These are representative sample records from related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at

A Versatile Method for Functionalizing Surfaces with Bioactive Glycans  

PubMed Central

Microarrays and biosensors owe their functionality to our ability to display surface-bound biomolecules with retained biological function. Versatile, stable, and facile methods for the immobilization of bioactive compounds on surfaces have expanded the application of high-throughput ‘omics’-scale screening of molecular interactions by non-expert laboratories. Herein, we demonstrate the potential of simplified chemistries to fabricate a glycan microarray, utilizing divinyl sulfone (DVS)-modified surfaces for the covalent immobilization of natural and chemically derived carbohydrates, as well as glycoproteins. The bioactivity of the captured glycans was quantitatively examined by surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi). Composition and spectroscopic evidence of carbohydrate species on the DVS-modified surface were obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), respectively. The site-selective immobilization of glycans based on relative nucleophilicity (reducing sugar vs. amine- and sulfhydryl-derived saccharides) and anomeric configuration was also examined. Our results demonstrate straightforward and reproducible conjugation of a variety of functional biomolecules onto a vinyl sulfone-modified biosensor surface. The simplicity of this method will have a significant impact on glycomics research, as it expands the ability of non-synthetic laboratories to rapidly construct functional glycan microarrays and quantitative biosensors. PMID:21142056

Cheng, Fang; Shang, Jing; Ratner, Daniel M.



Pilot Study on the Bioactivity of Vitamin D in the Skin after Oral Supplementation

Meetings & Events Investigators' - Site Coordinators' Opportunity for Research Excellence (I-SCORE) Workshop March 20-21, 2014 Poster Presentations – Full List « Previous | Next »   Pilot Study on the Bioactivity of Vitamin D in the Skin after Oral


Thiol modification by bioactivated polyphenols and its potential role in skin inflammation.  


In the present study, we evaluated the modifying behavior of simple phenolic compounds on the sulfhydryl groups of glutathione and proteins. The catechol-type polyphenols, including protocatechuic acid, but neither the monophenols nor O-methylated catechol, can modify the sulfhydryl groups in a phenol oxidase-dependent manner. The possible involvement of polyphenol bioactivation in the enhancement of skin inflammation was also suggested. PMID:25036136

Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Ishii, Takeshi; Abe, Naomi; Murata, Yoshiyuki



Cocoa bioactive compounds: significance and potential for the maintenance of skin health.  


Cocoa has a rich history in human use. Skin is prone to the development of several diseases, and the mechanisms in the pathogenesis of aged skin are still poorly understood. However, a growing body of evidence from clinical and bench research has begun to provide scientific validation for the use of cocoa-derived phytochemicals as an effective approach for skin protection. Although the specific molecular and cellular mechanisms of the beneficial actions of cocoa phytochemicals remain to be elucidated, this review will provide an overview of the current literature emphasizing potential cytoprotective pathways modulated by cocoa and its polyphenolic components. Moreover, we will summarize in vivo studies showing that bioactive compounds of cocoa may have a positive impact on skin health. PMID:25116848

Scapagnini, Giovanni; Davinelli, Sergio; Di Renzo, Laura; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Olarte, Hector Hugo; Micali, Giuseppe; Cicero, Arrigo F; Gonzalez, Salvador



Aspergillus fumigatus CY018, an endophytic fungus in Cynodon dactylon as a versatile producer of new and bioactive metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus fumigatus CY018 was recognized as an endophytic fungus for the first time in the leaf of Cynodon dactylon. By bioassay-guided fractionation, the EtOAc extract of a solid-matrix steady culture of this fungus afforded two new metabolites, named asperfumoid (1) and asperfumin (2), together with six known bioactive compounds including monomethylsulochrin, fumigaclavine C, fumitremorgin C, physcion, helvolic acid and 5?,8?-epidioxy-ergosta-6,22-diene-3?-ol

J. Y. Liu; Y. C. Song; Z. Zhang; L. Wang; Z. J. Guo; W. X. Zou; R. X. Tan



Temporal fascial flap: a versatile free flap for coverage of complex skin defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of temporal fascial flap (TFF) as a microsurgical option permits the covering of skin defects which expose bones, nerves and vessels; it also provides a gliding surface which facilitates tendon excursion. Other advantages of the TFF are a reasonably constant surgical anatomy, minimal donor-site morbidity, and a thin and pliable surface which results in good cosmetic contour. In

M. Stella; A. Clemente; D. Bollero; D. Risso; L. Arturi



Characterization of the bioactive motif of neuregulin-1, a fibroblast-derived paracrine factor that regulates the constitutive color and the function of melanocytes in human skin.  


Interactions between melanocytes and neighboring cells in the skin (keratinocytes and fibroblasts) play important roles in regulating human skin color. We recently reported that neuregulin-1 (NRG1) is highly expressed in fibroblasts from Fitzpatrick type VI skin (the darkest) and at least in part determines the constitutive color of human skin. We have now characterized the bioactive motif of NRG1 that is involved in modulating melanin production in human melanocytes. We found that 8-mer motifs (PSRYLCKC and LCKCPNEF) increased melanin production but did not increase the proliferation of melanocytes; the minimum fragment that could elicit that effect was the tetrapeptide LCKC. This smaller bioactive peptide might have an advantage in clinical applications in which it modulates only pigmentation and does not stimulate melanocyte proliferation. PMID:22494484

Choi, Wonseon; Kolbe, Ludger; Hearing, Vincent J



Extracellular matrix formation in self-assembled minimalistic bioactive hydrogels based on aromatic peptide amphiphiles  

PubMed Central

The hitherto inconsistency in clinical performance for engineered skin drives the current development of novel cell-scaffolding materials; one challenge is to only extract essential characteristics from the complex native ECM (extracellular matrix) and incorporate them into a scaffold with minimal complexity to support normal cell functions. This study involved small-molecule-based bioactive hydrogels produced by the co-assembly of two aromatic peptide amphiphiles: Fmoc-FF (Fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine) and Fmoc-RGD (arginine–glycine–aspartic acid). Three-dimensionally cultured human dermal fibroblasts deposited dense ECM networks including fibronectin and collagen I within the hydrogels in a 14-day culture. The fibroblasts organized the fibrous ECM and contracted the gel without differentiating into myofibroblasts. The stiffness of the cell-gel constructs increased dramatically due to ECM formation and gel contraction. This created an economical biomimetic model-scaffold to further understand skin reconstruction in vitro and supplied a design pathway to create versatile cell-scaffolds with varied bioactivities and simplicity. PMID:24812581

Zhou, Mi; Ulijn, Rein V



Extracellular matrix formation in self-assembled minimalistic bioactive hydrogels based on aromatic peptide amphiphiles.  


The hitherto inconsistency in clinical performance for engineered skin drives the current development of novel cell-scaffolding materials; one challenge is to only extract essential characteristics from the complex native ECM (extracellular matrix) and incorporate them into a scaffold with minimal complexity to support normal cell functions. This study involved small-molecule-based bioactive hydrogels produced by the co-assembly of two aromatic peptide amphiphiles: Fmoc-FF (Fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine) and Fmoc-RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid). Three-dimensionally cultured human dermal fibroblasts deposited dense ECM networks including fibronectin and collagen I within the hydrogels in a 14-day culture. The fibroblasts organized the fibrous ECM and contracted the gel without differentiating into myofibroblasts. The stiffness of the cell-gel constructs increased dramatically due to ECM formation and gel contraction. This created an economical biomimetic model-scaffold to further understand skin reconstruction in vitro and supplied a design pathway to create versatile cell-scaffolds with varied bioactivities and simplicity. PMID:24812581

Zhou, Mi; Ulijn, Rein V; Gough, Julie E



Apigenin, a bioactive flavonoid from Lycopodium clavatum, stimulates nucleotide excision repair genes to protect skin keratinocytes from ultraviolet B-induced reactive oxygen species and DNA damage.  


In this study, we examined the antioxidative and the DNA protective potentials of apigenin, a flavonoid polyphenol isolated from Lycopodium clavatum, in both in-vitro (HaCaT skin keratinocytes) and in-vivo (mice) models against UV-B radiation. We used DAPI staining in UV-B-irradiated HaCaT skin keratinocytes pre-treated with and without apigenin to assess DNA damage. We also used a flow-cytometric analysis in mice exposed to UV-B radiation with or without topical application of apigenin to assess, through a comet assay, chromosomal aberrations and quanta from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Data from the stability curves for the Gibb's free energy determined from a melting-temperature profile study indicated that apigenin increased the stability of calf thymus DNA. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that apigenin caused a reduction in the number of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) after 24 h, the time at which the nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes were activated. Thus, apigenin accelerated reversal of UV-B-induced CPDs through up-regulation of NER genes, removal of cyclobutane rings, inhibition of ROS generation, and down-regulation of NF-?B and MAPK, thereby revealing the precise mechanism of DNA repair. PMID:24139463

Das, Sreemanti; Das, Jayeeta; Paul, Avijit; Samadder, Asmita; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman



Suppression of COX-2, IL-1? and TNF-? expression and leukocyte infiltration in inflamed skin by bioactive compounds from Rosmarinus officinalis L.  


In the present study, we evaluated the effects of extracts and purified compounds from fresh leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Pretreatment with the major anti-inflammatory compounds, carnosic acid (CA) and carnosol (CS), inhibited phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced ear inflammation in mice with an EC(50) of 10.20 ?g/cm(2) and 10.70 ?g/cm(2), respectively. To further understand the anti-inflammatory mechanism of these compounds, we analyzed the in vivo expression of several inflammation-associated genes in mouse skin by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Our data showed that CA and CS reduced the expression of IL-1? and TNF-? but had less effect on fibronectin and ICAM-1 expression. Interestingly, both compounds selectively inhibited COX-2 but not COX-1. Histopathological analysis of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained tissue revealed a marked reduction in leukocyte infiltration and epidermal ulceration of PMA-treated ears when ears were pretreated with ethanolic extracts or pure CA. In vitro, we showed that ethanolic extract, carnosic acid and carnosol significantly inhibited the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) in a dose-dependent manner in the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. For the first time in vivo, we showed that CA and CS differentially regulate the expression of inflammation-associated genes, thus demonstrating the pharmacological basis for the anti-inflammatory properties reported for CA and CS. PMID:21129455

Mengoni, Eleonora S; Vichera, Gabriel; Rigano, Luciano A; Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L; Galliano, Silvia R; Cafferata, Eduardo E; Pivetta, Omar H; Moreno, Sivia; Vojnov, Adrián A



The versatility of the anterolateral thigh flap.  


In the last two decades, the anterolateral thigh flap has emerged as one of the most popular reconstructive options for multiple body sites. Based on a perforator flap harvest concept, the flap encompasses the advantages of versatility, pliability, and potential for composite tissue replacement. Although numerous anatomical variations exist, these are well-described, and flap safety remains uncompromised if certain anatomical boundaries are respected. Careful preoperative planning and identification of perforators remain the cornerstone of successful flap harvest. Once perforators are identified, variations in skin paddle design allow for multiple skin paddle configurations, central or eccentric orientations, and custom-made flaps tailored to fit almost any defect. A suprafascial dissection allows for "ultra-thin" flaps ideal for folding, tubing, or packing purposes. The versatility of the lateral circumflex femoral artery branches can be exploited to include muscle, iliac bone, tendon, fascia, or nerve in extended designs. The anterolateral thigh flap is currently the frontline choice for head and neck reconstruction, including intraoral, mandibular-maxillary, tongue, and facial defects, and is gaining popularity in abdominal and pelvis reconstruction. It can also be used as a pedicled flap in phallus or perineum reconstruction. More recently, the flap has proved to be extremely useful in skin resurfacing and even functional reconstruction in traumatic wounds. This review summarizes the anatomy, planning, flap harvest, donor morbidity, and clinical applications of the anterolateral thigh flap. An algorithm is proposed that facilitates a clear, problem-based approach for the use of this versatile reconstructive option. PMID:19952707

Ali, Rozina S; Bluebond-Langner, Rachel; Rodriguez, Eduardo D; Cheng, Ming-Huei



DVD - digital versatile disks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An international standard has emerged for the first true multimedia format. Digital Versatile Disk (by its official name), you may know it as Digital Video Disks. DVD has applications in movies, music, games, information CD-ROMS, and many other areas wher...

R. Gaunt



Versatile communications terminal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Widely-separated parties are linked into efficient communications network by versatile control terminal. Terminal handles voice and data communications via both telephone lines and radio-frequency channels. It includes telephone-to-radio "patch", telephone autodialer, and other advanced features to provide rapid communications for applications such as emergency medical services (EMS) operations.

Belasco, N.; Pool, S. L.; Sinderson, R. L.



VAC: Versatile Advection Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Versatile Advection Code (VAC) is a freely available general hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic simulation software that works in 1, 2 or 3 dimensions on Cartesian and logically Cartesian grids. VAC runs on any Unix/Linux system with a Fortran 90 (or 77) compiler and Perl interpreter. VAC can run on parallel machines using either the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library or a High Performance Fortran (HPF) compiler.

Tóth, Gábor; Keppens, Rony



Versatility of microbial transglutaminase.  


Although microbial transglutaminases (mTGs) were initially discovered to offset the cost of producing mammalian transglutaminases for food applications, they have quickly become important tools in research and biotechnology. Today, mTGs are utilized for a large number of applications to conjugate proteins and peptides to small molecules, polymers, surfaces, and DNA, as well as to other proteins. It is important to know how to maximize the advantages of the enzymatic approach and avoid undesired cross-linking. This review focuses on the versatility of transglutaminases in the field of bioconjugation and covers recent developments in utilizing mTG for generating antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) for therapeutic applications. PMID:24694238

Strop, Pavel



Holographic versatile disc system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) system, using Collinear Technologies for a high capacity and high data transfer rates storage system, is proposed. With its unique configuration the optical pickup can be designed as small as a DVD's, and can be placed on one side of the disc. With the HVD's special structure, the system can servo the focus/track and locate reading/writing address. A unique selectable capacity recording format of HVD and its standardization activity are also introduced. Experimental and theoretical studies suggest that the tilt, wavelength, defocus and de-track margins are wide enough to miniaturize the HVD system at a low cost. HVD systems using Collinear Technologies will be compatible with existing disc storage systems, like CD and DVD, and will enable us to expand its applications into other optical information storage systems.

Horimai, Hideyoshi; Tan, Xiaodi



Metabolic versatility in methanogens.  


Methanogenesis is an anaerobic metabolism responsible for the generation of >90% of the methane formed on Earth today, with important implications for fuels production and global warming. Although methanogenic Archaea have been cultured for over 70 years, key insights regarding electron flow and energy conservation in methanogenesis have only recently emerged. Fundamental differences between two metabolic types of methanogenesis, hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic, are now understood, with implications for metabolic versatility and the potential for engineering of methanogens to utilize new substrates. The development of model species with genetic and bioinformatic tools has advanced the field and holds potential for further characterizing and engineering of methanogenesis. Our understanding of a related pathway, anaerobic methane oxidation, is in its infancy. PMID:24662145

Costa, Kyle C; Leigh, John A



Encapsulation of Bioactives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food bioactives are physiologically active components in food or dietary supplements of plant or animal origin that have a\\u000a role in health beyond basic nutrition. The addition of bioactive components to foods, particularly those foods that are consumed\\u000a as part of the normal diet of target populations, offers opportunities for improving the health and well-being of consumers.\\u000a The interest of

M. A. Augustin; L. Sanguansri


Human amniotic membrane: a versatile wound dressing.  

PubMed Central

Human amniotic membrane proved to be a versatile and useful temporary biologic dressing in studies involving 120 patients. Wounds, both traumatic and nontraumatic in origin, responded to a protocol that allowed coverage of tissues as diverse as exposed bowel, pleura, pericardium, blood vessels, tendon, nerve and bone. Wounds unresponsive to usual therapeutic measures responded to membrane application. Ease of availability, negligible cost and facilitated wound healing make this temporary biologic dressing generally superior to either cadaver skin allograft or pigskin xenograft. Human amniotic membrane dressings are therefore a useful adjunct in the care of the complicated wound. Images FIG. 1A FIG. 1B FIG. 1C FIG. 2A FIG. 2B FIG. 3 PMID:647542

Gruss, J. S.; Jirsch, D. W.



Sagging Skin  


... damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkled Skin Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory Phlebectomy Blepharoplasty ... damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkled Skin Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory Phlebectomy Blepharoplasty ...


Bioactive oligosaccharide natural products.  


Covering up to December 2013. Oligosaccharide natural products target a wide spectrum of biological processes including disruption of cell wall biosynthesis, interference of bacterial translation, and inhibition of human ?-amylase. Correspondingly, oligosaccharides possess the potential for development as treatments of such diverse diseases as bacterial infections and type II diabetes. Despite their potent and selective activities and potential clinical relevance, isolated bioactive secondary metabolic oligosaccharides are less prevalent than other classes of natural products and their biosynthesis has received comparatively less attention. This review highlights the unique modes of action and biosynthesis of four classes of bioactive oligosaccharides: the orthosomycins, moenomycins, saccharomicins, and acarviostatins. PMID:24883430

McCranie, Emilianne K; Bachmann, Brian O



Porous bioactive materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioactive materials chemically bond to tissues through the development of biologically active apatite. Porous structures in biomaterials are designed to enhance bioactivity, grow artificial tissues and achieve better integration with host tissues in the body. The goal of this research is to design, fabricate and characterize novel porous bioactive materials. 3D ordered macroporous bioactive glasses (3DOM-BGs, pore size: 200--1000 nm) were prepared using a sol-gel process and colloidal crystal templates. 3DOM-BGs are more bioactive and degradable than mesoporous (pore size <50 nm) sol-gel BGs in simulated body fluid (SBF). Apatite formation and 3DOM-BG degradation rates increased with the decrease of soaking ratio. Apatite induction time in SBF increased with 3DOM-BG calcination temperature (600--800°C). Apatite formation and 3DOMBG degradation were slightly enhanced for a phosphate containing composition. Large 3DOM-BG particles formed less apatite and degraded less completely as compared with small particles. An increase in macropore size slowed down 3DOM-BG degradation and apatite formation processes. After heating the converted apatite at a temperature higher than 700°C, highly crystalline hydroxyapatite and a minor tri-calcium phosphate phase formed. 3DOM-BGs have potential applications as bone/periodontal fillers, and drugs and biological factors delivery agents. Anchoring artificial soft tissues (e.g., cartilage) to native bone presents a challenge. Porous polymer/bioactive glass composites are candidate materials for engineering artificial soft tissue/bone interfaces. Porous composites consisting of polymer matrices (e.g., polysulfone, polylactide, and polyurethane) and bioactive glass particles were prepared by polymer phase separation techniques adapted to include ceramic particles. Composites (thickness: 200--500 mum) have asymmetric structures with dense top layers and porous structures beneath. Porous structures consist of large pores (>100 mum) in a network of smaller (<10 mum) interconnected pores. Dense layers can be removed and large pores exposed by abrasion or salt leaching techniques. Composite modulus was enhanced with the increase of glass content, due to the change in composition and pore content. The growth of bone-like apatite on and inside composites after soaking in SBF demonstrated their potential for integration with bone. Cell culture studies revealed that composite surfaces were suitable for attachment, spreading and proliferation of chondrocytes.

Zhang, Kai


Skin optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model representing skin geometry, as well as experimental methods to determine the optical properties of each skin

M. J. C. Van Gemert; S. L. Jacques; H. J. C. M. Sterenborg; W. M. Star



Skin Conditions  


... certain diseases and immune system problems can cause rashes, hives, and other skin conditions. Many skin problems, such as acne, also affect your appearance. NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases


Broad spectrum bioactive sunscreens.  


The development of sunscreens containing reduced concentration of chemical UV filters, even though, possessing broad spectrum effectiveness with the use of natural raw materials that improve and infer UV absorption is of great interest. Due to the structural similarities between polyphenolic compounds and organic UV filters, they might exert photoprotection activity. The objective of the present research work was to develop bioactive sunscreen delivery systems containing rutin, Passiflora incarnata L. and Plantago lanceolata extracts associated or not with organic and inorganic UV filters. UV transmission of the sunscreen delivery system films was performed by using diffuse transmittance measurements coupling to an integrating sphere. In vitro photoprotection efficacy was evaluated according to the following parameters: estimated sun protection factor (SPF); Boot's Star Rating category; UVA/UVB ratio; and critical wavelength (lambda(c)). Sunscreen delivery systems obtained SPF values ranging from 0.972+/-0.004 to 28.064+/-2.429 and bioactive compounds interacted with the UV filters positive and negatively. This behavior may be attributed to: the composition of the delivery system; the presence of inorganic UV filter and quantitative composition of the organic UV filters; and the phytochemical composition of the P. incarnata L. and P. lanceolata extracts. Among all associations of bioactive compounds and UV filters, we found that the broad spectrum sunscreen was accomplished when 1.68% (w/w) P. incarnata L. dry extract was in the presence of 7.0% (w/w) ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, 2.0% (w/w) benzophenone-3 and 2.0% (w/w) TiO(2). It was demonstrated that this association generated estimated SPF of 20.072+/-0.906 and it has improved the protective defense against UVA radiation accompanying augmentation of the UVA/UVB ratio from 0.49 to 0.52 and lambda(c) from 364 to 368.6nm. PMID:18662760

Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Sarruf, Fernanda Daud; Salgado-Santos, Idalina Maria Nunes; Haroutiounian-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Baby, André Rolim



Bioactive natural products and chirality.  


Mori's synthetic works on bioactive natural products in general and pheromones in particular started about 40 years ago to establish their absolute configurations and also to clarify their stereochemistry-bioactivity relationships. Results indicate that bioactive natural products are not always enantiomerically pure, and the stereochemistry-bioactivity relationships are not simple but complicated. For example, neither (R)- nor (S)-sulcatol, the aggregation pheromone of an ambrosia beetle, is behaviorally bioactive, whereas their mixture is active. In the case of olean, the sex pheromone of the olive fruit fly, its (R)-isomer is active against the males and the (S)-isomer is active against the females. Recent synthesis of two new insect pheromones is discussed to illustrate the modern methods in enantioselective synthesis. PMID:21633977

Mori, Kenji



Bioactivity of certain Egyptian Ficus species.  


The fruit extracts of Ficus sycomorus L., F. benjamina L., F. bengalensis L. and F. religiosa L. were screened for bioactivity. F. bengalensis and F. religiosa demonstrated activity in the brine shrimp test (Artemia salina) which indicates toxicity, whereas F. sycomorus and F. benjamina showed no activity. All the fruit extracts exhibited antitumor activity in the potato disc bioassay. None of the tested extracts showed any marked inhibition on the uptake of calcium into rat pituitary cells GH4C1. The extracts of the four tested Ficus species had significant antibacterial activity, but no antifungal activity. The results of this preliminary investigation support the traditional use of these plants in folk medicine for respiratory disorders and certain skin diseases. PMID:8170162

Mousa, O; Vuorela, P; Kiviranta, J; Wahab, S A; Hiltunen, R; Vuorela, H



Skin Size  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Get all wrapped up in a lesson about skin! In this activity, learners measure and calculate the approximate surface area of skin on someone's body as well as the amount of atmospheric force pushing on their body.

Muller, Eric



Skin Aging  


... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...


Skin flicks  

E-print Network

The written and artistic part of this thesis are both separated into the two categories of "SKIN" and "FLICKS". The Artistic part of my thesis consists of five artificial skins made on my body, and a series of video tapes ...

Orth, Margaret A. (Margaret Ann), 1964-



Skin Cancer  


... difficult. Learn more. Rare types of skin cancer Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) This skin cancer is rare. It ... cell carcinoma (BCC) Melanoma Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) Sebaceous carcinoma Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) Related ...


Skin Complications  


... drugs that can help clear up this condition. Day-to-Day Skin Care See our tips for daily skin ... Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your ...


Versatile document image content extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We offer a preliminary report on a research program to investigate versatile algorithms for document image content extraction, that is locating regions containing handwriting, machine-print text, graphics, line-art, logos, photographs, noise, etc. To solve this problem in its full generality requires coping with a vast diversity of document and image types. Automatically trainable methods are highly desirable, as well as extremely high speed in order to process large collections. Significant obstacles include the expense of preparing correctly labeled ("ground-truthed") samples, unresolved methodological questions in specifying the domain (e.g. what is a representative collection of document images?), and a lack of consensus among researchers on how to evaluate content-extraction performance. Our research strategy emphasizes versatility first: that is, we concentrate at the outset on designing methods that promise to work across the broadest possible range of cases. This strategy has several important implications: the classifiers must be trainable in reasonable time on vast data sets; and expensive ground-truthed data sets must be complemented by amplification using generative models. These and other design and architectural issues are discussed. We propose a trainable classification methodology that marries k-d trees and hash-driven table lookup and describe preliminary experiments.

Baird, Henry S.; Moll, Michael A.; Nonnemaker, Jean; Casey, Matthew R.; Delorenzo, Don L.



Folate in Skin Cancer Prevention  

PubMed Central

Skin, the largest, most exposed organ of the body, provides a protective interface between humans and the environment. One of its primary roles is protection against exposure to sunlight, a major source of skin damage where the UV radiation (UVR) component functions as a complete carcinogen. Melanin pigmentation and the evolution of dark skin is an adaptive protective mechanism against high levels of UVR exposure. Recently, the hypothesis that skin pigmentation balances folate preservation and Vitamin D production has emerged. Both micronutrients are essential for reproductive success. Photodegradation of bioactive folates suggests a mechanism for the increased tendency of populations of low melanin pigmentation residing in areas of high UV exposure to develop skin cancers. Folate is proposed as a cancer prevention target for its role in providing precursors for DNA repair and replication, as well as its ability to promote genomic integrity through the generation of methyl groups needed for control of gene expression. The cancer prevention potential of folate has been demonstrated by large-scale epidemiological and nutritional studies indicating that decreased folate status increases the risk of developing certain cancers. While folate deficiency has been extensively documented by analysis of human plasma, folate status within skin has not been widely investigated. Nevertheless, inefficient delivery of micronutrients to skin and photolysis of folate argue that documented folate deficiencies will be present if not exacerbated in skin. Our studies indicate a critical role for folate in skin and the potential to protect sun exposed skin by effective topical delivery as a strategy for cancer prevention. PMID:22116700

Williams, J.D.; Jacobson, Elaine L.; Kim, H.; Kim, M.; Jacobson, M.K.



New bioactive fatty acids.  


Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) through 10-hydroxy-8-octadecenoic acid, and racinoleic acid to 7,10,12-trihydroxy-8-octadecenoic acid. DOD showed antibacterial activity including against food-borne pathogens. Bacillus megaterium ALA2 converted n-6 and n-3 PUFAs to many new oxygenated fatty acids. For example: linoleic acid was converted to12,13-epoxy-9-octadecenoic acid and then to 12,13-dihydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid (12,13-DHOA). From here, there are two bioconversion pathways. The major pathway is: 12,13-DHOA --> 12,13,17-trihydroxy-9(S)-octadecenoic acid (THOA) --> 12,17;13,17-diepoxy-16-hydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid (DEOA) --> 7-hydroxy-DEOA. The minor pathway is: 12,13-DHOA --> 12,13,16-THOA --> 12-hydroxy-13,16-epoxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid. 12,13,17-THOA has anti-plant pathogenic fungal activity. The tetrahydrofuranyl moiety is known in anti cancer drugs. Strain ALA2 also converts other n-3 and n-6 PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) to many new oxygenated unsaturated fatty acid products. All of these new products have high potential for antimicrobial agents or biomedical applications. We also screened 12 Mortierella fungal strains from the ARS Culture Collection for the production of bioactive fatty acids such as dihomo-gama-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid. All of the strains tested produced AA and DGLA from glucose or glycerol. The top five AA producers (mg AA/g CDW) were in the following order: M. alpina > M. zychae > M. hygrophila > M. minutissima > M. parvispora. Both AA and DGLA are important natural precursors of a large family of prostaglandin and thromboxane groups. PMID:18296335

Hou, Ching T



Skin optics.  


Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model representing skin geometry, as well as experimental methods to determine the optical properties of each skin layer. These activities are unified under the name skin optics. This paper first reviews the current status of tissue optics, distinguishing between the cases of: dominant absorption, dominant scattering, and scattering about equal to absorption. Then, previously published data as well as some current unpublished data on (human) stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis, have been collected and/or (re)analyzed in terms of absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and anisotropy factor of scattering. The results are that the individual skin layers show strongly forward scattering (anisotropy factors between 0.7 and 0.9). The absorption and scattering data show that for all wavelengths considered scattering is much more important than absorption. Under such circumstances, solutions to the transport equation for a multilayer skin model and finite beam laser irradiation are currently not yet available. Hence, any quantitative dosimetry for skin treated with (laser) light is currently lacking. PMID:2606488

van Gemert, M J; Jacques, S L; Sterenborg, H J; Star, W M



Antimicrobial Peptides: Versatile Biological Properties  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial peptides are diverse group of biologically active molecules with multidimensional properties. In recent past, a wide variety of AMPs with diverse structures have been reported from different sources such as plants, animals, mammals, and microorganisms. The presence of unusual amino acids and structural motifs in AMPs confers unique structural properties to the peptide that attribute for their specific mode of action. The ability of these active AMPs to act as multifunctional effector molecules such as signalling molecule, immune modulators, mitogen, antitumor, and contraceptive agent makes it an interesting candidate to study every aspect of their structural and biological properties for prophylactic and therapeutic applications. In addition, easy cloning and recombinant expression of AMPs in heterologous plant host systems provided a pipeline for production of disease resistant transgenic plants. Besides these properties, AMPs were also used as drug delivery vectors to deliver cell impermeable drugs to cell interior. The present review focuses on the diversity and broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of AMPs along with its multidimensional properties that could be exploited for the application of these bioactive peptides as a potential and promising drug candidate in pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23935642

Pushpanathan, Muthuirulan; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash



Bioactive lipids in metabolic syndrome.  


