engineering because of their proliferation and differentiation capabilities. However, their differentiation potential into epithelial cells at in vitro and in vivo levels has not yet been reported. In this work we have studied the capability of HWJSCs to differentiate in vitro and in vivo to oral mucosa and skin epithelial cells using a bioactive three-dimensional model that mimics the native epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. To achieve this, primary cell cultures of HWJSCs, oral mucosa, and skin fibroblasts were obtained in order to generate a three-dimensional heterotypical model of artificial oral mucosa and skin based on fibrin-agarose biomaterials. Our results showed that the cells were unable to fully differentiate to epithelial cells in vitro. Nevertheless, in vivo grafting of the bioactive three-dimensional models demonstrated that HWJSCs were able to stratify and to express typical markers of epithelial differentiation, such as cytokeratins 1, 4, 8, and 13, plakoglobin, filaggrin, and involucrin, showing specific surface patterns. Electron microscopy analysis confirmed the presence of epithelial cell-like layers and well-formed cell-cell junctions. These results suggest that HWJSCs have the potential to differentiate to oral mucosa and skin epithelial cells in vivo and could be an appropriate novel cell source for the development of human oral mucosa and skin in tissue engineering protocols. PMID:23817131

Garzón, Ingrid; Miyake, Juliano; González-Andrades, Miguel; Carmona, Ramón; Carda, Carmen; Sánchez-Quevedo, María del Carmen; Campos, Antonio



Rowanberry phenolics: compositional analysis and bioactivities.  


Berries contain a large variety of different phenolic compounds such as anthocyanins, flavonols, tannins, and phenolic acids. Due to variation in the nature and content of the phenolic compounds, the antioxidant effect and other bioactivities of berry phenolics are strongly dependent on the berry raw material as the activities differ between the different phenolic constituents. In the present study, wild rowanberries ( Sorbus aucuparia ) and four cultivated sweet rowanberries, Burka, Granatnaja, Titan, and Zoltaja, were characterized for their phenolic composition and screened for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiadhesive activities. The HPLC and LC-MS analyses of phenolic composition revealed that the main phenolic constituents were caffeoylquinic acids, varying from 56 to 80% total phenolics. The cultivated species contained less caffeoylquinic acids and more anthocyanins (up to 28.5%). The phenolics derived from wild rowanberries were significantly effective at inhibiting lipid oxidation both in liposomes and in emulsions, especially when assessed by inhibition of the formation of hexanal (86-97% inhibition depending on concentration). The increase in anthocyanin content in the cultivated species did not result in significantly increased antioxidant activity. Both wild and cultivated rowanberry phenolics exhibited a bacteriostatic effect toward Staphylococcus aureus . In addition, the phenolic extract from Zoltaja was weakly inhibitory toward Salmonella sv. Typhimurium, whereas both Zoltaja- and Granatnaja-derived phenolics retarded Escherichia coli growth. The phenolic extracts of wild rowanberries and Burka showed an inhibitory effect on hemagglutination of E. coli HB101 (pRR7), which expresses the M hemagglutinin. It can be concluded that cultivation of rowanberries resulted in increased anthocyanin content, but this did not diminish their bioactivity in comparison to wild rowanberries rich in caffeoylquinic acids. PMID:21038891

Kylli, Petri; Nohynek, Liisa; Puupponen-Pimiä, Riitta; Westerlund-Wikström, Benita; McDougall, Gordon; Stewart, Derek; Heinonen, Marina



Influence of mental stress on platelet bioactivity  

PubMed Central

It is well established that various mental stress conditions contribute, or at least influence, underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in somatic, as well as in psychiatric disorders; blood platelets are supposed to represent a possible link in this respect. The anculeated platelets are the smallest corpuscular elements circulating in the human blood. They display different serotonergic markers which seem to reflect the central nervous serotonin metabolism. They are known as main effectors in haematological processes but recent research highlights their role in the innate and adaptive immune system. Platelets are containing a multitude of pro-inflammatory and immune-modulatory bioactive compounds in their granules and are expressing immune-competent surface markers. Research gives hint that platelets activation and reactivity is increased by mental stress. This leads to enhanced cross talk with the immune system via paracrine secretion, receptor interaction and formation of platelet leucocyte-aggregates. Recently it has been demonstrated that the immune system can have a remarkable impact in the development of psychiatric disorders. Therefore platelets represent an interesting research area in psychiatry and their role as a possible biomarker has been investigated. We review the influence of mental stress on what is termed platelet bioactivity in this article, which subsumes the mainly immune-modulatory activity of platelets in healthy volunteers, elderly persons with chronic care-giving strain, patients with cardiovascular diseases who are prone to psychosocial stress, as well as in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. Research data suggest that stress enhances platelet activity, reactivity and immune-modulatory capacities. PMID:24175179

Koudouovoh-Tripp, Pia; Sperner-Unterweger, Barbara



Cyclodextrins as encapsulation agents for plant bioactive compounds.  


Plants possess a wide range of molecules capable of improve healing: fibre, vitamins, phytosterols, and further sulphur-containing compounds, carotenoids, organic acid anions and polyphenolics. However, they require an adequate level of protection from the environmental conditions to prevent losing their structural integrity and bioactivity. Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides arising from the degradation of starch, which can be a viable option as encapsulation technique. Cyclodextrins are inexpensive, friendly to humans, and also capable of improving the biological, chemical and physical properties of bioactive molecules. Therefore, the aim of this review is to highlight the use of cyclodextrins as encapsulating agents for bioactive plant molecules in the pharmaceutical field. PMID:24299757

Pinho, Eva; Grootveld, Martin; Soares, Graça; Henriques, Mariana



In Vitro Bioactivity and Antimicrobial Tuning of Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles Added with Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaf Powder  

PubMed Central

Silica and phosphate based bioactive glass nanoparticles (58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5) with doping of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder and silver nanoparticles were prepared and characterised. Bioactive glass nanoparticles were produced using sol-gel technique. In vitro bioactivity of the prepared samples was investigated using simulated body fluid. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of prepared glass particles reveals amorphous phase and spherical morphology with a particle size of less than 50?nm. When compared to neem doped glass, better bioactivity was attained in silver doped glass through formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface, which was confirmed through XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. However, neem leaf powder doped bioactive glass nanoparticles show good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and less bioactivity compared with silver doped glass particles. In addition, the biocompatibility of the prepared nanocomposites reveals better results for neem doped and silver doped glasses at lower concentration. Therefore, neem doped bioactive glass may act as a potent antimicrobial agent for preventing microbial infection in tissue engineering applications. PMID:25276834

Prabhu, M.; Ruby Priscilla, S.; Kavitha, K.; Manivasakan, P.; Rajendran, V.; Kulandaivelu, P.



In vitro bioactivity and antimicrobial tuning of bioactive glass nanoparticles added with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder.  


Silica and phosphate based bioactive glass nanoparticles (58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5) with doping of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder and silver nanoparticles were prepared and characterised. Bioactive glass nanoparticles were produced using sol-gel technique. In vitro bioactivity of the prepared samples was investigated using simulated body fluid. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of prepared glass particles reveals amorphous phase and spherical morphology with a particle size of less than 50 nm. When compared to neem doped glass, better bioactivity was attained in silver doped glass through formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface, which was confirmed through XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. However, neem leaf powder doped bioactive glass nanoparticles show good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and less bioactivity compared with silver doped glass particles. In addition, the biocompatibility of the prepared nanocomposites reveals better results for neem doped and silver doped glasses at lower concentration. Therefore, neem doped bioactive glass may act as a potent antimicrobial agent for preventing microbial infection in tissue engineering applications. PMID:25276834

Prabhu, M; Ruby Priscilla, S; Kavitha, K; Manivasakan, P; Rajendran, V; Kulandaivelu, P



[Skin diseases and obesity].  


Obesity is a public health problem worldwide. It predominates in industrialized countries; however, it is prevalent in all nations. It is defined as a condition of excess adipose tissue and is the result of changes in lifestyle, excessive consumption of energy-dense foods with poor nutritional value, physical inactivity and the reduction of open space where one can practice a sport. Although obesity is associated with multiple diseases, it is important to stress that the metabolic changes caused by it affect skin physiology and play a predisposing factor for the development of skin diseases. Very little has been studied on the impact of obesity on the skin. The purpose of this article is to review the most frequently skin diseases in obesity. Some skin pathologies in obesity are caused by changes in skin physiology, others are related to insulin resistance or constitute an exacerbating factor for dermatitis. This article covers the clinical features of obesity related skin disease and its management. PMID:25760747

Guerra-Segovia, Carolina; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge



The Ontogeny of Skin.  


Significance: During gestation, fetal skin progresses from a single layer derived from ectoderm to a complex, multi-layer tissue with the stratum corneum (SC) as the outermost layer. Innate immunity is a conferred complex process involving a balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, structural proteins, and specific antigen-presenting cells. The SC is a part of the innate immune system as an impermeable physical barrier containing anti-microbial lipids and host defense proteins. Postnatally, the epidermis continually replenishes itself, provides a protective barrier, and repairs injuries. Recent Advances: Vernix caseosa protects the fetus during gestation and facilitates development of the SC in the aqueous uterine environment. The anti-infective, hydrating, acidification, and wound-healing properties post birth provide insights for the development of strategies that facilitate SC maturation and repair in the premature infant. Critical Issues: Reduction of infant mortality is a global health priority. Premature infants have an incompetent skin barrier putting them at risk for irritant exposure, skin compromise and life-threatening infections. Effective interventions to accelerate skin barrier maturation are compelling. Future Directions: Investigations to determine the ontogeny of barrier maturation, that is, SC structure, composition, cohesiveness, permeability, susceptibility to injury, and microflora, as a function of gestational age are essential. Clinicians need to know when the premature skin barrier becomes fully competent and comparable to healthy newborn skin. This will guide the development of innovative strategies for optimizing skin barrier development. PMID:24761361

Visscher, Marty; Narendran, Vivek



The Ontogeny of Skin  

PubMed Central

Significance: During gestation, fetal skin progresses from a single layer derived from ectoderm to a complex, multi-layer tissue with the stratum corneum (SC) as the outermost layer. Innate immunity is a conferred complex process involving a balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, structural proteins, and specific antigen-presenting cells. The SC is a part of the innate immune system as an impermeable physical barrier containing anti-microbial lipids and host defense proteins. Postnatally, the epidermis continually replenishes itself, provides a protective barrier, and repairs injuries. Recent Advances: Vernix caseosa protects the fetus during gestation and facilitates development of the SC in the aqueous uterine environment. The anti-infective, hydrating, acidification, and wound-healing properties post birth provide insights for the development of strategies that facilitate SC maturation and repair in the premature infant. Critical Issues: Reduction of infant mortality is a global health priority. Premature infants have an incompetent skin barrier putting them at risk for irritant exposure, skin compromise and life-threatening infections. Effective interventions to accelerate skin barrier maturation are compelling. Future Directions: Investigations to determine the ontogeny of barrier maturation, that is, SC structure, composition, cohesiveness, permeability, susceptibility to injury, and microflora, as a function of gestational age are essential. Clinicians need to know when the premature skin barrier becomes fully competent and comparable to healthy newborn skin. This will guide the development of innovative strategies for optimizing skin barrier development. PMID:24761361

Visscher, Marty; Narendran, Vivek



phosphopantetheinyl transferase Genetically encoded short peptide tag for versatile protein labeling by Sfp  

E-print Network

phosphopantetheinyl transferase Genetically encoded short peptide tag for versatile protein, see: Notes: #12;Genetically encoded short peptide tag for versatile protein labeling by Sfp anchor the modified proteins to the membrane microenvironment; and protein lipoylation and phos

Yin, Jun


The radial forearm skin graft-fascial flap.  


The radial forearm flap has become a versatile flap for upper extremity reconstruction. The use of the forearm flap for hand reconstruction in the patient with previously burned forearms has not been widely appreciated. In those patients whose forearms have been previously split-thickness skin-grafted on fascia, we have employed the reverse radial forearm flap as a skin graft-fascial flap for hand reconstruction and have obtained excellent functional results. Three patients at various intervals postburn are presented to demonstrate use of this flap for wrist contracture release, coverage of arthroplasties, first web space contracture release, and acute salvage of phalanges and tendons. Assessment of the hand's vascular anatomy and careful treatment of the donor area have contributed to no added morbidity and an excellent aesthetic result at the donor site. PMID:2349295

Cherup, L L; Zachary, L S; Gottlieb, L J; Petti, C A



76 FR 31362 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Versatile Onboard...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of 1993--Versatile Onboard Traffic Embedded Roaming Sensors (Formerly Joint Venture...Project Entitled Versatile Onboard Traffic Embedded Roaming Sensors) Notice is hereby given...Act''), Versatile Onboard Traffic Embedded Roaming Sensors (formerly Joint...



A New Frontier in Soy Bioactive Peptides that May Prevent Age-related Chronic Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

regulatory compounds with hormone-like activities. Numerous biologically active peptides (bioactive peptides) have been regulatory compounds with hormone-like activities. Numerous biologically active peptides (bioactive peptides) have been regulatory compounds with hormone-like activities. Numerous biologically active peptides (bioactive peptides) have been regulatory compounds with hormone-like activities. Numerous biologically active peptides (bioactive peptides) have been identified. Most bioactive peptides are derived from milk

Wenyi Wang; Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia



Thermal Skin fabrication technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced fabrication techniques applicable to Thermal Skin structures were investigated, including: (1) chemical machining; (2) braze bonding; (3) diffusion bonding; and (4) electron beam welding. Materials investigated were nickel and nickel alloys. Sample Thermal Skin panels were manufactured using the advanced fabrication techniques studied and were structurally tested. Results of the program included: (1) development of improved chemical machining processes for nickel and several nickel alloys; (2) identification of design geometry limits; (3) identification of diffusion bonding requirements; (4) development of a unique diffusion bonding tool; (5) identification of electron beam welding limits; and (6) identification of structural properties of Thermal Skin material.

Milam, T. B.



Bioactive ceramic-reinforced composites for bone augmentation.  


Biomaterials have been used to repair the human body for millennia, but it is only since the 1970s that man-made composites have been used. Hydroxyapatite (HA)-reinforced polyethylene (PE) is the first of the 'second-generation' biomaterials that have been developed to be bioactive rather than bioinert. The mechanical properties have been characterized using quasi-static, fatigue, creep and fracture toughness testing, and these studies have allowed optimization of the production method. The in vitro and in vivo biological properties have been investigated with a range of filler content and have shown that the presence of sufficient bioactive filler leads to a bioactive composite. Finally, the material has been applied clinically, initially in the orbital floor and later in the middle ear. From this initial combination of HA in PE other bioactive ceramic polymer composites have been developed. PMID:20591846

Tanner, K E



Current strategies to improve the bioactivity of PEEK.  


The synthetic thermoplastic polymer polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is becoming a popular component of clinical orthopedic and spinal applications, but its practical use suffers from several limitations. Although PEEK is biocompatible, chemically stable, radiolucent and has an elastic modulus similar to that of normal human bone, it is biologically inert, preventing good integration with adjacent bone tissues upon implantation. Recent efforts have focused on increasing the bioactivity of PEEK to improve the bone-implant interface. Two main strategies have been used to overcome the inert character of PEEK. One approach is surface modification to activate PEEK through surface treatment alone or in combination with a surface coating. Another strategy is to prepare bioactive PEEK composites by impregnating bioactive materials into PEEK substrate. Researchers believe that modified bioactive PEEK will have a wide range of orthopedic applications. PMID:24686515

Ma, Rui; Tang, Tingting



Current Strategies to Improve the Bioactivity of PEEK  

PubMed Central

The synthetic thermoplastic polymer polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is becoming a popular component of clinical orthopedic and spinal applications, but its practical use suffers from several limitations. Although PEEK is biocompatible, chemically stable, radiolucent and has an elastic modulus similar to that of normal human bone, it is biologically inert, preventing good integration with adjacent bone tissues upon implantation. Recent efforts have focused on increasing the bioactivity of PEEK to improve the bone-implant interface. Two main strategies have been used to overcome the inert character of PEEK. One approach is surface modification to activate PEEK through surface treatment alone or in combination with a surface coating. Another strategy is to prepare bioactive PEEK composites by impregnating bioactive materials into PEEK substrate. Researchers believe that modified bioactive PEEK will have a wide range of orthopedic applications. PMID:24686515

Ma, Rui; Tang, Tingting



Beauvericin, a bioactive compound produced by fungi: a short review.  


Beauvericin is a cyclic hexadepsipeptide mycotoxin, which has insecticidal, antimicrobial, antiviral and cytotoxic activities. It is a potential agent for pesticides and medicines. This paper reviews the bioactivity, fermentation and biosynthesis of the fungal product beauvericin. PMID:22367030

Wang, Qinggui; Xu, Lijian



Bioactivity of phenolic acids: metabolites versus parent compounds: a review.  


Phenolic acids are present in our diet in different foods, for example mushrooms. Due to their bioactive properties, phenolic acids are extensively studied and there is evidence of their role in disease prevention. Nevertheless, in vivo, these compounds are metabolized and circulate in the organism as glucuronated, sulphated and methylated metabolites, displaying higher or lower bioactivities. To clarify the importance of the metabolism of phenolic acids, knowledge about the bioactivity of metabolites is extremely important. In this review, chemical features, biosynthesis and bioavailability of phenolic acids are discussed, as well as the chemical and enzymatic synthesis of their metabolites. Finally, metabolite bioactive properties are compared with that of the corresponding parental compounds. PMID:25466052

Heleno, Sandrina A; Martins, Anabela; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R



Identifying bioactive components in natural products through chromatographic fingerprint.  


Bioactive component identification is a crucial issue in search for new drug leads. We provide a new strategy to search for bioactive components based on Sure Independence Screening (SIS) and interval PLS (iPLS). The method, which is termed as SIS-iPLS, is not only able to find out the chief bioactive components, but also able to judge how many components should be there responsible for the total bioactivity. The method is totally "data-driven" with no need for prior knowledge about the unknown mixture analyzed, therefore especially suitable for effect-directed work like bioassay-guided fractionation. Two data sets, a synthetic mixture system of twelve components and a suite of Radix Puerariae Lobatae extracts samples, are used to test the identification ability of the SIS-iPLS method. PMID:25819786

Xu, Jian; Xu, Qing-Song; Chan, Chi-On; Mok, Daniel Kam-Wah; Yi, Lun-Zhao; Chau, Foo-Tim



Bioactive and Biodegradable Nanocomposites and Hybrid Biomaterials for Bone Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Strategies for bone tissue engineering and regeneration rely on bioactive scaffolds to mimic the natural extracellular matrix and act as templates onto which cells attach, multiply, migrate and function. Of particular interest are nanocomposites and organic-inorganic (O/I) hybrid biomaterials based on selective combinations of biodegradable polymers and bioactive inorganic materials. In this paper, we review the current state of bioactive and biodegradable nanocomposite and O/I hybrid biomaterials and their applications in bone regeneration. We focus specifically on nanocomposites based on nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HA) and bioactive glass (BG) fillers in combination with biodegradable polyesters and their hybrid counterparts. Topics include 3D scaffold design, materials that are widely used in bone regeneration, and recent trends in next generation biomaterials. We conclude with a perspective on the future application of nanocomposites and O/I hybrid biomaterials for regeneration of bone. PMID:24955542

Allo, Bedilu A.; Costa, Daniel O.; Dixon, S. Jeffrey; Mequanint, Kibret; Rizkalla, Amin S.



Versatility of reverse sural fasciocutaneous flap for reconstruction of distal lower limb soft tissue defects.  


In this study we present our experiences with the reverse sural fasciocutaneous flap to reconstruct the distal lower limb soft tissue defects caused by traumatic injuries. These flap graftings were carried out from Oct. 2010 to Dec. 2012 in our department. The series consisted of 36 patients, including 21 men and 15 women with an average age of 46.2 years (14-83 years) and with a medium follow-up period of 18 months (12-24 months). Of all the cases of acute trauma, there were 10 cases of trauma of distal tibia, 9 cases of trauma of perimalleolus, and 17 cases of trauma of midfoot and forefoot. Related risk factors in the patients were diabetes (2 cases), advanced age (>65 years, 3 cases) and cigarette smoking (6 cases). The reverse flow sural island flap irrigation depended on lower perforators of the peroneal artery. The fasciocutaneous pedicle was 3-4 cm in width and the anatomical structures consisted of the superficial and deep fascia, the sural nerve, short saphenous vein, superficial sural artery together with an islet of subcutaneous cellular tissue and skin. The most proximal border of the flap was only 1.5 cm away from the popliteal skin crease and the pivot point was 5-7 cm above the tip of the lateral malleolus. All the flaps survived. No arterial crisis occurred in any case. The venous congestion occurred in 2 cases and got better after raising the limbs and bloodletting. Only in an old man, 1.5 cm necrosis of distal margin of his flap occurred and finally healed after continuous dressing change. One-stage skin grafting was performed, and all the donor sites were sutured and successfully healed. It was concluded that the reverse sural fasciocutaneous flap is safe and reliable to extend to the proximal third even near the popliteal skin crease. We also concluded this flap can be safely and efficiently used to treat patients with large and far soft-tissue defects from the distal leg to the forefoot with more versatility and it is easier to reach the recipient sites. PMID:24939303

Pan, Hai-tao; Zheng, Qi-xin; Yang, Shu-hua; Wu, Bin; Liu, Jian-xiang



Laser speckle and skin cancer: skin roughness assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incidence of skin cancer has been increasing rapidly since the last few decades. Non-invasive optical diagnostic tools may improve the diagnostic accuracy. In this paper, skin structure, skin cancer statistics and subtypes of skin cancer are briefly reviewed. Among the subtypes, malignant melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous; early detection dramatically improves the prognosis. Therefore, a non-invasive diagnostic tool

Tim K. Lee; Lioudmila Tchvialeva; Haishan Zeng; David I. McLean; Harvey Lui



Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin  


Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...


Anti-cancer activity of the bioactive compound inositol pentakisphosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive compounds are extra nutritional constituents found in small quantities in foods. We have recently shown that a bioactive\\u000a compound, inositol pentakisphosphate (IP5), a naturally occurring substance that is present in most legumes, wheat bran and nuts, inhibits cell growth of ovarian,\\u000a lung and breast cancer cells. We demonstrated that IP5 specifically blocks the activation of the critical phosphoinositide 3-kinase

Marco Falasca



Sol–gel preparation of bioactive apatite films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface of biomedical metallic implants covered by a bioactive apatite film can create bioactivity of the implant and shorten healing time. In this work, apatite films on Ti6Al4V were prepared by sol–gel route using Ca(NO3)2, P2O5 and HPF6 as the precursors, in vitro evaluations of the resulting hydroxyapatite (HA) and fluorapatite\\/hydroxyapatite solid solution (FHA) films were done in Kokubo's

Wenjian Weng; Sam Zhang; Kui Cheng; Haibo Qu; Piyi Du; Ge Shen; Jun Yuan; Gaorong Han



Environmental versatility promotes modularity in genome-scale metabolic networks  

PubMed Central

Background The ubiquity of modules in biological networks may result from an evolutionary benefit of a modular organization. For instance, modularity may increase the rate of adaptive evolution, because modules can be easily combined into new arrangements that may benefit their carrier. Conversely, modularity may emerge as a by-product of some trait. We here ask whether this last scenario may play a role in genome-scale metabolic networks that need to sustain life in one or more chemical environments. For such networks, we define a network module as a maximal set of reactions that are fully coupled, i.e., whose fluxes can only vary in fixed proportions. This definition overcomes limitations of purely graph based analyses of metabolism by exploiting the functional links between reactions. We call a metabolic network viable in a given chemical environment if it can synthesize all of an organism's biomass compounds from nutrients in this environment. An organism's metabolism is highly versatile if it can sustain life in many different chemical environments. We here ask whether versatility affects the modularity of metabolic networks. Results Using recently developed techniques to randomly sample large numbers of viable metabolic networks from a vast space of metabolic networks, we use flux balance analysis to study in silico metabolic networks that differ in their versatility. We find that highly versatile networks are also highly modular. They contain more modules and more reactions that are organized into modules. Most or all reactions in a module are associated with the same biochemical pathways. Modules that arise in highly versatile networks generally involve reactions that process nutrients or closely related chemicals. We also observe that the metabolism of E. coli is significantly more modular than even our most versatile networks. Conclusions Our work shows that modularity in metabolic networks can be a by-product of functional constraints, e.g., the need to sustain life in multiple environments. This organizational principle is insensitive to the environments we consider and to the number of reactions in a metabolic network. Because we observe this principle not just in one or few biological networks, but in large random samples of networks, we propose that it may be a generic principle of metabolic network organization. PMID:21864340



Skin tumors on squirrels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Skin tumors having the gross appearance of previously reported fibromas are reported on gray squirrels from N. Y., Md., Va., N. C., and W. Va. and from a fox squirrel from W. Va. and a porcupine from Pa.