The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic disorders, such as abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and impaired fasting glucose that contribute to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome is complicated and the precise mechanisms have not been elucidated, dietary lipids have been recognized as contributory factors in the development and the prevention of cardiovascular risk clustering. This review explores the physiological functions and molecular actions of bioactive lipids, such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, conjugated fatty acids, sterols, medium-chain fatty acids, diacylglycerols and phospholipids, in the development of metabolic syndrome. Dietary bioactive lipids suppress the accumulation of abdominal adipose tissue and lipids in the liver and serum, and alleviate hypertension and type 2 diabetes through the transcriptional regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), sterol regulatory element binding proteins, liver X receptor alpha, retinoid X receptor alpha, farnesoid X receptor alpha, hepatic nuclear factor 4alpha and nuclear factor kappaB contribute to these nuclear actions of bioactive lipids with complex interactions. Recent studies have demonstrated the striking ability of bioactive lipids to regulate the production of physiologically active adipocytokines through PPARgamma activation. In particular, the function of bioactive lipids as dietary adiponectin inducers (dietary insulin sensitizers) deserves attention with respect to alleviation of metabolic syndrome by dietary manipulation. PMID:18177744

Nagao, Koji; Yanagita, Teruyoshi



Skin Biopsy  


What Is a Skin Biopsy and Who Would Need One? In a biopsy, a doctor or surgeon takes a sample of a lump, a sore, ... exactly what it is. Doctors may order skin biopsies to help diagnose or monitor possible health problems ...


Skin Biopsy  


newsletter | contact Share | Biopsy, Skin A A A Using a small tool similar to an apple corer, a punch biopsy can be used to remove a small area ... for review and diagnosis. Procedure Overview A skin biopsy, where a physician removes a small sample of ...


Skin Substitutes  

PubMed Central

In a relatively short timespan, a wealth of new skin substitutes made of synthetic and biologically derived materials have arisen for the purpose of wound healing of various etiologies. This review article focuses on providing an overview of skin substitutes including their indications, contraindications, benefits, and limitations. The result of this overview was an appreciation of the vast array of options available for clinicians, many of which did not exist a short time ago. Yet, despite the rapid expansion this field has undergone, no ideal skin substitute is currently available. More research in the field of skin substitutes and wound healing is required not only for the development of new products made of increasingly complex biomolecular material, but also to compare the existing skin substitutes. PMID:25371771

Howe, Nicole; Cohen, George



Enabling service adaptability with versatile anycast  

E-print Network

Enabling service adaptability with versatile anycast Michal Szymaniak1, Guillaume Pierre1 Mariana its hardware base is the evolution of service implementation. For example, a regular Web service might

van Steen, Maarten


Healthy Skin Matters Normal Skin  

E-print Network

, blood vessels near the surface of the skin, called capillaries (CAP-uh-ler-ees), enlarge to let the warm blood cool down. Your skin will also produce sweat from sweat glands when you get too warm. The sweat injure it (like using sharp tools, working in the yard, or playing a sport). Cuts, bumps, and scrapes

Baker, Chris I.


Skin Photorejuvenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term ‘photorejuvenation’ describes the simultaneous improvement of various epidermal changes related to aging. Sun exposure\\u000a and smoking are the main factors that induce premature skin aging. Rhytides are due to a decrease in facial skin elasticity\\u000a causing accentuation of lines and wrinkles. There are three main mechanisms of non-ablative technology involved in skin rejuvenation:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Heating that leads to

Lucian Fodor; Yehuda Ullmann; Monica Elman


[Nutrigenomics--bioactive dietary components].  


Nutrigenomics analyzes relations between diet and genes, and identifies mechanisms in which food and nutrition affect health and lifestyles and noncommunicable diseases (R. Chadwick, 2004). Bioactive dietary components are signal molecules that carry information from the external environment and affect in terms of quantity and quality in the process of gene expression. The biological effect of bioactive dietary components depends on various of physiological processes that can occur within a few genes. Polymorphism of genes can change their function and physiological response of the body for nutrients. Bioactive dietary components work on at least two levels of the expression of genes as factors regulating chromatin structure and as factors directly regulate the activity of nuclear receptors. The processes of synthesis and DNA repair are regulated by some of vitamins, macro-and micro-elements. They provide, among others, cofactors of enzymes that catalyze the replication of DNA methylation and its repair. DNA methylation profile may change under the influence of diet, single nucleotide polymorphisms and environmental factors. Bioactive dietary components may directly affect the process of gene expression by acting as ligands for nuclear receptors. Sensitive to dietary group of nuclear receptors are sensory receptors. This group includes, among others receptor PPAR (peroxisome proliferator activated), responsible for energy metabolism and receptors LXR (liver X receptor), FXR (farnesoid X receptor) and RXR, which is responsible for the metabolism of cholesterol. PMID:23619224

G?tek, Monika; Czech, Natalia; Fizia, Katarzyna; Bia?ek-Dratwa, Agnieszka; Muc-Wierzgo?, Ma?gorzata; Kokot, Teresa; Nowakowska-Zajdel, Ewa



Mature Skin  


... Media contacts Public service advertisements Stats and facts Gold Triangle Awards Stories and news News releases Press ... Teenage skin Tropical travel Vitamin D Cosmetic treatments Gold Triangle Awards Home Media resources Stats and facts ...


Skin Cancer  


... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...


Hyperelastic skin  


Hyperelastic skin is most often seen in the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present?


Skin lumps  


... and roll easily under the fingers (such as lipomas). A lump or swelling that appears suddenly (over ... Lipomas, which are fatty lumps under the skin Enlarged lymph glands , usually in the armpits, neck, and ...


Sun & Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson from Science NetLinks, students discuss what they already know about the impact sun exposure has on their skin and what they typically do to protect themselves, if anything. Using a number of online resources, they then learn how to care for their skin, about the damaging effects of sunburns and tanning, and how sunscreens provide protection from the sun's harmful UV rays.

Science Netlinks;



Bare Bones of Bioactive Glass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Paul Ducheyne, a principal investigator in the microgravity materials science program and head of the University of Pernsylvania's Center for Bioactive Materials and Tissue Engineering, is leading the trio as they use simulated microgravity to determine the optimal characteristics of tiny glass particles for growing bone tissue. The result could make possible a much broader range of synthetic bone-grafting applications. Bioactive glass particles (left) with a microporous surface (right) are widely accepted as a synthetic material for periodontal procedures. Using the particles to grow three-dimensional tissue cultures may one day result in developing an improved, more rugged bone tissue that may be used to correct skeletal disorders and bone defects. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research.



Bioactive naphthoquinones from Cordyceps unilateralis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six bioactive naphthoquinone derivatives, erythrostominone, deoxyerythrostominone, 4-O-methyl erythrostominone, epierythrostominol, deoxyerythrostominol and 3,5,8-trihydroxy-6-methoxy-2-(5-oxohexa-1,3-dienyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone, were isolated from the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps unilateralis BCC1869. While the latter is synthetically known, both it and 4-O-methyl erythrostominone are products of fungus strain C. unilateralis BCC1869.

Prasat Kittakoop; Juntira Punya; Palangpon Kongsaeree; Yuwapin Lertwerawat; Amnuay Jintasirikul; Morakot Tanticharoen; Yodhathai Thebtaranonth



Bioactivity of Lemon Balm Kombucha  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is inadequate published data referring to bioactivity of lemon balm tea and its Kombucha. The aim of this study, therefore,\\u000a was to investigate antimicrobial, antiproliferative, genotoxic, and antigenotoxic potential of lemon balm tea and its Kombucha\\u000a with consuming acidity. Antimicrobial activity was determined by agar-well diffusion method. Cell growth effects were determined\\u000a in HeLa, MCF7, and HT-29 human tumor

Dragana D. ?etojevi?-Simin; Aleksandra S. Veli?anski; Dragoljub D. Cvetkovi?; Siniša L. Markov; Jasminka Ž. Mr?anovi?; Višnja V. Bogdanovi?; Slavica V. Šolaji?


Flavanols: digestion, absorption and bioactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavanols, or flavan-3-ols, are a family of bioactive compounds present in cocoa, red wine, green tea, red grapes, berries\\u000a and apples. With a basic monomer unit of (?)-epicatechin or (+)-catechin, flavanols can be present in foods and beverages\\u000a as monomers or oligomers (procyanidins). Most, but not all, procyanidins are degraded into monomer or dimer units prior to\\u000a absorption. The bioavailability

Robert M. Hackman; John A. Polagruto; Qin Yan Zhu; Buxiang Sun; Hajime Fujii; Carl L. Keen



A nanotectonics approach to produce hierarchically organized bioactive glass nanoparticles-based macrospheres.  


Bioactive particles have been widely used in a series of biomedical applications due to their ability to promote bone-bonding and elicit favorable biological responses in therapies associated with the replacement and regeneration of mineralized tissues. In this work hierarchical architectures are prepared by an innovative methodology using SiO(2)-CaO sol-gel based nanoparticles. Inspired by colloidal crystals, spherical aggregates were formed on biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces using bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG-NPs) able to promote bone regeneration. A highly ordered organization, a common feature of mineralized structures in Nature, was achieved at both nano- and microlevels, being the crystallization degree of the structures controlled by the evaporation rates taking place at room temperature (RT) or at 4 °C. The crystallization degree of the structures influenced the Ca/P ratio of the apatitic film formed at their surface, after 7 days of immersion in SBF. This allows the regulation of bioactive properties and the ability to release potential additives that could be also incorporated in such particles with a high efficiency. Such a versatile method to produce bioactive particles with controlled size and internal structure could open new possibilities in designing new spherical devices for orthopaedic applications, including tissue engineering. PMID:22992681

Luz, Gisela M; Mano, João F



A review of bioactive glasses: Their structure, properties, fabrication, and apatite formation.  


Bioactive glass and glass-ceramics are used in bone repair applications and are being developed for tissue engineering applications. Bioactive glasses/bioglass are very attractive materials for producing scaffolds devoted to bone regeneration due to their versatile properties, which can be properly designed depending on their composition. An important feature of bioactive glasses, which enables them to work for applications in bone tissue engineering, is their ability to enhance revascularization, osteoblast adhesion, enzyme activity and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells as well as osteoprogenitor cells. An extensive amount of research work has been carried out to develop silicate, borate/borosilicate bioactive glasses and phosphate glasses. Along with this, some metallic glasses have also been investigated for biomedical and technological applications in tissue engineering. Many trace elements have also been incorporated in the glass network to obtain the desired properties, which have beneficial effects on bone remodeling and/or associated angiogenesis. The motivation of this review is to provide an overview of the general requirements, composition, structure-property relationship with hydroxyapatite formation and future perspectives of bioglasses. Attention has also been given to developments of metallic glasses and doped bioglasses along with the techniques used for their fabrication. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013. PMID:23468256

Kaur, Gurbinder; Pandey, Om P; Singh, Kulvir; Homa, Dan; Scott, Brian; Pickrell, Gary



Unmasking Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site is the online companion to Unmasking Skin, a feature article in the November 2000 issue of National Geographic Magazine, which offers an in-depth look at the body's largest organ. Visitors are invited to "go skin deep and beyond" with a photo gallery, a multimedia interview with the story's photographer, and related Web sites. The site also includes a portion of the feature article, a related Online Extra article, and a short piece about goosebumps. While not as comprehensive as the print article itself, this Web site provides an intriguing look at a part of the body that's often taken for granted.



Aging Skin  


... dry skin — which is more common as you age — but they can't turn back time. Prescription creams, chemical peels, laser treatments, Botox, and other cosmetic procedures are being used to treat sun spots, wrinkles, and other signs of aging. But ...


Skin Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

How does the notion of colorblind equality fit with the social and economic realities of black Americans? Challenging the increasingly popular argument that blacks should settle down, stop whining, and get jobs, Skin Trade insists that racism remains America's premier national story and its grossest national product. From Aunt Jemima Pancakes to ethnic Barbie dolls, corporate America peddles racial and

Ann duCille



Practical applications of a versatile geothermal simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1976, the senior author has programmed, developed and applied a versatile two-dimensional geothermal simulator for many interesting applications in cold regions engineering. This paper concentrates on applications to problems which have not been hitherto easily solved by other available geothermal models. Some of the important capabilities of the Hardy Associates (1978) Ltd. (HAL) simulator are radial or cartesian coordinate

J. F. Nixon; D. H. Halliwell



Practical applications of a versatile geothermal simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1976, the author has programmed, developed and applied a versatile twodimensional geothermal simulator for many interesting applications in cold regions engineering. This paper concentrates on applications to problems which have not been hitherto easily solved by other available geothermal models. Some of the important capabilities of the HAL simulator are: radial or cartesian coordinate options, convective ground water flow



Identifying Financially Versatile Milk Production Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European dairy industry faces an increasingly uncertain world. There is uncertainty about, for example, subsidy payment levels and compliance conditions, global competition, price variability, consumer demand, carbon footprints, water quality, animal welfare, food safety, and the environment. Farmers can reduce their exposure to these uncertainties by adopting production systems that are financially versatile over a wide range of possible

Duncan J. Anderson; Claire G. Jack; Niamh Connolly



Enabling service adaptability with versatile anycast  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY We present versatile anycast, which allows a service running on a varying collection of nodes scattered over a wide-area network to present itself to the clients as one running on a single node. Providing a single logical address enables the client-side software to preserve the traditional service access model based on single access points. At the same time, the

Michal Szymaniak; Guillaume Pierre; Mariana Simons-nikolova; Maarten Van Steen



Versatile, Fully Automated, Microfluidic Cell Culture System  

E-print Network

on a microfluidic chip that creates arbitrary culture media formulations in 96 independent culture chambersVersatile, Fully Automated, Microfluidic Cell Culture System Rafael Go´mez-Sjo1berg, Anne A. Leyrat and quantita- tive cell culture technology, driven both by the intense activity in stem cell biology

Chen, Christopher S.


Different expression profiles of bioactive peptides in Pelophylax nigromaculatus from distinct regions.  


Amphibian skin is an abundant repository of bioactive peptides, important components of the defensive system. The variability of the bioactive peptide repertoires of individual species remains unclear. In this study, dark-spotted frogs were collected from Kunming in Yunnan Province, China and Guiyang in Guizhou Province, China to determine whether the bioactive peptides in amphibian skin differ between the two regions. Eight antimicrobial peptides and an antioxidant peptide were identified by screening of cDNA library. Among the identified peptides, three antimicrobial peptides (pelophylaxin-2GY, temporin-1GY, and temporin-1KM) and an antioxidant peptide (antioxidin-PN) are reported here for the first time. Nigrocin-1, nigrocin-2, and pelophylaxin-2 were expressed by frogs in both regions. Pelophylaxin-2GY and temporin-1GY were found only in the frogs from Guiyang, whereas antioxidin-PN, esculetin-1, esculetin-2, and temporin-1KM were found only in those from Kunming. This difference was confirmed by allele-specific RT-PCR. The bioactive peptides expressed clearly varied between these populations of the same species. PMID:23649276

Song, Yuzhu; Ji, Senlin; Liu, Wa; Yu, Xuya; Meng, Qingxiong; Lai, Ren



Synthesis of a semi-interpenetrating polymer network as a bioactive curcumin film.  


This study focused on the synthesis and characterization of a natural polymeric system employing the interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) comprising curcumin as a bioactive. Biopolymers and actives such as chitosan, hypromellose, citric acid, genipin, and curcumin were used to develop an effective, biodegradable, and biocompatible film employed therapeutically as a wound healing platform. The semi-IPN films were investigated for their physicochemical, physicomechanical, and biological properties by quantification by FTIR, DSC, and Young's modulus. Following characterization, an optimum candidate formulation was produced whereby further in vitro and ex vivo studies were performed. Results revealed a burst release occurring at the first hour with 1.1 mg bioactive released when in contact with the dissolution medium and 2.23 mg due to bioactive permeation through the skin, thus suggesting that the lipophilic nature of skin greatly impacted the bioactive release rate. Furthermore, chemical and mechanical characterization and tensile strength analysis revealed that the degree of crosslinking and concentration of polymeric material used significantly influenced the properties of the film. PMID:24984920

Mayet, Naeema; Kumar, Pradeep; Choonara, Yahya E; Tomar, Lomas K; Tyagi, Charu; du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness



Bioactive glass-coated silicone for percutaneous devices with improved tissue interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of bioactive glasses, in the early 1970s, has produced a material that develops a strong adherent bond with soft tissue. Many medical applications currently use silicone as an implant material, but are hindered by the formation of fibrous scar tissue surrounding the device. This fibrous scar tissue can lead to pain, infection, and/or extrusion of these devices. Bioactive ceramic materials are inherently brittle and can not be used in applications where a flexible material is needed. Therefore, the coating of existing flexible silicone medical devices, like catheters, with a bioactive glass material would give the advantages of both. The research presented here is of methods used to coat silicone with a bioactive glass powder (Bioglass°ler) and the in vitro testing of those coatings. The bioactivity of these coatings was measured using scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It was observed that hydroxyapatite, a bonelike apatite, was formed in vitro on both the bioactive glass particles and the silicone surface between these particles. From these results a new theory was developed that related the distance between particles on a surface with the formation of an apatite layer. A critical distance between particles for the formation of an apatite layer on the substrate exists. This critical distance is a function of both the particle size and composition. In addition, a method to coat silicone catheters with bioactive glass powder is also discussed. This coated catheter could ultimately be used for improved percutaneous access in peritoneal dialysis. The one barrier to greater peritoneal dialysis use and the reason many patients switch from peritoneal to hemodialysis is recurrent exit-site infections and subsequent peritonitis. These infections are caused by the lack of a tight seal and downgrowth of epidermal tissue around the catheter at the catheter-skin interface.

Marotta, James Scott


Neuromodulators for Aging Skin  


... damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkled Skin Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory Phlebectomy Blepharoplasty ... damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkled Skin Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory Phlebectomy Blepharoplasty ...


Children's Skin Care  


... and facts Prevention and care Children's skin care Children's skin care Daily skin care for toddlers Use ... Protection Factor (SPF) of 30 or higher. If child is prone to skin irritation or allergic reactions, ...


Skin Allergy Quiz  


Share | Skin Allergy Quiz Skin irritations can be very frustrating. Identifying the cause of a skin ailment is essential in order ... can be caused by several things including an allergy, infection or skin problem like eczema or psoriasis. ...


Allergy testing - skin  


Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test ... There are three common methods of allergy skin testing. The skin prick test involves: Placing a small amount of substances that may be causing your symptoms on the skin, ...


Skin Anatomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The skin is composed of three layers: epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue. The thickness of the layers varies with different\\u000a anatomical regions. The epidermis is thickest on the palm and soles, and very thin on the eyelids, while the dermis is thickest\\u000a on the back. Keratinocytes are the main component of the epidermis. Melanocytes are the cells located in the

Lucian Fodor; Yehuda Ullmann; Monica Elman


Isolation and identification of C-12-h peptide from the skin of Bombina orientalis from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Methanol extracts of the fresh skin of Chinese amphibian Bombina orientalis, caused contraction of the smooth muscles of Wistar\\u000a rats in vitro. The active extracts were isolated twice by column chromatography of alkaline alumina and sephadex G-15, so\\u000a that the bioactive eluate C-12 was obtained. The bioactivity of C-12 was inactivated by hydrolysis with chymotrypsin, but\\u000a not antagonized by cyproheptadine.

Chen Feng; Zhao Yi-qian



The Science Inside Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science Inside Skin, created as part of the Skin Deep Project, offers readers a closer peek at the body's surface. Inside they'll find information about the three layers of skin, how skin changes during a lifetime, various skin ailments (ranging from acne to the three types of skin cancer), and sun safety.

Kirstin Fearnley (AAAS;)



Versatile power supply circuit for xenon flashlamps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple, versatile power supply designed to control xenon flashlamps is described. The circuit is configured to utilize an N-channel enhanced metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET), taking the place of commonly used triggering devices such as a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), or triac. Incorporation of the MOSFET permits flexible control of flash duty cycle and frequency by applying one signal to the transistor's gate. The circuit's versatility is demonstrated using an 8.3-W xenon flashlamp as an excitation source for a photodiode array based HPLC fluorescence detector. A detailed description of the power supply circuit is given, along with information on interfacing the circuit and the photodiode array.

Wegrzyn, Jeff; Patonay, Gabor; Warner, Isiah; Ford, Michael



A Versatile Computer-Controlled Assembly System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A versatile assembly system, using TV cameras and oomputer-controlled arm and moving table, is described. It makes almple,assemblies,such aa a peg and rings and a toy car. It separates parts from a heap, recognising them with an overhead camera, then assembles them by feel.,It can be instructed,to perform a new task with different,parte by spending,an hour showing,it the parts

A. P. Ambler; Harry G. Barrow; Christopher M. Brown; Rod M. Burstall; Robin J. Popplestone



Nutritional compositions and bioactivities of Dacryodes species: a review.  


Dacryodes species are evergreen, perennial trees with fleshy fruits and belong to the family Buseraseae. Many Dacryodes species are underutilized but are widely applied in traditional folk medicine to treat malaria, fever and skin diseases. The nutritional compositions, phytochemicals and biological activities of Dacryodes edulis, Dacryodes rostrata, Dacryodes buettneri, Dacryodes klaineana and Dacryodes hexandra are presented. The edible fruits of D. edulis are rich in lipids, proteins, vitamins, fatty acids and amino acids. Its extracts (leaf, fruit and resin) exhibit antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-carcinogenic and other bioactivities. D. rostrata fruit has significant nutrient content, and is rich in proteins, lipids and minerals. These fruits are also highly rich in polyphenols, anthocyanins and antioxidant activities. This comprehensive review will assist the reader in understanding the nutritional benefits of Dacryodes species and in identifying current research needs. PMID:25038673

Tee, Lee Hong; Yang, Bao; Nagendra, Krishnamurthy Prasad; Ramanan, Ramakrishnan Nagasundara; Sun, Jian; Chan, Eng-Seng; Tey, Beng Ti; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Lau, Cheng Yuon; Jiang, Yueming



Bioactive constituents of Conyza albida.  


The bioactivity-guided fractionation of an active chloroform extract of Conyza albida led to the isolation of three alkenynes, deca-4,6-diyn-2-(Z)-enoic methyl ester (1), deca-4,6-diyn-2-(Z)-enoic ethyl ester (2) and deca-2,4-diene-4-hydroxy-6-yn-1,4-olide (3), and the terpenoid spathulenol (4), as the active toxic metabolites in the Artemia sp. lethality test. When tested in the KB cell cytotoxicity assay, compounds 1-4 demonstrated IC50 values of 52.2, 38.4, 117.9, and 83.8 microM, respectively. All compounds studied were inactive in the DNA methyl green and DNA strand scission assays, while compounds 3 and 4 showed moderate activity as inhibitors of human topoisomerase I. Compound 2 is reported here for the first time. PMID:11199128

Pacciaroni, A V; Mongelli, E; Ariza Espinar, L; Romano, A; Ciccia, G; Silva, G L



Bioactive factor delivery strategies from engineered polymer hydrogels for therapeutic medicine  

PubMed Central

Polymer hydrogels have been widely explored as therapeutic delivery matrices because of their ability to present sustained, localized and controlled release of bioactive factors. Bioactive factor delivery from injectable biopolymer hydrogels provides a versatile approach to treat a wide variety of diseases, to direct cell function and to enhance tissue regeneration. The innovative development and modification of both natural-(e.g., alginate (ALG), chitosan, hyaluronic acid (HA), gelatin, heparin (HEP), etc.) and synthetic-(e.g., polyesters, polyethyleneimine (PEI), etc.) based polymers has resulted in a variety of approaches to design drug delivery hydrogel systems from which loaded therapeutics are released. This review presents the state-of-the-art in a wide range of hydrogels that are formed though self-assembly of polymers and peptides, chemical crosslinking, ionic crosslinking and biomolecule recognition. Hydrogel design for bioactive factor delivery is the focus of the first section. The second section then thoroughly discusses release strategies of payloads from hydrogels for therapeutic medicine, such as physical incorporation, covalent tethering, affinity interactions, on demand release and/or use of hybrid polymer scaffolds, with an emphasis on the last 5 years.

Nguyen, Minh Khanh; Alsberg, Eben



Bioactive glass nanoparticles with negative zeta potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to produce and characterize SiO2–CaO–P2O5 bioactive glass nanoparticles with negative zeta potential for possible use in biomedical applications. 63S bioactive glass was obtained using the sol–gel method. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy and dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) confirmed the preparation of the 63S bioactive glass with 62.17% SiO2, 28.47% CaO and 9.25% P2O5 (in molar

Ali Doostmohammadi; Ahmad Monshi; Rasoul Salehi; Mohammad Hossein Fathi; Zahra Golniya; Alma. U. Daniels



SCI: Skin Cancer Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Skin Care Investigations offers students the chance to learn more about skin and skin cancer before entering the virtual world of Glowell Clinic, where they will spend time at the helpdesk answering callers' questions about skin protection and in the laboratory assessing whether skin abnormalities are cancerous or not. An interactive assessment allows students and teachers to gauge understanding at this level.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)



Encapsulation for preservation of functionality and targeted delivery of bioactive food components  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a tremendous increase in the number of food products containing bioactive components with a health promoting or disease preventing effect. Bioactive food components can be divided into bioactive molecules and bioactive living cells (probiotics). Both bioactive molecules and bioactive living cells may benefit from encapsulation since many report low survival of bioactivity due to adverse effects of

Paul de Vos; Marijke M. Faas; Milica Spasojevic; Jan Sikkema



Wideband versatile radio-frequency spectrum analyzer.  


Operation of a wideband, versatile optical spectrum analyzer for radio-frequency (RF) signals is demonstrated. The device is based on spectral hole burning (SHB). The demonstration features 2.3-GHz instantaneous bandwidth, 500-kHz resolution, and a 32-dB dynamic range. A true RF signal, transferred to the optical carrier with the help of a Mach-Zehnder modulator, is analyzed with optical carrier suppression and zooming capabilities. This is to the authors' knowledge the largest instantaneous bandwidth ever demonstrated for a SHB-based processor in rare-earth-doped crystals. PMID:12659254

Lavielle, V; Lorgeré, I; Le Gouët, J L; Tonda, S; Dolfi, D



A Versatile Rocket Engine Hot Gas Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capabilities of a versatile rocket engine facility, located in the Rocket Laboratory at the NASA Lewis Research Center, are presented. The gaseous hydrogen/oxygen facility can be used for thermal shock and hot gas testing of materials and structures as well as rocket propulsion testing. Testing over a wide range of operating conditions in both fuel and oxygen rich regimes can be conducted, with cooled or uncooled test specimens. The size and location of the test cell provide the ability to conduct large amounts of testing in short time periods with rapid turnaround between programs.

Green, James M.



Healthy Skin Matters  


... moisturizing cream or lotion. Enjoy being in the sun—but protect your skin Your skin produces vitamin ... and other body systems healthy. However, too much sun can damage your skin and increase your risk ...


Natural bioactive compounds from winery by-products as health promoters: a review.  


The relevance of food composition for human health has increased consumers' interest in the consumption of fruits and vegetables, as well as foods enriched in bioactive compounds and nutraceuticals. This fact has led to a growing attention of suppliers on reuse of agro-industrial wastes rich in healthy plant ingredients. On this matter, grape has been pointed out as a rich source of bioactive compounds. Currently, up to 210 million tons of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are produced annually, being the 15% of the produced grapes addressed to the wine-making industry. This socio-economic activity generates a large amount of solid waste (up to 30%, w/w of the material used). Winery wastes include biodegradable solids namely stems, skins, and seeds. Bioactive compounds from winery by-products have disclosed interesting health promoting activities both in vitro and in vivo. This is a comprehensive review on the phytochemicals present in winery by-products, extraction techniques, industrial uses, and biological activities demonstrated by their bioactive compounds concerning potential for human health. PMID:25192288

Teixeira, Ana; Baenas, Nieves; Dominguez-Perles, Raul; Barros, Ana; Rosa, Eduardo; Moreno, Diego A; Garcia-Viguera, Cristina



Natural Bioactive Compounds from Winery By-Products as Health Promoters: A Review  

PubMed Central

The relevance of food composition for human health has increased consumers’ interest in the consumption of fruits and vegetables, as well as foods enriched in bioactive compounds and nutraceuticals. This fact has led to a growing attention of suppliers on reuse of agro-industrial wastes rich in healthy plant ingredients. On this matter, grape has been pointed out as a rich source of bioactive compounds. Currently, up to 210 million tons of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are produced annually, being the 15% of the produced grapes addressed to the wine-making industry. This socio-economic activity generates a large amount of solid waste (up to 30%, w/w of the material used). Winery wastes include biodegradable solids namely stems, skins, and seeds. Bioactive compounds from winery by-products have disclosed interesting health promoting activities both in vitro and in vivo. This is a comprehensive review on the phytochemicals present in winery by-products, extraction techniques, industrial uses, and biological activities demonstrated by their bioactive compounds concerning potential for human health. PMID:25192288

Teixeira, Ana; Baenas, Nieves; Dominguez-Perles, Raul; Barros, Ana; Rosa, Eduardo; Moreno, Diego A.; Garcia-Viguera, Cristina



Investigating the protective properties of milk phospholipids against ultraviolet light exposure in a skin equivalent model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current research on bioactive molecules in milk has documented health advantages of bovine milk and its components. Milk Phospholipids, selected for this study, represent molecules with great potential benefit in human health and nutrition. In this study we used confocal reflectance and multiphoton microscopy to monitor changes in skin morphology upon skin exposure to ultraviolet light and evaluate the potential of milk phospholipids in preventing photodamage to skin equivalent models. The results suggest that milk phospholipids act upon skin cells in a protective manner against the effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Similar results were obtained from MTT tissue viability assay and histology.