Herman, C.M.; Reilly, J.R.



Genetics and skin aging  

PubMed Central

Skin aging is a complex process and underlies multiple influences with the probable involvement of heritable and various environmental factors. Several theories have been conducted regarding the pathomechanisms of aged skin, however fundamental mechanisms still remain poorly understood. This article addresses the influence of genetics on skin aging and in particular deals with the differences observed in ethnic populations and between both genders. Recent studies indicate that male and female aged skin differs as far as the type, the consistency and the sensitivity to external factors is concerned. The same has been also documented between elderly people of different origin. Consequently, the aging process taking place in both genders and in diverse ethnic groups should be examined separately and products specialized to each population should be developed in order to satisfy the special needs. PMID:23467395

Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Bekou, Vassiliki; Zouboulis, Christos C.



Children's Skin Care  


... free sunscreen with the ingredients zinc oxide or titanium dioxide. Reapply sunscreen approximately every two hours, even ... general term encompasses various inflamed skin conditions, including one of the most common forms of eczema, atopic ...


Skin Problems in Construction  


... Some materials that can hurt your skin Wet cement Some cement dusts Lime Metalworking fluids Some paints Adhesives Epoxy ... you work with caustics like lime or wet cement. (Soaps that remove caustics and do not cause ...


Allergy testing - skin  


... if you are allergic to bee venom or penicillin. Or it may be used if the skin ... sore, or swollen after contact with the substance Penicillin allergy Venom allergy Allergies to penicillin and closely ...


Layers of the Skin  


... of odor-producing bacteria. Sebaceous glands Sebaceous, or oil, glands, are attached to hair follicles and can ... the soles of the feet. These glands secrete oil that helps keep the skin smooth and supple. ...


Skin, Hair, and Nails  


... infants and adolescents. Back Continue Bacterial Skin Infections Impetigo . Impetigo is a bacterial infection that results in a ... bacteria are the main causes of cellulitis and impetigo. Certain types of these bacteria are also responsible ...


Skin Cancer Prevention  


... and eyes from the sun has not been proven to lower the chance of getting skin cancer, ... risk of melanoma: Sunscreen It has not been proven that using sunscreen to prevent sunburn can protect ...


Allergic Skin Conditions  


Hives and Angioedema Urticaria is the medical term for hives, which are red, itchy, raised areas of the skin. They can range in ... appear anywhere on your body. Most cases of hives are known as acute and go away within ...


Examine Your Skin  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... IV Glossary of Terms Resources Resources Global Resources Cancer Centers Online Resources The Melanoma Book Clinical Trials Patient Access Grant: Apply Download a Skin Self-Exam Card Download a Patient Navigation Card ...


Skin of Color  


... D Cosmetic treatments Cosmeceuticals Cosmetic dermatology Global rejuvenation Laser hair removal Liposuction Gold Triangle Awards Award winners ... for people with skin of color. Until recently, laser hair removal was not an option for people ...


Designing building skins  

E-print Network

This thesis involves framing criteria and discerning issues to be considered in the design of building skins in an urban environment. The 'information age' has paradoxically seen the demise of the facade as an important ...

Desai, Arjun



Alkaline phosphatase grafting on bioactive glasses and glass ceramics.  


Bone integration of orthopaedic or dental implants and regeneration of damaged bone at the surgical site are still unresolved problems in prosthetic surgery. For this reason, biomimetic surfaces (i.e. both inorganic and biological bioactive surfaces) represent a challenge for bone implantation. In this research work a hydrolase enzyme (alkaline phosphatase) was covalently grafted to inorganic bioactive glass and glass ceramic surfaces, in order to impart biological bioactivity. The functionalized samples were analysed by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in order to verify enzyme presence on the surface. Enzyme activity was measured by means of UV-visual spectroscopy after reaction with the natural substrate. Scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy observations allowed monitoring of the morphological and chemical modification of the materials during the different steps of functionalization. In vitro inorganic bioactivity was investigated by soaking samples in simulated body fluid. Enzymatic activity of the samples was tested and compared before and after soaking. Enzymatic activity of the solution was monitored at different experimental times. This study demonstrates that alkaline phosphatase could be successfully grafted onto different bioactive surfaces while maintaining its activity. Presence of the enzyme in vitro enhances the inorganic bioactivity of the materials tested. PMID:19540371

Verné, Enrica; Ferraris, Sara; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Spriano, Silvia; Bianchi, Claudia L; Naldoni, Alberto; Morra, Marco; Cassinelli, Clara



Neuroendocrinology of the Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical observations of the skin as a target for melanotropins have been complemented by the discovery of their actual production at the local level. In fact, all of the elements controlling the activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis are expressed in the skin including CRH, urocortin, and POMC, with its products ACTH, a-MSH, and b-endorphin. Demonstration of the corresponding recep-




The TopClosure® 3S System, for skin stretching and a secure wound closure.  


The principle of stretching wound margins for primary wound closure is commonly practiced and used for various skin defects, leading at times to excessive tension and complications during wound closure. Different surgical techniques, skin stretching devices and tissue expanders have been utilized to address this issue. Previously designed skin stretching devices resulted in considerable morbidity. They were invasive by nature and associated with relatively high localized tissue pressure, frequently leading to necrosis, damage and tearing of skin at the wound margins. To assess the clinical effectiveness and performance and, to determine the safety of TopClosure® for gradual, controlled, temporary, noninvasive and invasive applications for skin stretching and secure wound closing, the TopClosure® device was applied to 20 patients for preoperative skin lesion removal and to secure closure of a variety of wound sizes. TopClosure® was reinforced with adhesives, staples and/or surgical sutures, depending on the circumstances of the wound and the surgeon's judgment. TopClosure® was used prior to, during and/or after surgery to reduce tension across wound edges. No significant complications or adverse events were associated with its use. TopClosure® was effectively used for preoperative skin expansion in preparation for dermal resection (e.g., congenital nevi). It aided closure of large wounds involving significant loss of skin and soft tissue by mobilizing skin and subcutaneous tissue, thus avoiding the need for skin grafts or flaps. Following surgery, it was used to secure closure of wounds under tension, thus improving wound aesthetics. A sample case study will be presented. We designed TopClosure®, an innovative device, to modify the currently practiced concept of wound closure by applying minimal stress to the skin, away from damaged wound edges, with flexible force vectors and versatile methods of attachment to the skin, in a noninvasive or invasive manner. PMID:22719176

Topaz, Moris; Carmel, Narin-Nard; Silberman, Adi; Li, Ming Sen; Li, Yong Zhong



Pregnancy and Skin  

PubMed Central

Pregnancy is associated with complex of endocrinological, immunological, metabolic, and vascular changes that may influence the skin and other organs in various ways. Pregnancy is a period in which more than 90% women have significant and complex skin changes that may have great impact on the woman's life. The dermatoses of pregnancy represent a heterogeneous group of skin diseases related to pregnancy and/or the postpartum period. The dermatoses of pregnancy can be classified into the following three groups: Physiologic skin changes in pregnancy, pre-existing dermatoses affected by pregnancy, and specific dermatoses of pregnancy. Though most of these skin dermatoses are benign and resolve in postpartum period, a few can risk fetal life and require antenatal surveillance. Most of the dermatoses of pregnancy can be treated conservatively but a few require intervention in the form of termination of pregnancy. Correct diagnosis is essential for the treatment of these disorders. This article discusses the current knowledge of various skin changes during pregnancy and the evaluation of the patient with pregnancy dermatoses with special emphasis on clinical features, diagnostic tests, maternal and fetal prognosis, therapy, and management. PMID:25657937

Vora, Rita V.; Gupta, Rajat; Mehta, Malay J.; Chaudhari, Arvind H.; Pilani, Abhishek P.; Patel, Nidhi



Thyroid hormone action on skin  

PubMed Central

The skin characteristics associated with thyroid hormone are classic. The name “myxedema” refers to the associated skin condition caused by increased glycosaminoglycan deposition in the skin. Generalized myxedema is still the classic cutaneous sign of hypothyroidism. It is caused by deposition of dermal acid mucopolysaccharides, notably hyaluronic acid. Despite its appearance, the skin does not pit with pressure. PMID:22110782



Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Fluoridated and Unfluoridated Bioactive Glass Composites: Structural Analysis and Bioactivity Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Biphasic bioceramic composites containing nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP) and nanosized bioactive glasses have been prepared in the form of pellets and have been examined for the effects of bioglass concentrations and sintering temperature on the structural transformations and bioactivity behavior. Pure stoichiometric nano-HAP was synthesized using sol-gel technique. Two bioglasses synthesized in this work--fluoridated bioglass (Cao-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Na{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaF{sub 2}) and unfluoridated bioglass (Cao-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Na{sub 2}O{sub 3}) designated as FBG and UFBG respectively, were added to nano-HAP with concentrations of 5, 10, 12 and 15%. The average particle sizes of synthesized HAP and bioglasses were 23 nm and 35 nm, respectively. The pellets were sintered at four different temperatures i.e. 1000 deg. C, 1150 deg. C, 1250 deg. C and 1350 deg. C. The investigations involved study of structural and bioactivity behavior of green and sintered pellets and their deviations from original materials i.e. HAP, FBG and UFBG, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The phase composition of the sintered pellets was found to be non-stoichiometric HAP with {alpha}-TCP (tricalcium phosphate) and {beta}-TCP. It was revealed from SEM images that bonding mechanism was mainly solid state sintering for all pellets sintered at 1000 deg. C and 1150 deg. C and also for pellets with lower concentrations of bioglass i.e. 5% and 10% sintered at 1250 deg. C. Partly liquid phase sintering was observed for pellets with higher bioglass concentrations of 12% and 15% sintered at 1250 deg. C and same behaviour was noted for pellets at all concentrations of bioglasses at 1350 deg. C. The sintered density, hardness and compression strength of pellets have been influenced both by the concentration of the bioglasses and sintering temperature. It was observed that the biological HAP layer formation was faster on the green pellets surface than on pure HAP and sintered pellets, showing higher bioactivity in the green pellets.

Batra, Uma [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh-160012 (India); Kapoor, Seema [University Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India); Sharma, J. D. [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh (India)



Research and development of a versatile portable speech prosthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Versatile Portable Speech Prosthesis (VPSP), a synthetic speech output communication aid for non-speaking people is described. It was intended initially for severely physically limited people with cerebral palsy who are in electric wheelchairs. Hence, it was designed to be placed on a wheelchair and powered from a wheelchair battery. It can easily be separated from the wheelchair. The VPSP is versatile because it is designed to accept any means of single switch, multiple switch, or keyboard control which physically limited people have the ability to use. It is portable because it is mounted on and can go with the electric wheelchair. It is a speech prosthesis, obviously, because it speaks with a synthetic voice for people unable to speak with their own voices. Both hardware and software are described.



Robust and versatile ionic liquid microarrays achieved by microcontact printing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lab-on-a-chip and miniaturized systems have gained significant popularity motivated by marked differences in material performance at the micro-to-nano-scale realm. However, to fully exploit micro-to-nano-scale chemistry, solvent volatility and lack of reproducibility need to be overcome. Here, we combine the non-volatile and versatile nature of ionic liquids with microcontact printing in an attempt to establish a facile protocol for high throughput fabrication of open microreactors and microfluidics. The micropatterned ionic liquid droplets have been demonstrated as electrochemical cells and reactors for microfabrication of metals and charge transfer complexes, substrates for immobilization of proteins and as membrane-free high-performance amperometric gas sensor arrays. The results suggest that miniaturized ionic liquid systems can be used to solve the problems of solvent volatility and slow mass transport in viscous ionic liquids in lab-on-a-chip devices, thus providing a versatile platform for a diverse number of applications.

Gunawan, Christian A.; Ge, Mengchen; Zhao, Chuan



Convenient and versatile synthesis of formyl-substituted benzoxaboroles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite of the medicinal significance of benzoxaboroles, with the newly discovered clinical compound AN2690 as an example, the synthetic method for rapid diversification of this novel scaffold is lacking. To this end, a versatile and scalable synthesis of formyl-substituted benzoxaboroles is described here. A key step is the mono-oxidation of the two hydroxyls in compound 4 by taking advantage of

Long Ye; Dazhong Ding; Yiqing Feng; Dongsheng Xie; Puhua Wu; Hui Guo; Qingqing Meng; Huchen Zhou



Coiled coils: a highly versatile protein folding motif  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ?-helical coiled coil is one of the principal subunit oligomerization motifs in proteins. Its most characteristic feature is a heptad repeat pattern of primarily apolar residues that constitute the oligomer interface. Despite its simplicity, it is a highly versatile folding motif: coiled-coil-containing proteins exhibit a broad range of different functions related to the specific ‘design’ of their coiled-coil domains.

Peter Burkhard; Jörg Stetefeld; Sergei V Strelkov



PackBot: a versatile platform for military robotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The iRobot PackBot is a combat-tested, man-portable UGV that has been deployed in Afghanistan and Iraq. The PackBot is also a versatile platform for mobile robotics research and development that supports a wide range of payloads suitable for many different mission types. In this paper, we describe four R&D projects that developed experimental payloads and software using the PackBot platform.

Brian M. Yamauchi



PackBot: A Versatile Platform for Military Robotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The iRobot PackBot is a combat-tested, man-portable UGV that has been deployed in Afghanistan and Iraq. The PackBot is also a versatile platform for mobile robotics research and development that supports a wide range of payloads suitable for many different mission types. In this paper, we describe four R&D projects that developed experimental payloads and software using the PackBot platform.

Brian Yamauchi


A versatile recording system for studies of mastication  

Microsoft Academic Search

A versatile instrumentation system for research on the physiology of mastication is described. Tooth contact signals from\\u000a miniature radio transmitters in dental bridgework are combined with electromyographic data from the muscles of mastication.\\u000a Flexibility in signal processing utilizing a multi-channel FM tape recorder is emphasized to accommodate the needs of varying\\u000a research programs.

D. Kavanagh; H. Zander



Development of a versatile controller system for textile machinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A versatile controller system has been developed that is essential for the automation of textile machinery such as a loom\\u000a or a braiding machine. Sensors and actuators needed for the automation of general textile machinery were determined and the\\u000a electronic circuitry for the communication between them and the controller were designed. A dedicated software has been developed\\u000a that can input

Sungmin Kim; Joon Seok Lee



Bioactive nanocrystalline sol-gel hydroxyapatite coatings.  


Sol-gel technology offers an alternative technique for producing bioactive surfaces for improved bone attachment. Previous work indicated that monophasic hydroxyapatite coatings were difficult to produce. In the present work hydroxyapatite was synthesized using the sol-gel technique with alkoxide precursors and the solution was allowed to age up to seven days prior to coating. It was found that, similar to the wet-chemical method of hydroxyapatite powder synthesis, an aging time is required to produce a pure hydroxyapatite phase. A methodology that has been successfully used to produce nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite thin film coatings via the sol-gel route on various substrates including alumina, Vycor glass, partially stabilized zirconia, Ti-6Al-4V alloy and single crystal MgO is described. Coatings produced on MgO substrates were characterized by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy, while the analogous gels were examined with thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses. The coatings were crack free and the surface was covered with small grains, of approximately 200 nm in size for samples fired to 1000 degrees C. Coating thickness varied between 70 and 1000 nm depending on the number of applied layers. PMID:15348113

Chai, C S; Ben-Nissan, B



Thermal decomposition of bioactive sodium titanate surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alkali-treated orthopaedic titanium surfaces have earlier shown to induce apatite deposition. A subsequent heat treatment under air improved the adhesion of the sodium titanate layer but decreased the rate of apatite deposition. Furthermore, insufficient attention was paid to the sensitivity of titanium substrates to oxidation and nitriding during heat treatment under air. Therefore, in the present study, alkali-treated titanium samples were heat-treated under air, argon flow or vacuum. The microstructure and composition of their surfaces were characterized to clarify what mechanism is responsible for inhibiting in vitro calcium phosphate deposition after heat treatment. All heat treatments under various atmospheres turned out to be detrimental for apatite deposition. They led to the thermal decomposition of the dense sodium titanate basis near the interface with the titanium substrate. Depending on the atmosphere, several forms of Ti yO z were formed and Na 2O was sublimated. Consequently, less exchangeable sodium ions remained available. This pointed to the importance of the ion exchange capacity of the sodium titanate layer for in vitro bioactivity.

Ravelingien, Matthieu; Mullens, Steven; Luyten, Jan; Meynen, Vera; Vinck, Evi; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul



Burchellin: study of bioactivity against Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Background The dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 is a widespread insect pest of serious medical importance. Since no effective vaccine is available for treating dengue, the eradication or control of the main mosquito vector is regarded as essential. Since conventional insecticides have limited success, plants may be an alternative source of larvicidal agents, since they contain a rich source of bioactive chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of the neolignan burchellin isolated from Ocotea cymbarum (Lauraceae), a plant from the Amazon region, against third instar larvae of A. aegypti. Methods Burchellin obtained from O. cymbarum was analyzed. The inhibitory activity against A. aegypti eggs and larvae and histological changes in the digestive system of treated L3 larvae were evaluated. In addition, nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide levels were determined, and cytotoxicity bioassays performed. Results The data showed that burchellin interfered with the development cycle of the mosquito, where its strongest toxic effect was 100% mortality in larvae (L3) at concentrations???30 ppm. This compound did not show target cell toxicity in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice, and proved to have molecular stability when dissolved in water. The L3 and L4 larvae treated with the compound showed cellular destruction and disorganization, cell spacing, and vacuolization of epithelial cells in small regions of the midgut. Conclusion The neolignan burchellin proved to be a strong candidate for a natural, safe and stable phytolarvicidal to be used in population control of A. aegypti. PMID:24713267



Cognition, dopamine and bioactive lipids in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is a remarkably complex disorder with a multitude of behavioral and biological perturbations. Cognitive deficits are a core feature of this disorder, and involve abnormalities across multiple domains, including memory, attention, and perception. The complexity of this debilitating illness has led to a view that the key to unraveling its pathophysiology lies in deconstructing the clinically-defined syndrome into pathophysiologically distinct intermediate phenotypes. Accumulating evidence suggests that one of these intermediate phenotypes may involve phospholipid signaling abnormalities, particularly in relation to arachidonic acid (AA). Our data show relationships between levels of AA and performance on tests of cognition for schizophrenia patients, with defects in AA signaling associated with deficits in cognition. Moreover, dopamine may moderate these relationships between AA and cognition. Taken together, cognitive deficits, dopaminergic neurotransmission, and bioactive lipids have emerged as related features of schizophrenia. Existing treatment options for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia do not specifically target lipid-derived signaling pathways; understanding these processes could inform efforts to identify novel targets for treatment innovation. PMID:21196378

Condray, Ruth; Yao, Jeffrey K.



Interactions of bioactive glass materials in the oral environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this research was to investigate bioactive glass materials for their use in dental restorations. Mechanical properties such as strength, toughness and wear resistance were considered initially, but the focus of this thesis was the biological properties such as reactions with saliva and interactions with natural dental tissues. Bioactive composite materials were created by incorporating bioactive glass and alumina powders into an aqueous suspension, slip casting, and infiltrating with resin. Microstructure, mechanical properties and wear resistance were evaluated. Mechanically, the composites are comparable to natural dental tissues and current dental materials with a strength of 206 +/- 18.7 MPa and a toughness of 1.74 +/- 0.08 MPa(m)1/2. Interfacial reactions were examined using bulk bioactive glasses. Disks were prepared from a melt, placed in saliva and incubated at 37°C. Surfaces were analyzed at 2, 5, 10, 21, and 42 days using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microdiffraction. Results showed changes at 2 days with apatite crystallization by 10 days. These glass disks were then secured against extracted human dentin and incubated in saliva for 21 or 42 days. Results from SEM, electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and microdiffraction showed that dentin and bioactive glasses adhered in this in vitro environment due to attraction of collagen to bioactive glasses and growth of an interfacial apatite. After investigating these bulk glass responses, particulate bioactive glasses were placed in in vitro and in vivo set-ups for evaluation. Particles immersed in biologically buffered saliva showed crystallization of apatite at 3 days. These bioactive glass particles were placed in the molars of mini-pigs and left in vivo. After 30 days the bioactive paste was evaluated using SEM, EMPA and microdiffraction analyses. Results showed that the paste gained structural integrity and had chemical changes in vivo. These sets of experiments show that bioactive glasses have many mechanical and biological characteristics desirable for use in dental materials. Hopefully, the conclusions presented here will lead to further investigations toward their use in dentistry.

Efflandt, Sarah Elizabeth


A Combinatorial Auction among Versatile Experts and Amateurs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Auctions have become an integral part of electronic commerce and a promising field for applying multi-agent technologies. Correctly judging the quality of auctioned goods is often difficult for amateurs, in particular, in Internet auctions. However, experts can correctly judge the quality of goods. In this situation, it is difficult to make experts tell the truth and attain an efficient allocation, since experts have a clear advantage over amateurs and they would not reveal their valuable information without some reward. In our previous work, we have succeeded in developing such auction protocols under the following two cases: (1) the case of a single-unit auction among experts and amateurs, and (2) the case of a combinatorial auction among single-skilled experts and amateurs. In this paper, we focus on versatile experts. Versatile experts have an interest in, and expert knowledge on the qualities of several goods. In the case of versatile experts, there would be several problems, e.g., free riding problems, if we simply extended the previous VCG-style auction protocol. Thus, in this paper, we employ PORF (price-oriented, rationing-free) protocol for designing our new protocol to realize a strategy-proof auction protocol for experts. In the protocol, the dominant strategy for experts is truth-telling. Also, for amateurs, truth-telling is the best response when two or more experts select the dominant strategy. Furthermore, the protocol is false-name-proof.

Ito, Takayuki; Yokoo, Makoto; Matsubara, Shigeo


Versatile new ion source for the analysis of materials in open air under ambient conditions.  


A new ion source has been developed for rapid, noncontact analysis of materials at ambient pressure and at ground potential. The new source, termed DART (for "Direct Analysis in Real Time"), is based on the reactions of electronic or vibronic excited-state species with reagent molecules and polar or nonpolar analytes. DART has been installed on a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) that provides improved selectivity and accurate elemental composition assignment through exact mass measurements. Although DART has been applied to the analysis of gases, liquids, and solids, a unique application is the direct detection of chemicals on surfaces without requiring sample preparation, such as wiping or solvent extraction. DART has demonstrated success in sampling hundreds of chemicals, including chemical agents and their signatures, pharmaceutics, metabolites, peptides and oligosaccharides, synthetic organics, organometallics, drugs of abuse, explosives, and toxic industrial chemicals. These species were detected on various surfaces, such as concrete, asphalt, human skin, currency, airline boarding passes, business cards, fruits, vegetables, spices, beverages, body fluids, horticultural leaves, cocktail glasses, and clothing. DART employs no radioactive components and is more versatile than devices using radioisotope-based ionization. Because its response is instantaneous, DART provides real-time information, a critical requirement for screening or high throughput. PMID:15828760

Cody, Robert B; Laramée, James A; Durst, H Dupont



Nitrogen-Based Diazeniumdiolates: Versatile Nitric Oxide-Releasing Compounds for Biomedical Research and Potential Clinical Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitric oxide-generating ions of the nitrogen-diazeniumdiolate class with the general structure R1R2N-[N(O)NO]1 have been prepared by exposing primary, secondary, and polyamines to nitric oxide (NO). The resulting complexes regenerate bioactive NO at physiological pH with half-lives ranging from 2 seconds to 20 hours. An important goal in our research is to deliver NO to a specific organ or cell type where it is needed without affecting other NO-sensitive parts of the anatomy. By taking advantage of the remarkable chemical versatility of diazeniumdiolates, we have developed general strategies to prepare either tissue-selective NO donor drugs or materials containing NO delivery agents that can be physically placed near the target sites. Inhibition of blood coagulation, induction of penile erection, relief of pulmonary hypertension, and reversal of cerebral vasospasm are a few examples of their potential clinical applications.