Russell, Ashley; Laubscher, Andrea; Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Laiho, Lily H.



The inhibitory effect of natural bioactives on the growth of pathogenic bacteria  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory activity of natural products, against growth of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Salmonella typhimurium (KCCM 11862). Chitosan, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and garlic were used as natural bioactives for antibacterial activity. The testing method was carried out according to the disk diffusion method. All of chitosan, EGCG, and garlic showed inhibitory effect against the growth of E. coli and Salmonella typhi. To evaluate the antibacterial activity of natural products during storage, chicken skins were inoculated with 106 of E. coli or Salmonella typhi. The inoculated chicken skins, treated with 0.5, 1, or 2% natural bioactives, were stored during 8 day at 4?. The numbers of microorganisms were measured at 8 day. Both chitosan and EGCG showed significant decrease in the number of E. coli and Salmonella typhi in dose dependent manner (P < 0.05). These results suggest that natural bioactives such as chitosan, EGCG may be possible to be used as antimicrobial agents for the improvement of food safety. PMID:20368950

Kim, Ji-Sun



Waste assay using a versatile NAA System  

SciTech Connect

An accelerator based, versatile, new NAA system has been designed for applications in the measurement of transuranic, heavy toxic metals, and other light elements such as beryllium for waste NDA. The lower energy accelerator provides the irradiating neutrons either via D-T or D-D reaction. These neutrons can be used directly as fast neutrons, or alternatively, thermalized using a moderating station. A fast pneumatic transfer system with a dual access rotator is used for sample shuttle amongst the irradiation port, the counting station, and an automated sample carousel. The versatile transfer system can be programmed to deliver samples to one or more count station. This feature makes a high volume and high throughput analysis scheme possible by utilizing the time effectively, for example while samples are being counted other samples can be irradiated. A count station typically is 2 - NaI (T1) and 1 - HPGe detector for high efficiency and high resolution complete scan of the element. Transuranic fissile elements are detected via the fission products gamma-ray emissions. Once the fissile materials are found, a future analysis of the sample is done to identify the isotope using a prompt gamma-ray analysis sub-system with a small pulsed neutron generator. The prompt gamma-ray system can accommodate sample sizes up to a few gallons of material. This two step analysis is advantageous where a large number of samples needed to be scanned for fissile contaminants.

Hossain, T.Z. [M.F. Physics Corporation, Colorado Springs, CO (United States)



Artificial Skin in Robotics.  

E-print Network

??Artificial Skin - A comprehensive interface for system-environment interaction - This thesis investigates a multifunctional artificial skin as touch sensitive whole-body cover for robotic systems.… (more)

Strohmayr, Michael



Collinear technology for a holographic versatile disk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel reading and writing technology for a holographic versatile disk (HVD) system called collinear technology is developed. With this method a two-dimensional data page can be recorded as volumetric holograms generated by a reference beam and a signal beam that are bundled on the same axis and that are irradiated on the recording medium through a single objective lens. The multiplex recording and reconstruction process is demonstrated, and it is shown that the optical configuration and the dichroic medium disk structure are suitable for a compact system. With the HVD's special structure, the system can use a servo to focus, track, and locate the reading and writing addresses. A unique selectable-capacity recording format of a HVD and its standardization activity are also introduced. This method will enable us to construct a small HVD system with CD and DVD upper compatibilities.

Horimai, Hideyoshi; Tan, Xiaodi



How versatile are inositol phosphate kinases?  

PubMed Central

This review assesses the extent and the significance of catalytic versatility shown by several inositol phosphate kinases: the inositol phosphate multikinase, the reversible Ins(1,3,4) P (3)/Ins(3,4,5,6) P (4) kinase, and the kinases that synthesize diphosphoinositol polyphosphates. Particular emphasis is placed upon data that are relevant to the situation in vivo. It will be shown that catalytic promiscuity towards different inositol phosphates is not typically an evolutionary compromise, but instead is sometimes exploited to facilitate tight regulation of physiological processes. This multifunctionality can add to the complexity with which inositol signalling pathways interact. This review also assesses some proposed additional functions for the catalytic domains, including transcriptional regulation, protein kinase activity and control by molecular 'switching', all in the context of growing interest in 'moonlighting' (gene-sharing) proteins. PMID:14567754

Shears, Stephen B



Versatile UHV compatible Knudsen type effusion cell  

SciTech Connect

A versatile Knudsen type effusion cell has been fabricated for growing nanostructures and epitaxial layers of metals and semiconductors. The cell provides excellent vacuum compatibility (10{sup -10} mbar range during operation), efficient water cooling, uniform heating, and moderate input power consumption (100 W at 1000 deg. C). The thermal properties of the cell have been determined. The performance of the cell has been assessed by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) for Mn adlayer growth on Al(111). We find that this Knudsen cell has a stable deposition rate of 0.17 monolayer per minute at 550 deg. C. From the XPS spectra, we show that the Mn adlayers are completely clean, i.e., devoid of any surface contamination.

Shukla, A.K.; Banik, S.; Dhaka, R.S.; Biswas, C.; Barman, S.R.; Haak, H. [Inter University Consortium for Department of Atomic Energy Facilities, Khandwa Road, Indore, 452017, Madhya Pradesh (India); Fritz Haber Institute der Max Planck Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195, Berlin (Germany)



Functional versatility supports coral reef biodiversity  

PubMed Central

We explore the role of specialization in supporting species coexistence in high-diversity ecosystems. Using a novel ordination-based method to quantify specialist and generalist feeding structures and diets we examined the relationship between morphology and diet in 120 wrasses and parrotfishes from the Great Barrier Reef. We find that wrasses, despite their morphological diversity, exhibit weak links between morphology and diet and that specialist morphologies do not necessarily equate to specialized diets. The dominant pattern shows extensive overlap in morphology (functional morphospace occupation) among trophic groups; fish with a given morphology may have a number of feeding modes. Such trophic versatility may lay the foundation for both the origins and maintenance of high biodiversity on coral reefs. PMID:16519241

Bellwood, D.R; Wainwright, P.C; Fulton, C.J; Hoey, A.S



Propeller flaps in the closure of free fibula flap donor site skin defects.  


The free fibula is a versatile and commonly used free flap in microvascular reconstruction. It allows for reconstruction of both bone and soft tissue defects. In head and neck reconstruction, the skin paddle harvested along with the flap allows for the reconstruction of skin or oral mucosal defects. After skin paddle harvest, the donor site can be closed primarily or with skin grafts. Grafting the donor area is the common method used. However, this could lead to delayed healing because of the poor graft over the area of peroneal tendons. Propeller flaps have been extensively reported for closure of leg skin defects. We report a series of 10 patients in whom we used a local propeller flap for the closure of the fibula flap skin donor site. The donor defects could be satisfactorily closed without the need of a skin graft in 9 patients. This method is simple, reliable, and suitable for closing small to medium defects. PMID:23364675

Sharma, Mohit; Balasubramanian, Deepak; Thankappan, Krishnakumar; Sampathirao, Chandrasekhararao Leelamohan; Mathew, Jimmy; Chavre, Sachin; Iyer, Subramania



Trait Empathy and Criminal Versatility in Sexual Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associations between trait empathy and criminal versatility were examined in a sample of 88 incarcerated adult sexual offenders (29 extrafamilial child molesters, 26 intrafamilial child molesters, and 33 rapists). Considerable criminal versatility was observed, with 60% of the whole sample and 88% of recidivist offenders having previous convictions for nonsexual offenses. Regression analyses showed significant associations between trait empathy and

Stephen W. Smallbone; Julia Wheaton; Donna Hourigan



Increased levels of palmitoylethanolamide and other bioactive lipid mediators and enhanced local mast cell proliferation in canine atopic dermatitis  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the precise pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) is unknown, an immune dysregulation that causes Th2-predominant inflammation and an intrinsic defect in skin barrier function are currently the two major hypotheses, according to the so-called outside-inside-outside model. Mast cells (MCs) are involved in AD both by releasing Th2 polarizing cytokines and generating pruritus symptoms through release of histamine and tryptase. A link between MCs and skin barrier defects was recently uncovered, with histamine being found to profoundly contribute to the skin barrier defects. Palmitoylethanolamide and related lipid mediators are endogenous bioactive compounds, considered to play a protective homeostatic role in many tissues: evidence collected so far shows that the anti-inflammatory effect of palmitoylethanolamide depends on the down-modulation of MC degranulation. Based on this background, the purpose of the present study was twofold: (a) to determine if the endogenous levels of palmitoylethanolamide and other bioactive lipid mediators are changed in the skin of AD dogs compared to healthy animals; (b) to examine if MC number is increased in the skin of AD dogs and, if so, whether it depends on MC in-situ proliferation. Results The amount of lipid extract expressed as percent of biopsy tissue weight was significantly reduced in AD skin while the levels of all analyzed bioactive lipid mediators were significantly elevated, with palmitoylethanolamide showing the highest increase. In dogs with AD, the number of MCs was significantly increased in both the subepidermal and the perifollicular compartments and their granule content was significantly decreased in the latter. Also, in situ proliferation of MCs was documented. Conclusions The levels of palmitoylethanolamide and other bioactive lipid mediators were shown to increase in AD skin compared to healthy samples, leading to the hypothesis that they may be part of the body’s innate mechanisms to maintain cellular homeostasis when faced with AD-related inflammation. In particular, the increase may be considered a temptative response to down-regulating the observed elevation in the number, functionality and proliferative state of MCs in the skin of AD dogs. Further studies are warranted to confirm the hypothesis. PMID:24423192



Exploring novel bioactive compounds from marine microbes.  


The historical paradigm of the deep ocean as a biological 'desert' has shifted to one of a 'rainforest' owing to the isolation of many novel microbes and their associated bioactive compounds. Recently, there has been an explosion of information about novel bioactive compounds that have been isolated from marine microbes in an effort to further explore the relatively untapped marine microbes and their secondary metabolites for drug discovery. The microbes are recovered and purified from the ocean by both conventional and innovative isolation methods to obtain those previously thought to be 'uncultivable'. To overcome the difficulties and limitations associated with cultivation techniques, several DNA-based molecular methods have been developed to bypass the culture-dependent bottleneck. Bioactive compounds isolated using the above strategies have not only shown importance in biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications but have also increased our understanding of the diversity of marine microbiota, ecosystem functions and the exploitable biology. PMID:15939350

Zhang, Lixin; An, Rong; Wang, Jinping; Sun, Nuo; Zhang, Si; Hu, Jiangchun; Kuai, Jun



Investigation of bioactivity and cell effects of nano-porous sol-gel derived bioactive glass film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In orthopedic surgery, bioactive glass film coating is extensively studied to improve the synthetic performance of orthopedic implants. A lot of investigations have confirmed that nano-porous structure in bioactive glasses can remarkably improve their bioactivity. Nevertheless, researches on preparation of nano-porous bioactive glasses in the form of film coating and their cell response activities are scarce. Herein, we report the preparation of nano-porous bioactive glass film on commercial glass slide based on a sol-gel technique, together with the evaluation of its in vitro bioactivity through immersion in simulated body fluid and monitoring the precipitation of apatite-like layer. Cell responses of the samples, including attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, were also investigated using BMSCS (bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells) as a model. The results presented here provide some basic information on structural influence of bioactive glass film on the improvement of bioactivity and cellular effects.

Ma, Zhijun; Ji, Huijiao; Hu, Xiaomeng; Teng, Yu; Zhao, Guiyun; Mo, Lijuan; Zhao, Xiaoli; Chen, Weibo; Qiu, Jianrong; Zhang, Ming



Variation in content of bioactive components in broccoli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of bioactive components in foods is exciting, suggesting the possibility of improved public health through diet. Yet the content of bioactive components in plant food varies, making quality control and intake recommendations problematic. Variation in content of bioactive components in fruits and vegetables depends upon both genetics and environment, including growing conditions, harvest and storage, processing and meal

E. H. Jeffery; A. F. Brown; A. C. Kurilich; A. S. Keck; N. Matusheski; B. P. Klein; J. A. Juvik



Bioactive secondary metabolites from Okinawan sponges and tunicates  

Microsoft Academic Search

During our studies on new bioactive substances from marine organisms, we have isolated a number of unique secondary metabolites having unprecedented chemical structures as well as unique bioactivities. In this review we describe our recent results of isolation and structural elucidation of novel bioactive secondary metabolites isolated from Okinawan marine sponges and tunicates. The review is subdivided into the following

Junichi Kobayashi; Masami Ishibashi



The Skin Deep Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From blemishes to suntans, young people are naturally fascinated by skin. The Skin Deep Project takes advantage of this curiosity, introducing students in grades 6 through 12 to the science of skin, including its role in protecting the body from invading microbes, maintaining temperature, and sensing the environment. As they learn how their skin protects them, they also learn how they can protect their skinâÂÂfrom the sunâÂÂs ultraviolet rays and from germs that can cause acne and other blemishes. With skin cancer cases increasing and more young people being affected, it is imperative that students understand what tools they have to protect themselves.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) (AAAS;)



Versatile nanocomposites in phosphoproteomics: a review.  


Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications. Phosphorylated peptides are present in low abundance in blood serum but play a vital role in regulatory mechanisms and may serve as casual factors in diseases. The enrichment and analysis of phosphorylated peptides directly from human serum and mapping the phosphorylation sites is a challenging task. Versatile nanocomposites of different materials have been synthesized using simple but efficient methodologies for their enrichment. The nanocomposites include magnetic, coated, embedded as well as chemically derivatized materials. Different base materials such as polymers, carbon based and metal oxides are used. The comparison of nanocomposites with respective nanoparticles provides sufficient facts about their efficiency in terms of loading capacity and capture efficiency. The cost for preparing them is low and they hold great promise to be used as chromatographic materials for phosphopeptide enrichment. This review gives an overview of different nanocomposites in phosphoproteomics, discussing the improved efficiency than the individual counterparts and highlighting their significance in phosphopeptide enrichment. PMID:22986130

Najam-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Jabeen, Fahmida; Hussain, Dilshad; Saeed, Adeela; Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Huck, Christian W; Bonn, Günther K



On the Versatility of von Willebrand Factor  

PubMed Central

Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a large multimeric protein, the function of which has been demonstrated to be pivotal to the haemostatic system. Indeed, quantitative and/or qualitative abnormalities of VWF are associated with the bleeding disorder Von Willebrand disease (VWD). Moreover, increased plasma concentrations of VWF have been linked to an increased risk for thrombotic complications. In the previous decades, many studies have contributed to our understanding of how VWF is connected to the haemostatic system, particularly with regard to structure-function relationships. Interactive sites for important ligands of VWF (such as factor VIII, collagen, glycoprotein Ib?, integrin ?IIb?3 and protease ADAMTS13) have been identified, and mutagenesis studies have confirmed the physiological relevance of the interactions between VWF and these ligands. However, we have also become aware that VWF has a more versatile character than previously thought, given its potential role in various non-hemostatic processes, like intimal thickening, tumor cell apoptosis and inflammatory processes. In the presence review, a summary of our knowledge on VWF structure-function relationships is provided in the context of the “classical” haemostatic task of VWF and in perspective of pathological processes beyond haemostasis. PMID:23936617

Rauch, Antoine; Wohner, Nikolett; Christophe, Olivier D.; Denis, Cecile V.; Susen, Sophie; Lenting, Peter J.



Roller presses -- Versatile equipment for mineral processing  

SciTech Connect

Roller presses were first invented in the middle of the 19th century for the economical size enlargement of coal fines as fuels. In addition to contemporary coal briquetting, in fields such as smokeless fuel and form-coke, it was found that redesigned and modernized roller presses, which are now capable of exerting high forces, are versatile machines for many tasks in mineral processing. Today they are used for: the classic pressure agglomeration and the new high pressure comminution. In pressure agglomeration, the characteristics of fine minerals are improved by forming briquettes or granulated products from compacts. During size enlargement with roller presses briquettes are directly obtained while granular materials are produced by crushing and sizing of compacted sheets. A relatively new application of roller presses in mineral processing is the utilization of the crushing effect when brittle materials pass the nip area between the rollers. It was found that this crushing mechanism is very efficient thus saving energy, particularly in grinding circuits handling large capacities. The paper introduces the fundamentals of the process and describes the design as well as applications of modern roller presses in mineral processing.

Pietsch, W. [Koppern Equipment, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)



Buried nanoantenna arrays: versatile antireflection coating.  


Reflection is usually a detrimental phenomenon in many applications such as flat-panel-displays, solar cells, photodetectors, infrared sensors, and lenses. Thus far, to control and suppress the reflection from a substrate, numerous techniques including dielectric interference coatings, surface texturing, adiabatic index matching, and scattering from plasmonic nanoparticles have been investigated. A new technique is demonstrated to manage and suppress reflection from lossless and lossy substrates. It provides a wider flexibility in design versus previous methods. Reflection from a surface can be suppressed over a narrowband, wideband, or multiband frequency range. The antireflection can be dependent or independent of the incident wave polarization. Moreover, antireflection at a very wide incidence angle can be attained. The reflection from a substrate is controlled by a buried nanoantenna array, a structure composed of (1) a subwavelength metallic array and (2) a dielectric cover layer referred to as a superstrate. The material properties and thickness of the superstrate and nanoantennas' geometry and periodicity control the phase and intensity of the wave circulating inside the superstrate cavity. A minimum reflectance of 0.02% is achieved in various experiments in the mid-infrared from a silicon substrate. The design can be integrated in straightforward way in optical devices. The proposed structure is a versatile AR coating to optically impedance matches any substrate to free space in selected any narrow and broadband spectral response across the entire visible and infrared spectrum. PMID:24266700

Kabiri, Ali; Girgis, Emad; Capasso, Federico



A compilation of bioactive compounds from Ayurveda  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review deals with the key bioactive compounds and the role of medicinal plants in Ayurvedic systems of medicine in India and their earlier investigation. There has been an increase in demand for the Phytopharmaceutical products of Ayurveda in Western countries, because of the fact that the allopathic drugs have more side effects. Many pharmaceutical companies are now concentrating on

Ramar Perumal Samy; Peter Natesan Pushparaj; Ponnampalam Gopalakrishnakone


Bromophenols in Marine Algae and Their Bioactivities  

PubMed Central

Marine algae contain various bromophenols that have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-thrombotic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress of these marine algal biomaterials, with respect to structure, bioactivities, and their potential application as pharmaceuticals. PMID:21822416

Liu, Ming; Hansen, Poul Erik; Lin, Xiukun



Marine Bioactives and Potential Application in Sports  

PubMed Central

An enriched diet with antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, ?-carotene and phenolic compounds, has always been suggested to improve oxidative stress, preventing related diseases. In this respect, marine natural product (MNP), such as COX inhibitors, marine steroids, molecules interfering with factors involved in the modulation of gene expression (such as NF-?B), macrolides, many antioxidant agents, thermogenic substances and even substances that could help the immune system and that result in the protection of cartilage, have been recently gaining attention. The marine world represents a reserve of bioactive ingredients, with considerable potential as functional food. Substances, such as chitin, chitosan, n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive peptides, can provide several health benefits, such as the reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. In addition, new marine bioactive substances with potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and thermogenic capacity may provide health benefits and performance improvement, especially in those who practice physical activity, because of their increased free radical and Reacting Oxygen Species (ROS) production during exercise, and, particularly, in athletes. The aim of this review is to examine the potential pharmacological properties and application of many marine bioactive substances in sports. PMID:24796298

Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Gemello, Eugenio; Riccioni, Graziano; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio



Studying Our Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Investigative activities enabling students to explore the many purposes of our skin can create meaningful understanding of its functions. These activities can also help children construct an understanding of the skin as an always present but constantly ch

Sunal, Cynthia S.; Walters, Jeffrey J.



Caring for Tattooed Skin  


... Education and quality care AAD professional education Clinical guidelines PQRS State melanoma reporting Appropriate use criteria MOC ... scarring or developing a skin disease such as psoriasis. Injuring the skin by tattooing it can trigger ...


Squamous cell skin cancer  


... cell; NMSC - squamous cell; Squamous cell skin cancer; Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin ... squamous cell cancer is called Bowen disease (or squamous cell carcinoma in situ). This type does not spread to ...


Skin Cancer Foundation  


... Actinic Keratosis Basal Cell Carcinoma Dysplastic Nevi Melanoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma Skin Cancer Facts Ask the Experts Early Detection ... Actinic Keratosis Basal Cell Carcinoma Dysplastic Nevi Melanoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma Skin Cancer Facts Early Detection Mohs Surgery Videos ...


Hormones and the Skin  


... available; hair is returning to its normal growth cycle. Menopause Skin care changes Thinning of the skin with loss of elasticity and increased sensitivity due to lower levels of estrogen . Treatment options include prescription retinoids or over-the- ...


Keeping Your Skin Healthy  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... epidermis is the outermost layer. It contains a substance called keratin that helps waterproof the skin. The ... middle layer of the skin. It contains a substance called collagen for strength, blood vessels for nutrition, ...


Examine Your Skin  


... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Finding ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Finding ...


Methoxylation enhances stilbene bioactivity in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Background Stilbenes are 1,2-diphenylethylene congeners produced by plants in response to stress. Many stilbenes also exhibit xenobiotic activities in animal cells, such as inhibition of cancer cell growth, neuroprotection, and immune modulation. In vivo, hydroxylated stilbenes are metabolized by glucuronidation to facilitate excretion. Methoxylated stilbenes are metabolized more slowly, which may have a positive effect on in vivo bioactivity. Here, we have directly compared in vivo bioactivities of methoxylated and hydroxylated stilbenes in a whole organism using the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, an advantageous experimental system for such studies due to its rapid lifecycle, genetic amenability and relatively low-cost. Results Toxicity towards C. elegans adults was observed for trimethoxylated and dimethoxylated stilbenes, as well as the monomethoxylated stilbene desoxyrhapontigenin. Toxicity was not observed for the monomethoxylated stilbene, pinostilbene, nor for hydroxylated stilbenes. The methoxylated stilbenes that exhibited toxicity also showed stronger inhibitory effects than the hydroxylated stilbenes on germline tumor growth in gld-1(q485) adults. However, steady-state levels of three inhibitory methoxylated stilbenes did not directly correlate to their relative bioactivities. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that, for the group of stilbenes investigated, methoxylation generally increased bioactivity in vivo in a whole organism, with the exception of pinostilbene. Differences in bioactivity in C. elegans adults did not appear to correlate with differential uptake. Rather, we speculate that methoxylated stilbenes may have increased interactions with biological targets in vivo or may interact with specific targets unaffected by hydroxylated stilbenes. The potent activities of methoxylated stilbenes provide a basis for further investigations to identify in vivo targets for these compounds. PMID:18700960

Wilson, Mark A; Rimando, Agnes M; Wolkow, Catherine A



Tissue viability imaging for quantification of skin erythema and blanching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Naked eye observation has up to recently been the main method of determining skin erythema (vasodilatation) and blanching (vasoconstriction) in skin testing. Since naked eye observation is a highly subjective and investigatordependent method, it is difficult to attain reproducibility and to compare results reported by different researchers performing their studies at different laboratories. Consequently there is a need for more objective, quantitative and versatile methods in the assessment of alterations in skin erythema and blanching caused by internal and external factors such as the intake of vasoactive drugs, application of agents on the skin surface and by constituents in the environment. Since skin microcirculation is sensitive to applied pressure and heat, such methods should preferably be noninvasive and designed for remote use without touching the skin. As skin microcirculation further possesses substantial spatial variability, imaging techniques are to be preferred before single point measurements. An emerging technology based on polarization digital camera spectroscopy - Tissue Viability Imaging (TiVi) - fulfills these requirements. The principles of TiVi (1) and some of its early applications (2-5) are addressed in this paper.

Nilsson, Gert E.; Leahy, Martin J.



Biology of Skin Color.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

Corcos, Alain



Versatile Membrane Deformation Potential of Activated Pacsin  

PubMed Central

Endocytosis is a fundamental process in signaling and membrane trafficking. The formation of vesicles at the plasma membrane is mediated by the G protein dynamin that catalyzes the final fission step, the actin cytoskeleton, and proteins that sense or induce membrane curvature. One such protein, the F-BAR domain-containing protein pacsin, contributes to this process and has been shown to induce a spectrum of membrane morphologies, including tubules and tube constrictions in vitro. Full-length pacsin isoform 1 (pacsin-1) has reduced activity compared to its isolated F-BAR domain, implicating an inhibitory role for its C-terminal Src homology 3 (SH3) domain. Here we show that the autoinhibitory, intramolecular interactions in pacsin-1 can be released upon binding to the entire proline-rich domain (PRD) of dynamin-1, resulting in potent membrane deformation activity that is distinct from the isolated F-BAR domain. Most strikingly, we observe the generation of small, homogenous vesicles with the activated protein complex under certain experimental conditions. In addition, liposomes prepared with different methods yield distinct membrane deformation morphologies of BAR domain proteins and apparent activation barriers to pacsin-1's activity. Theoretical free energy calculations suggest bimodality of the protein-membrane system as a possible source for the different outcomes, which could account for the coexistence of energetically equivalent membrane structures induced by BAR domain-containing proteins in vitro. Taken together, our results suggest a versatile role for pacsin-1 in sculpting cellular membranes that is likely dependent both on protein structure and membrane properties. PMID:23236520

Byrnes, Laura J.; Sondermann, Holger



The neural crest: A versatile organ system.  


The neural crest is the name given to the strip of cells at the junction between neural and epidermal ectoderm in neurula-stage vertebrate embryos, which is later brought to the dorsal neural tube as the neural folds elevate. The neural crest is a heterogeneous and multipotent progenitor cell population whose cells undergo EMT then extensively and accurately migrate throughout the embryo. Neural crest cells contribute to nearly every organ system in the body, with derivatives of neuronal, glial, neuroendocrine, pigment, and also mesodermal lineages. This breadth of developmental capacity has led to the neural crest being termed the fourth germ layer. The neural crest has occupied a prominent place in developmental biology, due to its exaggerated migratory morphogenesis and its remarkably wide developmental potential. As such, neural crest cells have become an attractive model for developmental biologists for studying these processes. Problems in neural crest development cause a number of human syndromes and birth defects known collectively as neurocristopathies; these include Treacher Collins syndrome, Hirschsprung disease, and 22q11.2 deletion syndromes. Tumors in the neural crest lineage are also of clinical importance, including the aggressive melanoma and neuroblastoma types. These clinical aspects have drawn attention to the selection or creation of neural crest progenitor cells, particularly of human origin, for studying pathologies of the neural crest at the cellular level, and also for possible cell therapeutics. The versatility of the neural crest lends itself to interlinked research, spanning basic developmental biology, birth defect research, oncology, and stem/progenitor cell biology and therapy. Birth Defects Research (Part C) 102:275-298, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25227568

Zhang, Dongcheng; Ighaniyan, Samiramis; Stathopoulos, Lefteris; Rollo, Benjamin; Landman, Kerry; Hutson, John; Newgreen, Donald



Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

No matter if your skin is light, dark, or somewhere in between, everyone is at risk for skin cancer. Learn what skin cancer looks like, how to find it early, and how to lower the chance of skin cancer.


A Versatile Time-Domain Reed-Solomon Decoder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A versatile Reed-Solomon (RS) decoder structure based on the time-domain decoding algorithm (transform decoding without transforms) is developed. The algorithm is restructured, and a method is given to decode any RS code generated by any generator polynomial. The main advantage of the decoder structure is its versatility, that is, it can be programmed to decode any Reed-Solomon code defined in

Yousef R. Shayan; Tho Le-ngoc; Vijay K. Bhargava



Metabolically competent human skin models: activation and genotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene.  


The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo[a]pyrene (BP) is metabolized into a complex pattern of BP derivatives, among which the ultimate carcinogen (+)-anti-BP-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) is formed to certain extents. Skin is frequently in contact with PAHs and data on the metabolic capacity of skin tissue toward these compounds are inconclusive. We compared BP metabolism in excised human skin, commercially available in vitro 3D skin models and primary 2D skin cell cultures, and analyzed the metabolically catalyzed occurrence of seven different BP follow-up products by means of liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). All models investigated were competent to metabolize BP, and the metabolic profiles generated by ex vivo human skin and skin models were remarkably similar. Furthermore, the genotoxicity of BP and its derivatives was monitored in these models via comet assays. In a full-thickness skin, equivalent BP-mediated genotoxic stress was generated via keratinocytes. Cultured primary keratinocytes revealed a level of genotoxicity comparable with that of direct exposure to 50-100 nM of BPDE. Our data demonstrate that the metabolic capacity of human skin ex vivo, as well as organotypic human 3D skin models toward BP, is sufficient to cause significant genotoxic stress and thus cutaneous bioactivation may potentially contribute to mutations that ultimately lead to skin cancer. PMID:23148024

Brinkmann, Joep; Stolpmann, Kristin; Trappe, Susanne; Otter, Timo; Genkinger, Doris; Bock, Udo; Liebsch, Manfred; Henkler, Frank; Hutzler, Christoph; Luch, Andreas



Metabolically Competent Human Skin Models: Activation and Genotoxicity of Benzo[a]pyrene  

PubMed Central

The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo[a]pyrene (BP) is metabolized into a complex pattern of BP derivatives, among which the ultimate carcinogen (+)-anti-BP-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) is formed to certain extents. Skin is frequently in contact with PAHs and data on the metabolic capacity of skin tissue toward these compounds are inconclusive. We compared BP metabolism in excised human skin, commercially available in vitro 3D skin models and primary 2D skin cell cultures, and analyzed the metabolically catalyzed occurrence of seven different BP follow-up products by means of liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). All models investigated were competent to metabolize BP, and the metabolic profiles generated by ex vivo human skin and skin models were remarkably similar. Furthermore, the genotoxicity of BP and its derivatives was monitored in these models via comet assays. In a full-thickness skin, equivalent BP-mediated genotoxic stress was generated via keratinocytes. Cultured primary keratinocytes revealed a level of genotoxicity comparable with that of direct exposure to 50–100nM of BPDE. Our data demonstrate that the metabolic capacity of human skin ex vivo, as well as organotypic human 3D skin models toward BP, is sufficient to cause significant genotoxic stress and thus cutaneous bioactivation may potentially contribute to mutations that ultimately lead to skin cancer. PMID:23148024

Henkler, Frank



Skin Bacteria and Skin Disinfection Reconsidered  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large discrepancies in the available data on skin microbiology stimulated investigations of the number, interactions, and location of commensals and the true efficiency of disinfection by using skin biopsy, culture of frozen sections, and other methods.Most current procedures were less than 0·5% as sensitive as the biopsy method described. This gave mean bacterial counts ranging from 4,400\\/cm2 on the breast

Sydney Selwyn; Harold Ellis



Bioactive Compounds from Marine Bacteria and Fungi  

PubMed Central

Summary Marine bacteria and fungi are of considerable importance as new promising sources of a huge number of biologically active products. Some of these marine species live in a stressful habitat, under cold, lightless and high pressure conditions. Surprisingly, a large number of species with high diversity survive under such conditions and produce fascinating and structurally complex natural products. Up till now, only a small number of microorganisms have been investigated for bioactive metabolites, yet a huge number of active substances with some of them featuring unique structural skeletons have been isolated. This review covers new biologically active natural products published recently (2007–09) and highlights the chemical potential of marine microorganisms, with focus on bioactive products as well as on their mechanisms of action. PMID:21255352

Debbab, Abdessamad; Aly, Amal H.; Lin, Wen H.; Proksch, Peter



Microencapsulated Bioactive Agents and Method of Making  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention is directed to microcapsules encapsulating an aqueous solution of a protein, drug or other bioactive substance inside a semi-permeable membrane. The microcapsules are formed by interfacial coacervation where shear forces are limited to 0-100 dynes per square centimeter. The resulting uniform microcapsules can then be subjected to dewatering in order to cause the internal solution to become supersaturated with the dissolved substance. This dewatering allows controlled nucleation and crystallization of the dissolved substance. The crystal-filled microcapsules can be stored, keeping the encapsulated crystals in good condition for further direct use in x-ray crystallography or as injectable formulations of the dissolved drug, protein or other bioactive substance.

Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)



Nanochemoprevention by Bioactive Food Components: A Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemoprevention through the use of bioactive food components is a practical approach for cancer control. Despite abundant\\u000a efficacy data under preclinical settings, this strategy has resulted in limited success for human cancer control. Amongst\\u000a many reasons, inefficient systemic delivery and bioavailability of promising chemopreventive agents are considered to significantly\\u000a contribute to such a disconnect. We recently introduced a novel concept

Imtiaz A. Siddiqui; Hasan Mukhtar



Human Milk Composition: Nutrients and Bioactive Factors  

PubMed Central

Synopsis The composition of human milk is the biologic norm for infant nutrition. Human milk also contains many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization. Some of these molecules, e.g., lactoferrin, are being investigated as novel therapeutic agents. A dynamic, bioactive fluid, human milk changes in composition from colostrum to late lactation, and varies within feeds, diurnally, and between mothers. Feeding infants with expressed human milk is increasing. Pasteurized donor milk is now commonly provided to high risk infants and most mothers in the U.S. express and freeze their milk at some point in lactation for future infant feedings. Many milk proteins are degraded by heat treatment and freeze-thaw cycles may not have the same bioactivity after undergoing these treatments. This article provides an overview of the composition of human milk, sources of its variation, and its clinical relevance. PMID:23178060

Ballard, Olivia; Morrow, Ardythe L.



A bioactive complex to protect proteins from UV-induced oxidation in human epidermis.  


UV light induces multiple damages including protein oxidation on skin. Oxidized proteins if not degraded by the proteasome would eventually accumulate causing metabolic damage, elastosis and pigment formation such as lipofuscin. During ageing, the activity of the proteasome decreases dramatically together with enzymes that protect from oxidation and as a result oxidized proteins accumulate. We have investigated a combination of Panthenyl triacetate and Ethyl linoleate (bioactive complex) to fight against protein oxidation. This complex when tested at 3% on human skin biopsies showed statistically significant protection from UV (UVA + UVB)-induced protein oxidation both in a 24-h pre-treatment before UV irradiation (72% protection, P < 0.05) and immediately after irradiation (78% protection, P < 0.05). UV light also induced a significant decrease of mRNA for protein repairing enzymes, such as Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase (MSR). The complex, given both pre- and post-irradiation, stimulated the repairing enzyme expression. We can suggest utilization of this new complex to prevent accumulation of oxidized protein as a result of skin photo-ageing and to prevent stratum corneum dehydration, skin elastosis and pigmentation formation (age spots). PMID:19818086

Schweikert, K; Gafner, F; Dell'Acqua, G



The skin microbiome  

PubMed Central

The skin is the human body’s largest organ, colonized by a diverse milieu of microorganisms, most of which are harmless or even beneficial to their host. Colonization is driven by the ecology of the skin surface, which is highly variable depending on topographical location, endogenous host factors and exogenous environmental factors. The cutaneous innate and adaptive immune responses can modulate the skin microbiota, but the microbiota also functions in educating the immune system. The development of molecular methods to identify microorganisms has led to an emerging view of the resident skin bacteria as highly diverse and variable. An enhanced understanding of the skin microbiome is necessary to gain insight into microbial involvement in human skin disorders and to enable novel promicrobial and antimicrobial therapeutic approaches for their treatment. PMID:21407241

Grice, Elizabeth A.; Segre, Julia A.



In vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility of porous scaffolds of bioactive borosilicate glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioactive borosilicate scaffolds (R2O-RO-B2O3-SiO2-P2O5) with four different contents of borate were fabricated by replication technique. The bioactivity, degradability and the\\u000a cytotoxicity of the scaffolds were studied in this paper. The porosity of the scaffolds was found to be 73%–80%, and the pore\\u000a size was in the range of 200–300 ?m. The porous scaffolds immersed in 0.02 mol·L?1 K2HPO4 solution

Xin Zhang; HaiLuo Fu; Xin Liu; AiHua Yao; DePing Wang; WenHai Huang; Ying Zhao; XinQuan Jiang



Skin as an Organ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is part of the Skin Deep Project, which examines the science behind skin. Skin Deep is developed by AAAS and funded by NeutrogenaIn this lesson, students will examine the skin and how it functions as an organ and as part of a larger body system. By taking a closer look at the anatomy and function of the integumentary system, students will further their general knowledge of organ systems in general. Further, they will benefit from realizing that any part of a system may itself be considered as a systema subsystemwith its own internal parts and interactions. Additional links are given for further inquiry.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)



Fungal Skin Infections  


... of Fungal Skin Infections Candidiasis Overview of Dermatophytoses (Ringworm, Tinea) Athlete's Foot Jock Itch Scalp Ringworm Body Ringworm Beard Ringworm Dermatophytid Reaction Tinea Versicolor ...


The versatile perifascial areolar tissue graft: adaptability to a variety of defects.  


Reconstruction using flaps with good blood circulation is appropriate for covering an intractable ulcer or a fistula in which tendon or bones are exposed. A non-vascularised perifascial areolar tissue (PAT) graft can also survive in such an area. This study reports the versatile application of a PAT graft for use as a non-vascularised graft material. A total of 32 patients were treated between April 2004 and December 2010 (16 men and 16 women). The donor sites were the inguinal region in 20, the thigh in 11, and the subclavian region in one. There were 13 inlay grafts to the dead space after tumour resection, eight closures for cerebrospinal fluid leakage, seven skin ulcers with exposed bones and tendons, three fistulas, and one vascular leak of the common carotid artery. The total survival rate of the grafts was 91%. The complications associated with this procedure included infection in 9% and seroma in the donor site in 19%. However, all cases improved after conservative treatment. The PAT is a pliable loose areolar tissue with a rich vascular plexus, and the harvesting technique is quite simple and minimally invasive. The PAT graft could therefore represent an alternative for flaps that are used as a free graft material for the reconstruction of such defects as intractable skin ulcers, fistulas or dead spaces that usually require reconstruction with vascularised flaps. PMID:23710794

Koizumi, Takuya; Nakagawa, Masahiro; Nagamatsu, Shogo; Kayano, Shuji; Akazawa, Satoshi; Katsuragi, Yoko; Matsui, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Yusuke



Bioactive Peptides from Muscle Sources: Meat and Fish  

PubMed Central

Bioactive peptides have been identified in a range of foods, including plant, milk and muscle, e.g., beef, chicken, pork and fish muscle proteins. Bioactive peptides from food proteins offer major potential for incorporation into functional foods and nutraceuticals. The aim of this paper is to present an outline of the bioactive peptides identified in the muscle protein of meat to date, with a focus on muscle protein from domestic animals and fish. The majority of research on bioactives from meat sources has focused on angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antioxidant peptides. PMID:22254123

Ryan, Joseph Thomas; Ross, Reynolds Paul; Bolton, Declan; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Stanton, Catherine



Contribution to the Determination of In Vivo Mechanical Characteristics of Human Skin by Indentation Test  

PubMed Central

This paper proposes a triphasic model of intact skin in vivo based on a general phenomenological thermohydromechanical and physicochemical (THMPC) approach of heterogeneous media. The skin is seen here as a deforming stratified medium composed of four layers and made out of different fluid-saturated materials which contain also an ionic component. All the layers are treated as linear, isotropic materials described by their own behaviour law. The numerical simulations of in vivo indentation test performed on human skin are given. The numerical results correlate reasonably well with the typical observations of indented human skin. The discussion shows the versatility of this approach to obtain a better understanding on the mechanical behaviour of human skin layers separately. PMID:24324525

Zahouani, Hassan



Electrospinning of Bioactive Dex-PAA Hydrogel Fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, a novel method is developed for making nano- and micro-fibrous hydrogels capable of preventing the rejection of implanted materials. This is achieved by either (1) mimicking the native cellular environment, to exert fine control over the cellular response or (2) acting as a protective barrier, to camouflage the foreign nature of a material and evade recognition by the immune system. Comprehensive characterization and in vitro studies described here provide a foundation for developing substrates for use in clinical applications. Hydrogel dextran and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) fibers are formed via electrospinning, in sizes ranging from nanometers to microns in diameter. While "as-electrospun" fibers are continuous in length, sonication is used to fragment fibers into short fiber "bristles" and generate nano- and micro- fibrous surface coatings over a wide range of topographies. Dex-PAA fibrous surfaces are chemically modified, and then optimized and characterized for non-fouling and ECM-mimetic properties. The non-fouling nature of fibers is verified, and cell culture studies show differential responses dependent upon chemical, topographical and mechanical properties. Dex-PAA fibers are advantageously unique in that (1) a fine degree of control is possible over three significant parameters critical for modifying cellular response: topography, chemistry and mechanical properties, over a range emulating that of native cellular environments, (2) the innate nature of the material is non-fouling, providing an inert background for adding back specific bioactive functionality, and (3) the fibers can be applied as a surface coating or comprise the scaffold itself. This is the first reported work of dex-PAA hydrogel fibers formed via electrospinning and thermal cross-linking, and unique to this method, no toxic solvents or cross-linking agents are needed to create hydrogels or for surface attachment. This is also the first reported work of using sonication to fragment electrospun hydrogel fibers, and in which surface coatings were made via simple electrostatic interaction and dehydration. These versatile features enable fibrous surface coatings to be applied to virtually any material. Results of this research broadly impact the design of biomaterials which contact cells in the body by directing the consequent cell-material interaction.

Louie, Katherine Boyook


Intracrinology and The Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin, the largest organ in the human body, is composed of a series of androgen-sensitive components that all express the steroidogenic enzymes required to transform dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) into dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In fact, in post-menopausal women, all sex steroids made in the skin are from adrenal steroid precursors, especially DHEA. Secretion of this precursor steroid by the adrenals decreases progressively

Fernand Labrie; Van Luu-The; Claude Labrie; Georges Pelletier; Mohamed El-Alfy



The skin microbiome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin is the human body's largest organ, colonized by a diverse milieu of microorganisms, most of which are harmless or even beneficial to their host. Colonization is driven by the ecology of the skin surface, which is highly variable depending on topographical location, endogenous host factors and exogenous environmental factors. The cutaneous innate and adaptive immune responses can modulate

Elizabeth A. Grice; Julia A. Segre



[Skin photophysics and colors].  


The optical properties of skin and of chromophores orientate and absorbe light. The resulting skin colour can be assessed by visual inspection or by objective methods. Spectrophotometry, tristimulus colorimetry and computerized image analysis are well codified methods. Epidermal melanisation is detected with great sensitivity under ultraviolet light illumination. PMID:15909553

Piérard, G E; Uhoda, E



Screening for skin cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Malignant melanoma is often lethal, and its incidence in the United States has increased rapidly over the past 2 decades. Nonmelanoma skin cancer is seldom lethal, but, if advanced, can cause severe disfigurement and morbidity. Early detection and treatment of melanoma might reduce mortality, while early detection and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer might prevent major disfigurement and to

Mark Helfand; Susan M Mahon; Karen B Eden; Paul S Frame; C. Tracy Orleans



Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix  


... Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is something as simple as ...


Processing, properties, and in vitro bioactivity of polysulfone-bioactive glass composites.  


The mismatch between the mechanical properties of bioceramics and natural tissue has restricted in several cases a wider application of ceramics in medical and dental fields. To overcome this problem, polymer matrix composites can be designed to combine bioactive properties of some bioceramics with the superior mechanical properties of some engineering plastics. In this work, polymer particulate composites composed of a high mechanical-property polymer and bioactive glass particles were produced and both the in vitro bioactivity and properties of the system were investigated. Composites with different volume fraction and particle size were prepared. In vitro tests showed that hydroxy-carbonate-apatite can be deposited on the surface of a composite as early as 20 h in a simulated body fluid. Ionic evolution from a composite with 40% volume fraction of particles was demonstrated to be similar to bulk bioactive glasses. The mechanical properties of some of the obtained composites had values comparable with the ones reported for bone. Moreover, a physical model based on dynamical mechanical tests showed evidences that the interface of the composite was aiding in the stress transfer process. PMID:17031819

Oréfice, Rodrigo; Clark, Arthur; West, Jon; Brennan, Anthony; Hench, Larry



You and Your Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The You and Your Skin interactive was developed by Science NetLinks with funding from Neutrogena as part of the Skin Deep project. This resource provides an introduction to the basic structure of the skin, information about how the skin protects us, and some information on how to care for the skin. There are four main sections to the resource: Function, Anatomy, Protection, and Care. When you click on one of the main sections, you'll be taken to an enlarged view of that section, which contains several subsections represented by the highlighted ring around the circle. Roll your mouse over the ring to see the subsections. To go to one of the subsections, simply click on it. To move from one of the main sections to another, simply click on one of the red arrows found by the ring.

Science NetLinks (AAAS;)



Skin biopsy and psoriasis.  


A total of 33 skin biopsies were sent to Bangladesh institute of health Science (BIHS) hospital at Mirpur, Dhaka by Consultant skin for histopathological diagnosis between a period of one year and three months. Out of these 33 skin biopsies histopathological diagnosis of psoriasis was made for 13(39.39%), chronic non specific dermatitis (eczema) in 4(12.12%), lichenoid lesion 4(12.12%). Ashy dermatosis 3(9.09%), Nevus 2(6.06%) and corn, hemangioma, prurigo simplex, pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP), dermatofibroma, 1(3.03%) each. The main presenting feature of these patients were erythematous, prurituc, silvery, scale, plaques or papules for a period between 2 months to 15 years. It is evident from the present study that among different skin lesions sent for histological diagnosis, Psoriasis is common skin pathology in dermatological practice. PMID:20639826

Rahman, M T; Monami, N S; Ferdousi, S; Tahmin, T



Skinning Mesh Animations  

E-print Network

We extend approaches for skinning characters to the general setting of skinning deformable mesh animations. We provide an automatic algorithm for generating progressive skinning approximations, that is particularly efficient for pseudo-articulated motions. Our contributions include the use of nonparametric mean shift clustering of high-dimensional mesh rotation sequences to automatically identify statistically relevant bones, and robust least squares methods to determine bone transformations, bone-vertex influence sets, and vertex weight values. We use a low-rank data reduction model defined in the undeformed mesh configuration to provide progressive convergence with a fixed number of bones. We show that the resulting skinned animations enable efficient hardware rendering, rest pose editing, and deformable collision detection. Finally, we present numerous examples where skins were automatically generated using a single set of parameter values.

Doug L. James; Christopher D. Twigg



Marine bacterial sources of bioactive compounds.  


Thousands of novel compounds have been isolated from various marine bacteria and tested for pharmacological properties, many of which are commercially available. Many more are being tested as potential bioactive compound at the preclinical and clinical stages. The growing interest in marine-derived antiviral compounds, along with the development of new technology in marine cultures and extraction, will significantly expedite the current exploration of the marine environment for compounds with significant pharmacological applications, which will continue to be a promising strategy and new trend for modern medicine. Marine actinomycetes and cyanobacteria are a prolific but underexploited source for the discovery of novel secondary metabolites. PMID:22361201

Jaiganesh, R; Sampath Kumar, N S



Bioactive furanocoumarins from stems of Clausena lansium.  


Clausena lansium Skeels, a member of the Rutaceae, is a shrub or small tree with grapelike fruits. Several parts of this plant have been used in folk medicine. A bioactive constituent investigation of the stems of C. lansium herein resulted in isolation of four furanocoumarins, claucoumarins A-D, and 13 known analogs. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including UV, IR, MS, and NMR experiments, and their absolute configurations were determined by CD experiments. Using an in vitro system, several of these compounds showed selective neuroprotective effects at a concentration of 10?M. PMID:25168358

Liu, Hang; Li, Fei; Li, Chuang-Jun; Yang, Jing-Zhi; Li, Li; Chen, Nai-Hong; Zhang, Dong-Ming



Mom and Baby Skin Care  


... and baby skin care Mom and baby skin care Skin care concerns during and after pregnancy Melasma Also known ... chilled product can help alleviate the itch. Hair care concerns during and after pregnancy Excessive hair growth ...


Gram stain of skin lesion  


Skin lesion gram stain ... a glass slide. A series of different colored stains is applied to the sample. A laboratory team ... test. For information on risks related to the removal of a skin sample, see skin lesion biopsy .


6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer  


... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...


Stochastic simulation of structured skin cell population dynamics.  


The epidermis is the outmost skin tissue. It operates as a first defense system to process inflammatory signals and responds by producing inflammatory mediators that promote the recruitment of immune cells. Various skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis occur as a result of the defect of proper skin barrier function and successive impaired inflammatory responses. The onset of such a skin disease links to the disturbed epidermal homeostasis regulated by appropriate self-renewal and differentiation of epidermal stem cells. The theory of physiologically structured population models provides a versatile framework to formulate mathematical models which describe the growth dynamics of a cell population such as the epidermis. In this paper, we develop an algorithm to implement stochastic simulation for a class of physiologically structured population models. We demonstrate that the developed algorithm is applicable to several cell population models and typical age-structured population models. On the basis of the developed algorithm, we investigate stochastic dynamics of skin cell populations and spread of inflammation. It is revealed that demographic stochasticity can bring considerable impact on the outcome of inflammation spread at the tissue level. PMID:23255068

Nakaoka, Shinji; Aihara, Kazuyuki



Bioavailability of bioactive food compounds: a challenging journey to bioefficacy.  


Bioavailability is a key step in ensuring bioefficacy of bioactive food compounds or oral drugs. Bioavailability is a complex process involving several different stages: liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination phases (LADME). Bioactive food compounds, whether derived from various plant or animal sources, need to be bioavailable in order to exert any beneficial effects. Through a better understanding of the digestive fate of bioactive food compounds we can impact the promotion of health and improvement of performance. Many varying factors affect bioavailability, such as bioaccessibility, food matrix effect, transporters, molecular structures and metabolizing enzymes. Bioefficacy may be improved through enhanced bioavailability. Therefore, several technologies have been developed to improve the bioavailability of xenobiotics, including structural modifications, nanotechnology and colloidal systems. Due to the complex nature of food bioactive compounds and also to the different mechanisms of absorption of hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactive compounds, unravelling the bioavailability of food constituents is challenging. Among the food sources discussed during this review, coffee, tea, citrus fruit and fish oil were included as sources of food bioactive compounds (e.g. (poly)phenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)) since they are examples of important ingredients for the food industry. Although there are many studies reporting on bioavailability and bioefficacy of these bioactive food components, understanding their interactions, metabolism and mechanism of action still requires extensive work. This review focuses on some of the major factors affecting the bioavailability of the aforementioned bioactive food compounds. PMID:22897361

Rein, Maarit J; Renouf, Mathieu; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Actis-Goretta, Lucas; Thakkar, Sagar K; da Silva Pinto, Marcia



Mineralization and osteoblast response to bioactive glass in vitro.  


Bioactive glass, an osteoproductive material, has received considerable attention as a bone graft substitute in the treatment of bony defects. Bioactive CaO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5) glass was prepared using the sol-gel method, and mineralization behaviour in vitro was investigated by soaking it in simulated body fluid (SBF). Cellular cultivation in vitro, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and Von Kossa assays were conducted to evaluate the osteoblast response to the bioactive glass. A calcium phosphate carbonate hydroxide (HCA) layer was formed on the bioactive glass after soaking for 3 days in SBF, which indicated that the mineralization on the surface of bioactive glass could progress spontaneously. The osteoblast response results demonstrated that bioactive glass had no cytotoxicity, and it might not be harmful to the morphology of the osteoblast. The growth and proliferation of the osteoblastic cell could not be inhibited. Nodule formation was also observed in conditioned medium containing dissolution bioactive glass and these nodules were shown to be mineralized by Von Kossa staining, which indicates that bioactive glass shows good biocompatibility. PMID:20397850

Zhou, Z H; Yi, Q F; Nei, H D; Ling, Y L; Zhou, J N; Liu, L H; Liu, X P



Submicron bioactive glass tubes for bone tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herein we describe a method to fabricate submicron bioactive glass tubes using sol–gel and coaxial electrospinning techniques for applications in bone tissue engineering. Heavy mineral oil and gel solution were delivered by two independent syringe pumps during the coaxial electrospinning process. Subsequently, submicron bioactive glass tubes were obtained by removal of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) and heavy mineral oil via calcination at

Jingwei Xie; Eric R. Blough; Chi-Hwa Wang


The Ontogeny of Skin  

PubMed Central

Significance: During gestation, fetal skin progresses from a single layer derived from ectoderm to a complex, multi-layer tissue with the stratum corneum (SC) as the outermost layer. Innate immunity is a conferred complex process involving a balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, structural proteins, and specific antigen-presenting cells. The SC is a part of the innate immune system as an impermeable physical barrier containing anti-microbial lipids and host defense proteins. Postnatally, the epidermis continually replenishes itself, provides a protective barrier, and repairs injuries. Recent Advances: Vernix caseosa protects the fetus during gestation and facilitates development of the SC in the aqueous uterine environment. The anti-infective, hydrating, acidification, and wound-healing properties post birth provide insights for the development of strategies that facilitate SC maturation and repair in the premature infant. Critical Issues: Reduction of infant mortality is a global health priority. Premature infants have an incompetent skin barrier putting them at risk for irritant exposure, skin compromise and life-threatening infections. Effective interventions to accelerate skin barrier maturation are compelling. Future Directions: Investigations to determine the ontogeny of barrier maturation, that is, SC structure, composition, cohesiveness, permeability, susceptibility to injury, and microflora, as a function of gestational age are essential. Clinicians need to know when the premature skin barrier becomes fully competent and comparable to healthy newborn skin. This will guide the development of innovative strategies for optimizing skin barrier development. PMID:24761361

Visscher, Marty; Narendran, Vivek



Skin and antioxidants.  


It is estimated that total sun exposure occurs non-intentionally in three quarters of our lifetimes. Our skin is exposed to majority of UV radiation during outdoor activities, e.g. walking, practicing sports, running, hiking, etc. and not when we are intentionally exposed to the sun on the beach. We rarely use sunscreens during those activities, or at least not as much and as regular as we should and are commonly prone to acute and chronic sun damage of the skin. The only protection of our skin is endogenous (synthesis of melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and exogenous (antioxidants, which we consume from the food, like vitamins A, C, E, etc.). UV-induced photoaging of the skin becomes clinically evident with age, when endogenous antioxidative mechanisms and repair processes are not effective any more and actinic damage to the skin prevails. At this point it would be reasonable to ingest additional antioxidants and/or to apply them on the skin in topical preparations. We review endogenous and exogenous skin protection with antioxidants. PMID:23384037

Poljsak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja; Godic, Aleksandar



Archaea on human skin.  


The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin. PMID:23776475

Probst, Alexander J; Auerbach, Anna K; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine



A comparative analysis of metal transportomes from metabolically versatile Pseudomonas  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The availability of complete genome sequences of versatile Pseudomonas occupying remarkably diverse ecological niches enabled to gain insights into their adaptative assets. The objective of this study was to analyze the complete genetic repertoires of metal transporters (metal transportomes) from four representative Pseudomonas species and to identify metal transporters with \\

Adhikarla Haritha; Agnes Rodrigue; Pamarthi Maruthi Mohan



Density Ratio Estimation: A New Versatile Tool for Machine Learning  

E-print Network

Density Ratio Estimation: A New Versatile Tool for Machine Learning Masashi Sugiyama Department based on the ratio of prob- ability densities has been proposed recently and gathers a great deal of attention in the machine learning and data mining communities [1­17]. This density ratio framework includes

Sugiyama, Masashi


Dynamic Multibody Protein Interactions Suggest Versatile Pathways for Copper Trafficking  

E-print Network

Dynamic Multibody Protein Interactions Suggest Versatile Pathways for Copper Trafficking Aaron M, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: As part of intracellular copper trafficking pathways, the human copper chaperone Hah1 delivers Cu+ to the Wilson's Disease Protein (WDP) via weak and dynamic

Chen, Peng


FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Hydrogen is a versatile energy car-  

E-print Network

FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Fuel Cells Hydrogen is a versatile energy car- rier that can be used a particularly important role in the future by re- placing the imported petroleum we currently use in our cars pollution-free, but they can also have more than two times the efficiency of traditional combustion


A GSM-based versatile Unmanned Ground Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operations like radioactive waste handling, bomb disposal, surveillance, search and rescue are today performed mostly by humans at great risk to their own safety and well-being. In order to minimize direct human intervention in such operations, the design of a remotely operated versatile Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) mounted with a robotic manipulator is presented in this paper. The robustness, range

B. N. Binoy; A. Kaushik; T. Keerthana; Aswathy Sathees; P. R. Barani; A. S. Nair



Mutated bacteriorhodopsins-versatile media in optical image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutated bacteriorhodopsins are considered as versatile media in optical image processing. The following topics are discussed: the biological function of bacteriorhodopsin (BR); the photocycle of BR; light-controlled absorption of BR films; BR films in transmission- and reflection-type dynamic holograms; holographic interferometry (image processing in the time domain); holographic pattern recognition (image processing in the space domain)

N. Hampp; D. Zeisel



Versatile fluorescent derivatization of glycans for glycomic analysis  

E-print Network

Versatile fluorescent derivatization of glycans for glycomic analysis Baoyun Xia1­4, Ziad S Kawar1 of functional glycomics encompasses information about both glycan structure and recognition by carbohydrate of glycosylation at the system-scale is termed glycomics, and the recognition and function of these glycans

Cai, Long


A sensitive, versatile microfluidic assay for bacterial chemotaxis  

E-print Network

to recognize chemicals. Intensive research since then has made chemotaxis in E. coli the behavior best undergoes a rapid change in swimming direction known as a tumble. An E. coli cell thus performs a 3D randomA sensitive, versatile microfluidic assay for bacterial chemotaxis Hanbin Mao*, Paul S. Cremer


A new versatile coating technique: levitation chemical vapor deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new versatile coating technique, levitation chemical vapor deposition (LCVD), is described. This technique employs the gradient electromagnetic field produced by a conical induction coil to simultaneously heat and levitate a conductive substrate. Combining this technique with chemical vapor deposition, there is no need for substrate support, eliminating additional coating cycles to ensure complete substrate coverage. This paper describes the

A. C. Richards; M. R. Richards; F. S. Ohuchi



Micropatterning of bioactive self-assembling gels†  

PubMed Central

Microscale topographical features have been known to affect cell behavior. An important target in this area is to integrate top down techniques with bottom up self-assembly to create three-dimensional (3D) patterned bioactive mimics of extracellular matrices. We report a novel approach toward this goal and demonstrate its use to study the behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). By incorporating polymerizable acetylene groups in the hydrophobic segment of peptide amphiphiles (PAs), we were able to micro-pattern nanofiber gels of these bioactive materials. PAs containing the cell adhesive epitope arginine–glycine–aspartic acid–serine (RGDS) were allowed to self-assemble within microfabricated molds to create networks of either randomly oriented or aligned ~30 nm diameter nanofiber bundles that were shaped into topographical patterns containing holes, posts, or channels up to 8 ?m in height and down to 5 ?m in lateral dimensions. When topographical patterns contained nanofibers aligned through flow prior to gelation, the majority of hMSCs aligned in the direction of the nanofibers even in the presence of hole microtextures and more than a third of them maintained this alignment when encountering perpendicular channel microtextures. Interestingly, in topographical patterns with randomly oriented nanofibers, osteoblastic differentiation was enhanced on hole microtextures compared to all other surfaces. PMID:20047022

Mata, Alvaro; Hsu, Lorraine; Capito, Ramille; Aparicio, Conrado; Henrikson, Karl



Exploring marine resources for bioactive compounds.  