See Featured Molecules.

Saavedra, Joseph E.; Keefer, Larry K.



Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders.  


Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A



Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders  

PubMed Central

Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, “goose bumps”, redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A



A novel myotropic peptide from the skin secretions of the tree frog, Polypedates pingbianensis.  


A novel myotropic peptide, polypedatein, was purified and characterized from the skin secretions of the tree frog, Polypedates pingbianensis. Its primary structure, TLLCKYFAIC, was determined by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry. Polypedatein was subjected to bioassays including myotropic, antimicrobial, and serine protease inhibitory activities, which are related with many amphibian skin bioactive peptides. It was found to elicit concentration-dependent contractile effects on isolated rat ileum. cDNA clones encoding the precursor of polypedatein were isolated by screening a skin cDNA library of P. pingbianensis and then sequenced. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA sequences matches well with the result from Edman degradation. BLAST search revealed that the sequence of polypedatein did not show similarity to known protein or peptide sequences. Especially, polypedatein does not contain conserved structural motifs of other amphibian myotropic peptides, such as bradykinins, bombesins, cholecystokinin (CCK), and tachykinins, indicating that polypedatein belongs to a novel amphibian myotropic peptide family. The signal peptide of the precursor encoding polypedatein shows significant sequence identity to that of other amphibian skin defensive peptides, such as antimicrobial peptides, bradykinins, lectins, and serine protease inhibitors, suggesting that polypedatein belongs to a novel amphibian myotropic peptide family. Polypedatein is also the first bioactive peptide from the genus of the frog, Polypedates. PMID:22542994

Yan, Hongli; Wei, Lin; He, Xiaoqin; Liu, Huan; Yang, Shilong; Lai, Ren; Rao, Dingqi



Porous Surface Modified Bioactive Bone Cement for Enhanced Bone Bonding  

PubMed Central

Background Polymethylmethacrylate bone cement cannot provide an adhesive chemical bonding to form a stable cement-bone interface. Bioactive bone cements show bone bonding ability, but their clinical application is limited because bone resorption is observed after implantation. Porous polymethylmethacrylate can be achieved with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose, alginate and gelatin microparticles to promote bone ingrowth, but the mechanical properties are too low to be used in orthopedic applications. Bone ingrowth into cement could decrease the possibility of bone resorption and promote the formation of a stable interface. However, scarce literature is reported on bioactive bone cements that allow bone ingrowth. In this paper, we reported a porous surface modified bioactive bone cement with desired mechanical properties, which could allow for bone ingrowth. Materials and Methods The porous surface modified bioactive bone cement was evaluated to determine its handling characteristics, mechanical properties and behavior in a simulated body fluid. The in vitro cellular responses of the samples were also investigated in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, bone ingrowth was examined in a rabbit femoral condyle defect model by using micro-CT imaging and histological analysis. The strength of the implant–bone interface was also investigated by push-out tests. Results The modified bone cement with a low content of bioactive fillers resulted in proper handling characteristics and adequate mechanical properties, but slightly affected its bioactivity. Moreover, the degree of attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblast cells was also increased. The results of the push-out test revealed that higher interfacial bonding strength was achieved with the modified bone cement because of the formation of the apatite layer and the osseointegration after implantation in the bony defect. Conclusions Our findings suggested a new bioactive bone cement for prosthetic fixation in total joint replacement. PMID:22905143

Huang, Li; Dong, Jingjing; Guo, Dagang; Mao, Mengmeng; Kong, Liang; Li, Yang; Wu, Zixiang; Lei, Wei



Bioactive and thermally compatible glass coating on zirconia dental implants.  


The healing time of zirconia implants may be reduced by the use of bioactive glass coatings. Unfortunately, existing glasses are either bioactive like Bioglass 45S5 but thermally incompatible with the zirconia substrate, or they are thermally compatible but exhibit only a very low level of bioactivity. In this study, we hypothesized that a tailored substitution of alkaline earth metals and alkaline metals in 45S5 can lead to a glass composition that is both bioactive and thermally compatible with zirconia implants. A novel glass composition was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and heating microscopy to investigate its chemical, physical, and thermal properties. Bioactivity was tested in vitro using simulated body fluid (SBF). Smooth and microstructured glass coatings were applied using a tailored spray technique with subsequent thermal treatment. Coating adhesion was tested on implants that were inserted in bovine ribs. The cytocompatibility of the coating was analyzed using L929 mouse fibroblasts. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the novel glass was shown to be slightly lower (11.58 · 10(-6) K(-1)) than that of the zirconia (11.67 · 10(-6) K(-1)). After storage in SBF, the glass showed reaction layers almost identical to the bioactive glass gold standard, 45S5. A process window between 800 °C and 910 °C was found to result in densely sintered and amorphous coatings. Microstructured glass coatings on zirconia implants survived a minimum insertion torque of 60 Ncm in the in vitro experiment on bovine ribs. Proliferation and cytotoxicity of the glass coatings was comparable with the controls. The novel glass composition showed a strong adhesion to the zirconia substrate and a significant bioactive behavior in the SBF in vitro experiments. Therefore, it holds great potential to significantly reduce the healing time of zirconia dental implants. PMID:25421839

Kirsten, A; Hausmann, A; Weber, M; Fischer, J; Fischer, H



Three-dimensional chemical imaging of skin using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy is used to generate structural and chemical three-dimensional images of native skin. We employed SRS microscopy to investigate the microanatomical features of skin and penetration of topically applied materials. Image depth stacks are collected at distinct wavelengths corresponding to vibrational modes of proteins, lipids, and water in the skin. We observed that corneocytes in stratum corneum are grouped together in clusters, 100 to 250 ?m in diameter, separated by 10- to 25-?m-wide microanatomical skin-folds called canyons. These canyons occasionally extend down to depths comparable to that of the dermal-epidermal junction below the flat surface regions in porcine and human skin. SRS imaging shows the distribution of chemical species within cell clusters and canyons. Water is predominately located within the cell clusters, and its concentration rapidly increases at the transition from stratum corneum to viable epidermis. Canyons do not contain detectable levels of water and are rich in lipid material. Oleic acid-d34 applied to the skin surface lines the canyons down to a depth of 50 ?m below the surface of the skin. This observation could have implications on the evaluation of penetration profiles of bioactive materials measured using traditional methods, such as tape-stripping.

Drutis, Dane M.; Hancewicz, Thomas M.; Pashkovski, Eugene; Feng, Lin; Mihalov, Dawn; Holtom, Gary; Ananthapadmanabhan, Kavssery P.; Xie, X. Sunney; Misra, Manoj



The effect of bioactive glass content on synthesis and bioactivity of composite poly (lactic- co-glycolic acid)\\/bioactive glass substrate for tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue engineering offers a promising new approach to bone tissue grafting. One material that has received attention in this regard is the polymer poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). It has the advantage of controllable bioresorption and ease of processing. Another material of interest is bioactive glass (BG), which shows the ability to stimulate osteoblastic differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells. In this study,

Jun Yao; Shula Radin; Phoebe S. Leboy; Paul Ducheyne



Skin conditions: common skin rashes in infants.  


Infants exhibit many skin rashes. Erythema toxicum neonatorum presents as erythematous macules, papules, and pustules on the face, trunk, and extremities; it typically resolves spontaneously within 1 week. Neonatal acne presents as comedones or erythematous papules on the face, scalp, chest, and back. Infantile acne is similar but starts after the neonatal period. Both conditions typically resolve spontaneously; failure to resolve within 1 year warrants evaluation for androgen excess. Neonatal cephalic pustulosis is an acne variant caused by hypersensitivity to Malassezia furfur. It is typically self-limited, but severe cases are managed with topical ketoconazole. Miliaria and milia are caused by sweat retention and present as tiny vesicles or papules; they resolve spontaneously. Contact diaper dermatitis is managed by keeping the diaper area clean and with open air exposure. Diaper dermatitis due to Candida albicans is managed with topical antifungals. Seborrheic dermatitis causes scaling on the scalp. Management involves shampooing and removing scales with a soft brush after applying mineral oil or petrolatum; severe cases are managed with tar or ketoconazole shampoo. Atopic dermatitis is related to food allergy in approximately one-third of children. Food allergy can be confirmed with oral food challenges or skin prick tests. Management includes elimination of irritants and triggers and use of low-potency topical steroids. PMID:23600337

Zuniga, Ramiro; Nguyen, Tam



Angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from antihypertensive skate (Okamejei kenojei) skin gelatin hydrolysate in spontaneously hypertensive rats.  


The aim of this study was to investigate antihypertensive effect of bioactive peptides from skate (Okamejei kenojei) skin gelatin. The Alcalase/protease gelatin hydrolysate below 1 kDa (SAP) exhibited the highest angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition compared to other hydrolysates. SAP can decrease systolic blood pressure significantly in spontaneously hypertensive rats. SAP inhibited vasoconstriction via PPAR-? expression, activation and phosphorylation of eNOS in lungs. Moreover, the expression levels of endothelin-1, RhoA, ?-smooth muscle actin, cleaved caspase 3 and MAPK were decreased by SAP in lungs. Vascularity, muscularization and cellular proliferation in lungs were detected by immunohistochemical staining. Finally, two purified peptides (LGPLGHQ, 720Da and MVGSAPGVL, 829Da) showed potent ACE inhibition with IC50 values of 4.22 and 3.09 ?M, respectively. These results indicate that bioactive peptides isolated from skate skin gelatin may serve as candidates against hypertension and could be used as functional food ingredients. PMID:25529649

Ngo, Dai-Hung; Kang, Kyong-Hwa; Ryu, BoMi; Vo, Thanh-Sang; Jung, Won-Kyo; Byun, Hee-Guk; Kim, Se-Kwon



Suppression of skin inflammation in keratinocytes and acute/chronic disease models by caffeic acid phenethyl ester.  


Skin inflammation plays a central role in the pathophysiology and symptoms of diverse chronic skin diseases including atopic dermatitis (AD). In this study, we examined if caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a skin-permeable bioactive compound from propolis, was protective against skin inflammation using in vitro cell system and in vivo animal disease models. CAPE suppressed TNF-?-induced NF-?B activation and expression of inflammatory cytokines in human keratinocytes (HaCaT). The potency and efficacy of CAPE were superior to those of a non-phenethyl derivative, caffeic acid. Consistently, topical treatment of CAPE (0.5 %) attenuated 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate(TPA)-induced skin inflammation on mouse ear as CAPE reduced ear swelling and histologic inflammation scores. CAPE suppressed increased expression of pro-inflammatory molecules such as TNF-?, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible NO synthase in TPA-stimulated skin. TPA-induced phosphorylation of I?B and ERK was blocked by CAPE suggesting that protective effects of CAPE on skin inflammation is attributed to inhibition of NF-?B activation. Most importantly, in an oxazolone-induced chronic dermatitis model, topical application of CAPE (0.5 and 1 %) was effective in alleviating AD-like symptoms such as increases of trans-epidermal water loss, skin thickening and serum IgE as well as histologic inflammation assessment. Collectively, our results propose CAPE as a promising candidate for a novel topical drug for skin inflammatory diseases. PMID:25501505

Lim, Kyung-Min; Bae, SeungJin; Koo, Jung Eun; Kim, Eun-Sun; Bae, Ok-Nam; Lee, Joo Young



Skin friction balance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A skin friction balance uses a parallel linkage mechanism to avoid inaccuracies in skin friction measurement attributable to off-center normal forces. The parallel linkage mechanism includes a stationary plate mounted in a cage, and an upper and lower movable plate which are linked to each other and to the stationary plate throught three vertical links. Flexure pivots are provided for pivotally connecting the links and the plates. A sensing element connected to the upper plate moves in response to skin friction, and the lower plate moves in the opposite direction of the upper plate. A force motor maintains a null position of the sensing element by exerting a restoring force in response to a signal generated by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).

Ping, Tcheng (inventor); Supplee, Frank H., Jr. (inventor)



Update on skin allergy.  


Skin diseases with an allergic background such as atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, and urticaria are very common. Moreover, diseases arising from a dysfunction of immune cells and/or their products often manifest with skin symptoms. This review aims to summarize recently published articles in order to highlight novel research findings, clinical trial results, and current guidelines on disease management. In recent years, an immense progress has been made in understanding the link between skin barrier dysfunction and allergic sensitization initiating the atopic march. In consequence, new strategies for treatment and prevention have been developed. Novel pathogenic insights, for example, into urticaria, angioedema, mastocytosis, led to the development of new therapeutic approaches and their implementation in daily patient care. By understanding distinct pathomechanisms, for example, the role of IL-1, novel entities such as autoinflammatory diseases have been described. Considerable effort has been made to improve and harmonize patient management as documented in several guidelines and position papers. PMID:25283085

Schlapbach, C; Simon, D



Bioactivity studies on Musa seminifera Lour  

PubMed Central

Background: Musa seminifera Lour is a tree-like perennial herb that has been used in folk medicine in Bangladesh to heal a number of ailments. Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant, analgesic, antidiarrheal, anthelmintic activities, and general toxicity of the ethanol extract of the roots. Materials and Methods: The extract was assessed for free-radical-scavenging activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, total phenolic content (TPC) by the Folin Ciocalteu reagent, antioxidant activity by the ferric reducing power assay, analgesic activity by the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests, antidiarrheal activity by the castor oil-induced diarrhea model in mice, anthelmintic activity on Paramphistomum cervi and Haemonchus contortus, and general toxicity by the brine shrimp lethality assay. Results: The extract showed free-radical-scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 44.86 ?g/mL. TPC was 537.89 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g of dried plant material. It showed concentration-dependent reducing power, and displayed 42.11 and 69.32% writhing inhibition at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The extract also significantly raised the pain threshold at the above-mentioned dose levels. In vivo antidiarrheal property was substantiated by significant prolongation of latent period and decrease in total number of stools compared with the control. The LC50 against brine shrimp nauplii was 36.21 ?g/mL. The extract exhibited dose-dependent decrease in paralysis and death time of the helminths. Conclusion: The above results demonstrated that the plant possesses notable bioactivities and somewhat supports its use in folk medicine. PMID:24124283

Saha, Sanjib; Shilpi, Jamil A.; Mondal, Himangsu; Gofur, Royhan; Billah, Morsaline; Nahar, Lutfun; Sarker, Satyajit D.



Bioactive lipid mediators in polycystic kidney disease.  


Inflammatory activity is evident in patients with chronic kidney disease with limited data available in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We hypothesized that inflammation is an upstream event in the pathogenesis of ADPKD and may be a contributing factor in the disease severity and progression. Serum samples from 61 HALT study A group patients were compared with samples from 49 patients from HALT study B group with moderately advanced disease. Targeted MS analysis of bioactive lipid mediators as markers of inflammation was performed and correlated with eGFR and total kidney volume (TKV) normalized to the body surface area (BSAR) to assess if these markers are predictive of ADPKD severity. ADPKD patients with eGFR >60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) showed higher levels of 5- and 12/15-lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenase, and generated higher levels of hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids 9-HODE and 13-HODE and HETEs 8-HETE, 11-HETE, 12-HETE, and 15-HETE as compared with healthy subjects. Linear regression of 9-HODE and 13-HODE revealed a significant relationship with eGFR and TKV, while 15-HETE significantly correlated with TKV/BSAR. Production of 20-HETE, a P450-produced metabolite of arachidonic acid, was higher in ADPKD patients as compared with healthy subjects and significantly correlated with eGFR and TKV/BSAR. Perturbation in fatty acid metabolism is evident early in ADPKD patients, even in those with preserved kidney function. The identified LOX pathways may be potential therapeutic targets for slowing down ADPKD progression. PMID:24343898

Klawitter, Jelena; Klawitter, Jost; McFann, Kim; Pennington, Alexander T; Abebe, Kaleab Z; Brosnahan, Godela; Cadnapaphornchai, Melissa A; Chonchol, Michel; Gitomer, Berenice; Christians, Uwe; Schrier, Robert W



Enhanced Bioactivity of Silybin B Methylation Products  

PubMed Central

Flavonolignans from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) have been investigated for their cellular modulatory properties, including cancer chemoprevention and hepatoprotection, as an extract (silymarin), as partially purified mixtures (silibinin and isosilibinin), and as pure compounds (a series of seven isomers). One challenge with the use of these compounds in vivo is their relatively short half-life due to conjugation, particularly glucuronidation. In an attempt to generate analogues with improved in vivo properties, particularly reduced metabolic liability, a semi-synthetic series was prepared in which the hydroxy groups of silybin B were alkylated. A total of five methylated analogues of silybin B were synthesized using standard alkylation conditions (dimethyl sulfate and potassium carbonate in acetone), purified using preparative HPLC, and elucidated via spectroscopy and spectrometry. Of the five, one was monomethylated (3), one was dimethylated (4), two were trimethylated (2 and 6), and one was tetramethylated (5). The relative potency of all compounds was determined in a 72 hr growth-inhibition assay against a panel of three prostate cancer cell lines (DU-145, PC-3, and LNCaP) and a human hepatoma cell line (Huh7.5.1) and compared to natural silybin B. Compounds also were evaluated for inhibition of both cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) activity in human liver microsomes and hepatitis C virus infection in Huh7.5.1 cells. The monomethyl and dimethyl analogues were shown to have enhanced activity in terms of cytotoxicity, CYP2C9 inhibitory potency, and antiviral activity (up to 6-fold increased potency) compared to the parent compound, silybin B. In total, these data suggested that methylation of flavonolignans can increase bioactivity. PMID:23260576

Sy-Cordero, Arlene A.; Graf, Tyler N.; Runyon, Scott P.; Wani, Mansukh C.; Kroll, David J.; Agarwal, Rajesh; Brantley, Scott J.; Paine, Mary F.; Polyak, Stephen J.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.



Study of surfactant-skin interactions by skin impedance measurements.  


The stratum corneum (SC) plays a very critical physiological role as skin barrier in regulating water loss through the skin and protects the body from a wide range of physical and chemical exogenous insults. Surfactant-containing formulations can induce skin damage and irritation owing to surfactant absorption and penetration. It is generally accepted that reduction in skin barrier properties occurs only after surfactants have penetrated/permeated into the skin barrier. To mitigate the harshness of surfactant-based cleansing products, penetration/permeation of surfactants should be reduced. Skin impedance measurements have been taken in vitro on porcine skin using vertical Franz diffusion cells to investigate the impact of surfactants, temperature and pH on skin barrier integrity. These skin impedance results demonstrate excellent correlation with other published methods for assessing skin damage and irritation from different surfactant chemistry, concentration, pH, time of exposure and temperature. This study demonstrates that skin impedance can be utilized as a routine approach to screen surfactant-containing formulations for their propensity to compromise the skin barrier and hence likely lead to skin irritation. PMID:21923733

Lu, Guojin; Moore, David J



Prophylactic bioactive screw fixation as an alternative augmentation for femoroplasty.  


Femoroplasty is theoretically a prophylactic surgical procedure for femoral neck fracture. Although bone cement is generally used for augmentation, its distribution cannot be easily controlled. This study investigated whether a bioactive screw is feasible for femoroplasty as an alternative augmentation material. A mechanical test was done to compare the strength of four types of augmentation bioactive screw (Superfixsorb), two bioinert cements, or no intervention in a composite femoral bone. The peak load to fracture under simulated falling was compared among the four groups. The mean peak load to failure in the bioactive screw group (2667 N) was significantly higher than that in the intact group (2391 N) (p=0.028), comparable to that in the Simplex P cement group (2864 N) (p=0.11), and significantly lower than that of the cranioplastic cement group (3022 N) (p=0.006). The strength of a composite femur with the bioactive screw was higher than that of an intact bone and comparable to one cement augmentation. Thus, this bioactive screw can be potentially used as augmentation material for femoroplasty. PMID:25581740

Hananouchi, Takehito



Immense Essence of Excellence: Marine Microbial Bioactive Compounds  

PubMed Central

Oceans have borne most of the biological activities on our planet. A number of biologically active compounds with varying degrees of action, such as anti-tumor, anti-cancer, anti-microtubule, anti-proliferative, cytotoxic, photo protective, as well as antibiotic and antifouling properties, have been isolated to date from marine sources. The marine environment also represents a largely unexplored source for isolation of new microbes (bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, microalgae-cyanobacteria and diatoms) that are potent producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Extensive research has been done to unveil the bioactive potential of marine microbes (free living and symbiotic) and the results are amazingly diverse and productive. Some of these bioactive secondary metabolites of microbial origin with strong antibacterial and antifungal activities are being intensely used as antibiotics and may be effective against infectious diseases such as HIV, conditions of multiple bacterial infections (penicillin, cephalosporines, streptomycin, and vancomycin) or neuropsychiatric sequelae. Research is also being conducted on the general aspects of biophysical and biochemical properties, chemical structures and biotechnological applications of the bioactive substances derived from marine microorganisms, and their potential use as cosmeceuticals and nutraceuticals. This review is an attempt to consolidate the latest studies and critical research in this field, and to showcase the immense competence of marine microbial flora as bioactive metabolite producers. In addition, the present review addresses some effective and novel approaches of procuring marine microbial compounds utilizing the latest screening strategies of drug discovery. PMID:21116414

Bhatnagar, Ira; Kim, Se-Kwon



Protective effect of detoxified Rhus verniciflua stokes on human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts against oxidative stress and identification of the bioactive phenolics.  


Oxidative stress due to the over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is associated with human skin aging. This study was designed to identify the bioactive phenolics in detoxified Rhus verniciflua Stokes (DRVS) that may protect human skin against oxidative stress. Under oxidative stress caused by H?O?, the 40% (v/v) aqueous methanol extract of DRVS protected human keratinocytes in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) was also inhibited by the DRVS extract in human dermal fibroblasts-neonatal cells exposed to ultraviolet A. The major bioactive phenolics of DRVS were tentatively identified by LC/Q-TOF-ESI-MS/MS, and included gallic acid, 2-(ethoxymethoxy)-3-hydroxyphenol, fustin, a fustin isomer, tetragalloyl glucose, pentagalloyl glucose, fisetin, sulfuretin, a sulfuretin isomer, and butein. The results suggest that a DRVS extract may be effective in slowing skin aging through its antioxidative properties and by down-regulating MMP-1 expression. Further studies are needed to examine whether this effect would be mediated by the phenolics identified in this study. PMID:23924730

Liu, Chun-Shan; Nam, Tae-Gyu; Han, Min-Woo; Ahn, Soo-mi; Choi, Han Seok; Kim, Tae Young; Chun, Ock K; Koo, Sung I; Kim, Dae-Ok



Skin and Sports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about the importance of proper protection from common skin conditions when they engage in sports-related activities. This lesson draws attention to fact that the body's own first line of defense against infectious agents is to keep them from entering or settling in the body. The students break into groups to provide a list of risk factors for each sports-related activity. They come together and compare notes. This sparks the lesson and instruction on how one should protect the skin when participating in sports. Links to other resources for further inquiry are given.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )



Skin barrier in atopic dermatitis.  


The skin represents the largest organ of the body and provides a vital interface between the body and the environment. Hereditary and acquired alterations of structural proteins and lipids of the stratum corneum and epidermal tight junctions leading to a diminished skin barrier function are major causative factors for a number of skin diseases, in particular atopic dermatitis (AD). This review summarizes current knowledge on the role of the skin barrier in AD with regard to pathogenesis and treatment, on the relationship between skin barrier abnormalities and immune aberrations, and on potential therapies aimed at repair of the skin barrier. Furthermore recent advances in the genetics of AD will be addressed. PMID:24389202

Kezic, Sanja; Novak, Natalija; Jakasa, Ivone; Jungersted, Jackob M; Simon, Michel; Brandner, Johanna M; Middelkamp-Hup, Maritza A; Weidinger, Stephan



About Skin-to-Skin Care (Kangaroo Care)  


... Care Ages & Stages Listen About Skin-to-Skin Care Article Body You may be able to hold ... care, also called kangaroo care. What is Kangaroo Care? Kangaroo care was developed in South America as ...