Biodiversity in the seas is only partly explored, although marine organisms are excellent sources for many industrial products. Through close co-operation between industrial and academic partners, it is possible to successfully collect, isolate and classify marine organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, micro- and macroalgae, cyanobacteria, and marine invertebrates from the oceans and seas globally. Extracts and purified compounds of these organisms can be studied for several therapeutically and industrially significant biological activities, including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, and anticoagulant activities by applying a wide variety of screening tools, as well as for ion channel/receptor modulation and plant growth regulation. Chromatographic isolation of bioactive compounds will be followed by structural determination. Sustainable cultivation methods for promising organisms and biotechnological processes for selected compounds can be developed, as well as biosensors for monitoring the target compounds. The (semi)synthetic modification of marine-based bioactive compounds produces their new derivatives, structural analogs and mimetics that could serve as hit or lead compounds and be used to expand compound libraries based on marine natural products. The research innovations can be targeted for industrial product development in order to improve the growth and productivity of marine biotechnology. Marine research aims at a better understanding of environmentally conscious sourcing of marine biotechnology products and increased public awareness of marine biodiversity. Marine research is expected to offer novel marine-based lead compounds for industries and strengthen their product portfolios related to pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmetic, agrochemical, food processing, material and biosensor applications. PMID:25203732

Kiuru, Paula; D?Auria, M Valeria; Muller, Christian D; Tammela, Päivi; Vuorela, Heikki; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari



Bioactivation of biomorphous silicon carbide bone implants.  


Wood-derived silicon carbide (SiC) offers a specific biomorphous microstructure similar to the cellular pore microstructure of bone. Compared with bioactive ceramics such as calcium phosphate, however, silicon carbide is considered not to induce spontaneous interface bonding to living bone. Bioactivation by chemical treatment of biomorphous silicon carbide was investigated in order to accelerate osseointegration and improve bone bonding ability. Biomorphous SiC was processed from sipo (Entrandrophragma utile) wood by heating in an inert atmosphere and infiltrating the resulting carbon replica with liquid silicon melt at 1450°C. After removing excess silicon by leaching in HF/HNO? the biomorphous preform consisted of ?-SiC with a small amount (approximately 6wt.%) of unreacted carbon. The preform was again leached in HCl/HNO? and finally exposed to CaCl? solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared analyses proved that oxidation of the residual carbon at the surface induced formation of carboxyl [COO?] groups, which triggered adsorption of Ca(2+), as confirmed by XPS and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy measurements. A local increase in Ca(2+) concentration stimulated in vitro precipitation of Ca?(PO?)?OH (HAP) on the silicon carbide preform surface during exposure to simulated body fluid, which indicates a significantly increased bone bonding activity compared with SiC. PMID:20615484

Will, Julia; Hoppe, Alexander; Müller, Frank A; Raya, Carmen T; Fernández, Julián M; Greil, Peter



Dietary bioactive compounds and their health implications.  


There is strong scientific evidence suggesting that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is negatively associated with risk of developing chronic diseases. The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend at least 9 servings of fruits and vegetables a day based on a 2000 kcal diet. However, the average person in the United States consumes 3.6 servings of fruits and vegetables per day. In order to achieve the goal of at least 9 servings, we should continue educating Americans about the health benefits of fruits and vegetables and recommend consumers to eat a wide variety of fruits and vegetables. The key is to increase the amount up to 9 to 13 servings of fruits and vegetables a day in all forms. Fresh, cooked, and processed fruits and vegetables including frozen and canned, 100% fruit juices, 100% vegetable juices, and dried fruits are all considered as servings of fruits and vegetables. A wide variety of fruits and vegetables provide a range of nutrients and different bioactive compounds including phytochemicals (phenolics, flavonoids, and carotenoids), vitamins (vitamin C, folate, and provitamin A), minerals (potassium, calcium, and magnesium), and fibers. More and more evidence suggests that the health benefits of fruits and vegetables are attributed to the additive and synergistic interactions of the phytochemicals present in whole foods by targeting multiple signal transduction pathways. Therefore, consumers should obtain nutrients and bioactive compounds from a wide variety of whole foods for optimal nutrition and health well-being, not from expensive dietary supplements. PMID:23789932

Liu, Rui Hai



Discovering new bioactive molecules from microbial sources  

PubMed Central

There is an increased need for new drug leads to treat diseases in humans, animals and plants. A dramatic example is represented by the need for novel and more effective antibiotics to combat multidrug-resistant microbial pathogens. Natural products represent a major source of approved drugs and still play an important role in supplying chemical diversity, despite a decreased interest by large pharmaceutical companies. Novel approaches must be implemented to decrease the chances of rediscovering the tens of thousands of known natural products. In this review, we present an overview of natural product screening, focusing particularly on microbial products. Different approaches can be implemented to increase the probability of finding new bioactive molecules. We thus present the rationale and selected examples of the use of hypersensitive assays; of accessing unexplored microorganisms, including the metagenome; and of genome mining. We then focus our attention on the technology platform that we are currently using, consisting of approximately 70?000 microbial strains, mostly actinomycetes and filamentous fungi, and discuss about high-quality screening in the search for bioactive molecules. Finally, two case studies are discussed, including the spark that arose interest in the compound: in the case of orthoformimycin, the novel mechanism of action predicted a novel structural class; in the case of NAI-112, structural similarity pointed out to a possible in vivo activity. Both predictions were then experimentally confirmed. PMID:24661414

Monciardini, Paolo; Iorio, Marianna; Maffioli, Sonia; Sosio, Margherita; Donadio, Stefano



Bioactive glasses: Importance of structure and properties in bone regeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review provides a brief background on the applications, mechanisms and genetics involved with use of bioactive glass to stimulate regeneration of bone. The emphasis is on the role of structural changes of the bioactive glasses, in particular Bioglass, which result in controlled release of osteostimulative ions. The review also summarizes the use of Raman spectroscopy, referred to hereto forward as bio-Raman spectroscopy, to obtain rapid, real time in vitro analysis of human cells in contact with bioactive glasses, and the osteostimulative dissolution ions that lead to osteogenesis. The bio-Raman studies support the results obtained from in vivo studies of bioactive glasses, as well as extensive cell and molecular biology studies, and thus offers an innovative means for rapid screening of new bioactive materials while reducing the need for animal testing.

Hench, Larry L.; Roki, Niksa; Fenn, Michael B.



[Progress in the study of some important natural bioactive cyclopeptides].  


Natural cyclopeptides are hot spots in chemical and pharmaceutical fields because of the wide spreading bio-resources, complex molecular structures and various bioactivities. Bio-producers of cyclopeptides distribute over almost every kingdom from bacteria to plants and animals. Many cyclopeptides contain non-coded amino acids and non-pepditic bonds. Most exciting characteristic of cyclopeptides is a range of interesting bioactivities such as antibiotics gramicidin-S (2), vancomycin (3) and daptomycin (4), immunosuppressive cyclosporin-A (1) and astin-C (8), and anti-tumor aplidine (5), RA-V (6) and RA-VII (7). Compounds 1-4 are being used in clinics; compounds 5-8 are in the stages of clinical trial or as a candidate for drug research. In this review, the progress in chemical and bioactive studies on these important natural bioactive cyclopeptides 1-8 are introduced, mainly including discovery, bioactivity, mechanism, QSAR and synthesis. PMID:22645749

Xu, Wen-Yan; Zhao, Si-Meng; Zeng, Guang-Zhi; He, Wen-Jun; Xu, Hui-Min; Tan, Ning-Hu



A Kazal prolyl endopeptidase inhibitor isolated from the skin of Phyllomedusa sauvagii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Searching for bioactive peptides, we analyzed acidic extracts of Phyllomedusa sauvagii skin and found two new proteins, PSKP-1 and PSKP-2, of 6.7 and 6.6 kDa, respectively, which, by sequence homology, belong to the Kazal family of serine protease inhibitors. PSKP-1 and PSKP-2 exhibit the unprecedented feature of having proline at P1 and P2 positions. A gene encoding PSKP-1 was synthesized

Leopoldo G. Gebhard; Federico U. Carrizo; Ana L. Stern; Noelia I. Burgardt; Julian Faivovich; Esteban Lavilla; Mario R. Ermacora



Skin Problems in Construction  


... all known as contact dermatitis. Also, pitch and coal tar can cause skin cancer. What You Can ... cement or other harsh materials. (Pitch, asphalt, and coal tar can be especially harmful if you are ...


Skin of Color  


... Media contacts Public service advertisements Stats and facts Gold Triangle Awards Stories and news News releases Press ... Teenage skin Tropical travel Vitamin D Cosmetic treatments Gold Triangle Awards Home Media resources Stats and facts ...


Skin tumors on squirrels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Skin tumors having the gross appearance of previously reported fibromas are reported on gray squirrels from N. Y., Md., Va., N. C., and W. Va. and from a fox squirrel from W. Va. and a porcupine from Pa.

Herman, C.M.; Reilly, J.R.



Skin Cancer Screening  


... Cancer that forms in squamous cells is called squamous cell carcinoma . Basal cells : Round cells under the squamous cells. ... in the United States. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are also called nonmelanoma skin cancer and are ...


Skin Cancer Prevention  


... The most common types of skin cancer are squamous cell carcinoma , which forms in the squamous cells and basal cell carcinoma , which forms in the basal cells. Squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma are also called nonmelanoma ...


Designing building skins  

E-print Network

This thesis involves framing criteria and discerning issues to be considered in the design of building skins in an urban environment. The 'information age' has paradoxically seen the demise of the facade as an important ...

Desai, Arjun



Bleeding into the skin  


... a health care provider. Redness of the skin (erythema) should not be mistaken for bleeding. Areas of ... you press on the area. The redness of erythema decreases when you apply pressure to it and ...


Layers of the Skin  


... involved in the immune system in the skin), Merkel cells and sensory nerves. The epidermis layer itself is ... spots. Melanoma develops when melanocytes undergo malignant transformation. Merkel cells, which are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin, are ...


phosphopantetheinyl transferase Genetically encoded short peptide tag for versatile protein labeling by Sfp  

E-print Network

phosphopantetheinyl transferase Genetically encoded short peptide tag for versatile protein, see: Notes: #12;Genetically encoded short peptide tag for versatile protein labeling by Sfp anchor the modified proteins to the membrane microenvironment; and protein lipoylation and phos

Yin, Jun


Nonmelanoma skin cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Therapy for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) does not end with treatment of the initial lesion\\u000a because almost 50% of patients with one nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) develop another NMSC in the next 5 years. An integrated\\u000a program of skin cancer awareness, sun protection, and prophylactic approaches is critical. The risk profile of the tumor

Tri H. Nguyen; Diana Quynh-Dao Ho



Common Skin Cancers  

PubMed Central

Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma are the three most common forms of skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer is increasing at an alarming rate. Early detection is the key to successful management. In this article, the salient clinical features and diagnostic clues for these tumors and their precursor lesions are presented. Current management guidelines are also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figures 2-3Figures 4-6Figures 7-9 PMID:21221380

Ho, Vincent C.



Nicotinamide and the skin.  


Nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3, boosts cellular energy and regulates poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1, an enzyme with important roles in DNA repair and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide shows promise for the treatment of a wide range of dermatological conditions, including autoimmune blistering disorders, acne, rosacea, ageing skin and atopic dermatitis. In particular, recent studies have also shown it to be a potential agent for reducing actinic keratoses and preventing skin cancers. PMID:24635573

Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L



Chymase Cleavage of Stem Cell Factor Yields a Bioactive, Soluble Product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stem cell factor (SCF) is produced by stromal cells as a membrane-bound molecule, which may be proteolytically cleaved at a site close to the membrane to produce a soluble bioactive form. The proteases producing this cleavage are unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that human mast cell chymase, a chymotrypsin-like protease, cleaves SCF at a novel site. Cleavage is at the peptide bond between Phe-158 and Met-159, which are encoded by exon 6 of the SCF gene. This cleavage results in a soluble bioactive product that is 7 amino acids shorter at the C terminus than previously identified soluble SCF. This research shows the identification of a physiologically relevant enzyme that specifically cleaves SCF. Because mast cells express the KIT protein, the receptor for SCF, and respond to SCF by proliferation and degranulation, this observation identifies a possible feedback loop in which chymase released from mast cell secretory granules may solubilize SCF bound to the membrane of surrounding stromal cells. The liberated soluble SCF may in turn stimulate mast cell proliferation and differentiated functions; this loop could contribute to abnormal accumulations of mast cells in the skin and hyperpigmentation at sites of chronic cutaneous inflammation.

Longley, B. Jack; Tyrrell, Lynda; Ma, Yongsheng; Williams, David A.; Halaban, Ruth; Langley, Keith; Lu, Hsieng S.; Schechter, Norman M.



Tunable supramolecular hydrogel for in situ encapsulation and sustained release of bioactive lysozyme.  


To develop new matrices for the entrapment and sustained release of bioactive lysozyme, a series of supramolecular hydrogels based on ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and water-soluble poly(?-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) block copolymer (PCL-b-PEG) were prepared in the presence of chicken egg lysozyme. Different from commonly used polymeric microspheres and chemically crosslinked hydrogels for lysozyme encapsulation, such hydrogel matrices could be formed under mild conditions without high temperature and the use of chemical emulsifiers or crosslinkers. Their gelation rate, mechanical strength and shear viscosity as well as the release behavior for the encapsulated lysozyme could be tuned easily by the change of ?-CD or PCL-b-PEG amount. For the encapsulated lysozyme, its conformation and biological activity could be well maintained when compared to native lysozyme. For the resultant supramolecular hydrogels, they were also confirmed to have a good biocompatibility by MTT assay using mice skin fibroblast (L929). PMID:21536304

Ma, Dong; Zhang, Li-Ming; Xie, Xi; Liu, Tao; Xie, Min-Qiang



Preparation, Bioactivity and Antibacterial Effect of Bioactive Glass\\/Chitosan Biocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we prepared BG filler powder containing some ions such as copper or zinc via sol gel method and their loading\\u000a onto chitosan polymeric matrix for improving their bioactivities as well as their effect onto microorganisms such as Staphylococcus\\u000a aureus bacteria were studied. The produced biocomposites characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformer\\u000a infrared spectra (FT-IR), Thermogravimetric (TGA)

Hanan H. Beherei; Khaled R. Mohamed; Amr I. Mahmoud



E-print Network

-melanoma skin cancer, in women and 2.6% in men (Table 10.1). The average number of new cases diagnosed each year.8% % of all new cancer cases excluding non-melanoma skin cancer 4.1% 2.6% 4.3% 2.6% 3.6% 2.5% average numberMELANOMA OF THE SKIN 85 10. MELANOMA OF THE SKIN 10.1. SUMMARY Melanoma of the skin was the seventh

Paxton, Anthony T.


Well-ordered mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBG): a promising bioactive drug delivery system.  


The local drug release system is considered to be an alternative to treat the bone infection. In this paper, well-ordered mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBG) with high specific surface area have been synthesized in aqueous solution by a two-step acid-catalyzed self-assembly process combined with hydrothermal treatment. Gentamicin was encapsulated into the MBG by adsorption method and in vitro release of gentamicin from MBG was performed in distilled water and modified simulated body fluid (SBF), respectively. The results showed that the amount of drug loading of MBG was three times more than that of conventional sol-gel 58S. The outcomes of drug release in distilled water and in SBF showed that M58S effectively decreased the initial burst. During the release period, gentamicin was released from the M58S at a much lower release rate as compared to that from 58S after soaking in distilled water and SBF. Furthermore, the drug release was sensitive to the pH and ionic concentration of the release medium suggesting possible controls of the release rate. In addition, in contrast to conventional sol-gel 58S, M58S had higher ability to induce hydroxyapatite (HAp) formation. Therefore, well-ordered mesoporous bioactive glasses might be used as a bioactive drug release system for preparation of bone implant materials. PMID:16375986

Xia, Wei; Chang, Jiang



Thyroid hormone action on skin  

PubMed Central

The skin characteristics associated with thyroid hormone are classic. The name “myxedema” refers to the associated skin condition caused by increased glycosaminoglycan deposition in the skin. Generalized myxedema is still the classic cutaneous sign of hypothyroidism. It is caused by deposition of dermal acid mucopolysaccharides, notably hyaluronic acid. Despite its appearance, the skin does not pit with pressure. PMID:22110782



New Bioactive Compounds from Korean Native Mushrooms  

PubMed Central

Mushrooms are ubiquitous in nature and have high nutritional attributes. They have demonstrated diverse biological effects and therefore have been used in treatments of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, bacterial and viral infections, and ulcer. In particular, polysaccharides, including ?-glucan, are considered as the major constituents responsible for the biological activity of mushrooms. Although an overwhelming number of reports have been published on the importance of polysaccharides as immunomodulating agents, not all of the healing properties found in these mushrooms could be fully accounted for. Recently, many research groups have begun investigations on biologically active small-molecular weight compounds in wild mushrooms. In this mini-review, both structural diversity and biological activities of novel bioactive substances from Korean native mushrooms are described. PMID:24493936

Kim, Seong-Eun; Hwang, Byung Soon; Song, Ja-Gyeong; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, In-Kyoung



Marine bioactive peptides as potential antioxidants.  


Bioactive peptides derived from marine organisms are the focus of current studies because of their numerous health beneficial effects. They exert various biological roles, one of the most crucial of which is the antioxidant effect. Reverse relationship between antioxidant intake and diseases has been approved through plenty of studies. Antioxidant activity of marine peptides can be attributed to in vitro and in vivo free radical scavenging activities. Antioxidant peptides isolated from marine sources may be used as functional ingredients in food formulations to promote consumer health and improve the shelf life of food products. This chapter presents an overview of the antioxidant peptides derived marine resources with the potential utilization in the food as well as pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23721315

Ngo, Dai-Hung; Kim, Se-Kwon



Bioactive constituents of Cirsium japonicum var. australe.  


Cirsium japonicum var. australe, used as a folk medicine in Taiwan, has been employed traditionally in the treatment of diabetes and inflammatory symptoms. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of its ethanolic extract, utilizing centrifugal partition chromatography monitored by DPPH-TLC analysis, led to the isolation of three new acetylenic phenylacrylic acid esters (1-3) and two new polyacetylenes (4 and 5), together with seven known compounds (6-12). The structures of 1-5 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR techniques. The absolute configurations of 4 and 7 were determined utilizing Mosher's method and ECD/CD experiments. The DPPH scavenging activity of the constituents isolated from the C. japonicum var. australe ethanolic extract was evaluated. The potential antidiabetic activity of some of the isolates was evaluated using in vitro cellular glucose uptake and oil red staining assays. PMID:25025240

Lai, Wan-Chun; Wu, Yang-Chang; Dankó, Balázs; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Hsieh, Chi-Ting; Tsai, Yu-Chi; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Martins, Ana; Hohmann, Judit; Hunyadi, Attila; Chang, Fang-Rong



Bioactive glass coatings for orthopedic metallic implants  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work is to develop bioactive glass coatings for metallic orthopedic implants. A new family of glasses in the SiO2-Na2O-K2O-CaO-MgO-P2O5 system has been synthesized and characterized. The glass properties (thermal expansion, softening and transformation temperatures, density and hardness) are in line with the predictions of established empirical models. The optimized firing conditions to fabricate coatings on Ti-based and Co-Cr alloys have been determined and related to the glass properties and the interfacial reactions. Excellent adhesion to alloys has been achieved through the formation of 100-200 nm thick interfacial layers (Ti5Si3 on Ti-based alloys and CrOx on Co-Cr). Finally, glass coatings, approximately 100 mu m thick, have been fabricated onto commercial Ti alloy-based dental implants.

Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Saiz, Eduardo; Fujino, Sigheru; Oku, Takeo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Tomsia, Antoni P.



Versatility of reverse sural fasciocutaneous flap for reconstruction of distal lower limb soft tissue defects.  


In this study we present our experiences with the reverse sural fasciocutaneous flap to reconstruct the distal lower limb soft tissue defects caused by traumatic injuries. These flap graftings were carried out from Oct. 2010 to Dec. 2012 in our department. The series consisted of 36 patients, including 21 men and 15 women with an average age of 46.2 years (14-83 years) and with a medium follow-up period of 18 months (12-24 months). Of all the cases of acute trauma, there were 10 cases of trauma of distal tibia, 9 cases of trauma of perimalleolus, and 17 cases of trauma of midfoot and forefoot. Related risk factors in the patients were diabetes (2 cases), advanced age (>65 years, 3 cases) and cigarette smoking (6 cases). The reverse flow sural island flap irrigation depended on lower perforators of the peroneal artery. The fasciocutaneous pedicle was 3-4 cm in width and the anatomical structures consisted of the superficial and deep fascia, the sural nerve, short saphenous vein, superficial sural artery together with an islet of subcutaneous cellular tissue and skin. The most proximal border of the flap was only 1.5 cm away from the popliteal skin crease and the pivot point was 5-7 cm above the tip of the lateral malleolus. All the flaps survived. No arterial crisis occurred in any case. The venous congestion occurred in 2 cases and got better after raising the limbs and bloodletting. Only in an old man, 1.5 cm necrosis of distal margin of his flap occurred and finally healed after continuous dressing change. One-stage skin grafting was performed, and all the donor sites were sutured and successfully healed. It was concluded that the reverse sural fasciocutaneous flap is safe and reliable to extend to the proximal third even near the popliteal skin crease. We also concluded this flap can be safely and efficiently used to treat patients with large and far soft-tissue defects from the distal leg to the forefoot with more versatility and it is easier to reach the recipient sites. PMID:24939303

Pan, Hai-tao; Zheng, Qi-xin; Yang, Shu-hua; Wu, Bin; Liu, Jian-xiang



Rowanberry phenolics: compositional analysis and bioactivities.  


Berries contain a large variety of different phenolic compounds such as anthocyanins, flavonols, tannins, and phenolic acids. Due to variation in the nature and content of the phenolic compounds, the antioxidant effect and other bioactivities of berry phenolics are strongly dependent on the berry raw material as the activities differ between the different phenolic constituents. In the present study, wild rowanberries ( Sorbus aucuparia ) and four cultivated sweet rowanberries, Burka, Granatnaja, Titan, and Zoltaja, were characterized for their phenolic composition and screened for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiadhesive activities. The HPLC and LC-MS analyses of phenolic composition revealed that the main phenolic constituents were caffeoylquinic acids, varying from 56 to 80% total phenolics. The cultivated species contained less caffeoylquinic acids and more anthocyanins (up to 28.5%). The phenolics derived from wild rowanberries were significantly effective at inhibiting lipid oxidation both in liposomes and in emulsions, especially when assessed by inhibition of the formation of hexanal (86-97% inhibition depending on concentration). The increase in anthocyanin content in the cultivated species did not result in significantly increased antioxidant activity. Both wild and cultivated rowanberry phenolics exhibited a bacteriostatic effect toward Staphylococcus aureus . In addition, the phenolic extract from Zoltaja was weakly inhibitory toward Salmonella sv. Typhimurium, whereas both Zoltaja- and Granatnaja-derived phenolics retarded Escherichia coli growth. The phenolic extracts of wild rowanberries and Burka showed an inhibitory effect on hemagglutination of E. coli HB101 (pRR7), which expresses the M hemagglutinin. It can be concluded that cultivation of rowanberries resulted in increased anthocyanin content, but this did not diminish their bioactivity in comparison to wild rowanberries rich in caffeoylquinic acids. PMID:21038891

Kylli, Petri; Nohynek, Liisa; Puupponen-Pimiä, Riitta; Westerlund-Wikström, Benita; McDougall, Gordon; Stewart, Derek; Heinonen, Marina



Research and development of a versatile portable speech prosthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Versatile Portable Speech Prosthesis (VPSP), a synthetic speech output communication aid for non-speaking people is described. It was intended initially for severely physically limited people with cerebral palsy who are in electric wheelchairs. Hence, it was designed to be placed on a wheelchair and powered from a wheelchair battery. It can easily be separated from the wheelchair. The VPSP is versatile because it is designed to accept any means of single switch, multiple switch, or keyboard control which physically limited people have the ability to use. It is portable because it is mounted on and can go with the electric wheelchair. It is a speech prosthesis, obviously, because it speaks with a synthetic voice for people unable to speak with their own voices. Both hardware and software are described.



Versatile matrix for constructing enzyme-based biosensors.  


A versatile matrix was fabricated and utilized as a universal interface for the construction of enzyme-based biosensors. This matrix was formed on the gold electrode via combining self-assembled monolayer of 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid with gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles were electrochemically deposited. Electrochemistry of three redox enzymes (catalase, glucose oxidase, and horseradish peroxidase) was investigated on such a matrix. The electrocatalytic monitoring of hydrogen peroxide and glucose was conducted on this matrix after being coated with those enzymes. On them the monitoring of hydrogen peroxide and glucose shows rapid response times, wide linear working ranges, low detection limits, and high enzymatic affinities. This matrix is thus a versatile and suitable platform to develop highly sensitive enzyme-based biosensors. PMID:25208242

Wang, Zhaohao; Luo, Xi; Wan, Qijin; Wu, Kangbing; Yang, Nianjun



Versatile module for experiments with focussing neutron guides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the development of a versatile module that permits fast and reliable use of focussing neutron guides under varying scattering angles. A simple procedure for setting up the module and neutron guides is illustrated by typical intensity patterns to highlight operational aspects as well as typical parasitic artefacts. Combining a high-precision alignment table with separate housings for the neutron guides on kinematic mounts, the change-over between neutron guides with different focussing characteristics requires no readjustments of the experimental setup. Exploiting substantial gain factors, we demonstrate the performance of this versatile neutron scattering module in a study of the effects of uniaxial stress on the domain populations in the transverse spin density wave phase of single crystal Cr.

Adams, T.; Brandl, G.; Chacon, A.; Wagner, J. N.; Rahn, M.; Mühlbauer, S.; Georgii, R.; Pfleiderer, C.; Böni, P.



In Vitro Bioactivity and Antimicrobial Tuning of Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles Added with Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaf Powder  

PubMed Central

Silica and phosphate based bioactive glass nanoparticles (58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5) with doping of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder and silver nanoparticles were prepared and characterised. Bioactive glass nanoparticles were produced using sol-gel technique. In vitro bioactivity of the prepared samples was investigated using simulated body fluid. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of prepared glass particles reveals amorphous phase and spherical morphology with a particle size of less than 50?nm. When compared to neem doped glass, better bioactivity was attained in silver doped glass through formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface, which was confirmed through XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. However, neem leaf powder doped bioactive glass nanoparticles show good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and less bioactivity compared with silver doped glass particles. In addition, the biocompatibility of the prepared nanocomposites reveals better results for neem doped and silver doped glasses at lower concentration. Therefore, neem doped bioactive glass may act as a potent antimicrobial agent for preventing microbial infection in tissue engineering applications. PMID:25276834

Prabhu, M.; Ruby Priscilla, S.; Kavitha, K.; Manivasakan, P.; Rajendran, V.; Kulandaivelu, P.



In Vitro Bioactivity and Antimicrobial Tuning of Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles Added with Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaf Powder.  


Silica and phosphate based bioactive glass nanoparticles (58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5) with doping of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder and silver nanoparticles were prepared and characterised. Bioactive glass nanoparticles were produced using sol-gel technique. In vitro bioactivity of the prepared samples was investigated using simulated body fluid. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of prepared glass particles reveals amorphous phase and spherical morphology with a particle size of less than 50?nm. When compared to neem doped glass, better bioactivity was attained in silver doped glass through formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface, which was confirmed through XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. However, neem leaf powder doped bioactive glass nanoparticles show good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and less bioactivity compared with silver doped glass particles. In addition, the biocompatibility of the prepared nanocomposites reveals better results for neem doped and silver doped glasses at lower concentration. Therefore, neem doped bioactive glass may act as a potent antimicrobial agent for preventing microbial infection in tissue engineering applications. PMID:25276834

Prabhu, M; Ruby Priscilla, S; Kavitha, K; Manivasakan, P; Rajendran, V; Kulandaivelu, P



The TopClosure® 3S System, for skin stretching and a secure wound closure.  


The principle of stretching wound margins for primary wound closure is commonly practiced and used for various skin defects, leading at times to excessive tension and complications during wound closure. Different surgical techniques, skin stretching devices and tissue expanders have been utilized to address this issue. Previously designed skin stretching devices resulted in considerable morbidity. They were invasive by nature and associated with relatively high localized tissue pressure, frequently leading to necrosis, damage and tearing of skin at the wound margins. To assess the clinical effectiveness and performance and, to determine the safety of TopClosure® for gradual, controlled, temporary, noninvasive and invasive applications for skin stretching and secure wound closing, the TopClosure® device was applied to 20 patients for preoperative skin lesion removal and to secure closure of a variety of wound sizes. TopClosure® was reinforced with adhesives, staples and/or surgical sutures, depending on the circumstances of the wound and the surgeon's judgment. TopClosure® was used prior to, during and/or after surgery to reduce tension across wound edges. No significant complications or adverse events were associated with its use. TopClosure® was effectively used for preoperative skin expansion in preparation for dermal resection (e.g., congenital nevi). It aided closure of large wounds involving significant loss of skin and soft tissue by mobilizing skin and subcutaneous tissue, thus avoiding the need for skin grafts or flaps. Following surgery, it was used to secure closure of wounds under tension, thus improving wound aesthetics. A sample case study will be presented. We designed TopClosure®, an innovative device, to modify the currently practiced concept of wound closure by applying minimal stress to the skin, away from damaged wound edges, with flexible force vectors and versatile methods of attachment to the skin, in a noninvasive or invasive manner. PMID:22719176

Topaz, Moris; Carmel, Narin-Nard; Silberman, Adi; Li, Ming Sen; Li, Yong Zhong



Versatile composite resins simplifying the practice of restorative dentistry.  


After decades of technical development and refinement, composite resins continue to simplify the practice of restorative dentistry, offering clinicians versatility, predictability, and enhanced physical properties. With a wide range of products available today, composite resins are a reliable, conservative, multi-functional restorative material option. As manufacturers strive to improve such properties as compression strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion, water sorption, and wear resistance, several classification systems of composite resins have been developed. PMID:24571527

Margeas, Robert



Solidphase cDNA library construction, a versatile approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and versatile method for cDNA library construction was developed. It is based on conventional cDNA library synthesis including all enzymatic steps usually required, but is performed on a solid support. The cDNA is immobilised via a biotin residue to streptavidin coupled magnetic beads, which allows rapid and easy to perform changes of buffers and enzymes. Therefore, it combines

Thomas Roeder



Versatile zone refiner for liquids and low-melting solids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A versatile zone-refining apparatus which employs liquid nitrogen as the refrigerant to maintain the compound to be purified in the solid state while appropriately spaced resistance heaters generate the moving liquid zones to purify compounds whose melting point lies between 200 and 350 K is described. As much as 0.750 kg of substance can be purified at one time to a purity better than 99.95 mole %.

Martin, C. B.; Martin, R. J.; Nasir, P.; Wieczorek, S. A.; Romanco, W. R.; Sivaraman, A.; Kragas, T.; Kobayashi, R.



Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders  

PubMed Central

Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, “goose bumps”, redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A



Skin conditions: common skin rashes in infants.  


Infants exhibit many skin rashes. Erythema toxicum neonatorum presents as erythematous macules, papules, and pustules on the face, trunk, and extremities; it typically resolves spontaneously within 1 week. Neonatal acne presents as comedones or erythematous papules on the face, scalp, chest, and back. Infantile acne is similar but starts after the neonatal period. Both conditions typically resolve spontaneously; failure to resolve within 1 year warrants evaluation for androgen excess. Neonatal cephalic pustulosis is an acne variant caused by hypersensitivity to Malassezia furfur. It is typically self-limited, but severe cases are managed with topical ketoconazole. Miliaria and milia are caused by sweat retention and present as tiny vesicles or papules; they resolve spontaneously. Contact diaper dermatitis is managed by keeping the diaper area clean and with open air exposure. Diaper dermatitis due to Candida albicans is managed with topical antifungals. Seborrheic dermatitis causes scaling on the scalp. Management involves shampooing and removing scales with a soft brush after applying mineral oil or petrolatum; severe cases are managed with tar or ketoconazole shampoo. Atopic dermatitis is related to food allergy in approximately one-third of children. Food allergy can be confirmed with oral food challenges or skin prick tests. Management includes elimination of irritants and triggers and use of low-potency topical steroids. PMID:23600337

Zuniga, Ramiro; Nguyen, Tam



Skin friction balance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A skin friction balance uses a parallel linkage mechanism to avoid inaccuracies in skin friction measurement attributable to off-center normal forces. The parallel linkage mechanism includes a stationary plate mounted in a cage, and an upper and lower movable plate which are linked to each other and to the stationary plate throught three vertical links. Flexure pivots are provided for pivotally connecting the links and the plates. A sensing element connected to the upper plate moves in response to skin friction, and the lower plate moves in the opposite direction of the upper plate. A force motor maintains a null position of the sensing element by exerting a restoring force in response to a signal generated by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).

Ping, Tcheng (inventor); Supplee, Frank H., Jr. (inventor)



Smoking and skin disease.  


Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic wounds. Most likely, alteration of inflammatory cell function and extracellular matrix turnover caused by smoking-induced oxidative stress are involved in the pathophysiologic mechanisms. PMID:20532469

Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T



[Characteristics of aging skin].  


The change in the population's age structure in most industrial countries, as in Germany, requires geriatric medicine to play an increasingly important role. Dermatology also has to meet the new challenges by expert discussion and ethical considerations. The physiological aging process is influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors and causes a variety of morphological and functional alterations in the skin. Those alterations are the cause for an increasing prevalence of many dermatoses. Infections, wound healing disorders, inflammatory diseases, tumors and associated paraneoplastic syndromes are of particular importance. The structural and functional characteristics of aging skin in combination with the reduced mobility and declining cognitive abilities in elder patients require specific recommendations for skin protection as well as qualified advice about topical and systemic use of medications. PMID:25231590

Wohlrab, J; Hilpert, K; Wohlrab, A



Update on skin allergy.  


Skin diseases with an allergic background such as atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, and urticaria are very common. Moreover, diseases arising from a dysfunction of immune cells and/or their products often manifest with skin symptoms. This review aims to summarize recently published articles in order to highlight novel research findings, clinical trial results, and current guidelines on disease management. In recent years, an immense progress has been made in understanding the link between skin barrier dysfunction and allergic sensitization initiating the atopic march. In consequence, new strategies for treatment and prevention have been developed. Novel pathogenic insights, for example, into urticaria, angioedema, mastocytosis, led to the development of new therapeutic approaches and their implementation in daily patient care. By understanding distinct pathomechanisms, for example, the role of IL-1, novel entities such as autoinflammatory diseases have been described. Considerable effort has been made to improve and harmonize patient management as documented in several guidelines and position papers. PMID:25283085

Schlapbach, C; Simon, D



Sprayed skin turbine component  


Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

Allen, David B



Bioactive marine peptides: nutraceutical value and novel approaches.  


Marine organisms represent a valuable source of nutraceuticals and functional compounds. The biodiversity of the marine environment and the associated chemical diversity constitute a practically unlimited resource of novel active substances for the development of bioactive products. Recently, a great deal of interest has been expressed in marine-derived bioactive peptides because of their numerous beneficial health effects. Moreover, several studies have reported that marine bioactive peptides can be used as antihypertensive, antioxidative, anticoagulant, and antimicrobial components in functional foods or nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals due to their therapeutic potential in the treatment or prevention of disease. In this chapter, we provide an overview of bioactive peptides derived from marine organisms as well as information about their biological properties and mechanisms of action with potential applications in different areas. PMID:22361181

Giri, Anupam; Ohshima, Toshiaki



A biosynthetic approach to the discovery of novel bioactive peptides  

E-print Network

Peptides represent a source of novel therapeutics for recalcitrant human diseases, but screening for bioactivity from natural or synthetic sources can be uneconomic. In contrast, in vivo expression of peptides from DNA libraries in a heterologous...

Wright, Oliver Evan



Three-dimensional, bioactive, biodegradable, polymerbioactive glass composite scaffolds with  

E-print Network

-BA composite was found to be a bioactive material, as it formed surface calcium phosphate deposits in a simu of PLAGA-BG were measured, and the formation of a surface calcium phosphate layer was evaluated by sur

Lu, Helen H.


Hydrogeologic Controls on Bioactive Zone Development in Biostimulated Aquifers  

E-print Network

groundwater flow and bioactive zone development was investigated in both a subsurface biostimulation study and a laboratory experiments. Prior to the investigation, necessary advances were made in point velocity probe (PVP) technology to ensure successful...

Schillig, Peter Curtis



The versatility of perforator-based propeller flap for reconstruction of distal leg and ankle defects.  


Introduction. Soft tissue coverage of distal leg and ankle region represents a challenge and such defect usually requires a free flap. However, this may lead to considerable donor site morbidity, is time consuming, and needs facility of microsurgery. With the introduction of perforator flap, management of small- and medium-size defects of distal leg and ankle region is convenient, less time consuming, and with minimal donor site morbidity. When local perforator flap is designed as propeller and rotated to 180 degree, donor site is closed primarily and increases reach of flap, thus increasing versatility. Material and Methods. From June 2008 to May 2011, 20 patients were treated with perforator-based propeller flap for distal leg and ankle defects. Flap was based on single perforator of posterior tibial and peroneal artery rotated to 180 degrees. Defect size was from 4?cm × 3.5?cm to 7?cm × 5?cm. Results. One patient developed partial flap necrosis, which was managed with skin grafting. Two patients developed venous congestion, which subsided spontaneously without complications. Small wound dehiscence was present in one patient. Donor site was closed primarily in all patients. Rest of the flaps survived well with good aesthetic results. Conclusion. The perforator-based propeller flap for distal leg and ankle defects is a good option. This flap design is safe and reliable in achieving goals of reconstruction. The technique is convenient, less time consuming, and with minimal donor site morbidity. It provides aesthetically good result. PMID:22567253

Karki, Durga; Narayan, R P



The Versatility of Perforator-Based Propeller Flap for Reconstruction of Distal Leg and Ankle Defects  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Soft tissue coverage of distal leg and ankle region represents a challenge and such defect usually requires a free flap. However, this may lead to considerable donor site morbidity, is time consuming, and needs facility of microsurgery. With the introduction of perforator flap, management of small- and medium-size defects of distal leg and ankle region is convenient, less time consuming, and with minimal donor site morbidity. When local perforator flap is designed as propeller and rotated to 180 degree, donor site is closed primarily and increases reach of flap, thus increasing versatility. Material and Methods. From June 2008 to May 2011, 20 patients were treated with perforator-based propeller flap for distal leg and ankle defects. Flap was based on single perforator of posterior tibial and peroneal artery rotated to 180 degrees. Defect size was from 4?cm × 3.5?cm to 7?cm × 5?cm. Results. One patient developed partial flap necrosis, which was managed with skin grafting. Two patients developed venous congestion, which subsided spontaneously without complications. Small wound dehiscence was present in one patient. Donor site was closed primarily in all patients. Rest of the flaps survived well with good aesthetic results. Conclusion. The perforator-based propeller flap for distal leg and ankle defects is a good option. This flap design is safe and reliable in achieving goals of reconstruction. The technique is convenient, less time consuming, and with minimal donor site morbidity. It provides aesthetically good result. PMID:22567253

Karki, Durga; Narayan, R. P.



Autoimmune blistering skin diseases.  


Emergency physicians, at the front line of patient care, are often confronted with a wide variety of dermatologic conditions. Prompt recognition is essential, especially for the autoimmune blistering skin diseases, many of which have considerable morbidity and mortality. Therefore, an accurate diagnosis is imperative for appropriate referral and initiation of therapy. This review article provides a concise yet thorough discussion of the clinical presentation, incidence, differential diagnosis and management of the commonly encountered autoimmune blistering skin diseases, some of which include pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid, and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. PMID:10830686

Cotell, S; Robinson, N D; Chan, L S



Skin surface shock wave.  


This paper discusses the Skin Surface Shock Wave which is generated after we impart an impulsive force to human skin. The force is given by an air jet during 200 [ms]. The basic behavior of shock wave is measured by a high speed camera with the frame rate of 2000 [Hz]. Through the experiment, we found an interesting behavior where there exists a remarkable difference between young and elder subjects especially during the recovery phase, while there is nearly no difference between two during the force imparting phase. PMID:17946225

Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Kaneko, Makoto



[Radiotherapy and skin tumors].  


Radiotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of skin tumours. For skin carcinomas, external irradiation (kilovoltage X-rays or electrons according to clinical characteristics) is more valuable than interstitial brachytherapy, which is recommended for tumours of the lip and of the nasal vestibule. In mycosis fungoides, total cutaneous electron beam radiation therapy is efficient for patients with limited superficial plaques. In the classical form of Kaposi's sarcoma, radiotherapy can achieve local control whereas it obtains good palliative results in the epidemic form. PMID:9868400

Calitchi, E; Kirova, Y; Le Bourgeois, J P



Modular design of non-viral vectors with bioactive components.  


Inefficient gene delivery continues to limit gene therapy applications to both basic and applied sciences. Approaches for engineering vectors increasingly include bioactive components that bind cellular receptors, disrupt membranes, or enhance nuclear transport. Recently, a novel cationic lipid was developed by modifying the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. This cationic corticosteroid condenses plasmids for gene delivery, while also modulating inflammation. Modular vectors containing bioactive components that target various cellular processes can overcome the barriers limiting gene transfer. PMID:15331218

Shea, Lonnie D; Houchin, Tiffany L



Nitrogen-Based Diazeniumdiolates: Versatile Nitric Oxide-Releasing Compounds for Biomedical Research and Potential Clinical Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitric oxide-generating ions of the nitrogen-diazeniumdiolate class with the general structure R1R2N-[N(O)NO]1 have been prepared by exposing primary, secondary, and polyamines to nitric oxide (NO). The resulting complexes regenerate bioactive NO at physiological pH with half-lives ranging from 2 seconds to 20 hours. An important goal in our research is to deliver NO to a specific organ or cell type where it is needed without affecting other NO-sensitive parts of the anatomy. By taking advantage of the remarkable chemical versatility of diazeniumdiolates, we have developed general strategies to prepare either tissue-selective NO donor drugs or materials containing NO delivery agents that can be physically placed near the target sites. Inhibition of blood coagulation, induction of penile erection, relief of pulmonary hypertension, and reversal of cerebral vasospasm are a few examples of their potential clinical applications.

See Featured Molecules.

Saavedra, Joseph E.; Keefer, Larry K.



A novel quantum dot nanocluster as versatile probe for electrochemiluminescence and electrochemical assays of DNA and cancer cells.  


A novel dendritic quantum dot (QD) nanocluster was constructed and used as versatile electrochemiluminescence (ECL) and electrochemical probe for the detection of DNA and cancer cells. Owing to the many functional groups present in the nanoclusters, a large number of QDs were assembled on the nanoclusters, which could greatly amplify both the ECL and electrochemical signals of QDs. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/gold nanoparticles' (NPs) hybrids were used as amplified platform for assembling large numbers of DNA on the electrode, which also improve the bioactivity and stability of the electrode. After the QD-DNA signal probe was recognized with target DNA (t-DNA), the amplified ECL signal for the detection of target DNA was obtained. Furthermore, magnetic nanoparticles were employed for cell aptamers immobilization, the same QD nanocluster-DNA probe was also extended for electrochemical detection of cancer cells using sensitive anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) method, which simplified the separation procedures and improved the sensitivity. It is anticipated that the assays could provide promising and cost effective approach for the early and accurate detection of DNA and cancer cells. PMID:24021658

Jie, Guifen; Zhang, Jian; Jie, Guixia; Wang, Lei



Skin connective tissue and ageing.  


Collagen atrophy is a major factor in skin ageing. A strong correlation exists between skin collagen loss and oestrogen deficiency caused by the menopause. Skin ageing is associated with a progressive increase in extensibility and a reduction in elasticity. With increasing age, the skin also becomes more fragile and susceptible to trauma, leading to more lacerations and bruising. Furthermore, wound healing is impaired in older women. Oestrogen use after the menopause increases collagen content, dermal thickness and elasticity, and it decreases the likelihood of senile dry skin. Large-scale clinical trials are necessary to help make informed recommendations about postmenopausal oestrogen use and its role in preventing skin ageing. PMID:23850161

Calleja-Agius, Jean; Brincat, Mark; Borg, Marika



Ethnic skin: Overview of structure and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Racial variability in skin function is an area in which data often conflict. Understanding and quantifying racial differences in skin function are important for skin care and the prevention and treatment of skin diseases. A key feature that characterizes race is skin color: Is deeply pigmented skin different from fair skin in terms of responses to chemical and environmental insults?

Enzo Berardesca; Howard Maibach



Skin Cancer: Need for Skin Exam Increases with Age  


... an earlier stage than other doctors. Dermatologists Treat Sun-Damaged Skin, Too Seeing a dermatologist for a ... how to treat skin damage caused by the sun. If you are bothered by age spots, deep ...


Immunity and skin cancer  

SciTech Connect

Observations in humans and animal studies support the theory that immunologic surveillance plays an important role in limiting the development of skin malignancies. These immune responses undergo progressive diminution with age. In addition, other factors, such as bereavement, poor nutrition, and acute and chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, can further diminish immune mechanisms.

Smith, E.B.; Brysk, M.M.



Dermatology procedures: skin biopsy.  


The procedures used most often for office-based skin biopsies are two types of shave biopsies, punch biopsy, and elliptical biopsy performed with a scalpel. Tangential shave biopsy is superficial and best suited to small, raised, benign lesions. Saucerization shave biopsy is deeper and is used for excisional biopsy of atypical nevi, for squamous and basal cell carcinomas, and as initial biopsy for suspected melanoma. Punch biopsy also removes deeper tissue and can be used to excise or sample a variety of lesions, including pigmented nevi. Elliptical biopsy using a scalpel is reserved for larger lesions not amenable to shave or punch biopsies. It is not necessary to discontinue anticoagulants before office-based skin biopsy is performed or to administer topical or systemic antibiotics. When sutures are used for wound closure, it is important for the sutures to have appropriate tensile strength. Multifilament sutures should be avoided in areas prone to infection, such as the feet. An important complication of skin biopsy is the development of hypertrophic and keloid scars, which are more common among patients with dark skin. Injection of triamcinolone or verapamil into a maturing scar can minimize the possibility of hypertrophic and keloid scars. PMID:25373033

Nguyen, Tam



Autoimmune blistering skin diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergency physicians, at the front line of patient care, are often confronted with a wide variety of dermatologic conditions. Prompt recognition is essential, especially for the autoimmune blistering skin diseases, many of which have considerable morbidity and mortality. Therefore, an accurate diagnosis is imperative for appropriate referral and initiation of therapy. This review article provides a concise yet thorough discussion

Stephanie Cotell; Neha D Robinson; Lawrence S Chan



Skin Cancer Prevention Study

Actinic keratoses (AKs) are precancerous skin growths that are usually caused by sun exposure. This study seeks to determine if the drug celecoxib prevents new AKs from developing, causes existing AKs to go away, and prevents AKs from progressing to squamous cell cancer.


Learning about Skin Cancer  


... skin cancer are found in South Africa and Australia, areas that receive high amounts of UV radiation. About 10 percent of all patients with melanoma have family members who also have had the disease. Research suggests that a mutation in the CDKN2 gene ...


Human Skin Fungal Diversity  

PubMed Central

Traditional culture-based methods have incompletely defined the etiology of common recalcitrant human fungal skin diseases including athlete’s foot and toenail infections. Skin protects humans from invasion by pathogenic microorganisms, while providing a home for diverse commensal microbiota1. Bacterial genomic sequence data have generated novel hypotheses about species and community structures underlying human disorders2,3,4. However, microbial diversity is not limited to bacteria; microorganisms such as fungi also play major roles in microbial community stability, human health and disease5. Genomic methodologies to identify fungal species and communities have been limited compared with tools available for bacteria6. Fungal evolution can be reconstructed with phylogenetic markers, including ribosomal RNA gene regions and other highly conserved genes7. Here, we sequenced and analyzed fungal communities of 14 skin sites in 10 healthy adults. Eleven core body and arm sites were dominated by Malassezia fungi, with species-level classifications revealing greater topographical resolution between sites. By contrast, three foot sites, plantar heel, toenail, and toeweb, exhibited tremendous fungal diversity. Concurrent analysis of bacterial and fungal communities demonstrated that skin physiologic attributes and topography differentially shape these two microbial communities. These results provide a framework for future investigation of interactions between pathogenic and commensal fungal and bacterial communities in maintaining human health and contributing to disease pathogenesis. PMID:23698366

Findley, Keisha; Oh, Julia; Yang, Joy; Conlan, Sean; Deming, Clayton; Meyer, Jennifer A.; Schoenfeld, Deborah; Nomicos, Effie; Park, Morgan; Kong, Heidi H.; Segre, Julia A.



Three-dimensional chemical imaging of skin using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.  


Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy is used to generate structural and chemical three-dimensional images of native skin. We employed SRS microscopy to investigate the microanatomical features of skin and penetration of topically applied materials. Image depth stacks are collected at distinct wavelengths corresponding to vibrational modes of proteins, lipids, and water in the skin. We observed that corneocytes in stratum corneum are grouped together in clusters, 100 to 250 ?m in diameter, separated by 10- to 25-?m-wide microanatomical skin-folds called canyons. These canyons occasionally extend down to depths comparable to that of the dermal-epidermal junction below the flat surface regions in porcine and human skin. SRS imaging shows the distribution of chemical species within cell clusters and canyons. Water is predominately located within the cell clusters, and its concentration rapidly increases at the transition from stratum corneum to viable epidermis. Canyons do not contain detectable levels of water and are rich in lipid material. Oleic acid-d34 applied to the skin surface lines the canyons down to a depth of 50 ?m below the surface of the skin. This observation could have implications on the evaluation of penetration profiles of bioactive materials measured using traditional methods, such as tape-stripping. PMID:24858033

Drutis, Dane M; Hancewicz, Thomas M; Pashkovski, Eugene; Feng, Lin; Mihalov, Dawn; Holtom, Gary; Ananthapadmanabhan, Kavssery P; Xie, X Sunney; Misra, Manoj



Bioactive nanocrystalline sol-gel hydroxyapatite coatings.  


Sol-gel technology offers an alternative technique for producing bioactive surfaces for improved bone attachment. Previous work indicated that monophasic hydroxyapatite coatings were difficult to produce. In the present work hydroxyapatite was synthesized using the sol-gel technique with alkoxide precursors and the solution was allowed to age up to seven days prior to coating. It was found that, similar to the wet-chemical method of hydroxyapatite powder synthesis, an aging time is required to produce a pure hydroxyapatite phase. A methodology that has been successfully used to produce nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite thin film coatings via the sol-gel route on various substrates including alumina, Vycor glass, partially stabilized zirconia, Ti-6Al-4V alloy and single crystal MgO is described. Coatings produced on MgO substrates were characterized by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy, while the analogous gels were examined with thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses. The coatings were crack free and the surface was covered with small grains, of approximately 200 nm in size for samples fired to 1000 degrees C. Coating thickness varied between 70 and 1000 nm depending on the number of applied layers. PMID:15348113

Chai, C S; Ben-Nissan, B



Burchellin: study of bioactivity against Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Background The dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 is a widespread insect pest of serious medical importance. Since no effective vaccine is available for treating dengue, the eradication or control of the main mosquito vector is regarded as essential. Since conventional insecticides have limited success, plants may be an alternative source of larvicidal agents, since they contain a rich source of bioactive chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of the neolignan burchellin isolated from Ocotea cymbarum (Lauraceae), a plant from the Amazon region, against third instar larvae of A. aegypti. Methods Burchellin obtained from O. cymbarum was analyzed. The inhibitory activity against A. aegypti eggs and larvae and histological changes in the digestive system of treated L3 larvae were evaluated. In addition, nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide levels were determined, and cytotoxicity bioassays performed. Results The data showed that burchellin interfered with the development cycle of the mosquito, where its strongest toxic effect was 100% mortality in larvae (L3) at concentrations???30 ppm. This compound did not show target cell toxicity in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice, and proved to have molecular stability when dissolved in water. The L3 and L4 larvae treated with the compound showed cellular destruction and disorganization, cell spacing, and vacuolization of epithelial cells in small regions of the midgut. Conclusion The neolignan burchellin proved to be a strong candidate for a natural, safe and stable phytolarvicidal to be used in population control of A. aegypti. PMID:24713267



Cognition, dopamine and bioactive lipids in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is a remarkably complex disorder with a multitude of behavioral and biological perturbations. Cognitive deficits are a core feature of this disorder, and involve abnormalities across multiple domains, including memory, attention, and perception. The complexity of this debilitating illness has led to a view that the key to unraveling its pathophysiology lies in deconstructing the clinically-defined syndrome into pathophysiologically distinct intermediate phenotypes. Accumulating evidence suggests that one of these intermediate phenotypes may involve phospholipid signaling abnormalities, particularly in relation to arachidonic acid (AA). Our data show relationships between levels of AA and performance on tests of cognition for schizophrenia patients, with defects in AA signaling associated with deficits in cognition. Moreover, dopamine may moderate these relationships between AA and cognition. Taken together, cognitive deficits, dopaminergic neurotransmission, and bioactive lipids have emerged as related features of schizophrenia. Existing treatment options for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia do not specifically target lipid-derived signaling pathways; understanding these processes could inform efforts to identify novel targets for treatment innovation. PMID:21196378

Condray, Ruth; Yao, Jeffrey K.



Microencapsulated Bioactive Agents and Method of Making  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microcapsules prepared by encapsulating an aqueous solution of a protein, drug or other bioactive substance inside a semi-permeable membrane by are disclosed. The microcapsules are formed by interfacial coacervation under conditions where the shear forces are limited to 0- 100 dynes per sq cm at the interface. By placing the microcapsules in a high osmotic watering solution, the protein solution is gradually made saturated and then supersaturated, and the controlled nucleation and crystallization of the protein is achieved. The crystal-filled microcapsules prepared by this method can be conveniently harvested and stored while keeping the encapsulated crystals in essentially pristine condition due to the rugged, protective membrane. Because the membrane components themselves are x-ray transparent, large crystal-containing microcapsules can be individually selected. mounted in x-ray capillary tubes and subjected to high energy x-ray diffraction studies to determine the 3-D structure of the protein molecules. Certain embodiments of the microcapsules of the invention have composite polymeric outer membranes which are somewhat elastic, water insoluble, permeable only to water, salts, and low molecular weight molecules and are structurally stable in fluid shear forces typically encountered in the human vascular system.

Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)



Asymmetric vinylogous Mannich reactions: a versatile approach to functionalized heterocycles.  


Asymmetric vinylogous Mannich reaction (VMR) of 2-(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)furan (TBSOF, 1) with (R(S))- or (S(S))-t-BS-imines (3) furnished 5-aminoalkylbutenolides 7a-k in 75-87% yields with anti/syn ratios ranging from 75:25 to 97:3. Butenolides 7a-f,k were readily converted into substituted lactones 8 and 5 and 6-substituted 5-hydroxypiperidin-2-ones 11a-g, which are, in turn, key intermediates for the synthesis of many bioactive compounds. PMID:21854016

Ruan, Shu-Tang; Luo, Jie-Min; Du, Yu; Huang, Pei-Qiang



Glycation and transglutaminase mediated glycosylation of fish gelatin peptides with glucosamine enhance bioactivity.  