Periocular Skin Cancer -- Skin Tumors Around the Eye  


... include ?at squamous cells, round basal cells, and pigment producing melanocytes . The dermis is the deeper layer of skin and contains the hair follicles, oil and sweat glands, and blood vessels. Skin cancers ...


Potential of Fruit Wastes as Natural Resources of Bioactive Compounds  

PubMed Central

Fruit wastes are one of the main sources of municipal waste. In order to explore the potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant potency and total phenolic contents (TPC) of lipophilic and hydrophilic components in wastes (peel and seed) of 50 fruits were systematically evaluated. The results showed that different fruit residues had diverse antioxidant potency and the variation was very large. Furthermore, the main bioactive compounds were identified and quantified, and catechin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, epicatechin, galangin, gallic acid, homogentisic acid, kaempferol, and chlorogenic acid were widely found in these residues. Especially, the values of ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and TPC in the residues were higher than in pulps. The results showed that fruit residues could be inexpensive and readily available resources of bioactive compounds for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:22942704

Deng, Gui-Fang; Shen, Chen; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Kuang, Ru-Dan; Guo, Ya-Jun; Zeng, Li-Shan; Gao, Li-Li; Lin, Xi; Xie, Jie-Feng; Xia, En-Qin; Li, Sha; Wu, Shan; Chen, Feng; Ling, Wen-Hua; Li, Hua-Bin



How useful is SBF in predicting in vivo bone bioactivity?  


The bone-bonding ability of a material is often evaluated by examining the ability of apatite to form on its surface in a simulated body fluid (SBF) with ion concentrations nearly equal to those of human blood plasma. However, the validity of this method for evaluating bone-bonding ability has not been assessed systematically. Here, the history of SBF, correlation of the ability of apatite to form on various materials in SBF with their in vivo bone bioactivities, and some examples of the development of novel bioactive materials based on apatite formation in SBF are reviewed. It was concluded that examination of apatite formation on a material in SBF is useful for predicting the in vivo bone bioactivity of a material, and the number of animals used in and the duration of animal experiments can be reduced remarkably by using this method. PMID:16448693

Kokubo, Tadashi; Takadama, Hiroaki



Quantitative studies on roast kinetics for bioactives in coffee.  


Quantitative analysis of the bioactives trigonelline (1), N-methylpyridinium (2), caffeine (3), and caffeoylquinic acids (4) in a large set of roasted Arabica (total sample size n = 113) and Robusta coffees (total sample size n = 38) revealed that the concentrations of 1 and 4 significantly correlated with the roasting color (P < 0.001, two tailed), whereas that of 2 significantly correlated inversely with the color (P < 0.001, two tailed). As dark-roasted coffees were rich in N-methylpyridinium whereas light-roasted coffees were rich in trigonelline and caffeoylquinic acids, manufacturing of roast coffees rich in all four bioactives would therefore necessitate blending of two or even more coffees of different roasting colors. Additional experiments on the migration rates during coffee brewing showed that all four bioactives were nearly quantitatively extracted in the brew (>90%) when a water volume/coffee powder ratio of >16 was used. PMID:24274681

Lang, Roman; Yagar, Erkan Firat; Wahl, Anika; Beusch, Anja; Dunkel, Andreas; Dieminger, Natalie; Eggers, Rudolf; Bytof, Gerhard; Stiebitz, Herbert; Lantz, Ingo; Hofmann, Thomas



Bioactive Molecules in Soil Ecosystems: Masters of the Underground  

PubMed Central

Complex biological and ecological processes occur in the rhizosphere through ecosystem-level interactions between roots, microorganisms and soil fauna. Over the past decade, studies of the rhizosphere have revealed that when roots, microorganisms and soil fauna physically contact one another, bioactive molecular exchanges often mediate these interactions as intercellular signal, which prepare the partners for successful interactions. Despite the importance of bioactive molecules in sustainable agriculture, little is known of their numerous functions, and improving plant health and productivity by altering ecological processes remains difficult. In this review, we describe the major bioactive molecules present in below-ground ecosystems (i.e., flavonoids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics and quorum-sensing signals), and we discuss how these molecules affect microbial communities, nutrient availability and plant defense responses. PMID:23615474

Zhuang, Xuliang; Gao, Jie; Ma, Anzhou; Fu, Shenglei; Zhuang, Guoqiang



Edible berries: bioactive components and their effect on human health.  


The importance of food consumption in relation to human health has increased consumer attention in nutraceutical components and foods, especially fruits and vegetables. Berries are a rich source of a wide variety of non-nutritive, nutritive, and bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, phenolics, anthocyanins, phenolic acids, stilbenes, and tannins, as well as nutritive compounds such as sugars, essential oils, carotenoids, vitamins, and minerals. Bioactive compounds from berries have potent antioxidant, anticancer, antimutagenic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineurodegenerative properties, both in vitro and in vivo. The following is a comprehensive and critical review on nutritional and non-nutritional bioactive compounds of berries including their absorption, metabolism, and biological activity in relation to their potential effect on human health. PMID:24012283

Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won



Beta-conglycinins among sources of bioactives in soybean hydrolysates that inhibited leukemia cells in vitro  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soybean is a complex matrix containing several potentially bioactive components. The objective was to build a statistical model to predict the anticancer potential of soybean based on the composition of bioactive components in soybean hydrolysates produced by simulated gastrointestinal digestion. ...


Skin disorders in amputees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dermatologic problems restrict the normal use of a prosthetic limb. The importance of contact dermatitis to skin morbidity in a population of amputees and the selection criteria for patch testing have not been clearly defined.Objective: We describe the range of dermatoses seen in a population of amputees and examine the incidence, causes, and patterns of contact dermatitis.Methods: This is

Calum C. Lyon; Jai Kulkarni; Erik Zimerson; Ernest Van Ross; Michael H. Beck



Measuring and Protecting Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about their skin and the importance of protecting it. It is part of the My World activities from Baylor College of Medicine. Additional activities can be accessed at

Baylor College of Medicine (Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center)



Dry Skin: Environmental Aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is absolutely essential for the normal functioning of the skin and especially the stratum corneum (SC). However, as the SC is continuously exposed to varying humidities, maintenance of water within the tissue is crucial. Under most circumstances water present within the SC will be derived from bodily water, being lost by transepidermal water loss, and is normally bound by

A. V. Rawlings



Cephalopod behaviour: Skin flicks.  


Cephalopods, such as octopus and squid, can change their coloration in an instant, and even produce moving patterns on their skin. A new study describes these wavelike patterns in a colourful tropical cuttlefish, providing insights into the neural mechanisms that generate them. PMID:25093557

Osorio, Daniel



Slicing, skinning, and grafting  

E-print Network

We prove that a Bers slice is never algebraic, meaning that its Zariski closure in the character variety has strictly larger dimension. A corollary is that skinning maps are never constant. The proof uses grafting and the theory of complex projective structures.

Dumas, David



[Skin diseases and obesity].  


Obesity is a chronic multifactorial disease representing a major health problem. Among its consequences, diverse facets of the cutaneous physiology are altered. Some dermatoses are also more prevalent. The most typical ones are acanthosis nigricans, skin tags, signs of hyperandrogeny, striae distensae, stasis acroangiodermatitis, leg ulcers, lymphoedema and intertrigo. PMID:12693306

Martalo, O; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Scheen, A; Piérard, G E



Chemokines and skin diseases.  


Chemokines are small molecules that induce chemotaxis and activation of certain subsets of leukocytes. The expression patterns of chemokines and chemokine receptors are specific to certain organs and cells. Therefore, chemokines are important to elucidate the mechanism of organ-specific human diseases. CCL17 expressed by Langerhans cells, blood endothelial cells, and fibroblasts plays a key role in attracting Th2 cells and tumor cells of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and mycosis fungoides/Sézary syndrome into the skin, developing various Th2-type inflammatory skin diseases as well as cutaneous lymphoma. CCL11 and CCL26 expressed by skin-resident cells, such as fibroblasts, blood endothelial cells, and keratinocytes, induce infiltration of CCR3-expressing cells such as Th2 cells and eosinophils. CCL11 may also serve as an autocrine as well as a paracrine in anaplastic large cell lymphoma. CX3CL1 expressed on blood endothelial cells leads to infiltration of CX3CR1(+) immune cells, such as mast cells, neutrophils, and macrophages, playing important roles in wound healing, tumor immunity, and vasculitis. Biologics targeting chemokines and their receptors are promising strategies for various skin diseases that are resistant to the current therapy. PMID:25182982

Sugaya, Makoto



Parallel optics technology assessment for the versatile link project  

SciTech Connect

This poster describes the assessment of commercially available and prototype parallel optics modules for possible use as back end components for the Versatile Link common project. The assessment covers SNAP12 transmitter and receiver modules as well as optical engine technologies in dense packaging options. Tests were performed using vendor evaluation boards (SNAP12) as well as custom evaluation boards (optical engines). The measurements obtained were used to compare the performance of these components with single channel SFP+ components operating at a transmission wavelength of 850 nm over multimode fibers.

Chramowicz, J.; Kwan, S.; Rivera, R.; Prosser, A.; /Fermilab



Versatility of AAV vectors for retinal gene transfer.  


Gene therapy represents a promising therapeutic option for many inherited and acquired retinal diseases. Recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) are the most efficient tools to transfer genes in vivo to the retina. The recent identification of dozens of novel AAV serotypes enormously expands on the versatility of AAV as vector system for in vivo somatic gene transfer. The results from the forthcoming trials with AAV in the retina of patients with Leber Congenital Amaurosis will be critical for the rapid development of AAV-based therapeutics for retinal diseases. PMID:17923143

Surace, Enrico M; Auricchio, Alberto



ICAN: A versatile code for predicting composite properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Integrated Composites ANalyzer (ICAN), a stand-alone computer code, incorporates micromechanics equations and laminate theory to analyze/design multilayered fiber composite structures. Procedures for both the implementation of new data in ICAN and the selection of appropriate measured data are summarized for: (1) composite systems subject to severe thermal environments; (2) woven fabric/cloth composites; and (3) the selection of new composite systems including those made from high strain-to-fracture fibers. The comparisons demonstrate the versatility of ICAN as a reliable method for determining composite properties suitable for preliminary design.

Ginty, C. A.; Chamis, C. C.



A versatile real-time spectral analysis system  

E-print Network

these wells are moved, charge flows to the gates to offset the charge contained within the well beneath them. If the amount of charge flow1ng to the gate 1s measured, the amount of charge under the gate can be non-destructively sampled. If the gates...) Jo W. Howze (Department Head) May 1986 ABSTRACT- A Versatile Real-Time Spectral Analysis System (May 1986) Mark Steven Hancock, B. S. , Texas ARM University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. B. R. Jean A variety of applications exist...

Hancock, Mark Steven



Algae biofuels: versatility for the future of bioenergy.  


The world continues to increase its energy use, brought about by an expanding population and a desire for a greater standard of living. This energy use coupled with the realization of the impact of carbon dioxide on the climate, has led us to reanalyze the potential of plant-based biofuels. Of the potential sources of biofuels the most efficient producers of biomass are the photosynthetic microalgae and cyanobacteria. These versatile organisms can be used for the production of bioethanol, biodiesel, biohydrogen, and biogas. In fact, one of the most economic methods for algal biofuels production may be the combined biorefinery approach where multiple biofuels are produced from one biomass source. PMID:22104720

Jones, Carla S; Mayfield, Stephen P



Versatile Digital GHz Phase Lock for External Cavity Diode Lasers  

E-print Network

We present a versatile, inexpensive and simple optical phase lock for applications in atomic physics experiments. Thanks to all-digital phase detection and implementation of beat frequency pre-scaling, the apparatus requires no microwave-range reference input, and permits phase locking at frequency differences ranging from sub-MHz to 7 GHz (and with minor extension, to 12 GHz). The locking range thus covers ground state hyperfine splittings of all alkali metals, which makes this system a universal tool for many experiments on coherent interaction between light and atoms.

Jürgen Appel; Andrew MacRae; A. I. Lvovsky



CORRTEX: a compact and versatile system for time domain reflectometry  

SciTech Connect

The CORRTEX (COntinuous Reflectometry for Radius versus Time EXperiments) system was designed to be an adaptable and versatile unit for performing time domain reflectometry (TDR). The system consists of a coaxial cable, a digital TDR, which uses a Motorola 6800 microprocessor, a power source or battery pack, and an output terminal or recording driver. Desirable criteria for the system are discussed as well as the operation of the CORRTEX system. The types of present applications of the CORRTEX system are summarized and data presented.

Deupree, R.G.; Eilers, D.D.; McKown, T.O.; Storey, W.H.



Fabrication of versatile nanocomponents using single-crystalline Au nanoplates  

SciTech Connect

We suggest an approach to the fabrication of versatile nanocomponents designed deliberately by selective Ga{sup +} focused-ion-beam etching or Ar{sup +} ion milling of single-crystalline Au nanoplates synthesized by the chemical reaction. The nanocomponents have various shapes like gear, wheel, dumbbell, square and letter 'A' with in-plane size of about 400 nm and thickness of 40-50 nm. They can be picked up or moved freely one by one to be assembled into sophisticated nanodevices or micromachines. The applicability of our approach both to the fundamental research and to the applied research is discussed.

Yun, Yong Ju; Park, Gwangseo; Ah, Chil Seong; Park, Hyung Ju; Yun, Wan Soo; Ha, Dong Han [Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Electronic Devices Group, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)



Versatile beam calorimeter with a heat flux sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A versatile calorimeter has been developed to study astrophysical S factors for fusion reactions with gaseous targets. The number of incident projectiles are deduced from the deposited power. The principal technique employed here is based on the heat flux sensor output transferred linearly from the heat flow. Absolute values at various energies are obtained by calibration with current measurements by using a Faraday cup. This calorimeter is presently applied in measurement of the solar 3He+3He fusion reaction with an accuracy better than 2%.

Kudomi, N.; Itahashi, T.; Takahisa, K.; Yoshida, S.; Komori, M.



Surface plasmon resonance-enabled antibacterial digital versatile discs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the achievement of effective sterilization of exemplary bacteria including Escherichia coli and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on a digital versatile disc (DVD). The spiral arrangement of aluminum-covered pits generates strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption of near-infrared light, leading to high surface temperature that could even damage the DVD plastics. Localized protein denaturation and high sterilization efficiency have been demonstrated by using a fluorescence microscope and cell cultures. Numerical simulations have also been conducted to model the SPR properties and the surface temperature distribution of DVDs under laser illumination. The theoretical predictions agree reasonably well with the experimental results.

Dou, Xuan; Chung, Pei-Yu; Jiang, Peng; Dai, Jianli



A versatile detector for total fluorescence and electron yield experiments  

SciTech Connect

The combination of a non-coated silicon photodiode with electron repelling meshes makes a versatile detector for total fluorescence yield and electron yield techniques highly suitable for x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In particular, a copper mesh with a bias voltage allows to suppress or transmit the electron yield signal. The performance of this detection scheme has been characterized by near edge x-ray absorption fine structure studies of thermal oxidized silicon and sapphire. The results show that the new detector probes both electron yield and for a bias voltage exceeding the maximum photon energy the total fluorescence yield.

Thielemann, N. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hoffmann, P. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Foehlisch, A. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Physik und Astronomie, Universitaet Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)



A new versatile underground gamma-ray spectrometry system.  


The newest development in IRMM's underground analytical facility is a large lead shield lined with copper that is versatile and can host several detectors of different types. The characteristics and the background performance of the shield are described for four different detector configurations involving HPGe-detectors and NaI-detectors. The shield has been designed to swap detectors, while still maintaining a low background. This enables testing of detectors for other experiments and optimisation of detection limits for specific radionuclides in different projects. PMID:23743483

Lutter, Guillaume; Hult, Mikael; Marissens, Gerd; Andreotti, Erica; Rosengård, Ulf; Misiaszek, Marcin; Yüksel, Ayhan; Sahin, Namik



Risks of Skin Cancer Screening  


... Trials NCI Publications Español Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®) Risks of Skin Cancer Screening Key Points for This ... A biopsy may cause scarring. Screening tests have risks. Decisions about screening tests can be difficult. Not ...


Skin Cancers of the Feet  


... often resemble non-cancerous skin tumors or benign ulcers. Squamous Cell Carcinoma : Squamous cell carcinoma is the ... a plantar wart, a fungal infection, eczema, an ulcer, or other common skin conditions of the foot. ...


Bioactive polymers for cardiac tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prevalent in the US and worldwide, acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) can cause ischemic injuries to the heart that persist and lead to progressive degradation of the organ. Tissue engineering techniques exploiting biomaterials present a hopeful means of treating these injuries, either by mechanically stabilizing the injured ventricle, or by fostering cell growth to replace myocytes lost to damage. This thesis describes the development and testing of a synthetic extracellular matrix for cardiac tissue engineering applications. The first stage of this process was using an advanced finite element model of an injured ovine left ventricle to evaluate the potential benefits of injecting synthetic materials into the heart. These simulations indicated that addition of small amounts non-contractile material (on the order of 1--5% total wall volume) to infarct border zone regions reduced pathological systolic fiber stress to levels near those found in normal remote regions. Simulations also determined that direct addition to the infarct itself caused increases in ventricle ejection fraction while the underlying performance of the pump, ascertained by the Starling relation, was not improved. From these theoretical results, biomaterials were developed specifically for injection into the injured myocardium, and were characterized and tested for their mechanical properties and ability to sustain the proliferation of a stem cell population suitable for transplantation. Thermoresponsive synthetic copolymer hydrogels consisting of N-isopropylacrylamide and acrylic acid, p(NIPAAm-co-AAc), crosslinked with protease degradable amino acid sequences and modified with integrin binding ligands were synthesized, characterized in vitro, and used for myocardial implantation. These injectable materials could maintain a population of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in both two dimensional and three dimensional culture, and when tested in vivo in a murine infarct model they stabilized injured ventricles, reducing functional loss over 6 weeks, and promoted the survival of transplanted stem cells. In addition, modifications to the hydrogel to impart novel bioactivity through a developed tethered form of the protein sonic hedgehog were synthesized and characterized. This tethered form increased protein potency, induced angiogenesis, and could be incorporated into the hydrogel material for future implantation studies in the injured ventricle.

Wall, Samuel Thomas



Silicon Utilizing Microbial Bioactivities in the Biosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diatoms are unicellular eukaryotic algae and an important member of the silicon utilizing organisms, that generate ~20% of the ~100 billion metric tons of organic carbon produced through photosynthesis on Earth each year. Fragilariopsis is a dominating psychrophilic diatom genus in polar sea ice. The two species Fragilariopsis cylindrus and Fragilariopsis curta are able to grow and divide below freezing temperature. Antifreeze proteins (AFPs), involved in cold adaptation in several psychrophilic organisms, are widespread in this two polar species. Achanthes minutissima isolated as dominant diatom has degradable effects involving petroleum hydocarbons. Phaeodactylum tricornutum, have antibacterial activity and the fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), has been identified as one compound responsible for this activity. Other antibacterial compounds are monounsaturated fatty acid (9Z)-hexadecenoic acid (palmitoleic acid; C16:1 n-7) and the relatively unusual polyunsaturated fatty acid (6Z, 9Z, 12Z)-hexadecatrienoic acid (HTA; C16:3 n-4). Both are active against Gram-positive bacteria and many Gram-negative pathogen. Palmitoleic acid is active at micro-molar concentrations, kills bacteria rapidly, and is highly active against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Domoic acid -a neurotoxin produced by Pseudo-nitzschia accumulates in marine invertebrates. Evidences of sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and human poisoning following consumption of contaminated blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) is mainly due to this toxin. Among the most prominent features described in human beings was memory impairment which led to the name Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning [ASP]. Silicon utilizing organisms can act as a bioindicator of environmental contamination, thus a rapid change in phytochelatins to both the increase in and the withdrawal of environmental Cd stress was found in Thalassiosira nordenskioeldii. Some of them also can produce biofuels particularly diatoms have significant potential as a source of biomass for the production of biofuels, due to their high growth rates and high cellular lipid content. Petroleum pollutant degradation can also be done by these organisms-Achanthes minutissima has degradable effects involving petroleum hydocarbons. Stephanopyxis turris a silicon utilizing organism releases a blend of chlorinated C8 hydrocarbons. This adds a fundamentally new pathway to the limited set of halogenating enzymatic activities known from nature. Many silicon utilizing organisms can produce PUFA from saturated fatty acids which ultimately produce many important bioactive chemicals like hormosirene, finaverrene, heptadienal, dietyopterene, cystophorene, decadienal. Trienoic acid, octadiene and many other important agents. Similarly terpenoid biosynthetic pathway is activated by them with formation of diterpenoids, sesterpenoids, triterpenoids and sterols.

Sen, M. M.; Das, S.



Bioactive components of velvet antlers and their pharmacological properties.  


Velvet antler is one of the most important animal medicines, and has been used with a variety of functions, such as anti-fatigue, tissue repair and health promotion. In the past few years, the investigation on chemical compositions, bioactive components, and pharmacological effects has been performed, which demonstrates that velvet antlers could be used as an important health-promoting tonic with great nutritional and medicinal values. This review focuses on the recent advance in studying the bioactive components of velvet antlers. PMID:24029381

Sui, Zhigang; Zhang, Lihua; Huo, Yushu; Zhang, Yukui



Food-Derived Bioactive Peptides on Inflammation and Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

Chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancer are now the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Inflammatory processes and oxidative stress underlie the pathogenesis of these pathological conditions. Bioactive peptides derived from food proteins have been evaluated for various beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this review, we summarize the roles of various food-derived bioactive peptides in inflammation and oxidative stress and discuss the potential benefits and limitations of using these compounds against the burden of chronic diseases. PMID:24527452



The CARLSBAD Database: A Confederated Database of Chemical Bioactivities  

PubMed Central

Many bioactivity databases offer information regarding the biological activity of small molecules on protein targets. Information in these databases is often hard to resolve with certainty because of subsetting different data in a variety of formats; use of different bioactivity metrics; use of different identifiers for chemicals and proteins; and having to access different query interfaces, respectively. Given the multitude of data sources, interfaces and standards, it is challenging to gather relevant facts and make appropriate connections and decisions regarding chemical–protein associations. The CARLSBAD database has been developed as an integrated resource, focused on high-quality subsets from several bioactivity databases, which are aggregated and presented in a uniform manner, suitable for the study of the relationships between small molecules and targets. In contrast to data collection resources, CARLSBAD provides a single normalized activity value of a given type for each unique chemical–protein target pair. Two types of scaffold perception methods have been implemented and are available for datamining: HierS (hierarchical scaffolds) and MCES (maximum common edge subgraph). The 2012 release of CARLSBAD contains 439 985 unique chemical structures, mapped onto 1,420 889 unique bioactivities, and annotated with 277 140 HierS scaffolds and 54 135 MCES chemical patterns, respectively. Of the 890 323 unique structure–target pairs curated in CARLSBAD, 13.95% are aggregated from multiple structure–target values: 94 975 are aggregated from two bioactivities, 14 544 from three, 7 930 from four and 2214 have five bioactivities, respectively. CARLSBAD captures bioactivities and tags for 1435 unique chemical structures of active pharmaceutical ingredients (i.e. ‘drugs’). CARLSBAD processing resulted in a net 17.3% data reduction for chemicals, 34.3% reduction for bioactivities, 23% reduction for HierS and 25% reduction for MCES, respectively. The CARLSBAD database supports a knowledge mining system that provides non-specialists with novel integrative ways of exploring chemical biology space to facilitate knowledge mining in drug discovery and repurposing. Database URL: PMID:23794735

Mathias, Stephen L.; Hines-Kay, Jarrett; Yang, Jeremy J.; Zahoransky-Kohalmi, Gergely; Bologa, Cristian G.; Ursu, Oleg; Oprea, Tudor I.



The CARLSBAD database: a confederated database of chemical bioactivities.  


Many bioactivity databases offer information regarding the biological activity of small molecules on protein targets. Information in these databases is often hard to resolve with certainty because of subsetting different data in a variety of formats; use of different bioactivity metrics; use of different identifiers for chemicals and proteins; and having to access different query interfaces, respectively. Given the multitude of data sources, interfaces and standards, it is challenging to gather relevant facts and make appropriate connections and decisions regarding chemical-protein associations. The CARLSBAD database has been developed as an integrated resource, focused on high-quality subsets from several bioactivity databases, which are aggregated and presented in a uniform manner, suitable for the study of the relationships between small molecules and targets. In contrast to data collection resources, CARLSBAD provides a single normalized activity value of a given type for each unique chemical-protein target pair. Two types of scaffold perception methods have been implemented and are available for datamining: HierS (hierarchical scaffolds) and MCES (maximum common edge subgraph). The 2012 release of CARLSBAD contains 439 985 unique chemical structures, mapped onto 1,420 889 unique bioactivities, and annotated with 277 140 HierS scaffolds and 54 135 MCES chemical patterns, respectively. Of the 890 323 unique structure-target pairs curated in CARLSBAD, 13.95% are aggregated from multiple structure-target values: 94 975 are aggregated from two bioactivities, 14 544 from three, 7 930 from four and 2214 have five bioactivities, respectively. CARLSBAD captures bioactivities and tags for 1435 unique chemical structures of active pharmaceutical ingredients (i.e. 'drugs'). CARLSBAD processing resulted in a net 17.3% data reduction for chemicals, 34.3% reduction for bioactivities, 23% reduction for HierS and 25% reduction for MCES, respectively. The CARLSBAD database supports a knowledge mining system that provides non-specialists with novel integrative ways of exploring chemical biology space to facilitate knowledge mining in drug discovery and repurposing. Database URL: PMID:23794735

Mathias, Stephen L; Hines-Kay, Jarrett; Yang, Jeremy J; Zahoransky-Kohalmi, Gergely; Bologa, Cristian G; Ursu, Oleg; Oprea, Tudor I



Brain-Skin Connection: Stress, Inflammation and Skin Aging  

PubMed Central

The intricate relationship between stress and skin conditions has been documented since ancient times. Recent clinical observations also link psychological stress to the onset or aggravation of multiple skin diseases. However, the exact underlying mechanisms have only been studied and partially revealed in the past 20 years or so. In this review, the authors will discuss the recent discoveries in the field of “Brain-Skin Connection”, summarizing findings from the overlapping fields of psychology, endocrinology, skin neurobiology, skin inflammation, immunology, and pharmacology. PMID:24853682

Chen, Ying; Lyga, John



Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the…

Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth



The skin in diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  The skin is one of the major organ systems involved in diabetes. Certain changes occur inevitably in this disease, and are undoubtedly the cause of many of the skin disorders seen in patients with diabetes. Other skin disorders are related to common disease processes, and still others are simply unexplained statistical observation.

M. J. D. Goodfield; L. G. Millard



Evolving concepts of neonatal skin.  


Skin barrier function is crucial to health. Importantly, the skin operates as an air-liquid, a liquid-liquid, and an immunological barrier. The skin's physical and chemical structures, as well as its microbiome, function to create, maintain, and repair this complex barrier. PMID:25403932

Coughlin, Carrie C; Taïeb, Alain



Dynamic Skin Triangulation (extended abstract)  

E-print Network

Dynamic Skin Triangulation (extended abstract) Ho-Lun Cheng , Tamal K. Dey , Herbert Edelsbrunner small and large angles. Skin Surfaces. The approach to deforming surfaces taken in this paper is based on the technical notion of skin surfaces, as introduced in [3]. The main reason for this choice is the existence

Sullivan, John M.


[Skin manifestations of monoclonal gammopathies].  


Whatever their aetiology, monoclonal gammopathies can be associated to several clinical features. Mechanisms are various and sometimes unknown. Skin is frequently involved and may represent a challenging diagnosis. Indeed, skin manifestations are either the presenting features and isolated, or at the background of a systemic syndrome. Our objective was to review the various skin manifestations that have been associated with monoclonal gammopathies. PMID:24070793

Hello, M; Barbarot, S; Néel, A; Connault, J; Graveleau, J; Durant, C; Decaux, O; Hamidou, M




E-print Network

THE CANCER INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE SKIN CANCER INSTITUTE THE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE #12;THE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE "Through the Skin Cancer Institute, we are endeavoring to reverse the growing incidence of all forms of skin cancer by contributing breakthroughs and innovations

Engman, David M.


Polyamines and nonmelanoma skin cancer  

SciTech Connect

Elevated levels of polyamines have long been associated with skin tumorigenesis. Tightly regulated metabolism of polyamines is critical for cell survival and normal skin homeostasis, and these controls are dysregulated in skin tumorigenesis. A key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is upregulated in skin tumors compared to normal skin. Use of transgenic mouse models has demonstrated that polyamines play an essential role in the early promotional phase of skin tumorigenesis. The formation of skin tumors in these transgenic mice is dependent upon polyamine biosynthesis, especially putrescine, since treatment with inhibitors of ODC activity blocks the formation of skin tumors and causes the rapid regression of existing tumors. Although the mechanism by which polyamines promote skin tumorigenesis are not well understood, elevated levels of polyamines have been shown to stimulate epidermal proliferation, alter keratinocyte differentiation status, increase neovascularization, and increase synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins in a manner similar to that seen in wound healing. It is becoming increasingly apparent that elevated polyamine levels activate not only epidermal cells but also underlying stromal cells in the skin to promote the development and progression of skin tumors. The inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis has potential to be an effective chemoprevention strategy for nonmelanoma skin cancer.

Gilmour, Susan K. [Lankenau Institute for Medical Research, 100 Lancaster Avenue, Wynnewood, PA 19096 (United States)], E-mail:



Melanocyte biology and skin pigmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melanocytes are phenotypically prominent but histologically inconspicuous skin cells. They are responsible for the pigmentation of skin and hair, and thereby contribute to the appearance of skin and provide protection from damage by ultraviolet radiation. Pigmentation mutants in various species are highly informative about basic genetic and developmental pathways, and provide important clues to the processes of photoprotection, cancer predisposition

Jennifer Y. Lin; David E. Fisher



Polyamines and Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer  

PubMed Central

Elevated levels of polyamines have long been associated with skin tumorigenesis. Tightly regulated metabolism of polyamines is critical for cell survival and normal skin homeostasis, and these controls are dysregulated in skin tumorigenesis. A key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is upregulated in skin tumors compared to normal skin. Use of transgenic mouse models has demonstrated that polyamines play an essential role in the early promotional phase of skin tumorigenesis. The formation of skin tumors in these transgenic mice is dependent upon polyamine biosynthesis, especially putrescine, since treatment with inhibitors of ODC activity blocks the formation of skin tumors and causes the rapid regression of existing tumors. Although the mechanism by which polyamines promote skin tumorigenesis are not well understood, elevated levels of polyamines have been shown to stimulate epidermal proliferation, alter keratinocyte differentiation status, increase neovascularization, and increase synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins in a manner similar to that seen in wound healing. It is becoming increasingly apparent that elevated polyamine levels activate not only epidermal cells but also underlying stromal cells in the skin to promote the development and progression of skin tumors. The inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis has potential to be an effective chemoprevention strategy for nonmelanoma skin cancer. PMID:17234230

Gilmour, Susan K.



Combining xanthan and chitosan membranes to multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells as bioactive dressings for dermo-epidermal wounds.  


The association between tridimensional scaffolds to cells of interest has provided excellent perspectives for obtaining viable complex tissues in vitro, such as skin, resulting in impressive advances in the field of tissue engineering applied to regenerative therapies. The use of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in the treatment of dermo-epidermal wounds is particularly promising due to several relevant properties of these cells, such as high capacity of proliferation in culture, potential of differentiation in multiple skin cell types, important paracrine and immunomodulatory effects, among others. Membranes of chitosan complexed with xanthan may be potentially useful as scaffolds for multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, given that they present suitable physico-chemical characteristics and have adequate tridimensional structure for the adhesion, growth, and maintenance of cell function. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to assess the applicability of bioactive dressings associating dense and porous chitosan-xanthan membranes to multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells for the treatment of skin wounds. The membranes showed to be non-mutagenic and allowed efficient adhesion and proliferation of the mesenchymal stromal cells in vitro. In vivo assays performed with mesenchymal stromal cells grown on the surface of the dense membranes showed acceleration of wound healing in Wistar rats, thus indicating that the use of this cell-scaffold association for tissue engineering purposes is feasible and attractive. PMID:25281644

Bellini, Márcia Z; Caliari-Oliveira, Carolina; Mizukami, Amanda; Swiech, Kamilla; Covas, Dimas T; Donadi, Eduardo A; Oliva-Neto, Pedro; Moraes, Ângela M



Latent Bioactive Peptides in Milk Proteins: Proteolytic Activation and Significance in Dairy Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Referee: Mr. Dick Fitzgerald, Ph.D., Life Science Department, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland After a brief description of the properties of bioactive peptides, the proteolytic activation of the bioactive sequences from milk protein precursors is discussed. The ability of proteolytic enzymes from various sources, especially from lactic acid bacteria, to release bioactive peptides and the physiological and biotechnological significance of

M. Gobbetti; L. Stepaniak; M. De Angelis; A. Corsetti; R. Di Cagno



Robust and versatile ionic liquid microarrays achieved by microcontact printing.  


Lab-on-a-chip and miniaturized systems have gained significant popularity motivated by marked differences in material performance at the micro-to-nano-scale realm. However, to fully exploit micro-to-nano-scale chemistry, solvent volatility and lack of reproducibility need to be overcome. Here, we combine the non-volatile and versatile nature of ionic liquids with microcontact printing in an attempt to establish a facile protocol for high throughput fabrication of open microreactors and microfluidics. The micropatterned ionic liquid droplets have been demonstrated as electrochemical cells and reactors for microfabrication of metals and charge transfer complexes, substrates for immobilization of proteins and as membrane-free high-performance amperometric gas sensor arrays. The results suggest that miniaturized ionic liquid systems can be used to solve the problems of solvent volatility and slow mass transport in viscous ionic liquids in lab-on-a-chip devices, thus providing a versatile platform for a diverse number of applications. PMID:24781644

Gunawan, Christian A; Ge, Mengchen; Zhao, Chuan



Versatile optical coherence tomography for imaging the human eye  

PubMed Central

We demonstrated the feasibility of a CMOS-based spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) for versatile ophthalmic applications of imaging the corneal epithelium, limbus, ocular surface, contact lens, crystalline lens, retina, and full eye in vivo. The system was based on a single spectrometer and an alternating reference arm with four mirrors. A galvanometer scanner was used to switch the reference beam among the four mirrors, depending on the imaging application. An axial resolution of 7.7 ?m in air, a scan depth of up to 37.7 mm in air, and a scan speed of up to 70,000 A-lines per second were achieved. The approach has the capability to provide high-resolution imaging of the corneal epithelium, contact lens, ocular surface, and tear meniscus. Using two reference mirrors, the zero delay lines were alternatively placed on the front cornea or on the back lens. The entire ocular anterior segment was imaged by registering and overlapping the two images. The full eye through the pupil was measured when the reference arm was switched among the four reference mirrors. After mounting a 60 D lens in the sample arm, this SD-OCT was used to image the retina, including the macula and optical nerve head. This system demonstrates versatility and simplicity for multi-purpose ophthalmic applications. PMID:23847729

Tao, Aizhu; Shao, Yilei; Zhong, Jianguang; Jiang, Hong; Shen, Meixiao; Wang, Jianhua



Versatile optical coherence tomography for imaging the human eye.  


We demonstrated the feasibility of a CMOS-based spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) for versatile ophthalmic applications of imaging the corneal epithelium, limbus, ocular surface, contact lens, crystalline lens, retina, and full eye in vivo. The system was based on a single spectrometer and an alternating reference arm with four mirrors. A galvanometer scanner was used to switch the reference beam among the four mirrors, depending on the imaging application. An axial resolution of 7.7 ?m in air, a scan depth of up to 37.7 mm in air, and a scan speed of up to 70,000 A-lines per second were achieved. The approach has the capability to provide high-resolution imaging of the corneal epithelium, contact lens, ocular surface, and tear meniscus. Using two reference mirrors, the zero delay lines were alternatively placed on the front cornea or on the back lens. The entire ocular anterior segment was imaged by registering and overlapping the two images. The full eye through the pupil was measured when the reference arm was switched among the four reference mirrors. After mounting a 60 D lens in the sample arm, this SD-OCT was used to image the retina, including the macula and optical nerve head. This system demonstrates versatility and simplicity for multi-purpose ophthalmic applications. PMID:23847729

Tao, Aizhu; Shao, Yilei; Zhong, Jianguang; Jiang, Hong; Shen, Meixiao; Wang, Jianhua



Robust and versatile pectin-based drug delivery systems.  


Pectin-based resistant, interactive and versatile hydrogel vehicles for oral administration have been prepared. These systems are thought to be versatile enough to allow the inclusion of substances (such as the surfactants tested: Pluronic, Tween, Na Lauryl sulphate) that may contribute to tailor the drug release patterns. Tolbutamide, that shows a discrete and pH-dependent solubility in water, has been employed as a model drug to test the capability of these matrices to overcome such drug-imposed restraints. The incorporation of different surfactants produced pectin-based hydrogels of difficult manipulation. In order to improve this drawback, two different strategies have been developed: blending with agarose or freeze-drying. The presence of agarose yields robust systems that can be handled and tested as prepared, in the fresh state. Freeze-drying not only allows to shape pure pectin and blend systems, but also generates a porous structure whose microstructure, determined by the different components included, influences on the drug release behavior. Tolbutamide release kinetics from freshly prepared matrices can be fitted to the Higuchi model while the freeze-dried ones adjust to the Korsmeyer-Peppas model; hence the hydrogel chains rearrangement processes rule the release during the rehydration process. PMID:25542990

Marras-Marquez, T; Peña, J; Veiga-Ochoa, M D



Versatile Low Level RF System For Linear Accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Low Level RF (LLRF) system is the source of all of the rf signals required for an rf linear accelerator. These signals are amplified to drive accelerator and buncher cavities. It can even provide the synchronizing signal for the rf power for a synchrotron. The use of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) techniques results in a versatile system that can provide multiple coherent signals at the same or different frequencies with adjustable amplitudes and phase relations. Pulsing the DDS allows rf switching with an essentially infinite on/off ratio. The LLRF system includes a versatile phase detector that allows phase-locking the rf frequency to a cavity at any phase angle over the full 360° range. With the use of stepper motor driven slug tuners multiple cavity resonant frequencies can be phase locked to the rf source frequency. No external phase shifters are required and there is no feedback loop phase setup required. All that is needed is to turn the frequency feedback on. The use of Digital Signal Processing (DSP) allows amplitude and phase control over the entire rf pulse. This paper describes the basic principles of a LLRF system that has been used for both proton accelerators and electron accelerators, including multiple tank accelerators, sub-harmonic and fundamental bunchers, and synchrotrons.

Potter, James M.



Utility of High-Frequency Ultrasound: Moving Beyond the Surface to Detect Changes in Skin Integrity  

PubMed Central

Ultrasound imaging is a versatile modality frequently used in clinical medicine, most likely due to its low cost, low risk to patients, and the ability to provide images in real time. Ultrasound used typically in clinical settings has frequencies between 2 and 12 MHz. Lower frequencies produce greater resolution but are limited in depth penetration; higher frequencies produce greater resolution, but depth of penetration is limited. High-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) shows promise for detection of certain changes in the skin and this has implications for early detection of changes associated with pressure ulcer formation and wound healing. The purpose of this article was to provide an overview of where HFUS has been used with the skin and provide some discussion on its utility with detecting skin changes related to pressure. PMID:24583666

Lucas, Valentina S.; Burk, Ruth S.; Creehan, Sue; Grap, Mary Jo



Morphological diversity and ecological similarity: versatility of muscular and skeletal morphologies  

E-print Network

: south-eastern Arizona and north-central New Mexico populations of the montane shrews (Sorex monticolus. Key-words: ecological convergence, mandible, morphological versatility, plasticity, Sorex Introduction

Badyaev, Alex


Skin contamination dosimeter  


A technique and device provides absolute skin dosimetry in real time at multiple tissue depths simultaneously. The device uses a phoswich detector which has multiple scintillators embedded at different depths within a non-scintillating material. A digital pulse processor connected to the phoswich detector measures a differential distribution (dN/dH) of count rate N as function of pulse height H for signals from each of the multiple scintillators. A digital processor computes in real time from the differential count-rate distribution for each of multiple scintillators an estimate of an ionizing radiation dose delivered to each of multiple depths of skin tissue corresponding to the multiple scintillators embedded at multiple corresponding depths within the non-scintillating material.

Hamby, David M. (Corvallis, OR); Farsoni, Abdollah T. (Corvallis, OR); Cazalas, Edward (Corvallis, OR)



Nano/macro porous bioactive glass scaffold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioactive glass (BG) and ceramics have been widely studied and developed as implants to replace hard tissues of the musculo-skeletal system, such as bones and teeth. Recently, instead of using bulk materials, which usually do not degrade rapidly enough and may remain in the human body for a long time, the idea of bioscaffold for tissue regeneration has generated much interest. An ideal bioscaffold is a porous material that would not only provide a three-dimensional structure for the regeneration of natural tissue, but also degrade gradually and, eventually be replaced by the natural tissue completely. Among various material choices the nano-macro dual porous BG appears as the most promising candidate for bioscaffold applications. Here macropores facilitate tissue growth while nanopores control degradation and enhance cell response. The surface area, which controls the degradation of scaffold can also be tuned by changing the nanopore size. However, fabrication of such 3D structure with desirable nano and macro pores has remained challenging. In this dissertation, sol-gel process combined with spinodal decomposition or polymer sponge replication method has been developed to fabricate the nano-macro porous BG scaffolds. Macropores up to 100microm are created by freezing polymer induced spinodal structure through sol-gel transition, while larger macropores (>200um) of predetermined size are obtained by the polymer sponge replication technique. The size of nanopores, which are inherent to the sol-gel method of glass fabrication, has been tailored using several approaches: Before gel point, small nanopores are generated using acid catalyst that leads to weakly-branched polymer-like network. On the other hand, larger nanopores are created with the base-catalyzed gel with highly-branched cluster-like structure. After the gel point, the nanostructure can be further modified by manipulating the sintering temperature and/or the ammonia concentration used in the solvent exchange process. Although both techniques lower the surface area of BG scaffolds, the temperature-dependent sintering process closes nanopores through densification, while the concentration-dependent solvent exchange process enlarges nanopores through Ostwald-ripening type coarsening. Therefore, nanopore size and surface area of BG scaffold are independently controlled using these methods. In vitro cell and in vivo animal tissue responses have been investigated to evaluate the performance of the nano-macro porous BG scaffold. The cells are found to migrate and penetrate deep into the 3D nano-macro porous structure, while exhibiting excellent adhesion to the bioscaffold surface. Importantly, the new tissue with both blood vessels and collagen fibers is formed deep inside the implanted scaffolds without obvious inflammatory reaction. Furthermore, our observations show biological benefits of the nanopores in the BG scaffold. In comparison to BG scaffold without nanopores, cells migrate and penetrate into nano-macro dual-porous BG scaffold faster and deeper mainly because of the increase of surface area. To study the effect of nanopore topography, we fabricated BG scaffolds with the same surface area but different nanopore sizes. It is found that the initial cell attachment is significantly enhanced on the BG scaffold with the same surface area but smaller nanopores size, indicating that the nanopore topography strongly influences the performance of BG scaffold. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate most clearly the usefulness of our nano-macro dual-porous BG as a novel and superior 3D bioscaffold for regenerative medicine and hard tissue engineering.

Wang, Shaojie


Herbal bioactivation, molecular targets and the toxicity relevance  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been increasing reports on the adverse reactions associated with herbal consumption. For many of these adverse reactions, the underlying biochemical mechanisms are unknown, but bioactivation of herbal compounds to generate reactive intermediates have been implicated. This minireview updates our knowledge on metabolic activation of herbal compounds, molecular targets and the toxicity relevance. A number of studies have documented

Xiao-Wu Chen; Erini S. Serag; Kevin B. Sneed; Shu-Feng Zhou



Bioactivity of essential oils and their volatile aroma components: Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioactivity of essential oils and their flavor and fragrance components have been known since ancient times. Essential oils are a mixture of numerous compounds characterized by an essence of aromatic plants. Currently, approximately 3000 essential oils are known, 300 of which are commercially important, in particular for the pharmaceutical, food, household and cosmetic industries. Essential oils have been known

Hamdy A. E. Shaaban; Ahmed H. El-Ghorab; Takayuki Shibamoto



Production of the bioactive polysaccharide schizophyllan from renewable cellulosic materials  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Schizophyllan is a bioactive homoglucan with a ß-1,3-linked backbone and ß-1,6-linked side chains of single glucose units at every other residue. It is produced by the ubiquitous mushroom, Schizophyllum commune. Schizophyllan acts as a biological response modifier and a non-specific stimulator of ...


Hydrogeologic Controls on Bioactive Zone Development in Biostimulated Aquifers  

E-print Network

.............................................................................................................. 98 5.1.5: Aqueous CO2, N2O, and CH4 Concentrations ............................................................................ 99 5.1.6: Biomass Estimation.... ................................................................................................... 62 Table 5.1: Saturation indicies for calcite and dissolved gasses (CO2, N2O, CH4). ....................... 128 xiii This Page Intentionally Left Blank 1 1 Introduction 1.0: Bioactive Zone Development in Aquifer...

Schillig, Peter Curtis



Bioactive cardenolides from the leaves of Nerium oleander  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bioactivity directed isolation of the methanolic extract of the fresh, uncrushed leaves of Nerium oleander showing a central nervous system (CNS) depressant effect in mice has been undertaken. As a result, four CNS depressant cardenolides including a new cardenolide, neridiginoside and three known constituents, nerizoside, neritaloside and odoroside-H, have been isolated which exhibited CNS depressant activity in mice at

Sabira Begum; Bina S Siddiqui; Razia Sultana; Atiya Zia; Amin Suria



Greener and Expeditious Synthesis of Bioactive Heterocycles using Microwave Irradiation  

EPA Science Inventory

The utilization of green chemistry techniques is dramatically reducing chemical waste and reaction times as has recently been proven in several organic syntheses and chemical transformations. To illustrate these advantages in the synthesis of bio-active heterocycles, we have stud...


Advancement into the Arctic region for bioactive sponge secondary metabolites.  


Porifera have long been a reservoir for the discovery of bioactive compounds and drug discovery. Most research in the area has focused on sponges from tropical and temperate waters, but more recently the focus has shifted to the less accessible colder waters of the Antarctic and, to a lesser extent, the Arctic. The Antarctic region in particular has been a more popular location for natural products discovery and has provided promising candidates for drug development. This article reviews groups of bioactive compounds that have been isolated and reported from the southern reaches of the Arctic Circle, surveys the known sponge diversity present in the Arctic waters, and details a recent sponge collection by our group in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. The collection has yielded previously undescribed sponge species along with primary activity against opportunistic infectious diseases, malaria, and HCV. The discovery of new sponge species and bioactive crude extracts gives optimism for the isolation of new bioactive compounds from a relatively unexplored source. PMID:22163194

Abbas, Samuel; Kelly, Michelle; Bowling, John; Sims, James; Waters, Amanda; Hamann, Mark



Synthesis of naturally derived bioactive compounds of agricultural interest.  


Synthetic studies on bioactive compounds are described, involving phytotoxins (tobacco wildfire disease toxin tabtoxinine-beta-lactam and rice blast disease toxin pyricuol) a glutarimide antibiotic (actiketal) black vomit toxin (gizzerosine) and marine products (antifeedant pteroenone and serinol compound didemniserinolipid). PMID:16495645

Kiyota, Hiromasa



Mango Bioactive Compounds and Related Nutraceutical Properties—A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mangos' popularity is on the rise due to its high nutraceutic and pharmaceutical value. The mango is unique because each of its parts—fruit, pulp, peel, seed, leaves, flowers and the bark—are utilizable. Polyphenolic compounds and related bioactivity in the fruit are higher in peel than pulp and highest in mango leaves and stem barks. There are various polyphenols in

Martin Masibo; Qian He



New bioactive and biobased product applications of pectin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pectin is well known for its bioactive health-promoting properties and use in biobased products. Recent reports have demonstrated that pectin and pectic fractions have potential as prebiotics, prevent pathogenic bacterial adhesion, increase prostate specific antigen doubling time in patients with re...