A mixture of novel glycopeptides from glycosylation between cold water fish skin gelatin hydrolysates and glucosamine (GlcN) via transglutaminase (TGase), as well as glycation between fish gelatin hydrolysate and GlcN were identified by their pattern of molecular distribution using MALDI-TOF-MS. Glycated/glycosylated hydrolysates showed superior bioactivity to their original hydrolysates. Alcalase-derived fish skin gelatin hydrolysate glycosylated with GlcN in the presence of TGase at 25°C (FAT25) possessed antioxidant activity when tested in a linoleic acid oxidation system, when measured according to its 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and when tested at the cellular level with human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells as target cells. In addition, Alcalase-derived glycosylated hydrolysates showed specificity toward the inhibition of Escherichia coli (E. coli). The Flavourzyme-derived glycopeptides prepared at 37°C (FFC37 and FFT37) showed better DPPH scavenging activity than their native hydrolysates. The glycated Flavourzyme-derived hydrolysates were found to act as potential antimicrobial agents when incubated with E. coli and Bacillus subtilis. PMID:24001843

Hong, Pui Khoon; Gottardi, Davide; Ndagijimana, Maurice; Betti, Mirko



Interactions of bioactive glass materials in the oral environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this research was to investigate bioactive glass materials for their use in dental restorations. Mechanical properties such as strength, toughness and wear resistance were considered initially, but the focus of this thesis was the biological properties such as reactions with saliva and interactions with natural dental tissues. Bioactive composite materials were created by incorporating bioactive glass and alumina powders into an aqueous suspension, slip casting, and infiltrating with resin. Microstructure, mechanical properties and wear resistance were evaluated. Mechanically, the composites are comparable to natural dental tissues and current dental materials with a strength of 206 +/- 18.7 MPa and a toughness of 1.74 +/- 0.08 MPa(m)1/2. Interfacial reactions were examined using bulk bioactive glasses. Disks were prepared from a melt, placed in saliva and incubated at 37°C. Surfaces were analyzed at 2, 5, 10, 21, and 42 days using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microdiffraction. Results showed changes at 2 days with apatite crystallization by 10 days. These glass disks were then secured against extracted human dentin and incubated in saliva for 21 or 42 days. Results from SEM, electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and microdiffraction showed that dentin and bioactive glasses adhered in this in vitro environment due to attraction of collagen to bioactive glasses and growth of an interfacial apatite. After investigating these bulk glass responses, particulate bioactive glasses were placed in in vitro and in vivo set-ups for evaluation. Particles immersed in biologically buffered saliva showed crystallization of apatite at 3 days. These bioactive glass particles were placed in the molars of mini-pigs and left in vivo. After 30 days the bioactive paste was evaluated using SEM, EMPA and microdiffraction analyses. Results showed that the paste gained structural integrity and had chemical changes in vivo. These sets of experiments show that bioactive glasses have many mechanical and biological characteristics desirable for use in dental materials. Hopefully, the conclusions presented here will lead to further investigations toward their use in dentistry.

Efflandt, Sarah Elizabeth


Skin Cancer: Signs and Symptoms  


... skin cancer appears in many shapes and sizes. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) This is a very common type of ... lip; skin on the lip can get thick Squamous cell carcinoma . These patients all have forms of squamous cell ...


Laser microporation of the skin: prospects for painless application of protective and therapeutic vaccines  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In contrast to muscle and subcutaneous tissue, the skin is easily accessible and provides unique immunological properties. Increasing knowledge about the complex interplay of skin-associated cell types in the development of cutaneous immune responses has fueled efforts to target the skin for vaccination as well as for immunotherapy. Areas covered: This review provides an overview on skin layers and their resident immunocompetent cell types. Advantages and shortcomings of standard methods and innovative technologies to circumvent the outermost skin barrier are addressed. Studies employing fractional skin ablation by infrared lasers for cutaneous delivery of drugs, as well as high molecular weight molecules such as protein antigens or antibodies, are reviewed, and laserporation is introduced as a versatile transcutaneous vaccination platform. Specific targeting of the epidermis or the dermis by different laser settings, the resulting kinetics of uptake and transport and the immune response types elicited are discussed, and the potential of this transcutaneous delivery platform for allergen-specific immunotherapy is demonstrated. Expert opinion: Needle-free and painless vaccination approaches have the potential to replace standard methods due to their improved safety and optimal patient compliance. The use of fractional laser devices for stepwise ablation of skin layers might be advantageous for both vaccination against microbial pathogens, as well as immunotherapeutic approaches, such as allergen-specific immunotherapy. Thorough investigation of the underlying immunological mechanisms will help to provide the knowledge for a rational design of transcutaneous protective/therapeutic vaccines. PMID:23425032

Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Thalhamer, Josef; Weiss, Richard



A versatile stepping motor controller for systems with many motors  

SciTech Connect

A versatile system for controlling beamlines or complex experimental setups is described. The system as currently configured can control up to 32 motors, with all motors capable of full speed operation concurrently. There are 2 limit switch inputs for each motor, and a further input to accept a reference position marker. The motors can be controlled via a front panel keyboard with display, or by a host computer over an IEEE-488 interface. Both methods can be used together if required. There is an emergency stop'' key on the front panel keyboard to stop the motion of all motors without losing track of the motors' position. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Feng, S.K.; Siddons, D.P.



Algae biofuels: versatility for the future of bioenergy.  


The world continues to increase its energy use, brought about by an expanding population and a desire for a greater standard of living. This energy use coupled with the realization of the impact of carbon dioxide on the climate, has led us to reanalyze the potential of plant-based biofuels. Of the potential sources of biofuels the most efficient producers of biomass are the photosynthetic microalgae and cyanobacteria. These versatile organisms can be used for the production of bioethanol, biodiesel, biohydrogen, and biogas. In fact, one of the most economic methods for algal biofuels production may be the combined biorefinery approach where multiple biofuels are produced from one biomass source. PMID:22104720

Jones, Carla S; Mayfield, Stephen P



ICAN: A versatile code for predicting composite properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Integrated Composites ANalyzer (ICAN), a stand-alone computer code, incorporates micromechanics equations and laminate theory to analyze/design multilayered fiber composite structures. Procedures for both the implementation of new data in ICAN and the selection of appropriate measured data are summarized for: (1) composite systems subject to severe thermal environments; (2) woven fabric/cloth composites; and (3) the selection of new composite systems including those made from high strain-to-fracture fibers. The comparisons demonstrate the versatility of ICAN as a reliable method for determining composite properties suitable for preliminary design.

Ginty, C. A.; Chamis, C. C.



Versatile mode-locked quantum-dot laser diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semiconductor quantum-dots have been recently showing great promise for the generation of ultrashort pulses, forming the basis of very compact and efficient ultrafast laser sources. In this paper we discuss how the unique properties of quantum-dot materials can be exploited in novel and versatile mode-locking regimes in InAs/GaAs quantum-dot edge-emitting lasers, both in monolithic and external cavity configurations. We present the current status of our research on ultrashort pulse generation involving ground (1260nm) and excited-state (1180nm) transitions, as well as the recent progress in external-cavity broadband tunable quantum-dot lasers.

Cataluna, M. A.; Rafailov, E. U.



A versatile detector for total fluorescence and electron yield experiments  

SciTech Connect

The combination of a non-coated silicon photodiode with electron repelling meshes makes a versatile detector for total fluorescence yield and electron yield techniques highly suitable for x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In particular, a copper mesh with a bias voltage allows to suppress or transmit the electron yield signal. The performance of this detection scheme has been characterized by near edge x-ray absorption fine structure studies of thermal oxidized silicon and sapphire. The results show that the new detector probes both electron yield and for a bias voltage exceeding the maximum photon energy the total fluorescence yield.

Thielemann, N. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hoffmann, P. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Foehlisch, A. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Physik und Astronomie, Universitaet Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)



The acoustic vector sensor: a versatile battlefield acoustics sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The invention of the Microflown sensor has made it possible to measure acoustic particle velocity directly. An acoustic vector sensor (AVS) measures the particle velocity in three directions (the source direction) and the pressure. The sensor is a uniquely versatile battlefield sensor because its size is a few millimeters and it is sensitive to sound from 10Hz to 10kHz. This article shows field tests results of acoustic vector sensors, measuring rifles, heavy artillery, fixed wing aircraft and helicopters. Experimental data shows that the sensor is suitable as a ground sensor, mounted on a vehicle and on a UAV.

de Bree, Hans-Elias; Wind, Jelmer W.



Polyamines and nonmelanoma skin cancer  

SciTech Connect

Elevated levels of polyamines have long been associated with skin tumorigenesis. Tightly regulated metabolism of polyamines is critical for cell survival and normal skin homeostasis, and these controls are dysregulated in skin tumorigenesis. A key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is upregulated in skin tumors compared to normal skin. Use of transgenic mouse models has demonstrated that polyamines play an essential role in the early promotional phase of skin tumorigenesis. The formation of skin tumors in these transgenic mice is dependent upon polyamine biosynthesis, especially putrescine, since treatment with inhibitors of ODC activity blocks the formation of skin tumors and causes the rapid regression of existing tumors. Although the mechanism by which polyamines promote skin tumorigenesis are not well understood, elevated levels of polyamines have been shown to stimulate epidermal proliferation, alter keratinocyte differentiation status, increase neovascularization, and increase synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins in a manner similar to that seen in wound healing. It is becoming increasingly apparent that elevated polyamine levels activate not only epidermal cells but also underlying stromal cells in the skin to promote the development and progression of skin tumors. The inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis has potential to be an effective chemoprevention strategy for nonmelanoma skin cancer.

Gilmour, Susan K. [Lankenau Institute for Medical Research, 100 Lancaster Avenue, Wynnewood, PA 19096 (United States)], E-mail:



Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the…

Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth



Neuroendocrine System of the Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is accumulating that the skin can serve as a peripheral neuroendocrine organ. The skin neuroendocrine activities are predominantly independent of regulation from the central level (which controls classical hormone secretion) but are rather regulated by local cutaneous factors. These endocrine factors would represent an exquisite regulatory layer addressed at restricting maximally the effect of noxious agents in the skin

Andrzej Slominski



Skin Cancers of the Feet  


... resemble non-cancerous skin tumors or benign ulcers. Squamous Cell Carcinoma : Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common form of cancer on ... skin of the feet. Most types of early squamous cell carcinoma are confined to the skin and do not ...


Determination of skin repigmentation progression.  


In this paper, we describe an image processing scheme to analyze and determine areas of skin that have undergone repigmentation in particular, during the treatment of vitiligo. In vitiligo cases, areas of skin become pale or white due to the lack of skin pigment called melanin. Vitiligo treatment causes skin repigmentation resulting in a normal skin color. However, it is difficult to determine and quantify the amount of repigmentation visually during treatment because the repigmentation progress is slow and moreover changes in skin color can only be discerned over a longer time frame typically 6 months. Here, we develop a digital image analysis scheme that can identify and determine vitiligo skin areas and repigmentation progression on a shorter time period. The technique is based on principal component analysis and independent component analysis which converts the RGB skin image into a skin image that represent skin areas due to melanin and haemoglobin only, followed by segmentation process. Vitiligo skin lesions are identified as skin areas that lack melanin (non-melanin areas). In the initial studies of 4 patients, the method has been able to quantify repigmentation in vitiligo lesion. Hence it is now possible to determine repigmentation progression objectively and treatment efficacy on a shorter time cycle. PMID:18002737

Nugroho, Hermawan; Fadzil, M H Ahmad; Yap, V V; Norashikin, S; Suraiya, H H




E-print Network

THE CANCER INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE SKIN CANCER INSTITUTE THE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE #12;THE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE "Through the Skin Cancer Institute, we are endeavoring to reverse the growing incidence of all forms of skin cancer by contributing breakthroughs and innovations

Engman, David M.


The Great Ephemeral Tattooed Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin is always and already a serietl of planes which signify race, gender, age and such. Tattooing creates a new surface of potential significance upon the body. Tattooing can call into question concepts of volition in reference to the power to inscribe and define one's subjectivity through one's own skin, and the social defining of the subject. Skin is

Patricia MacCoatlack



Bioactive steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana flowers.  


Bioguided studies of flowers of Agave offoyana allowed the isolation of five steroidal saponins never described previously, Magueyosides A-E (1-5), along with six known steroidal saponins (6-11). The structures of compounds were determined as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2?,3?-diol-12-one 3-O-{?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-2?,3?-diol-12-one 3-O-{?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-2?,3?,12?-triol 3-O-{?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-5?-spirostan-2?,3?-diol-12-one 3-O-{?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (4), and (25R)-5?-spirostan-2?,3?-diol-9(11)-en-12-one 3-O-{?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (5), by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The bioactivities of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa were evaluated. A dose-dependent phytotoxicity and low dose stimulation were observed. PMID:23859261

Pérez, Andy J; Calle, Juan M; Simonet, Ana M; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A



From human skin to Nano-Skin: an experimental study on human skin temperature measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human state in human–machine systems should be monitored to improve system performance. In monitoring it is preferable to use physiological cues such as skin temperature. The sensing capabilities of human skin were analyzed. The sensing system of human skin was modeled, and inspired the design of a Nano-Skin for physiological measurement in dynamic human–machine contact for human state recognition.

Hongjie Leng; Yingzi Lin



Versatile Aggressive Mimicry of Cicadas by an Australian Predatory Katydid  

PubMed Central

Background In aggressive mimicry, a predator or parasite imitates a signal of another species in order to exploit the recipient of the signal. Some of the most remarkable examples of aggressive mimicry involve exploitation of a complex signal-response system by an unrelated predator species. Methodology/Principal Findings We have found that predatory Chlorobalius leucoviridis katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) can attract male cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) by imitating the species-specific wing-flick replies of sexually receptive female cicadas. This aggressive mimicry is accomplished both acoustically, with tegminal clicks, and visually, with synchronized body jerks. Remarkably, the katydids respond effectively to a variety of complex, species-specific Cicadettini songs, including songs of many cicada species that the predator has never encountered. Conclusions/Significance We propose that the versatility of aggressive mimicry in C. leucoviridis is accomplished by exploiting general design elements common to the songs of many acoustically signaling insects that use duets in pair-formation. Consideration of the mechanism of versatile mimicry in C. leucoviridis may illuminate processes driving the evolution of insect acoustic signals, which play a central role in reproductive isolation of populations and the formation of species. PMID:19142230

Marshall, David C.; Hill, Kathy B. R.



Versatile peroxidase of Bjerkandera fumosa: substrate and inhibitor specificity.  


The inhibitor and substrate specificities of versatile peroxidase from Bjerkandera fumosa (VPBF) were studied. Two different effects were found: NaN(3), Tween-80, anthracene, and fluorene decreased the activity of VPBF, but p-aminobenzoic acid increased it. A mixed mechanism of effector influence on the activity of this enzyme was shown. The catalytic properties of VPBF in the oxidation of mono- and polycyclic aromatic compounds were studied also. 2,7-Diaminofluorene, ABTS, veratryl alcohol, and syringaldazine can be oxidized by VPBF in two ways: either directly by the enzyme or by diffusible chelated Mn(3+) as an oxidizing agent. During VPBF oxidation of 2,7-diaminofluorene, both with and without Mn(2+), biphasic kinetics with apparent saturation in both micromolar and millimolar ranges were obtained. In the case of ABTS, inhibition of VPBF activity by an excess of substrate was observed. Direct oxidation of p-aminobenzoic acid by versatile peroxidase was found for the first time. The oxidation of three- and four-ring PAHs by VPBF was investigated, and the oxidation of anthracene, phenanthrene, fluorene, pyrene, chrysene, and fluoranthene was shown. The products of PAH oxidation (9,10-anthraquinone, 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, and 9-fluorenone) catalyzed by VPBF were identified. PMID:23199738

Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Makarov, Oleg; Chernyshova, Marina; Turkovskaya, Olga; Jarosz-Wilkolazka, Anna



Immense essence of excellence: marine microbial bioactive compounds.  


Oceans have borne most of the biological activities on our planet. A number of biologically active compounds with varying degrees of action, such as anti-tumor, anti-cancer, anti-microtubule, anti-proliferative, cytotoxic, photo protective, as well as antibiotic and antifouling properties, have been isolated to date from marine sources. The marine environment also represents a largely unexplored source for isolation of new microbes (bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, microalgae-cyanobacteria and diatoms) that are potent producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Extensive research has been done to unveil the bioactive potential of marine microbes (free living and symbiotic) and the results are amazingly diverse and productive. Some of these bioactive secondary metabolites of microbial origin with strong antibacterial and antifungal activities are being intensely used as antibiotics and may be effective against infectious diseases such as HIV, conditions of multiple bacterial infections (penicillin, cephalosporines, streptomycin, and vancomycin) or neuropsychiatric sequelae. Research is also being conducted on the general aspects of biophysical and biochemical properties, chemical structures and biotechnological applications of the bioactive substances derived from marine microorganisms, and their potential use as cosmeceuticals and nutraceuticals. This review is an attempt to consolidate the latest studies and critical research in this field, and to showcase the immense competence of marine microbial flora as bioactive metabolite producers. In addition, the present review addresses some effective and novel approaches of procuring marine microbial compounds utilizing the latest screening strategies of drug discovery. PMID:21116414

Bhatnagar, Ira; Kim, Se-Kwon



Utility of High-Frequency Ultrasound: Moving Beyond the Surface to Detect Changes in Skin Integrity  

PubMed Central

Ultrasound imaging is a versatile modality frequently used in clinical medicine, most likely due to its low cost, low risk to patients, and the ability to provide images in real time. Ultrasound used typically in clinical settings has frequencies between 2 and 12 MHz. Lower frequencies produce greater resolution but are limited in depth penetration; higher frequencies produce greater resolution, but depth of penetration is limited. High-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) shows promise for detection of certain changes in the skin and this has implications for early detection of changes associated with pressure ulcer formation and wound healing. The purpose of this article was to provide an overview of where HFUS has been used with the skin and provide some discussion on its utility with detecting skin changes related to pressure. PMID:24583666

Lucas, Valentina S.; Burk, Ruth S.; Creehan, Sue; Grap, Mary Jo



Protective effect of detoxified Rhus verniciflua stokes on human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts against oxidative stress and identification of the bioactive phenolics.  


Oxidative stress due to the over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is associated with human skin aging. This study was designed to identify the bioactive phenolics in detoxified Rhus verniciflua Stokes (DRVS) that may protect human skin against oxidative stress. Under oxidative stress caused by H?O?, the 40% (v/v) aqueous methanol extract of DRVS protected human keratinocytes in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) was also inhibited by the DRVS extract in human dermal fibroblasts-neonatal cells exposed to ultraviolet A. The major bioactive phenolics of DRVS were tentatively identified by LC/Q-TOF-ESI-MS/MS, and included gallic acid, 2-(ethoxymethoxy)-3-hydroxyphenol, fustin, a fustin isomer, tetragalloyl glucose, pentagalloyl glucose, fisetin, sulfuretin, a sulfuretin isomer, and butein. The results suggest that a DRVS extract may be effective in slowing skin aging through its antioxidative properties and by down-regulating MMP-1 expression. Further studies are needed to examine whether this effect would be mediated by the phenolics identified in this study. PMID:23924730

Liu, Chun-Shan; Nam, Tae-Gyu; Han, Min-Woo; Ahn, Soo-mi; Choi, Han Seok; Kim, Tae Young; Chun, Ock K; Koo, Sung I; Kim, Dae-Ok



Bioactive secondary metabolites from marine microbes for drug discovery.  


The isolation and extraction of novel bioactive secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms have a biomedical potential for future drug discovery as the oceans cover 70% of the planet's surface and life on earth originates from sea. Wide range of novel bioactive secondary metabolites exhibiting pharmacodynamic properties has been isolated from marine microorganisms and many to be discovered. The compounds isolated from marine organisms (macro and micro) are important in their natural form and also as templates for synthetic modifications for the treatments for variety of deadly to minor diseases. Many technical issues are yet to overcome before wide-scale bioprospecting of marine microorganisms becomes a reality. This chapter focuses on some novel secondary metabolites having antitumor, antivirus, enzyme inhibitor, and other bioactive properties identified and isolated from marine microorganisms including bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, and cyanobacteria, which could serve as potentials for drug discovery after their clinical trials. PMID:22361200

Nikapitiya, Chamilani



Surface characterization of silver-doped bioactive glass.  


A bioactive glass belonging to the system SiO(2)-CaO-Na(2)O was doped with silver ions by ion exchange in molten salts as well as in aqueous solution. The ion exchange in the solution was done to check if it is possible to prepare an antimicrobial material using a low silver content. The doped glass was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, SEM observation, EDS analysis, bioactivity test (soaking in a simulated body fluid), leaching test (GFAAS analyses) and cytotoxicity test. It is demonstrated that these surface silver-doped glasses maintain, or even improve, the bioactivity of the starting glass. The measured quantity of released silver into simulated body fluid compares those reported in literature for the antibacterial activity and the non-cytotoxic effect of silver. Cytotoxicity tests were carried out to understand the effect of the doped surfaces on osteogenic cell adhesion and proliferation. PMID:15792537

Vernè, E; Di Nunzio, S; Bosetti, M; Appendino, P; Brovarone, C Vitale; Maina, G; Cannas, M



Enzyme-assisted extraction of bioactives from plants.  


Demand for new and novel natural compounds has intensified the development of plant-derived compounds known as bioactives that either promote health or are toxic when ingested. Enhanced release of these bioactives from plant cells by cell disruption and extraction through the cell wall can be optimized using enzyme preparations either alone or in mixtures. However, the biotechnological application of enzymes is not currently exploited to its maximum potential within the food industry. Here, we discuss the use of environmentally friendly enzyme-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from plant sources, particularly for food and nutraceutical purposes. In particular, we discuss an enzyme-assisted extraction of stevioside from Stevia rebaudiana, as an example of a process of potential value to the food industry. PMID:21816495

Puri, Munish; Sharma, Deepika; Barrow, Colin J



Functional significance of bioactive peptides derived from soybean.  


Biologically active peptides play an important role in metabolic regulation and modulation. Several studies have shown that during gastrointestinal digestion, food processing and microbial proteolysis of various animals and plant proteins, small peptides can be released which possess biofunctional properties. These peptides are to prove potential health-enhancing nutraceutical for food and pharmaceutical applications. The beneficial health effects of bioactive peptides may be several like antihypertensive, antioxidative, antiobesity, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, hypocholesterolemic and anticancer. Soybeans, one of the most abundant plant sources of dietary protein, contain 36-56% of protein. Recent studies showed that soy milk, an aqueous extract of soybean, and its fermented product have great biological properties and are a good source of bioactive peptides. This review focuses on bioactive peptides derived from soybean; we illustrate their production and biofunctional attributes. PMID:24508378

Singh, Brij Pal; Vij, Shilpa; Hati, Subrota



Edible berries: bioactive components and their effect on human health.  


The importance of food consumption in relation to human health has increased consumer attention in nutraceutical components and foods, especially fruits and vegetables. Berries are a rich source of a wide variety of non-nutritive, nutritive, and bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, phenolics, anthocyanins, phenolic acids, stilbenes, and tannins, as well as nutritive compounds such as sugars, essential oils, carotenoids, vitamins, and minerals. Bioactive compounds from berries have potent antioxidant, anticancer, antimutagenic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineurodegenerative properties, both in vitro and in vivo. The following is a comprehensive and critical review on nutritional and non-nutritional bioactive compounds of berries including their absorption, metabolism, and biological activity in relation to their potential effect on human health. PMID:24012283

Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won



Bioactive polymers for cardiac tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prevalent in the US and worldwide, acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) can cause ischemic injuries to the heart that persist and lead to progressive degradation of the organ. Tissue engineering techniques exploiting biomaterials present a hopeful means of treating these injuries, either by mechanically stabilizing the injured ventricle, or by fostering cell growth to replace myocytes lost to damage. This thesis describes the development and testing of a synthetic extracellular matrix for cardiac tissue engineering applications. The first stage of this process was using an advanced finite element model of an injured ovine left ventricle to evaluate the potential benefits of injecting synthetic materials into the heart. These simulations indicated that addition of small amounts non-contractile material (on the order of 1--5% total wall volume) to infarct border zone regions reduced pathological systolic fiber stress to levels near those found in normal remote regions. Simulations also determined that direct addition to the infarct itself caused increases in ventricle ejection fraction while the underlying performance of the pump, ascertained by the Starling relation, was not improved. From these theoretical results, biomaterials were developed specifically for injection into the injured myocardium, and were characterized and tested for their mechanical properties and ability to sustain the proliferation of a stem cell population suitable for transplantation. Thermoresponsive synthetic copolymer hydrogels consisting of N-isopropylacrylamide and acrylic acid, p(NIPAAm-co-AAc), crosslinked with protease degradable amino acid sequences and modified with integrin binding ligands were synthesized, characterized in vitro, and used for myocardial implantation. These injectable materials could maintain a population of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in both two dimensional and three dimensional culture, and when tested in vivo in a murine infarct model they stabilized injured ventricles, reducing functional loss over 6 weeks, and promoted the survival of transplanted stem cells. In addition, modifications to the hydrogel to impart novel bioactivity through a developed tethered form of the protein sonic hedgehog were synthesized and characterized. This tethered form increased protein potency, induced angiogenesis, and could be incorporated into the hydrogel material for future implantation studies in the injured ventricle.

Wall, Samuel Thomas


Silicon Utilizing Microbial Bioactivities in the Biosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diatoms are unicellular eukaryotic algae and an important member of the silicon utilizing organisms, that generate ~20% of the ~100 billion metric tons of organic carbon produced through photosynthesis on Earth each year. Fragilariopsis is a dominating psychrophilic diatom genus in polar sea ice. The two species Fragilariopsis cylindrus and Fragilariopsis curta are able to grow and divide below freezing temperature. Antifreeze proteins (AFPs), involved in cold adaptation in several psychrophilic organisms, are widespread in this two polar species. Achanthes minutissima isolated as dominant diatom has degradable effects involving petroleum hydocarbons. Phaeodactylum tricornutum, have antibacterial activity and the fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), has been identified as one compound responsible for this activity. Other antibacterial compounds are monounsaturated fatty acid (9Z)-hexadecenoic acid (palmitoleic acid; C16:1 n-7) and the relatively unusual polyunsaturated fatty acid (6Z, 9Z, 12Z)-hexadecatrienoic acid (HTA; C16:3 n-4). Both are active against Gram-positive bacteria and many Gram-negative pathogen. Palmitoleic acid is active at micro-molar concentrations, kills bacteria rapidly, and is highly active against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Domoic acid -a neurotoxin produced by Pseudo-nitzschia accumulates in marine invertebrates. Evidences of sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and human poisoning following consumption of contaminated blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) is mainly due to this toxin. Among the most prominent features described in human beings was memory impairment which led to the name Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning [ASP]. Silicon utilizing organisms can act as a bioindicator of environmental contamination, thus a rapid change in phytochelatins to both the increase in and the withdrawal of environmental Cd stress was found in Thalassiosira nordenskioeldii. Some of them also can produce biofuels particularly diatoms have significant potential as a source of biomass for the production of biofuels, due to their high growth rates and high cellular lipid content. Petroleum pollutant degradation can also be done by these organisms-Achanthes minutissima has degradable effects involving petroleum hydocarbons. Stephanopyxis turris a silicon utilizing organism releases a blend of chlorinated C8 hydrocarbons. This adds a fundamentally new pathway to the limited set of halogenating enzymatic activities known from nature. Many silicon utilizing organisms can produce PUFA from saturated fatty acids which ultimately produce many important bioactive chemicals like hormosirene, finaverrene, heptadienal, dietyopterene, cystophorene, decadienal. Trienoic acid, octadiene and many other important agents. Similarly terpenoid biosynthetic pathway is activated by them with formation of diterpenoids, sesterpenoids, triterpenoids and sterols.

Sen, M. M.; Das, S.



Natural pesticides and bioactive components in foods.  


In this review, some common food plants and their toxic or otherwise bioactive components and mycotoxin contaminants have been considered. Crucifers contain naturally occurring components that are goitrogenic, resulting from the combined action of allyl isothiocyanate, goitrin, and thiocyanate. Although crucifers may provide some protection from cancer when taken prior to a carcinogen, when taken after a carcinogen they act as promoters of carcinogenesis. The acid-condensed mixture of indole-3-carbinol (a component of crucifers) binds to the TCDD receptor and causes responses similar to those of TCDD. Herbs contain many biologically active components, with more than 20% of the commercially prepared human drugs coming from these plants. Onion and garlic juices can help to prevent the rise of serum cholesterol. Most herbs used in treatments may have many natural constituents that act oppositely from their intended use. Some herbs like Bishop's week seed contain carcinogens, and many contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids that can cause cirrhosis of the liver. The general phytoalexin response in plants (including potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, celery, and sweet potatoes) induced by external stimuli can increase the concentrations of toxic chemical constituents in those plants. In potatoes, two major indigenous compounds are alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, which are human plasma cholinesterase inhibitors and teratogens in animals. Because of its toxicity, the potato variety Lenape was withdrawn from the market. Celery, parsley, and parsnips contain the linear furanocoumarin phytoalexins psoralen, bergapten, and xanthotoxin that can cause photosensitization and also are photomutagenic and photocarcinogenic. Celery field workers and handlers continually have photosensitization problems as a result of these indigenous celery furanocoumarins. A new celery cultivar (a result of plant breeding to produce a more pest-resistant variety) was responsible for significant incidences of phytophotodermatitis of grocery employees. Since there is no regulatory agency or body designated to oversee potential toxicological issues associated with naturally occurring toxicants, photodermatitis continues to occur from celery exposure. Sweet potatoes contain phytoalexins that can cause lung edema and are hepatotoxic to mice. At least one of these, 4-ipomeanol, can cause extensive lung clara cell necrosis and can increase the severity of pneumonia in mice. Some phytoalexins in sweet potatoes are hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic to mice. The common mushroom Agaricus bisporus contains benzyl alcohol as its most abundant volatile, and A. bisporus and Gyromitra esculenta both contain hydrazine analogues. Mycotoxins are found in corn, cottonseed, fruits, grains, grain sorghums, and nuts (especially peanuts); therefore, they also occur in apple juice, bread, peanut butter, and other products made from contaminated starting materials.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2404325

Beier, R C



Bifidobacterium fermented milk and galacto-oligosaccharides lead to improved skin health by decreasing phenols production by gut microbiota.  