Changes in intakes of selected foods rich in bioactive compounds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several foods have received considerable attention in recent years because of their possible protective effect on cardiovascular diseases and cancer. These foods are rich in bioactive compounds and include blueberries, strawberries, broccoli, soymilk, and tea. Dietary intake data for males and femal...


Bioactivity and Structure of Biophenols as Mediators of Chronic Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biophenols and their associated activity have generated intense interest. Current topics of debate are their bioavailability and bioactivity. It is generally assumed that their plasma concentrations are insufficient to produce the health benefits previously attributed to their consumption. However, data on localized in vivo concentrations are not available and many questions remain unanswered. Potential mechanisms by which they may exert

Gregory Tucker; Kevin Robards



Hyaluronan scaffolds: A balance between backbone functionalization and bioactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of biomaterials that provide mechanical and molecular cues for wound healing and regeneration must meet several design parameters. In addition to high biocompatibility, biomaterials should possess suitable porosity as well as the ability to be chemically tailored to control parameters including biodegradability and bioactivity. These characteristics were studied in hyaluronan (HA), a natural polymer found in the body. HA

Doris Eng; Michael Caplan; Mark Preul; Alyssa Panitch



Cranberries and their bioactive constituents in human health  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent observational and clinical studies have raised interest in the potential health effects of cranberry consumption, an association that appears due to the phytochemical content of this fruit. The profile of cranberry bioactives is distinct from other berry fruit, being rich in A-type proanthocy...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It has been shown that the enzymatic breakdown of milk proteins leads to the release of bioactive peptides. Two such peptides are the 11-residue antimicrobial peptide from bovine lactoferrin (BL-11) and the 12-residue antihypertensive peptide from s1-casein (C-12). This report summarizes the clonin...


Novel strategy for mechanically tunable and bioactive metal implants.  


Metals have been used as biostructural materials because of outstanding mechanical reliability. However, low bioactivity and high stiffness in biological environments have been major issues of metals, causing stress shielding effects or foreign body reactions after implantation. Therefore, in this study, densified porous titanium has been introduced to achieve comparable mechanical properties to hard tissues and bioactivity that promote a better interface between the implant and bone. Porous titanium scaffolds were successfully fabricated through dynamic freezing casting, and were densified, controlling the degree of densification by applied strain. During densification, structural integrity of porous titanium was well maintained without any mechanical deterioration, exhibiting good pore connectivity and large surface area. Densified porous titanium possesses two important features that have not been achieved by either dense titanium or porous titanium: 1) mechanical tunability of porous scaffolds through densification that allows scaffolds to be applied ranging from highly porous fillers to dense load-bearing implants and 2) improved bioactivity through bioactive coating that is capable of sustainable release through utilizing high surface area and pore connectivity with controllable tortuosity. This simple, but effective post-fabrication process of porous scaffolds has great potential to resolve unmet needs of biometals for biomedical applications. PMID:25453937

Jung, Hyun-Do; Jang, Tae-Sik; Wang, Lifeng; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Koh, Young-Hag; Song, Juha



Bioactivity of cedarwood oil and cedrol against arthropod pests  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Heartwood samples from Juniperus virginiana, were extracted with liquid carbon dioxide and the bioactivity of carbon dioxide-derived cedarwood oil (CWO) towards several species of arthropods was investigated. Repellency or toxicity was tested for ants, ticks, and cockroaches. Ants in an outdoor bi...


Porous Surface Modified Bioactive Bone Cement for Enhanced Bone Bonding  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPolymethylmethacrylate bone cement cannot provide an adhesive chemical bonding to form a stable cement-bone interface. Bioactive bone cements show bone bonding ability, but their clinical application is limited because bone resorption is observed after implantation. Porous polymethylmethacrylate can be achieved with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose, alginate and gelatin microparticles to promote bone ingrowth, but the mechanical properties are too low

Qiang He; Huiling Chen; Li Huang; Jingjing Dong; Dagang Guo; Mengmeng Mao; Liang Kong; Yang Li; Zixiang Wu; Wei Lei



Skin, Scales and Skulls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners examine body parts (including skin, scales, and skulls) from fish, mammals and reptiles. Questions are provided to help encourage learner investigations. Several activities are described, including object identification (what animal and what part of the animal?), free sorting of the objects, and a discussion of similarities, differences, and protective functions of the animal parts. It's written for use as a cart demo in a museum or aquarium, but could be done anywhere animal body parts are available.

Virginia Aquarium and Marine Science Center



Diagnosing Common Skin Eruptions  

PubMed Central

The skin reacts to various insults in a limited number of ways. For this reason the etiologic diagnosis of a simple eruption may require some scrutiny on the part of the examiner. Only when a true diagnosis is arrived at, will the treatment be effective or successful. The author provides several examples of commonly seen eruptions and discusses their differential features. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:20468760

Enta, Tom



Fucoxanthin, a Marine Carotenoid Present in Brown Seaweeds and Diatoms: Metabolism and Bioactivities Relevant to Human Health  

PubMed Central

The marine carotenoid fucoxanthin can be found in marine brown seaweeds, the macroalgae, and diatoms, the microalgae, and has remarkable biological properties. Numerous studies have shown that fucoxanthin has considerable potential and promising applications in human health. In this article, we review the current available scientific literature regarding the metabolism, safety, and bioactivities of fucoxanthin, including its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-obese, antidiabetic, antiangiogenic and antimalarial activities, and its protective effects on the liver, blood vessels of the brain, bones, skin, and eyes. Although some studies have shown the bioavailability of fucoxanthin in brown seaweeds to be low in humans, many studies have suggested that a dietary combination of fucoxanthin and edible oil or lipid could increase the absorption rate of fucoxanthin, and thus it might be a promising marine drug. PMID:22072997

Peng, Juan; Yuan, Jian-Ping; Wu, Chou-Fei; Wang, Jiang-Hai



[Basophils in skin inflammation].  


Basophils represent less than 1% of peripheral blood leukocytes. Under physiological conditions, basophils principally circulate in peripheral blood, while mast cells reside in peripheral tissues. Like mast cells, they express the high-affinity IgE receptor on their cell surface and release chemical mediators. Because of morphological and functional similarities, basophils have long been considered to be redundant "circulating mast cells" and minor (probably negligible) players in inflammation. Mouse and human basophils cannot be stained in routinely processed histological specimens, and thus, our understanding of tissue basophils in allergic inflammation had been limited. However, recent studies in mice have revealed that basopihls play non-redundant roles from mast cells. Basophils function as a source of IL-4, IL-13, and CCL22, thereby contributing Th2 immunity. They are also capable of presenting antigens. Basophils are essential for the development of IgE-mediated chronic allergic skin inflammation in mice. Recent immunohistochemical studies with an basophil-specific antibody revealed that, in humans, varying numbers of basophils infiltrate skin lesions of inflammatory diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, urticaria, prurigo, and eosinophilic pustular folliculitis. Basophils may play important roles in a variety of inflammatory skin diseases than previously thought. PMID:21628847

Satoh, Takahiro



[Skin and stress].  


The concept of stress was developed based on data from experimental pathology and psychology studies. Selye defined stress and described the physiologic changes induced by stress, under the designation "general adaptation syndrome". The interactive aspect of stress has since then been emphasized. Stress results from a unique interaction between a thinking individual and a physical or social environment. The presence in humans of a mental apparatus capable of thinking, reminiscing, and fantasizing accounts for the specific features of stress as a clinical condition. It follows that psychosomatic dermatology cannot be satisfied with defining and documenting stress, with establishing a link between stress and a disorder of the skin (an organ that plays a unique role in communication), and with evaluating the biological mechanism underlying the skin lesions. Another essential goal is to understand why an individual patient, with his or her unique history, develops a skin disorder as a manifestation of an inability to cope with adversity. Two psychologic factors should be taken into account in dermatology, namely stress and the personality of the person subjected to the stress. What makes a life event stressful is often the personality of the subject experiencing the event. PMID:9157367

Consoli, S



Optimization and characterization of bioactive glass nanofibers and nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disease affects different areas of the bone and can impact individuals of all pathologies and ethnicities. These bone diseases can result in weakening which leads to trauma during ordinary function, the need for reconstructive surgery, and eventual bone replacement. Tissue engineering can provide a less traumatic and more fundamental solution to the current therapies. Bioactive glasses are promising materials in tissue engineering applications because of their ability to form hydroxycarbonate apatite in the presence of simulated body fluid, support cell adhesion, growth, and differentiation, induce bone formation, and concentrate bone morphogenic proteins in vivo. The research in this dissertation will attempt to improve the quality, yield, and toughness of bioactive glass nanofibrous scaffolds. The three specific aims of this research include, (1) Optimization and Characterization of Surfactant Modified Bioactive Glass (2) Optimization of Direct Synthesis Bioactive glass Nanofibers from Sols (3) Mechanical Properties and In-vitro Biomineralization of Bioglass-loaded Polyglyconate Nanocomposites Created Using the Particulate Leaching Method. The purpose of the first specific aim was to optimize the processing of bioactive glass nanofibers, resulting in greater fiber uniformity with a reduction in beading. The increase in viscosity coupled with the ability of the surfactant to limit polymeric secondary bonding led to improved fiber quality. The focal point of the second specific aim is the production of sol-gel derived glass fibers with high bioactivity prepared by electrospinning without the use of any polymer carrier system. Advantages of this method include decreased processing time, increased production of fibers, and a decrease in the loss of material due to the calcining process. The solvent cast/ particulate leaching method was used to create a nanocomposite of bioglass and the co-polymer polyglyconate (MaxonRTM) for bone tissue scaffolds The biocompatibility of the composite foams was observed and calcium phosphate presence was quantified. The incorporation of bioglass into the polymer matrix improved the strength (modulus - 21.47 MPa) and biocompatibility of the polyglyconate foam. Keywords: Bioactive glass, Electrospinning, Solvent Casting/Particulate Leaching Method, Nanocomposites

Scarber, Reginna E.


Rapid screening of bioactive compounds from natural products by integrating 5-channel parallel chromatography coupled with on-line mass spectrometry and microplate based assays.  


A high throughput method was developed for rapid screening and identification of bioactive compounds from traditional Chinese medicine, marine products and other natural products. The system, integrated with five-channel chromatographic separation and dual UV-MS detection, is compatible with in vitro 96-well microplate based bioassays. The stability and applicability of the proposed method was validated by testing radical scavenging capability of a mixture of seven known compounds (rutin, dihydroquercetin, salvianolic acid A, salvianolic acid B, glycyrrhizic acid, rubescensin A and tangeretin). Moreover, the proposed method was successfully applied to the crude extracts of traditional Chinese medicine and a marine sponge from which 12 bioactive compounds were screened and characterized based on their anti-oxidative or anti-tumor activities. In particular, two diterpenoid derivatives, agelasine B and (-)-agelasine D, were identified for the first time as anti-tumor compounds from the sponge Agelas mauritiana, showing a considerable activity toward MCF-7 cells (IC50 values of 7.84±0.65 and 10.48±0.84 ?M, respectively). Our findings suggested that the integrated system of 5-channel parallel chromatography coupled with on-line mass spectrometry and microplate based assays can be a versatile and high efficient approach for the discovery of active compounds from natural products. PMID:23622964

Zhang, Yufeng; Xiao, Shun; Sun, Lijuan; Ge, Zhiwei; Fang, Fengkai; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Yi; Cheng, Yiyu



Conductive hydrogels with tailored bioactivity for implantable electrode coatings.  


The development of high-resolution neuroprosthetics has driven the need for better electrode materials. Approaches to achieve both electrical and mechanical improvements have included the development of hydrogel and conducting polymer composites. However, these composites have limited biological interaction, as they are often composed of synthetic polymers or non-ideal biological polymers, which lack the required elements for biorecognition. This study explores the covalent incorporation of bioactive molecules within a conducting hydrogel (CH). The CH was formed from the biosynthetic co-hydrogel poly(vinyl alcohol)-heparin and the conductive polymer (CP), poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene). Adhesive biomolecules sericin and gelatin were covalently incorporated via methacrylate crosslinking within the CH. Electrical properties of the bioactive CH were assessed, and it was shown that the polar biomolecules improved charge transfer. The bioactivity of heparin within the hybrid assessed by examining stimulation of B-lymphocyte (BaF3) proliferation showed that bioactivity was retained after electropolymerization of the CP through the hydrogel. Similarly, incorporation of sericin and gelatin in the CH promoted neural cell adhesion and proliferation, with only small percentages (? 2 wt.%) required to achieve optimal results. Sericin provided the best support for the outgrowth of neural processes, and 1 wt.% was sufficient to facilitate adhesion and differentiation of neurons. The drug delivery capability of CH was shown through incorporation of nerve growth factor during polymer fabrication. NGF was delivered to the target cells, resulting in outgrowth of neural processes. The CH system is a flexible technology platform, which can be tailored to covalently incorporate bioactive protein sequences and deliver mobile water-soluble drug molecules. PMID:24365707

Mario Cheong, G L; Lim, Khoon S; Jakubowicz, Anais; Martens, Penny J; Poole-Warren, Laura A; Green, Rylie A



Experimental characterization of adsorbed protein orientation, conformation, and bioactivity.  


Protein adsorption on material surfaces is a common phenomenon that is of critical importance in many biotechnological applications. The structure and function of adsorbed proteins are tightly interrelated and play a key role in the communication and interaction of the adsorbed proteins with the surrounding environment. Because the bioactive state of a protein on a surface is a function of the orientation, conformation, and accessibility of its bioactive site(s), the isolated determination of just one or two of these factors will typically not be sufficient to understand the structure-function relationships of the adsorbed layer. Rather a combination of methods is needed to address each of these factors in a synergistic manner to provide a complementary dataset to characterize and understand the bioactive state of adsorbed protein. Over the past several years, the authors have focused on the development of such a set of complementary methods to address this need. These methods include adsorbed-state circular dichroism spectropolarimetry to determine adsorption-induced changes in protein secondary structure, amino-acid labeling/mass spectrometry to assess adsorbed protein orientation and tertiary structure by monitoring adsorption-induced changes in residue solvent accessibility, and bioactivity assays to assess adsorption-induced changes in protein bioactivity. In this paper, the authors describe the methods that they have developed and/or adapted for each of these assays. The authors then provide an example of their application to characterize how adsorption-induced changes in protein structure influence the enzymatic activity of hen egg-white lysozyme on fused silica glass, high density polyethylene, and poly(methyl-methacrylate) as a set of model systems. PMID:25708632

Thyparambil, Aby A; Wei, Yang; Latour, Robert A



In-vivo differentiation of photo-aged epidermis skin by texture-based classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two sets of in vivo female cheek skin epidermis images were analyzed through gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and fast fourier transform (FFT). One set was derived from women in their 20s and the other from women more than 60 years of age. GLCM was used to evaluate the texture features of the regions of interest within the cheek epidermis, and texture classification was subsequently performed. During texture classification, 25 images (320×240 pixels) in each age set were randomly selected. Three texture features, i.e., energy, contrast, and correlation, were obtained from the skin images and analyzed at four orientations (0°, 45°,90°, and 135°), accompanied by different distances between two pixels. The textures of the different aging skins were characterized by FFT, which provides the dermatoglyph orientation index. The differences in the textures between the young and old skin samples can be well described by the FFT dermatoglyph orientation index. The texture features varied among the different aging skins, which provide a versatile platform for differentiating the statuses of aging skins.

Zhang, Xiaoman; Weng, Cuncheng; Yu, Biying; Li, Hui



Advanced Sorbents as a Versatile Platform for Gas Separation  

SciTech Connect

The program objective was to develop materials and processes for industrial gas separations to reduce energy use and enable waste reduction. The approach chosen combined novel oxygen selective adsorbents and pressure swing adsorption (PSA) processes. Preliminary materials development and process simulation results indicated that oxygen selective adsorbents could provide a versatile platform for industrial gas separations. If fully successful, this new technology offered the potential for reducing the cost of producing nitrogen/oxygen co-products, high purity nitrogen, argon, and possibly oxygen. The potential energy savings for the gas separations are appreciable, but the end users are the main beneficiaries. Lowering the cost of industrial gases expands their use in applications that can employ them for reducing energy consumption and emissions.

Neil Stephenson



CSPAD-140k: A versatile detector for LCLS experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CSPAD-140k is a 140 kilopixel detector based on the Cornell-SLAC hybrid Pixel Array Detector (CSPAD) platform, developed around the CSPAD ASIC. Room temperature operation, 14 bit on chip digitization with a purely digital data interface, and scaling modularity are some important characteristics that make this platform an effective choice for designing detector variants optimized for a range of experiments and applications. The CSPAD-140k has an active area of approximately 4×4 cm2 and four ASICs, bundled in a small, inexpensive and easy-to-deploy package. Due to its versatility it has already been used successfully in several experiments at the CXI, XPP and XCS instruments at LCLS. This work also describes problems faced by scaling from a prototype system to a full size X-ray camera and presents the current status on the improvements achieved.

Herrmann, Sven; Boutet, Sébastien; Duda, Brian; Fritz, David; Haller, Gunther; Hart, Philip; Herbst, Ryan; Kenney, Christopher; Lemke, Henrik; Messerschmidt, Marc; Pines, Jack; Robert, Aymeric; Sikorski, Marcin; Williams, Garth



A versatile technology for droplet-based microfluidics: thermomechanical actuation.  


We report on a versatile technique for microfluidic droplet manipulation that proves effective at every step: from droplet generation to propulsion to sorting, rearrangement or break-up. Non-wetting droplets are thermomechanically actuated in a microfluidic chip using local heating resistors. Controlled temperature variation induces local dilation of the PDMS wall above the resistor, which drives the droplet away from the hot (i.e. constricted) region (B. Selva, I. Cantat and M.-C. Jullien, Phys. Fluids, 2011, 23, 052002). Adapted placing and actuation of such resistors thus allow us to push forward, stop, store and release, or even break up droplets, at the price of low electric power consumption (<150 mW). We believe this technically accessible method to provide a useful tool for droplet microfluidics. PMID:25849442

Miralles, Vincent; Huerre, Axel; Williams, Hannah; Fournié, Bastien; Jullien, Marie-Caroline



Versatile robotic probe calibration for position tracking in ultrasound imaging.  


Within the field of ultrasound-guided procedures, there are a number of methods for ultrasound probe calibration. While these methods are usually developed for a specific probe, they are in principle easily adapted to other probes. In practice, however, the adaptation often proves tedious and this is impractical in a research setting, where new probes are tested regularly. Therefore, we developed a method which can be applied to a large variety of probes without adaptation. The method used a robot arm to move a plastic sphere submerged in water through the ultrasound image plane, providing a slow and precise movement. The sphere was then segmented from the recorded ultrasound images using a MATLAB programme and the calibration matrix was computed based on this segmentation in combination with tracking information. The method was tested on three very different probes demonstrating both great versatility and high accuracy. PMID:25855886

Bø, Lars Eirik; Hofstad, Erlend Fagertun; Lindseth, Frank; Hernes, Toril A N



A versatile clearing agent for multi-modal brain imaging  

E-print Network

Extensive mapping of neuronal connections in the central nervous system requires high-throughput um-scale imaging of large volumes. In recent years, different approaches have been developed to overcome the limitations due to tissue light scattering. These methods are generally developed to improve the performance of a specific imaging modality, thus limiting comprehensive neuroanatomical exploration by multimodal optical techniques. Here, we introduce a versatile brain clearing agent (2,2'-thiodiethanol; TDE) suitable for various applications and imaging techniques. TDE is cost-efficient, water-soluble and low-viscous and, more importantly, it preserves fluorescence, is compatible with immunostaining and does not cause deformations at sub-cellular level. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this method in different applications: in fixed samples by imaging a whole mouse hippocampus with serial two-photon tomography; in combination with CLARITY by reconstructing an entire mouse brain with light sheet microscopy...

Costantini, Irene; Di Giovanna, Antonino Paolo; Mascaro, Anna Letizia Allegra; Silvestri, Ludovico; Müllenbroich, Marie Caroline; Onofri, Leonardo; Conti, Valerio; Vanzi, Francesco; Sacconi, Leonardo; Guerrini, Renzo; Markram, Henry; Iannello, Giulio; Pavone, Francesco Saverio



Development of a versatile laser light scattering instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A versatile laser light scattering (LLS) instrument is developed for use in microgravity to measure microscopic particles of 30 A to above 3 microns. Since it is an optical technique, LLS does not affect the sample being studied. A LLS instrument built from modules allows several configurations, each optimized for a particular experiment. The multiangle LLS instrument can be mounted in the rack in the Space Shuttle and on Space Station Freedom. It is possible that a Space Shuttle glove-box and a lap-top computer containing a correlator card can be used to perform a number of experiments and to demonstrate the technology needed for more elaborate investigations. This offers simple means of flying a great number of experiments without the additional requirements of full-scale flight hardware experiments.

Meyer, William V.; Ansari, Rafat R.



A versatile spatial resolution enhancement method for data acquisition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While acquiring specific physical properties within a targeted area, spatial resolution of hardware is usually one of the major limitations that affects the precision of data acquisition. Though measured results with higher spatial resolution are always desired, adequate configuration of hardware setups sometimes implies higher cost or longer acquisition time. In this study, a versatile resolution enhancement method is proposed to improve the sampling resolution. An efficient algorithm is used to convert the lower-resolution data into higher-resolution approximation. Three different engineering applications are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. From the arithmetic results, the spatial sampling resolution can be greatly improved without trading-off the operating time.

Cheng, M. H.; Flores De Jesus, K.; Cronin, S. D.; Sierros, K. A.; Bakhoum, E.



Tudor: a versatile family of histone methylation ‘readers’  

PubMed Central

The Tudor domain comprises a family of motifs that mediate protein-protein interactions required for various DNA-templated biological processes. Emerging evidence demonstrates a versatility of the Tudor family domains by identifying their specific interactions to a wide variety of histone methylation marks. Here, we discuss novel functions of a number of Tudor-containing proteins (including JMJD2A, 53BP1, SGF29, Spindlin1, UHRF1, PHF1, PHF19 and SHH1) in ‘reading’ unique methylation events on histones in order to facilitate DNA damage repair or regulate transcription. This review covers our recent understanding of the molecular bases for histone-Tudor interactions and their biological outcomes. As deregulation of Tudor-containing proteins is associated with certain human disorders, pharmacological targeting of Tudor interactions could provide new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24035451

Lu, Rui; Wang, Gang Greg



Extraordinary phylogenetic diversity and metabolic versatility in aquifer sediment  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms in the subsurface represent a substantial but poorly understood component of the Earth’s biosphere. Subsurface environments are complex and difficult to characterize; thus, their microbiota have remained as a ‘dark matter’ of the carbon and other biogeochemical cycles. Here we deeply sequence two sediment-hosted microbial communities from an aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River, CO, USA. No single organism represents more than ~1% of either community. Remarkably, many bacteria and archaea in these communities are novel at the phylum level or belong to phyla lacking a sequenced representative. The dominant organism in deeper sediment, RBG-1, is a member of a new phylum. On the basis of its reconstructed complete genome, RBG-1 is metabolically versatile. Its wide respiration-based repertoire may enable it to respond to the fluctuating redox environment close to the water table. We document extraordinary microbial novelty and the importance of previously unknown lineages in sediment biogeochemical transformations. PMID:23979677

Castelle, Cindy J.; Hug, Laura A.; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Thomas, Brian C.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Wu, Dongying; Tringe, Susannah G.; Singer, Steven W.; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Banfield, Jillian F.



Grinder: a versatile amplicon and shotgun sequence simulator  

PubMed Central

We introduce Grinder (, an open-source bioinformatic tool to simulate amplicon and shotgun (genomic, metagenomic, transcriptomic and metatranscriptomic) datasets from reference sequences. This is the first tool to simulate amplicon datasets (e.g. 16S rRNA) widely used by microbial ecologists. Grinder can create sequence libraries with a specific community structure, ? and ? diversities and experimental biases (e.g. chimeras, gene copy number variation) for commonly used sequencing platforms. This versatility allows the creation of simple to complex read datasets necessary for hypothesis testing when developing bioinformatic software, benchmarking existing tools or designing sequence-based experiments. Grinder is particularly useful for simulating clinical or environmental microbial communities and complements the use of in vitro mock communities. PMID:22434876

Angly, Florent E.; Willner, Dana; Rohwer, Forest; Hugenholtz, Philip; Tyson, Gene W.



Benzotriazole: An overview on its versatile biological behavior.  


Discovered in late 1960, azoles are heterocyclic compounds class which constitute the largest group of available antifungal drugs. Particularly, the imidazole ring is the chemical component that confers activity to azoles. Triazoles are obtained by a slight modification of this ring and similar or improved activities as well as less adverse effects are reported for triazole derivatives. Consequently, it is not surprising that benzimidazole/benzotriazole derivatives have been found to be biologically active. Since benzimidazole has been widely investigated, this review is focused on defining the place of benzotriazole derivatives in biomedical research, highlighting their versatile biological properties, the mode of action and Structure Activity Relationship (SAR) studies for a variety of antimicrobial, antiparasitic, and even antitumor, choleretic, cholesterol-lowering agents. PMID:25293580

Briguglio, I; Piras, S; Corona, P; Gavini, E; Nieddu, M; Boatto, G; Carta, A



A versatile photoelectron spectrometer for pressures up to 30 mbar  

SciTech Connect

High-pressure photoelectron spectroscopy is a rapidly developing technique with applications in a wide range of fields ranging from fundamental surface science and catalysis to energy materials, environmental science, and biology. At present the majority of the high-pressure photoelectron spectrometers are situated at synchrotron end stations, but recently a small number of laboratory-based setups have also emerged. In this paper we discuss the design and performance of a new laboratory based high pressure photoelectron spectrometer equipped with an Al K? X-ray anode and a hemispherical electron energy analyzer combined with a differentially pumped electrostatic lens. The instrument is demonstrated to be capable of measuring core level spectra at pressures up to 30 mbar. Moreover, valence band spectra of a silver sample as well as a carbon-coated surface (graphene) recorded under a 2 mbar nitrogen atmosphere are presented, demonstrating the versatility of this laboratory-based spectrometer.

Eriksson, Susanna K.; Edström, Kristina; Hagfeldt, Anders [Department of Chemistry-Ångström, Uppsala University, Box 523, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Hahlin, Maria; Rensmo, Håkan; Siegbahn, Hans [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Kahk, Juhan Matthias; Villar-Garcia, Ignacio J.; Payne, David J. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Webb, Matthew J.; Grennberg, Helena [Department of Chemistry-BMC, Uppsala University, Box 576, 75123 Uppsala (Sweden); Yakimova, Rositza [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Edwards, Mårten O. M.; Karlsson, Patrik G.; Backlund, Klas; Åhlund, John, E-mail: [VG Scienta AB, Box 15120, 750 15 Uppsala (Sweden)



The versatility and adaptation of bacteria from the genus Stenotrophomonas  

SciTech Connect

The genus Stenotrophomonas comprises at least eight species. These bacteria are found throughout the environment, particularly in close association with plants. Strains of the most predominant species, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, have an extraordinary range of activities that include beneficial effects for plant growth and health, the breakdown of natural and man-made pollutants that are central to bioremediation and phytoremediation strategies and the production of biomolecules of economic value, as well as detrimental effects, such as multidrug resistance, in human pathogenic strains. Here, we discuss the versatility of the bacteria in the genus Stenotrophomonas and the insight that comparative genomic analysis of clinical and endophytic isolates of S. maltophilia has brought to our understanding of the adaptation of this genus to various niches.

Ryan, R.P.; van der Lelie, D.; Monchy, S.; Cardinale, M.; Taghavi, S.; Crossman, L.; Avison, M. B.; Berg, G.; Dow, J. M.



Metagenome of a Versatile Chemolithoautotroph from Expanding Oceanic Dead Zones  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), also known as oceanic"dead zones", are widespread oceanographic features currently expanding due to global warming and coastal eutrophication. Although inhospitable to metazoan life, OMZs support a thriving but cryptic microbiota whose combined metabolic activity is intimately connected to nutrient and trace gas cycling within the global ocean. Here we report time-resolved metagenomic analyses of a ubiquitous and abundant but uncultivated OMZ microbe (SUP05) closely related to chemoautotrophic gill symbionts of deep-sea clams and mussels. The SUP05 metagenome harbors a versatile repertoire of genes mediating autotrophic carbon assimilation, sulfur-oxidation and nitrate respiration responsive to a wide range of water column redox states. Thus, SUP05 plays integral roles in shaping nutrient and energy flow within oxygen-deficient oceanic waters via carbon sequestration, sulfide detoxification and biological nitrogen loss with important implications for marine productivity and atmospheric greenhouse control.

Walsh, David A.; Zaikova, Elena; Howes, Charles L.; Song, Young; Wright, Jody; Tringe, Susannah G.; Tortell, Philippe D.; Hallam, Steven J.



On the versatility of electronic structures in polymethine dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article provides an overview of the photophysical behavior diversity of polymethine chromophores which are ubiquitous in biological imaging and material sciences. One major challenge in this class of chromophore is to correlate the chemical structure to the observed optical properties, especially when symmetry-breaking phenomena occur. With the constant concern for rationalization of their spectroscopy, we propose an extended classification of polymethine dyes based on their ground state electronic configuration using three limit forms namely: cyanine, dipole and bis-dipole. The chemical modifications of the dye and the influence of exogenous parameters can promote dramatic spectroscopic changes that can be correlated to significant electronic reorganization between the three-abovementioned forms. The deep understanding of such phenomena should allow to identify, predict and take advantage of the versatile electronic structure of polymethines.

Pascal, Simon; Haefele, Alexandre; Monnereau, Cyrille; Charaf-Eddin, Azzam; Jacquemin, Denis; Le Guennic, Boris; Maury, Olivier; Andraud, Chantal



Bacterial Type IV Secretion Systems: Versatile Virulence Machines  

PubMed Central

Many bacterial pathogens employ multicomponent protein complexes to deliver macromolecules directly into their eukaryotic host cell to promote infection. Some Gram-negative pathogens use a versatile type IV secretion system (T4SS) that can translocate DNA or proteins into host cells. T4SSs represent major bacterial virulence determinants and have recently been the focus of intense research efforts designed to better understand and combat infectious diseases. Interestingly, although the two major classes of T4SSs function in a similar manner to secrete proteins, the translocated “effectors” vary substantially from one organism to another. In fact, differing effector repertoires likely contribute to organism-specific host cell interactions and disease outcomes. In this review, we discuss the current state of T4SS research, with an emphasis on intracellular bacterial pathogens of humans and the diverse array of translocated effectors used to manipulate host cells. PMID:22324993

Voth, Daniel E.; Broederdorf, Laura J.; Graham, Joseph G.



Preparation of a Versatile Bifunctional Zeolite for Targeted Imaging Applications  

PubMed Central

Bifunctional zeolite Y was prepared for use in targeted in vivo molecular imaging applications. The strategy involved functionalization of the external surface of zeolite Y with chloropropyltriethoxysilane followed by reaction with sodium azide to form azide-functionalized NaY, which is amenable to copper(1) catalyzed click chemistry. In this study, a model alkyne (4-pentyn-1-ol) was attached to the azide-terminated surface via click chemistry to demonstrate feasibility for attachment of molecular targeting vectors (e.g., peptides, aptamers) to the zeolite surface. The modified particle efficiently incorporates the imaging radioisotope gallium-68 (68Ga) into the pores of the azide-functionalized NaY zeolite to form a stable bifunctional molecular targeting vector. The result is a versatile “clickable” zeolite platform that can be tailored for future in vivo molecular targeting and imaging modalities. PMID:21306141

Ndiege, Nicholas; Raidoo, Renugan; Schultz, Michael K.; Larsen, Sarah



Sorghum - a versatile, multi-purpose biomass crop  

SciTech Connect

Sorghums are versatile, energy-efficient plants that exhibit excellent potentials for multi-product use. Grain sorghum, although already a major feed and food crop, offers promise as a source of starch and sugar for fermentation alcohol, as well as a number of fiber products. Sweet sorghum, a variety rich in extractable fermentable sugars, is now in limited production, but can be a major sugar, grain, forage, fuel and industrial products raw material. Sorghums can be grown in virtually every state. The need for multi-product crops to improve agricultural land productivities and to offset increasing cultural costs is detailed. Results of continuing plant breeding work to enhance sorghum varieties for multiple uses are discussed.

Clark, J.W.; Jolts, E.J.; Miller, F.R.



Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained by a facile protocol and thoroughly characterized. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized using a modified forced hydrolysis method were functionalized with polyethylene glycol silane (PEG silane), precipitated and dried. These functionalized particles are dispersable in a range of solvents and concentrations depending on the desired properties. Examples of tunable properties are magnetic behavior, optical and magneto-optical response, thermal features and rheological behavior. As such, PEG silane functionalized particles represent a platform for the development of new materials that have broad applicability in e.g. biomedical, industrial or photonic environments. Magnetic, optical, magneto-optical, thermal and rheological properties of several ferrofluids based on PEG coated particles with different concentrations of particles dispersed in low molecular mass polyethylene glycol were investigated, establishing the applicability of such materials.

Brullot, W.; Reddy, N. K.; Wouters, J.; Valev, V. K.; Goderis, B.; Vermant, J.; Verbiest, T.



[Dry skin and black skin: what are the facts?].  


We present a review of the data in the literature on the potential specificities of the stratum corneum of so-called "black" skin, together with the afferent cutaneous hydration regulation process. The methodology of the studies is often debatable, not only for basic (absence of definition of "black skin") but also for technical reasons. Their results are often contradicting. Other than certain subtle differences, related to potentially enhanced preservation of the epidermis of dark skin from heliodermal xerosis, we conclude in the similarity of the physicochemical characteristics of the stratum corneum in the different color of skin. Moreover, the data available do not suggest a predisposition of certain skin colors to the occurrence of pathological states involving the stratum corneum. However, dark skin is characterized by its semiologic capacity of taking on a "ashy" aspect related to a better assessment of normal or xerotic stratum corneum because of melanic pigmentation. PMID:11976544

Mahé, A



Role of phototherapy in patients with skin of color.  


Phototherapy has proven to be one of the most versatile and effective treatment options for a variety of inflammatory and pigmentary skin diseases. However, the use of these treatment modalities in patients of color requires some special considerations. The modality chosen, the dosing of the treatment and duration of treatment are all issues to be considered for patients of color treated with ultraviolet phototherapy. In addition, there are some diseases which are more commonly seen in patients of color. These diseases may have better treatment outcomes using newer phototherapeutic options such as the long pulsed Nd:YAG laser or UVA1. As our population in the United States becomes more diverse it would behoove all dermatologists to acquaint themselves with the special circumstances of treating ethnic patients with phototherapy. PMID:22123415

Syed, Zain U; Hamzavi, Iltefat H



Versatility of 2007 CNES Mission to Mars System Trades and Compromises for the Orbiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CNES 2007 mission to Mars is ambitious because it is versatile and vice versa. The versatility is imposed by the dual objective of this mission, which is to demonstrate technologies for a future Mars Sample Return mission and to make science : network science with the NETLANDER probes and orbital science with remote sensing payloads. For the French Orbiter,

T. Lam-Trong



Versatility of Pedicled Tensor Fascia Lata Flap: A Useful and Reliable Technique for Reconstruction of Different Anatomical Districts  

PubMed Central

Aims and Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the versatility of pedicled tensor fascia lata flap for reconstruction of various anatomical regions. Materials and Methods. In this retrospective study a total of 34 patients with defects over various anatomical regions were included. The defects were located over the trochanter (n = 12), groin (n = 8), perineum (n = 6), lower anterior abdomen (n = 6), gluteal region (n = 1), and ischial region (n = 1). The etiology of defects included trauma (n = 12), infection (n = 8), pressure sores (n = 8), and malignancy (n = 6). Reconstruction was performed using pedicled tensor fascia lata flaps. Patients were evaluated in terms of viability of the flap and donor site morbidity. The technical details of the operative procedure have also been outlined. Results. All the flaps survived well except 5 patients in which minor complications were noted and 1 who experienced complete flap loss. Of those with minor complications, 1 patient developed distal marginal necrosis and 1 developed infection which subsided within three days by dressings and antibiotics and in 2 patients partial loss of the skin graft occurred at the donor site out of which 1 required regrafting and another one healed completely with dressing and antibiotics. All the patients were followed up for an average period of 6 months, ranging from 1 to 12 months. Donor site morbidity was minimal. Conclusion. It was concluded that the pedicled tensor fascia lata flap is a versatile, reliable, easy, and less time consuming procedure for the coverage of defects around trochanter, groin, lower anterior abdomen, perineum, and ischial region. PMID:25485149

Akhtar, Md. Sohaib; Khurram, Mohd Fahud; Khan, Arshad Hafeez



Feasibility of skin surface elastography by tracking skin surface topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances have led to a multitude of image modalities being used for visualization of tissue stiffness. High-resolution images of tissue stiffness are desirable, as they have the potential to provide useful diagnostic information. A noncontact optical imaging method has the attractions of low cost, simplicity, and utility when skin contact is undesirable. However, previous optical techniques have required the application of paint or ink to the surface of the skin and so have required contact. Therefore, the present study assessed the feasibility of tracking skin surface topography to produce elastograms. The study showed, by analyzing a variety of silicone skin surface replicas from various body sites of subjects of different ages, that skin surface elastography by tracking surface topography would be feasible. The study further showed that the quality of the strain images can be optimized by measuring skin line pattern frequency. Skin samples with high skin line frequency will achieve best spatial resolution, in the order of 1 mm, comparable to contact techniques reported previously. A mechanically inhomogeneous silicone replica was then imaged, illustrating the technique's ability to detect strain contrast. Finally, the feasibility of implementing the technique in vivo was illustrated using a single pigmented skin lesion.

Coutts, Louise V.; Miller, Naomi R.; Harland, Christopher C.; Bamber, Jeffrey C.



Bioactivity-guided isolation of antiproliferative compounds from the roots of Onopordum acanthium.  


Onopordum acanthium has been considered in traditional medicine to be effective against different cancers. The chloroform extracts of the root, which displayed antiproliferative effect against human tumor cell lines, was subjected to bioactivity-guided multistep chromatographic separation. This experiment resulted in the isolation of the sesquiterpene lactones 4beta,14-dihydro-3-dehydrozaluzanin C (1), zaluzanin C (2) and 4beta,15,11beta,13-tetrahydrozaluzanin C (3), the neolignan nitidanin-diisovalerianate (4), besides 13-oxo-9Z,11 E-octadecadienoic acid (5), 24-methylenecholesterol (6), alpha-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol. The structures of the isolated compounds were established through analytical data (NMR, MS), and by comparison of these with those reported in the literature. All the aforementioned compounds were detected for the first time from this plant. The antiproliferative activities of compounds 1-6 were assessed on cervix adenocarcinoma HeLa, breast adenocarcinoma MCF7 and skin epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells by using the MTT assay. It was found that, 4beta,14-dihydro-3-dehydrozaluzanin C (1), the most active antiproliferative compound of the extract, exerted remarkable tumor cell growth inhibitory activity (IC50 2.7-15.1 microM). PMID:24689209

Csupor-Löffler, Boglárka; Zupkó, István; Molnár, Judit; Forgo, Peter; Hohmann, Judit



Triterpene glycosides and other polar constituents of shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) kernels and their bioactivities.  


The MeOH extract of defatted shea (Vitellaria paradoxa; Sapotaceae) kernels was investigated for its constituents, and fifteen oleanane-type triterpene acids and glycosides, two steroid glucosides, two pentane-2,4-diol glucosides, seven phenolic compounds, and three sugars, were isolated. The structures of five triterpene glycosides were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical methods. Upon evaluation of the bioactivity of the isolated compounds, it was found that some or most of the compounds have potent or moderate inhibitory activities against the following: melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells induced by ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH); generation of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, against Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-teradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells; t TPA-induced inflammation in mice, and proliferation of one or more of HL-60, A549, AZ521, and SK-BR-3 human cancer cell lines, respectively. Western blot analysis established that paradoxoside E inhibits melanogenesis by regulation of expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, and tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) and TRP-2. In addition, tieghemelin A was demonstrated to exhibit cytotoxic activity against A549 cells (IC50 13.5 ?M) mainly due to induction of apoptosis by flow cytometry. The extract of defatted shea kernels and its constituents may be, therefore, valuable as potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, skin-whitening, chemopreventive, and anticancer agents. PMID:25446237

Zhang, Jie; Kurita, Masahiro; Shinozaki, Takuro; Ukiya, Motohiko; Yasukawa, Ken; Shimizu, Naoto; Tokuda, Harukuni; Masters, Eliot T; Akihisa, Momoko; Akihisa, Toshihiro



Vermicomposting grape marc yields high quality organic biofertiliser and bioactive polyphenols.  


Grape is the largest fruit crop in the world, and most (80%) of the harvested fruit is used to make wine. The main by-product of the wine industry is called grape marc, which consists of the stalks, skin, pulp and seeds that remain after pressing the grapes. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether grape marc could be processed by vermicomposting on an industrial scale to yield both a high-quality organic, polyphenol-free fertiliser and grape seeds (as a source of bioactive polyphenols). Vermicomposting reduced the biomass of grape marc substantially (by 58%), mainly as a result of the loss of volatile solids. After 2 weeks, the process yielded a nutrient-rich, microbiologically active and stabilised peat-like material that was easily separated from the seeds by sieving. Although the polyphenol content of the seeds was considerably reduced, this disadvantage was outweighed by the ease of separation of the seeds. Separation of the seeds also eliminated the polyphenol-associated phytotoxicity from the vermicompost. The seeds still contained useful amounts of polyphenols, which could be directly extracted for use in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. The procedure described is effective, simple and economical, and could easily be scaled up for industrial application. PMID:25349068

Domínguez, Jorge; Martínez-Cordeiro, Hugo; Álvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta



Climate change and skin.  


Global climate appears to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Climate change can be caused by several factors that include variations in solar radiation received by earth, oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions, as well as human-induced alterations of the natural world. Many human activities, such as the use of fossil fuel and the consequent accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, land consumption, deforestation, industrial processes, as well as some agriculture practices are contributing to global climate change. Indeed, many authors have reported on the current trend towards global warming (average surface temperature has augmented by 0.6 °C over the past 100 years), decreased precipitation, atmospheric humidity changes, and global rise in extreme climatic events. The magnitude and cause of these changes and their impact on human activity have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing climate change as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Although many articles have been written based on observations and various predictive models of how climate change could affect social, economic and health systems, only few studies exist about the effects of this change on skin physiology and diseases. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to climate. For example, global warming, deforestation and changes in precipitation have been linked to variations in the geographical distribution of vectors of some infectious diseases (leishmaniasis, lyme disease, etc) by changing their spread, whereas warm and humid environment can also encourage the colonization of the skin by bacteria and fungi. The present review focuses on the wide and complex relationship between climate change and dermatology, showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence and the clinical pattern of many dermatoses. PMID:23407083

Balato, N; Ayala, F; Megna, M; Balato, A; Patruno, C



Epidemiology of skin cancer.  


Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are now the most common types of cancer in white populations. Both tumor entities show an increasing incidence rate worldwide but a stable or decreasing mortality rate. NMSC is the most common cancer in white-skinned individuals with a worldwide increasing incidence. NMSC is an increasing problem for health care services worldwide which causes significant morbidity. The rising incidence rates of NMSC are probably caused by a combination of increased exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or sun light, increased outdoor activities, changes in clothing style, increased longevity, ozone depletion, genetics and in some cases, immune suppression. An intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence was causative for the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) whereas for the etiology of SCC a chronic UV exposure in the earlier decades was accused. Cutaneous melanoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in white populations, in the last 3 decades incidence rates have risen up to 5-fold. In 2008 melanoma was on place 5 in women and on place 8 in men of the most common solid tumor entities in Germany. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin, and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 50 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show a stabilization in the USA, Australia and also in European countries. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk seems to be associated with an intermittent exposure to sunlight. Prevention campaigns aim on reducing incidence and achieving earlier diagnosis, which resulted in an ongoing trend toward thin melanoma since the last two decades. However, the impact of primary prevention measures on incidence rates of melanoma is unlikely to be seen in the near future, rather increasing incidence rates to 40-50/100,000 inhabitants/year should be expected in Europe in the next decades. PMID:25207363

Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas; Garbe, Claus



A study of the human skin-whitening effects of resveratryl triacetate.  


Resveratrol has a variety of bioactivities that include its anti-melanogenic effects, but its use in cosmetics has been challenging partly because of its chemical instability. Resveratryl triacetate (RTA) is a prodrug that can enhance stability. The purpose of this study was to examine the skin safety and whitening effects of RTA in human subjects. The primary skin irritation potentials of RTA and resveratrol were tested at 0.1 and 0.5 % on human subjects. Resveratrol at a concentration of 0.5 % induced weak skin irritation, whereas RTA did not induce any skin responses. The skin-whitening efficacy of a cosmetic formulation containing 0.4 % RTA was evaluated in two different test models. In the artificial tanning model, the test product and the control product were applied twice daily to the skin of the forearms of 22 human subjects after pigmentation induction by ultraviolet irradiation. Applying the test and the control products to the artificial tanning model for 8 weeks increased the individual topology angles (ITA°) by 17.06 and 13.81 %, respectively, a difference that was statistically significant (p < 0.05). In the hyperpigmentation model, the test product and the control product were applied twice daily to the faces of 21 human subjects. The averaged intensity of the hyperpigmented spots decreased by 2.67 % in the test group and 1.46 % in the control group, a difference that was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Therefore, RTA incorporated into cosmetic formulations can whiten human skin without inducing skin irritation. PMID:25750159

Ryu, Ja Hyun; Seok, Jin Kyung; An, Sang Mi; Baek, Ji Hwoon; Koh, Jae Sook; Boo, Yong Chool



Skin Care: Acne  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson from Science NetLinks, students are asked to think about what they already know about how the body changes as people age. More specifically, they are asked to talk about acne and what they consider to be the most effective ways of treating it and preventing its spread. Using online resources, they discover that there are many misconceptions about the exact causes and best treatments for acne. After completing the lesson, they have a good understanding of how to prevent and treat acne, and take care of their skin in general.

Science Netlinks



Improved Skin Friction Interferometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved system for measuring aerodynamic skin friction which uses a dual-laser-beam oil-film interferometer was developed. Improvements in the optical hardware provided equal signal characteristics for each beam and reduced the cost and complexity of the system by replacing polarization rotation by a mirrored prism for separation of the two signals. An automated, objective, data-reduction procedure was implemented to eliminate tedious manual manipulation of the interferometry data records. The present system was intended for use in two-dimensional, incompressible flows over a smooth, level surface without pressure gradient, but the improvements discussed are not limited to this application.

Westphal, R. V.; Bachalo, W. D.; Houser, M. H.



Wnt signaling in skin organogenesis  

PubMed Central

While serving as the interface between an organism and its environment, the skin also can elaborate a wide range of skin appendages to service specific purposes in a region-specific fashion. As in other organs, Wnt signaling plays a key role in regulating the proliferation, differentiation and motility of skin cells during their morphogenesis. Here I will review some of the recent work that has been done on skin organogenesis. I will cover dermis formation, the development of skin appendages, cycling of appendages in the adult, stem cell regulation, patterning, orientation, regional specificity and modulation by sex hormone nuclear receptors. I will also cover their roles in wound healing, hair regeneration and skin related diseases. It appears that Wnt signaling plays essential but distinct roles in different hierarchical levels of morphogenesis and organogenesis. Many of these areas have not yet been fully explored but are certainly promising areas of future research. PMID:19279724



[Youth Healthcare guideline 'Skin disorders'].  


There is a high incidence of skin disorders; these are also frequently encountered within Youth Healthcare (YHC). Some skin disorders are caused by an underlying disease, syndrome or child abuse. Therefore, detection of these causes in an early stage is important. Skin disorders can have a huge psychosocial impact on both child and parents. This is one of the reasons why prevention, detection, diagnosis, treatment, referral, and uniform advice and guidance are of great importance. The YHC Guideline examines counselling and advice, criteria for referral to primary or secondary healthcare, and skincare in general. It also describes the disorders that should be actively detected. The Guideline also looks at specific aspects of dark skins and ethnic diversity, and the impact of skin disorders on general wellbeing. The accompanying web-based tool includes argumentation and opinions from experts on more than 75 skin disorders, including illustrations and decision trees, to aid the drawing up of a treatment plan. PMID:23151335

Deurloo, Jacqueline A; van Gameren-Oosterom, Helma B M; Kamphuis, Mascha



Development of bioactive materials using reticulated ceramics for bone substitute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For hard tissue prosthetics, it is necessary to seek novel synthesis routes by which a real structural bone can be simulated in terms of bioactivity, porosity, and mechanical behavior. The work presented here deals with the development of such a component by a novel synthesis route for bone implantation. To enhance the mechanical properties, an industrial alumina has been selected as the substrate. Alumina is not only bio inert but also mechanically strong which makes it an ideal substrate for bone substitute. The high porosity is achieved via a sponge technique by which both pore size and density can be changed easily. The bioactivity is induced by coating a highly bioactive HA film onto the inner pore surfaces of the reticulated alumina. Based on this concept, the research has focused on the coating of HA onto inner pore surfaces of the reticulated alumina via several effective methods that are developed in our laboratory. No previous studies have so far been reported on coating inner surfaces of small-diameter pores ranging from 0.1--1.0 mm. The key materials processing issues dealt with in this work include precursor chemistry, coating procedures, synthesis of coated component, interface structure study, film adhesion strength testing, and mechanical properties of the component. This novel approach has shown great promise in synthesizing bone substitutes. To determine the applicability of the coated component in hard tissue prosthetics, a bioactivity study has been carried out. By immersing the synthetic HA into simulated body fluid (SBF), the bioresponse has been measured for a variety of samples with different processing conditions. Fundamental aspects of this study are centered on the effects of structural characteristics of HA on the bioactivity. Based on extensive IR and XRD experimental data, it has been found that the bioactivity of HA is sensitively controlled by the structural crystallinity of the HA and its specific surface area. Furthermore, based on the extensive experimental data obtained in this dissertation, detailed recommendations have been made for future research. It is recommended that the porous composite is to be further developed to possess a porosity gradient similar to the bone structure.

Jiang, Gengwei


Functionally graded bioactive coatings: From fabrication to testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every year about half a million Americans undergo total joint replacement surgery of some kind. This number is expected to steadily increase in the future. About 20% of these patients will need a revision surgery because of implant failure, with a significant increase in health care cost. Current implant materials for load bearing applications must be strong enough to support the loads involved in daily activities, and bioinert, to limit reactivity in the body that may cause inflammatory and other adverse reactions. Metal alloys are typically used as materials for load bearing implants and rely on mechanical interlocking to achieve fixation which can be improved by using bone cements. To improve implant osteointegration, metal implants have been coated with a bone-like mineral: hydroxyapatite (HA). The plasma spray technique is commonly used to apply the HA coating. Such implants do not require the use of bone cement. Plasma sprayed HA coated implants are FDA approved and currently on the market, but their properties are not reproducible or reliable. Thus, coating delamination can occur. Our research group developed a novel family of bioactive glasses which were enameled onto titanium alloy using a functionally graded approach. We stratified the coating with different glass compositions to fulfill different functions. We coupled a first glass layer, with a good CTE match to the alloy, with a second layer of bioactive glass obtaining a functionally graded bioactive coating (FGC). In this thesis for the first time the cytocompatibility of novel bioactive glasses, and their functionally graded coatings on Ti6Al4V, was studied with an in vitro bone model (MC3T3-E1.4 mouse preosteblast cells). The novel bioactive glasses are cytocompatible and no compositional change is required. The fabrication process is reproducible, introduces a small (average 6 vol%) amount of crystallization, which does not significantly affect bioactivity in SBF as tested. The coatings are cytocompatible, but should be preconditioned in SBF prior to their use. Preconditioning stabilizes the coatings, eliminates possible contaminants introduced during processing and handling, and yields dissolution products capable of inducing specific gene expression (e.g. Runx-2). Future research will involve identification of such dissolution products as well as in vivo testing.

Foppiano, Silvia


Skin changes in variegate porphyria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin of 20 patients with variegate porphyria (VP) was studied using light, fluorescent, and electron microscopy. Twelve patients had skin symptoms and markedly increased fecal protoporphyrin excretion. Their sun-exposed skin was characterized by homogeneous PAS-positive thickening and IgG deposition in the vessel walls. The basic ultrastructural change was thickening of the vascular walls caused by reduplication of the basal

K. Timonen; K.-M. Niemi; P. Mustajoki; R. Tenhunen



Molecular Events in Skin Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin cancer represents the most frequent cancer in humans and includes different entities, based on the cell types and tissues\\u000a affected. Next to epithelial tumors, such as keratinocyte-derived basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas\\u000a (SCC), and neuroendocrine Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), skin malignancies also include neuroectodermal malignant melanoma (MM),\\u000a as well as tumors of skin-associated tissues, lipomas, angiosarcomas,

Thomas Meyer


Variations in Human Skin Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, the students examine their skin types, similarities, differences, etc. and discuss the social implications of each group. They also examine the factors that influence variations in skin color in greater depth. The class is separated into groups and work on presentations, designed to foster peer-teaching with guidance from the instructor. The presentations to be worked on by the students are: Modern Human Variation: Overview, Skin Color Adaptation, and A new Light on Skin Color. All of the resources needed for the students presentations are included. Following each presentation, tips for review and discussion of the learning objectives are given.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )



Skin - abnormally dark or light  


Hyperpigmentation; Hypopigmentation ... disease Hemochromatosis (iron overload) Sun exposure Causes of hypopigmentation include: History of skin inflammation Certain fungal infections (such as tinea versicolor) ...


Skin segmentation using multiple thresholding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The segmentation of skin regions in color images is a preliminary step in several applications. Many different methods for discriminating between skin and non-skin pixels are available in the literature. The simplest, and often applied, methods build what is called an "explicit skin cluster" classifier which expressly defines the boundaries of the skin cluster in certain color spaces. These binary methods are very popular as they are easy to implement and do not require a training phase. The main difficulty in achieving high skin recognition rates, and producing the smallest possible number of false positive pixels, is that of defining accurate cluster boundaries through simple, often heuristically chosen, decision rules. In this study we apply a genetic algorithm to determine the boundaries of the skin clusters in multiple color spaces. To quantify the performance of these skin detection methods, we use recall and precision scores. A good classifier should provide both high recall and high precision, but generally, as recall increases, precision decreases. Consequently, we adopt a weighted mean of precision and recall as the fitness function of the genetic algorithm. Keeping in mind that different applications may have sharply different requirements, the weighting coefficients can be chosen to favor either high recall or high precision, or to satisfy a reasonable tradeoff between the two, depending on application demands. To train the genetic algorithm (GA) and test the performance of the classifiers applying the GA suggested boundaries, we use the large and heterogeneous Compaq skin database.

Gasparini, Francesca; Schettini, Raimondo



The future of skin metagenomics.  


Metagenomics, the direct exploitation of environmental microbial DNA, is complementary to traditional culture-based approaches for deciphering taxonomic and functional microbial diversity in a plethora of ecosystems, including those related to the human body such as the mouth, saliva, teeth, gut or skin. DNA extracted from human skin analyzed by sequencing the PCR-amplified rrs gene has already revealed the taxonomic diversity of microbial communities colonizing the human skin ("skin microbiome"). Each individual possesses his/her own skin microbial community structure, with marked taxonomic differences between different parts of the body and temporal evolution depending on physical and chemical conditions (sweat, washing etc.). However, technical limitations due to the low bacterial density at the surface of the human skin or contamination by human DNA still has inhibited extended use of the metagenomic approach for investigating the skin microbiome at a functional level. These difficulties have been overcome in part by the new generation of sequencing platforms that now provide sequences describing the genes and functions carried out by skin bacteria. These methodological advances should help us understand the mechanisms by which these microorganisms adapt to the specific chemical composition of each skin and thereby lead to a better understanding of bacteria/human host interdependence. This knowledge will pave the way for more systemic and individualized pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. PMID:24361423

Mathieu, Alban; Vogel, Timothy M; Simonet, Pascal



Measuring skin while drilling  

SciTech Connect

A new model is proposed to characterize the variation in skin effect along a horizontal well. Typically, a cylindrical-shaped damaged region is assumed; however, this work describes the damaged region as a combination cylindrical-conical shape. The shape of the damaged region and the severity of the damage is governed by the contact time of the drilling fluid with the formation. This time is a function of the drilling rate penetration (ROP) and the mud filtrate invasion rate. Simple, empirical models are used to provide ROP and mud filtrate invasion rate. The effects of anisotropy ratio, penetration rates, and horizontal length are included in the analysis. Anisotropy and increasing penetration rate both will result in a decrease in the skin effect. Any horizontal well length greater than the equivalent horizontal length of the cone-shaped damage region will result in a constant cylindrical-shaped damage region, which can be evaluated using Hawkins` formula. The cone-shaped damage region will exist at the furthest end of the horizontal length. The time to transform the cone-shaped damage region to a cylinder is the circulation time after drilling to the total length. This circulation time is determined for the various anisotropy ratios and penetration rates.

Engler, T.W.; Osisanya, S.; Tiab, D.



Bioactive factors for tissue regeneration: state of the art.  


THERE ARE THREE COMPONENTS FOR THE CREATION OF NEW TISSUES: cell sources, scaffolds, and bioactive factors. Unlike conventional medical strategies, regenerative medicine requires not only analytical approaches but also integrative ones. Basic research has identified a number of bioactive factors that are necessary, but not sufficient, for organogenesis. In skeletal development, these factors include bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), transforming growth factor ? TGF-?, Wnts, hedgehogs (Hh), fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), SRY box-containing gene (Sox) 9, Sp7, and runt-related transcription factors (Runx). Clinical and preclinical studies have been extensively performed to apply the knowledge to bone and cartilage regeneration. Given the large number of findings obtained so far, it would be a good time for a multi-disciplinary, collaborative effort to optimize these known factors and develop appropriate drug delivery systems for delivering them. PMID:23738297

Ohba, Shinsuke; Hojo, Hironori; Chung, Ung-Il



Polysaccharides from Chinese tea: recent advance on bioactivity and function.  


Tea (Camellia sinensis) has a long history of medicinal use in Asian countries such as China, Japan, India and Thailand as ancient as 500,000 years ago. Tea is globally one of the most popular and lowest cost beverages, next only to water. Tea leaves are popularly consumed with unfermented (green tea), semi-fermented (oolong tea), and fermented (black and puerh) forms. The chemical composition of tea mainly includes polyphenols (TPP), proteins, polysaccharides (TPS), chlorophyll, and alkaloids. Great advances have been made in chemical and bioactive studies of catechins and polyphenols from tea in recent decades. However, polysaccharides from tea materials have received much less consideration than TPP. Recently, TPS from tea leaves and flowers have attracted great interest. The number of relevant publications has increased rapidly in recent years. Herein, the bioactivities and function aspects of TPS from Chinese tea were reviewed. PMID:23994784

Cao, Hui



Variation of bioactive compounds content of 14 oriental strawberry cultivars.  


Variation in bioactive compounds content was assessed in antioxidant rich June-bearing strawberry cultivars. Ascorbic acid, anthocyanin, and ellagic acid content were analyzed in ripe fruits of 14 cultivars. The bioactive content in strawberry fruit was found to vary significantly among cultivars and from year to year. The highest ascorbic acid content was found in 'Sugyeong'. The 'Red Pearl' and 'Sachinoka' had three to fourfold higher amounts of pelargonidin 3-glucoside than other cultivars. For cyanidin 3-glucoide and pelargonidin 3-rutinoside, two other characterized anthocyanins, 'Dahong' and 'Keumhyang' had the highest contents among all the tested cultivars. The ellagic acid content of 'Dahong' was generally all within the upper ranges. These results can be used for the validation of fruit antioxidant capacity and in addition, provide useful information for breeding programs looking to enhance the antioxidant capacity in strawberry fruit. PMID:25872444

Kim, Sung Kyeom; Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Dae Young; Chun, Changhoo



Nanocellulose-based composites and bioactive agents for food packaging.  


Global environmental concern, regarding the use of petroleum-based packaging materials, is encouraging researchers and industries in the search for packaging materials from natural biopolymers. Bioactive packaging is gaining more and more interest not only due to its environment friendly nature but also due to its potential to improve food quality and safety during packaging. Some of the shortcomings of biopolymers, such as weak mechanical and barrier properties can be significantly enhanced by the use of nanomaterials such as nanocellulose (NC). The use of NC can extend the food shelf life and can also improve the food quality as they can serve as carriers of some active substances, such as antioxidants and antimicrobials. The NC fiber-based composites have great potential in the preparation of cheap, lightweight, and very strong nanocomposites for food packaging. This review highlights the potential use and application of NC fiber-based nanocomposites and also the incorporation of bioactive agents in food packaging. PMID:24188266

Khan, Avik; Huq, Tanzina; Khan, Ruhul A; Riedl, Bernard; Lacroix, Monique



A Bioactive Self-assembled Membrane to Promote Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

We report here on the formation of a bioactive hierarchically structured membrane by self-assembly. The membrane is formed with hyaluronic acid and peptide amphiphiles with binding affinity for heparin, and its hierarchical structure contains both an amorphous zone and a layer of fibrils oriented perpendicular to the membrane plane. The design of bioactivity is based on the potential ability to bind and slowly release heparin-binding growth factors. Human mesenchymal stem cells seeded on these membranes attached and remained viable. Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were incorporated within the membrane structure prior to self-assembly and released into media over a prolonged period of time (14 days). Using the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay, we also found that these membranes induced a significant and rapid enhancement of angiogenesis relative to controls. PMID:21093042

Chow, Lesley W.; Bitton, Ronit; Webber, Matthew J.; Carvajal, Daniel; Shull, Kenneth R.; Sharma, Arun K.; Stupp, Samuel I.



Bayesian Models Leveraging Bioactivity and Cytotoxicity Information for Drug Discovery  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Identification of unique leads represents a significant challenge in drug discovery. This hurdle is magnified in neglected diseases such as tuberculosis. We have leveraged public high-throughput screening (HTS) data, to experimentally validate virtual screening approach employing Bayesian models built with bioactivity information (single-event model) as well as bioactivity and cytotoxicity information (dual-event model). We virtually screen a commercial library and experimentally confirm actives with hit rates exceeding typical HTS results by 1-2 orders of magnitude. The first dual-event Bayesian model identified compounds with antitubercular whole-cell activity and low mammalian cell cytotoxicity from a published set of antimalarials. The most potent hit exhibits the in vitro activity and in vitro/in vivo safety profile of a drug lead. These Bayesian models offer significant economies in time and cost to drug discovery. PMID:23521795

Ekins, Sean; Reynolds, Robert C.; Kim, Hiyun; Koo, Mi-Sun; Ekonomidis, Marilyn; Talaue, Meliza; Paget, Steve D.; Woolhiser, Lisa K.; Lenaerts, Anne J.; Bunin, Barry A.; Connell, Nancy; Freundlich, Joel S.



Hyaluronan scaffolds: a balance between backbone functionalization and bioactivity.  


Development of biomaterials that provide mechanical and molecular cues for wound healing and regeneration must meet several design parameters. In addition to high biocompatibility, biomaterials should possess suitable porosity as well as the ability to be chemically tailored to control parameters including biodegradability and bioactivity. These characteristics were studied in hyaluronan (HA), a natural polymer found in the body. HA was modified with thiol cross-linking sites to form a stable hydrogel scaffold to examine effects in in vitro cortical cell growth. HA with 20% and 44% thiolation was used to make gels at 0.5%, 0.75%, 1%, and 1.25% (w/v). Results indicate that the bioactivity of the HA after functionalization, as determined by degree of substitution (HA thiolation), has a greater effect on neurite outgrowth than does gel stiffness. The lower substituted HA (20%) promoted greater neurite growth as compared to the higher substituted HA (44%). PMID:20051273

Eng, Doris; Caplan, Michael; Preul, Mark; Panitch, Alyssa



Analysis, structural characterization, and bioactivity of oligosaccharides derived from lactose.  


The increasing interest for prebiotic carbohydrates as functional food ingredients has promoted the synthesis of galactooligosaccharides and new lactose derivatives. This review provides a comprehensive overview on the chromatographic analysis, structural characterization, and bioactivity studies of lactose-derived oligosaccharides. The most common chromatographic techniques used for the separation and structural characterization of this type of oligosaccharides, including GC and HPLC in different operational modes, coupled to various detectors are discussed. Insights on oligosaccharide MS fragmentation patterns, using different ionization sources and mass analyzers, as well as data on structural analysis by NMR spectroscopy are also described. Finally, this article deals with the bioactive effects of galacto oligosaccharides and oligosaccharides derived from lactulose on the gastrointestinal and immune systems, which support their consumption to provide significant health benefits. PMID:24446419

Moreno, F Javier; Montilla, Antonia; Villamiel, Mar; Corzo, Nieves; Olano, Agustín



Regulated Proenkephalin Expression in Human Skin and Cultured Skin Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin responds to environmental stressors via coordinated actions of the local neuroimmunoendocrine system. Although some of these responses involve opioid receptors, little is known about cutaneous proenkephalin expression, its environmental regulation, and alterations in pathology. The objective of this study was to assess regulated expression of proenkephalin in normal and pathological skin and in isolated melanocytes, keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and melanoma

Andrzej T Slominski; Michal A Zmijewski; Blazej Zbytek; Anna A Brozyna; Jackie Granese; Alexander Pisarchik; Andre Szczesniewski; Desmond J Tobin



Unbiased Evaluation of Bioactive Secondary Metabolites in Complex Matrices  

PubMed Central

The majority of bioactive principles in a complex matrix such as natural products and botanical medicines are secondary rather than primary metabolites. In addition to being chemically diverse, the bioactivity of an ethnobotanical can comprise from one to several bioactive compounds, present in a complex mixture. Conventional discovery efforts utilize bioassay-guided fractionation (BGF) to isolate individual active compounds. When applied to complex natural products, BGF is often challenged by an apparent loss of activity during fractionation, resulting in weakly active isolated compounds. Metabolomic analysis can potentially complement existing the BGF paradigm by capturing the chemical complexity of the metabolites. The proposed biochemometric approach establishes a link between the chemistry of a secondary metabolome and a deserved health impact, using a high-throughput, high-resolution capable biological endpoint. The proof of principle is demonstrated for the anti-tuberculosis (TB) activity of the Alaskan ethnobotanical, Oplopanax horridus. Biochemometric analysis identified the 100 most active constituents from thousands of metabolites in the active extract by means of 2D orthogonal chromatography using countercurrent and GC-MS methods. Previously isolated O. horridus phytoconstituents were used as reference markers of known structure and bio(in)activity. Positive correlations allowed distinction of anti-TB actives from inactive compounds. A total of 29 bioactives from 3 main structural classes were assigned based on MS data. Biochemometric analysis is a new tool for the standardization of herbal medicines and ethnobotanicals, as well as for drug discovery from nature. The method can assign multiple active compounds in complex mixtures without their prior isolation or structure elucidation, while still providing an interface to structural information. PMID:22766306

Inui, Taichi; Wang, Yuehong; Pro, Samuel M.; Franzblau, Scott G.; Pauli, Guido F.



Marine Bioactives: Pharmacological Properties and Potential Applications against Inflammatory Diseases  

PubMed Central

Inflammation is a hot topic in medical research, because it plays a key role in inflammatory diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other forms of arthritis, diabetes, heart diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, allergies, asthma, even cancer and many others. Over the past few decades, it was realized that the process of inflammation is virtually the same in different disorders, and a better understanding of inflammation may lead to better treatments for numerous diseases. Inflammation is the activation of the immune system in response to infection, irritation, or injury, with an influx of white blood cells, redness, heat, swelling, pain, and dysfunction of the organs involved. Although the pathophysiological basis of these conditions is not yet fully understood, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have often been implicated in their pathogenesis. In fact, in inflammatory diseases the antioxidant defense system is compromised, as evidenced by increased markers of oxidative stress, and decreased levels of protective antioxidant enzymes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). An enriched diet containing antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, ?-carotene and phenolic substances, has been suggested to improve symptoms by reducing disease-related oxidative stress. In this respect, the marine world represents a largely untapped reserve of bioactive ingredients, and considerable potential exists for exploitation of these bioactives as functional food ingredients. Substances such as n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and peptides provide a myriad of health benefits, including reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory activities. New marine bioactives are recently gaining attention, since they could be helpful in combating chronic inflammatory degenerative conditions. The aim of this review is to examine the published studies concerning the potential pharmacological properties and application of many marine bioactives against inflammatory diseases. PMID:22690145

D’Orazio, Nicolantonio; Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Gemello, Eugenio; De Girolamo, Massimo; Cusenza, Salvatore; Riccioni, Graziano



Potential interaction of natural dietary bioactive compounds with COX2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive natural products present in the diet play an important role in several biological processes, and many have been involved in the alleviation and control of inflammation-related diseases. These actions have been linked to both gene expression modulation of pro-inflammatory enzymes, such as cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and to an action involving a direct inhibitory binding on this protein. In this

Wilson Maldonado-Rojas; Jesus Olivero-Verbel



Cranberries and their bioactive constituents in human health.  


Recent observational and clinical studies have raised interest in the potential health effects of cranberry consumption, an association that appears to be due to the phytochemical content of this fruit. The profile of cranberry bioactives is distinct from that of other berry fruit, being rich in A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs) in contrast to the B-type PACs present in most other fruit. Basic research has suggested a number of potential mechanisms of action of cranberry bioactives, although further molecular studies are necessary. Human studies on the health effects of cranberry products have focused principally on urinary tract and cardiovascular health, with some attention also directed to oral health and gastrointestinal epithelia. Evidence suggesting that cranberries may decrease the recurrence of urinary tract infections is important because a nutritional approach to this condition could lower the use of antibiotic treatment and the consequent development of resistance to these drugs. There is encouraging, but limited, evidence of a cardioprotective effect of cranberries mediated via actions on antioxidant capacity and lipoprotein profiles. The mixed outcomes from clinical studies with cranberry products could result from interventions testing a variety of products, often uncharacterized in their composition of bioactives, using different doses and regimens, as well as the absence of a biomarker for compliance to the protocol. Daily consumption of a variety of fruit is necessary to achieve a healthy dietary pattern, meet recommendations for micronutrient intake, and promote the intake of a diversity of phytochemicals. Berry fruit, including cranberries, represent a rich source of phenolic bioactives that may contribute to human health. PMID:24228191

Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Camesano, Terri A; Cassidy, Aedin; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Howell, Amy; Manach, Claudine; Ostertag, Luisa M; Sies, Helmut; Skulas-Ray, Ann; Vita, Joseph A



Cranberries and Their Bioactive Constituents in Human Health12  

PubMed Central

Recent observational and clinical studies have raised interest in the potential health effects of cranberry consumption, an association that appears to be due to the phytochemical content of this fruit. The profile of cranberry bioactives is distinct from that of other berry fruit, being rich in A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs) in contrast to the B-type PACs present in most other fruit. Basic research has suggested a number of potential mechanisms of action of cranberry bioactives, although further molecular studies are necessary. Human studies on the health effects of cranberry products have focused principally on urinary tract and cardiovascular health, with some attention also directed to oral health and gastrointestinal epithelia. Evidence suggesting that cranberries may decrease the recurrence of urinary tract infections is important because a nutritional approach to this condition could lower the use of antibiotic treatment and the consequent development of resistance to these drugs. There is encouraging, but limited, evidence of a cardioprotective effect of cranberries mediated via actions on antioxidant capacity and lipoprotein profiles. The mixed outcomes from clinical studies with cranberry products could result from intervention