A questionnaire survey found that women suffering from abnormal bowel movements have many skin problems such as a high frequency of dry skin. Although there are similarities between the structure and barrier function mechanism of the gut and skin, experimental data are insufficient to show an association between the intestinal environment and skin conditions. Phenols, for example phenol and p-cresol, as metabolites of aromatic amino acids produced by gut bacteria, are regarded as bioactive toxins and serum biomarkers of a disturbed gut environment. Recent studies have demonstrated that phenols disturb the differentiation of monolayer-cultured keratinocytes in vitro, and that phenols produced by gut bacteria accumulate in the skin via the circulation and disrupt keratinocyte differentiation in hairless mice. Human studies have demonstrated that restriction of probiotics elevated serum free p-cresol levels and harmed skin conditions (reduced skin hydration, disrupted keratinisation). In contrast, daily intake of the prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) restored serum free p-cresol levels and skin conditions in adult women. Moreover, a double-blind placebo-controlled trial demonstrated that the daily intake of fermented milk containing the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve strain Yakult and prebiotic GOS reduced serum total phenol levels and prevented skin dryness and disruption of keratinisation in healthy adult women. It is concluded that phenols produced by gut bacteria are one of the causes of skin problems. Probiotics and/or prebiotics, such as B. breve strain Yakult and/or GOS, are expected to help maintain a healthy skin by decreasing phenols production by gut microbiota. These findings support the hypothesis that probiotics and prebiotics provide health benefits to the skin as well as the gut. PMID:23685373

Miyazaki, K; Masuoka, N; Kano, M; Iizuka, R



Food-Derived Bioactive Peptides on Inflammation and Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

Chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancer are now the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Inflammatory processes and oxidative stress underlie the pathogenesis of these pathological conditions. Bioactive peptides derived from food proteins have been evaluated for various beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this review, we summarize the roles of various food-derived bioactive peptides in inflammation and oxidative stress and discuss the potential benefits and limitations of using these compounds against the burden of chronic diseases. PMID:24527452



Climate change and skin.  


Global climate appears to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Climate change can be caused by several factors that include variations in solar radiation received by earth, oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions, as well as human-induced alterations of the natural world. Many human activities, such as the use of fossil fuel and the consequent accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, land consumption, deforestation, industrial processes, as well as some agriculture practices are contributing to global climate change. Indeed, many authors have reported on the current trend towards global warming (average surface temperature has augmented by 0.6 °C over the past 100 years), decreased precipitation, atmospheric humidity changes, and global rise in extreme climatic events. The magnitude and cause of these changes and their impact on human activity have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing climate change as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Although many articles have been written based on observations and various predictive models of how climate change could affect social, economic and health systems, only few studies exist about the effects of this change on skin physiology and diseases. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to climate. For example, global warming, deforestation and changes in precipitation have been linked to variations in the geographical distribution of vectors of some infectious diseases (leishmaniasis, lyme disease, etc) by changing their spread, whereas warm and humid environment can also encourage the colonization of the skin by bacteria and fungi. The present review focuses on the wide and complex relationship between climate change and dermatology, showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence and the clinical pattern of many dermatoses. PMID:23407083

Balato, N; Ayala, F; Megna, M; Balato, A; Patruno, C



Low temperature skin treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although freezing has been a successful method of curing various kinds of skin lesions for at least 80 years, little progress has been made regarding the techniques and instruments available to the dermatoligist for applying cold. The attempts to improve this technique are reviewed, and the requirements is for successful cryotreatment are discussed taking warts as an example. With these requirements in mind, a simple and effective cryoprobe has been developed by the authors. Its design is described, and the experiences from a year's routine application of the probe to the treatment of warts are discussed.

Klipping, G.; Krishna, A.; Ruppert, U.; Srinivasan, R.; Walter, H.


Equine skin transplants  

E-print Network

EQUINE SKIN TRANSPLANTS A Thesis By CHARLES LEROY BOYD Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A6M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER. OF SCIENCE May 1967 Major Subject: Veterinary Medicine... and Surgery EQUINE SK1N TRANSPLANTS A Thesis By CHARLES LEROY BOYD Approved as to style and content by: 'rman of C rnmittee) ( ead of Department) I i /, (Member) /t J z:s g '. A 2 (Member) (Member (Member) May 1967 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author...

Boyd, Charles Leroy



Skin Care: Acne  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson from Science NetLinks, students are asked to think about what they already know about how the body changes as people age. More specifically, they are asked to talk about acne and what they consider to be the most effective ways of treating it and preventing its spread. Using online resources, they discover that there are many misconceptions about the exact causes and best treatments for acne. After completing the lesson, they have a good understanding of how to prevent and treat acne, and take care of their skin in general.

Science Netlinks;



Feasibility of skin surface elastography by tracking skin surface topography.  


Recent advances have led to a multitude of image modalities being used for visualization of tissue stiffness. High-resolution images of tissue stiffness are desirable, as they have the potential to provide useful diagnostic information. A noncontact optical imaging method has the attractions of low cost, simplicity, and utility when skin contact is undesirable. However, previous optical techniques have required the application of paint or ink to the surface of the skin and so have required contact. Therefore, the present study assessed the feasibility of tracking skin surface topography to produce elastograms. The study showed, by analyzing a variety of silicone skin surface replicas from various body sites of subjects of different ages, that skin surface elastography by tracking surface topography would be feasible. The study further showed that the quality of the strain images can be optimized by measuring skin line pattern frequency. Skin samples with high skin line frequency will achieve best spatial resolution, in the order of 1 mm, comparable to contact techniques reported previously. A mechanically inhomogeneous silicone replica was then imaged, illustrating the technique's ability to detect strain contrast. Finally, the feasibility of implementing the technique in vivo was illustrated using a single pigmented skin lesion. PMID:24343434

Coutts, Louise V; Miller, Naomi R; Harland, Christopher C; Bamber, Jeffrey C



UVMULTIFIT: A versatile tool for fitting astronomical radio interferometric data  

E-print Network

The analysis of astronomical interferometric data is often performed on the images obtained after deconvolution of the interferometer's point spread function (PSF). This strategy can be understood (especially for cases of sparse arrays) as fitting models to models, since the deconvolved images are already non-unique model representations of the actual data (i.e., the visibilities). Indeed, the interferometric images may be affected by visibility gridding, weighting schemes (e.g., natural vs. uniform), and the particulars of the (non-linear) deconvolution algorithms. Fitting models to the direct interferometric observables (i.e., the visibilities) is preferable in the cases of simple (analytical) sky intensity distributions. In this paper, we present UVMULTIFIT, a versatile library for fitting visibility data, implemented in a Python-based framework. Our software is currently based on the CASA package, but can be easily adapted to other analysis packages, provided they have a Python API. We have tested the sof...

Marti-Vidal, I; Muller, S; Casey, S



Write Strategy for Dual-Layer Digital Versatile Discs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel write strategy for rewritable dual-layer digital versatile discs (DVDs) was studied. This new strategy involves the erase top pulse which is included in the conventional write strategy for single-layer DVDs in present market. By thermal calculations, it was confirmed that this erase top pulse has an affect on the rapid heating of recording films. We observed that this new strategy enabled the improvement in data qualities on the layer near the laser incident (L0) effectively in 2 × and 4 ×-speed recordings even if L0 had a high optical transparency. Furthermore we also demonstrated a combination of what with the 2T-period strategy on the layer far from the laser incident (L1) realized a well-balanced signal performance for dual-layer DVD media.

Tabata, Hiroshi; Tokui, Kenji; Higuchi, Shinji; Moriizumi, Hirokazu; Matsumoto, Ikuo



FLUTE: A versatile linac-based THz source  

SciTech Connect

A new compact versatile linear accelerator named FLUTE is currently being designed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. This paper presents the status of this 42 MeV machine. It will be used to generate strong (several 100 MV/m) ultra-short ({approx}1 ps) THz pulses (up to {approx}4-25 THz) for photon science experiments, as well as to conduct a variety of accelerator studies. The latter range from comparing different coherent THz radiation generation schemes to compressing electron bunches and studying the electron beam stability. The bunch charge will cover a wide range ({approx}100 pC-3 nC). Later we plan to also produce ultra-short x-ray pulses from the electron bunches, which, for example, could then be combined for THz pump-x-ray probe experiments.

Nasse, M. J.; Schuh, M.; Schwarz, M. [Laboratory for Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (LAS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Naknaimueang, S.; Mathis, Y.-L.; Rossmanith, R.; Wesolowski, P.; Huttel, E. [ANKA Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Plech, A. [Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Schmelling, M. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (MPIK), 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Mueller, A.-S. [Laboratory for Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (LAS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); ANKA Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)



Development of a versatile laser light scattering instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A versatile laser light scattering (LLS) instrument is developed for use in microgravity to measure microscopic particles of 30 A to above 3 microns. Since it is an optical technique, LLS does not affect the sample being studied. A LLS instrument built from modules allows several configurations, each optimized for a particular experiment. The multiangle LLS instrument can be mounted in the rack in the Space Shuttle and on Space Station Freedom. It is possible that a Space Shuttle glove-box and a lap-top computer containing a correlator card can be used to perform a number of experiments and to demonstrate the technology needed for more elaborate investigations. This offers simple means of flying a great number of experiments without the additional requirements of full-scale flight hardware experiments.

Meyer, William V.; Ansari, Rafat R.



Metagenome of a Versatile Chemolithoautotroph from Expanding Oceanic Dead Zones  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), also known as oceanic"dead zones", are widespread oceanographic features currently expanding due to global warming and coastal eutrophication. Although inhospitable to metazoan life, OMZs support a thriving but cryptic microbiota whose combined metabolic activity is intimately connected to nutrient and trace gas cycling within the global ocean. Here we report time-resolved metagenomic analyses of a ubiquitous and abundant but uncultivated OMZ microbe (SUP05) closely related to chemoautotrophic gill symbionts of deep-sea clams and mussels. The SUP05 metagenome harbors a versatile repertoire of genes mediating autotrophic carbon assimilation, sulfur-oxidation and nitrate respiration responsive to a wide range of water column redox states. Thus, SUP05 plays integral roles in shaping nutrient and energy flow within oxygen-deficient oceanic waters via carbon sequestration, sulfide detoxification and biological nitrogen loss with important implications for marine productivity and atmospheric greenhouse control.

Walsh, David A.; Zaikova, Elena; Howes, Charles L.; Song, Young; Wright, Jody; Tringe, Susannah G.; Tortell, Philippe D.; Hallam, Steven J.



AOTF microscope for imaging with increased speed and spectral versatility.  

PubMed Central

We have developed a new fluorescence microscope that addresses the spectral and speed limitations of current light microscopy instrumentation. In the present device, interference and neutral density filters normally used for fluorescence excitation and detection are replaced by acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs). Improvements are described, including the use of a dispersing prism in conjunction with the imaging AOTF and an oblique-illumination excitation scheme, which together enable the AOTF microscope to produce images comparable to those obtained with conventional fluorescence instruments. The superior speed and spectral versatility of the AOTF microscope are demonstrated by a ratio image pair acquired in 3.5 ms and a micro-spectral absorbance measurement of hemoglobin through a cranial window in a living mouse. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:9284289

Wachman, E S; Niu, W; Farkas, D L



A versatile photoelectron spectrometer for pressures up to 30 mbar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-pressure photoelectron spectroscopy is a rapidly developing technique with applications in a wide range of fields ranging from fundamental surface science and catalysis to energy materials, environmental science, and biology. At present the majority of the high-pressure photoelectron spectrometers are situated at synchrotron end stations, but recently a small number of laboratory-based setups have also emerged. In this paper we discuss the design and performance of a new laboratory based high pressure photoelectron spectrometer equipped with an Al K? X-ray anode and a hemispherical electron energy analyzer combined with a differentially pumped electrostatic lens. The instrument is demonstrated to be capable of measuring core level spectra at pressures up to 30 mbar. Moreover, valence band spectra of a silver sample as well as a carbon-coated surface (graphene) recorded under a 2 mbar nitrogen atmosphere are presented, demonstrating the versatility of this laboratory-based spectrometer.

Eriksson, Susanna K.; Hahlin, Maria; Kahk, Juhan Matthias; Villar-Garcia, Ignacio J.; Webb, Matthew J.; Grennberg, Helena; Yakimova, Rositza; Rensmo, Hâkan; Edström, Kristina; Hagfeldt, Anders; Siegbahn, Hans; Edwards, Mârten O. M.; Karlsson, Patrik G.; Backlund, Klas; Åhlund, John; Payne, David J.



Robust and versatile black-box certification of quantum devices  

E-print Network

Self-testing refers to the fact that, in some quantum devices, both states and measurements can be assessed in a black-box scenario, on the sole basis of the observed statistics, i.e. without reference to any prior device calibration. Only a few examples of self-testing are known, and they just provide non-trivial assessment for devices performing unrealistically close to the ideal case. We overcome these difficulties by approaching self-testing with the semi-definite programming hierarchy for the characterization of quantum correlations. This allows us to improve dramatically the robustness of previous self-testing schemes -e.g.: we show that a CHSH violation larger than 2.57 certifies a singlet fidelity of more than 70%. In addition, the versatility of the tool brings about self-testing of hitherto impossible cases, such as robust self-testing of non-maximally entangled two-qutrit states in the CGLMP scenario.

Tzyh Haur Yang; Tamás Vértesi; Jean-Daniel Bancal; Valerio Scarani; Miguel Navascués



Layered zeolitic materials: an approach to designing versatile functional solids.  


Relevant layered zeolites have been considered in this perspective article from the point of view of the synthesis methodologies, materials characterization and catalytic implications, considering the unique physico-chemical characteristics of lamellar materials. The potential of layered zeolitic precursors to generate novel lamellar accessible zeolites through swelling, intercalation, pillarization, delamination and/or exfoliation treatments is studied, showing the chemical, functional and structural versatility exhibited by layered zeolites. Recent approaches based on the assembly of zeolitic nanosheets which act as inorganic structural units through the use of dual structural directing agents, the selective modification of germanosilicates and the direct generation of lamellar hybrid organic-inorganic aluminosilicates are also considered to obtain layered solids with well-defined functionalities. The catalytic applications of the layered zeolites are also highlighted, pointing out the high accessibility and reactivity of active sites present in the lamellar framework. PMID:24457617

Díaz, Urbano; Corma, Avelino



Parallel optics technology assessment for the Versatile Link project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This poster describes the assessment of commercially available and prototype parallel optics modules for possible use as back end components for the Versatile Link common project. The assessment covers SNAP12 transmitter and receiver modules as well as optical engine technologies in dense packaging options. Tests were performed using vendor evaluation boards (SNAP12) as well as custom evaluation boards (optical engines). The measurements obtained were used to compare the performance of these components with single channel SFP+ components operating at a transmission wavelength of 850 nm over multimode fibers. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, operated by Fermi Research Alliance, LLC under contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11359 with the United States Department of Energy.

Chramowicz, J.; Kwan, S.; Rivera, R.; Prosser, A.



Oriented mesoporous nanopyramids as versatile plasmon-enhanced interfaces.  


We developed a facile interfacial oriented growth and self-assembly process to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) aligned mesoporous iron oxide nanopyramid arrays (NPAs). The unique NPAs possess a 3D mesostructure with multiple features, including high surface area (~175 m(2)/g), large pore size (~20 nm), excellent flexibility (bent over 150 times), and scalability at the foot scale for practical applications. More importantly, these NPAs structures enable versatile enhancement of localized surface plasmon resonance and photoelectrochemical conversion. The integration of plasmonic gold with 3D NPAs remarkably improves the performance of photoelectrochemical conversion, leading to ~6- and 83-fold increases of the photocurrent under simulated solar and visible-light illumination, respectively. The fabrication and investigation of NPAs provide a new paradigm for preparing unconventional mesoporous oriented thin films and further suggest a new strategy for designing plasmonic metal/semiconductor systems for effective solar energy harvesting. PMID:24786963

Kong, Biao; Tang, Jing; Selomulya, Cordelia; Li, Wei; Wei, Jing; Fang, Yin; Wang, Yongcheng; Zheng, Gengfeng; Zhao, Dongyuan



Extraordinary phylogenetic diversity and metabolic versatility in aquifer sediment  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms in the subsurface represent a substantial but poorly understood component of the Earth’s biosphere. Subsurface environments are complex and difficult to characterize; thus, their microbiota have remained as a ‘dark matter’ of the carbon and other biogeochemical cycles. Here we deeply sequence two sediment-hosted microbial communities from an aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River, CO, USA. No single organism represents more than ~1% of either community. Remarkably, many bacteria and archaea in these communities are novel at the phylum level or belong to phyla lacking a sequenced representative. The dominant organism in deeper sediment, RBG-1, is a member of a new phylum. On the basis of its reconstructed complete genome, RBG-1 is metabolically versatile. Its wide respiration-based repertoire may enable it to respond to the fluctuating redox environment close to the water table. We document extraordinary microbial novelty and the importance of previously unknown lineages in sediment biogeochemical transformations. PMID:23979677

Castelle, Cindy J.; Hug, Laura A.; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Thomas, Brian C.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Wu, Dongying; Tringe, Susannah G.; Singer, Steven W.; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Banfield, Jillian F.



The Diverse Roles of Flavin Coenzymes - Nature's Most Versatile Thespians  

PubMed Central

Flavin coenzymes play a variety of roles in biological systems. This Perspective highlights the chemical versatility of flavins by reviewing research on five flavoenzymes that have been studied in our laboratory. Each of the enzymes discussed in this review (the acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACDs), CDP-6-deoxy-L-threo-D-glycero-4-hexulose-3-dehydrase reductase (E3), CDP-4-aceto-3,6-dideoxygalactose synthase (YerE), UDP-galactopyranose mutase (UGM), and type II isopentenyl diphosphate:dimethylallyl diphosphate isomerase (IDI-2)) utilize flavin in a distinct role. In particular, the catalytic mechanisms of two of these enzymes, UGM and IDI-2, may involve novel flavin chemistry. PMID:17580897

Mansoorabadi, Steven O.; Thibodeaux, Christopher J.; Liu, Hung-wen



A Versatile Source of Single Photons for Quantum Information Processing  

E-print Network

The quantum state of a single photon stands among the most fundamental and intriguing manifestations of quantum physics. At the same time single photons and pairs of single photons are important building blocks in the fields of linear optical based quantum computation and quantum repeater infrastructure. These fields possess enormous potential and much scientific and technological progress has been made in developing individual components, like quantum memories and photon sources using various physical implementations. However, further progress suffers from the lack of compatibility between these different components. Ultimately, one aims for a versatile source of single photons and photon pairs in order to overcome this hurdle of incompatibility. Such a photon source should allow for tuning of the spectral properties (wide wavelength range and narrow bandwidth) to address different implementations while retaining high efficiency. In addition, it should be able to bridge different wavelength regimes to make implementations compatible. Here we introduce and experimentally demonstrate such a versatile single photon and photon pair source based on the physics of whispering gallery resonators. A disk-shaped, monolithic and intrinsically stable resonator is made of lithium niobate and supports a cavity-assisted triply-resonant spontaneous parametric down-conversion process. Measurements show that photon pairs are efficiently generated in two highly tunable resonator modes. We verify wavelength tuning over 100 nm between both modes with a controllable bandwidth between 7.2 and 13 MHz. Heralding of single photons yields anti-bunching with $g^{(2)}(0) < 0.2$. This compact source provides unprecedented possibilities to couple to different physical quantum systems and renders it ideal for the implementation of quantum repeaters and optical quantum information processing.

Michael Förtsch; Josef Fürst; Christoffer Wittmann; Dmitry Strekalov; Andrea Aiello; Maria V. Chekhova; Christine Silberhorn; Gerd Leuchs; Christoph Marquardt



Versatile RNA interference nanoplatform for systemic delivery of RNAs.  


Development of nontoxic, tumor-targetable, and potent in vivo RNA delivery systems remains an arduous challenge for clinical application of RNAi therapeutics. Herein, we report a versatile RNAi nanoplatform based on tumor-targeted and pH-responsive nanoformulas (NFs). The NF was engineered by combination of an artificial RNA receptor, Zn(II)-DPA, with a tumor-targetable and drug-loadable hyaluronic acid nanoparticle, which was further modified with a calcium phosphate (CaP) coating by in situ mineralization. The NF can encapsulate small-molecule drugs within its hydrophobic inner core and strongly secure various RNA molecules (siRNAs, miRNAs, and oligonucleotides) by utilizing Zn(II)-DPA and a robust CaP coating. We substantiated the versatility of the RNAi nanoplatform by demonstrating effective delivery of siRNA and miRNA for gene silencing or miRNA replacement into different human types of cancer cells in vitro and into tumor-bearing mice in vivo by intravenous administration. The therapeutic potential of NFs coloaded with an anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) and multidrug resistance 1 gene target siRNA (siMDR) was also demonstrated in this study. NFs loaded with Dox and siMDR could successfully sensitize drug-resistant OVCAR8/ADR cells to Dox and suppress OVCAR8/ADR tumor cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. This gene/drug delivery system appears to be a highly effective nonviral method to deliver chemo- and RNAi therapeutics into host cells. PMID:24779637

Choi, Ki Young; Silvestre, Oscar F; Huang, Xinglu; Min, Kyung Hyun; Howard, Gregory P; Hida, Naoki; Jin, Albert J; Carvajal, Nicole; Lee, Sang Wook; Hong, Jong-In; Chen, Xiaoyuan



Accepted Manuscript Title: Thermal investigations of Ti and Ag-doped bioactive  

E-print Network

Accepted Manuscript Title: Thermal investigations of Ti and Ag-doped bioactive glasses Author: EB. LefeuvreB. BureauO. Merdrignac- Conanec Thermal investigations of Ti and Ag-doped bioactive glasses (2014.tca.2014.02.001 #12;Page 1 of 20 Accepted M anuscript Thermal investigations of Ti and Ag-doped bioactive

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Bioactive components in kombucha tea, Cryptocarya massoy (Oken) Kosterm., and Rollinia emarginata Schlecht  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present investigation was to analyze the bioactive compounds in three natural sources: kombucha tea, Cryptocarya massoy , and Rollinia emarginata. Bioactive constituents were isolated in pure form using bioactivity-directed fractionation and assayed by the brine shrimp lethality test. Pure compounds were tested further in vitro using a panel of six tumor cell lines derived from human

Susan Estelle DiGeorgio



[Youth Healthcare guideline 'Skin disorders'].  


There is a high incidence of skin disorders; these are also frequently encountered within Youth Healthcare (YHC). Some skin disorders are caused by an underlying disease, syndrome or child abuse. Therefore, detection of these causes in an early stage is important. Skin disorders can have a huge psychosocial impact on both child and parents. This is one of the reasons why prevention, detection, diagnosis, treatment, referral, and uniform advice and guidance are of great importance. The YHC Guideline examines counselling and advice, criteria for referral to primary or secondary healthcare, and skincare in general. It also describes the disorders that should be actively detected. The Guideline also looks at specific aspects of dark skins and ethnic diversity, and the impact of skin disorders on general wellbeing. The accompanying web-based tool includes argumentation and opinions from experts on more than 75 skin disorders, including illustrations and decision trees, to aid the drawing up of a treatment plan. PMID:23151335

Deurloo, Jacqueline A; van Gameren-Oosterom, Helma B M; Kamphuis, Mascha



Microencapsulation of Bioactive Principles with an Airless Spray-Gun Suitable for Processing High Viscous Solutions  

PubMed Central

Purpose: to design, assemble and test a prototype of a novel production plant, suitable for producing microparticles (MPs) by processing highly viscous feed solutions (FSs). Methods: the prototype has been built using a commercial air compressor, a piston pump, an airless spray-gun, a customized air-treatment section, a timer, a rotating base, and a filtration section. Preliminary prototype parameter setting was carried out to individuate the best performing nozzle’s dimension, the nebulization timing, and the CaCl2 concentration in the gelation fluid. In addition, prototype throughput (1 L to 5 L) and the range of practicable feed solution (FS) viscosities were assayed. A set of four batches was prepared in order to characterize the MPs, in terms of mean particle size and distribution, flow properties, swelling, encapsulation efficiency and release. Results: according to a qualitative scoring, the large nozzle was suitable to nebulize FSs at a higher alginate concentration. Conversely, the small nozzle performed better in the processing of FSs with an alginate concentration up to 2% w/v. Only at the highest degree of viscosity, corresponding to 5% w/v of alginate, the FS processing was not technically possible. Among the CaCl2 concentrations considered, 15% w/v was recognized as the most versatile. The prototype appears to be convenient and suitable to grant a high yield starting from 2 L of FS. The flow behavior of the FSs assayed can be satisfactorily described with the Carreau-Yasuda equation and the throughput begins to slightly decrease for FSs at alginate concentrations exceeding 3% w/v. MP morphology was irregular with crumpled shape. The angle of repose indicates a good flowability and the release studies showed gastro-resistance and potential prolonged release applications. Conclusions: the novel prototype of production plant is suitable to process large amounts (2 L or more) of FSs, characterized by a high viscosity, to produce MPs suitable for bioactive principle delivery. PMID:24956192

Cocchietto, Moreno; Blasi, Paolo; Lapasin, Romano; Moro, Chiara; Gallo, Davide; Sava, Gianni



Dry skin in older adults.  


Dry skin is a common problem in the older individual due to physiological changes of the aging process as well as chronic health conditions. Dry skin can worsen if management is inappropriate or lacking. Nursing management of dry skin in the elderly is comprehensive including applying topical products to replenish lipids and reduce water loss, maintaining or increasing fluid intake, limiting sun exposure, and reducing symptoms of chronic illnesses. PMID:21601313

Hurlow, Jennifer; Bliss, Donna Zimmaro



Description and performance of a highly versatile, low-cost fiber-optic confocal Raman microscope  

E-print Network

Description and performance of a highly versatile, low-cost fiber-optic confocal Raman microscope C for publication 29 September 1995 A versatile fiber-optic confocal Raman microscope has been developed. Fiber optics provide remote capabilities for the microscope and the ability to use multiple excitation sources

Myrick, Michael Lenn


Towards Versatile Document Analysis Systems Henry S. Baird and Matthew R. Casey  

E-print Network

document analysis systems, DAS methodology, document image content extraction, classification, k NearestTowards Versatile Document Analysis Systems Henry S. Baird and Matthew R. Casey Computer, Abstract. The research goal of highly versatile document analysis systems, ca- pable

Baird, Henry S.


A Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies  

E-print Network

,* We have derived a versatile gene-based test for genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Our approach, called VEGAS (versatile gene- based association study), is applicable to all GWAS designs, including family-based GWAS, meta-analyses of GWAS on the basis of summary data, and DNA-pooling-based GWAS, where

Nyholt, Dale R.


Skin decontamination: principles and perspectives.  


Skin decontamination is the primary intervention needed in chemical, biological and radiological exposures, involving immediate removal of the contaminant from the skin performed in the most efficient way. The most readily available decontamination system on a practical basis is washing with soap and water or water only. Timely use of flushing with copious amounts of water may physically remove the contaminant. However, this traditional method may not be completely effective, and contaminants left on the skin after traditional washing procedures can have toxic consequences. This article focuses on the principles and practices of skin decontamination. PMID:22851522

Chan, Heidi P; Zhai, Hongbo; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I



The future of skin metagenomics.  


Metagenomics, the direct exploitation of environmental microbial DNA, is complementary to traditional culture-based approaches for deciphering taxonomic and functional microbial diversity in a plethora of ecosystems, including those related to the human body such as the mouth, saliva, teeth, gut or skin. DNA extracted from human skin analyzed by sequencing the PCR-amplified rrs gene has already revealed the taxonomic diversity of microbial communities colonizing the human skin ("skin microbiome"). Each individual possesses his/her own skin microbial community structure, with marked taxonomic differences between different parts of the body and temporal evolution depending on physical and chemical conditions (sweat, washing etc.). However, technical limitations due to the low bacterial density at the surface of the human skin or contamination by human DNA still has inhibited extended use of the metagenomic approach for investigating the skin microbiome at a functional level. These difficulties have been overcome in part by the new generation of sequencing platforms that now provide sequences describing the genes and functions carried out by skin bacteria. These methodological advances should help us understand the mechanisms by which these microorganisms adapt to the specific chemical composition of each skin and thereby lead to a better understanding of bacteria/human host interdependence. This knowledge will pave the way for more systemic and individualized pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. PMID:24361423

Mathieu, Alban; Vogel, Timothy M; Simonet, Pascal



Skin segmentation using multiple thresholding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The segmentation of skin regions in color images is a preliminary step in several applications. Many different methods for discriminating between skin and non-skin pixels are available in the literature. The simplest, and often applied, methods build what is called an "explicit skin cluster" classifier which expressly defines the boundaries of the skin cluster in certain color spaces. These binary methods are very popular as they are easy to implement and do not require a training phase. The main difficulty in achieving high skin recognition rates, and producing the smallest possible number of false positive pixels, is that of defining accurate cluster boundaries through simple, often heuristically chosen, decision rules. In this study we apply a genetic algorithm to determine the boundaries of the skin clusters in multiple color spaces. To quantify the performance of these skin detection methods, we use recall and precision scores. A good classifier should provide both high recall and high precision, but generally, as recall increases, precision decreases. Consequently, we adopt a weighted mean of precision and recall as the fitness function of the genetic algorithm. Keeping in mind that different applications may have sharply different requirements, the weighting coefficients can be chosen to favor either high recall or high precision, or to satisfy a reasonable tradeoff between the two, depending on application demands. To train the genetic algorithm (GA) and test the performance of the classifiers applying the GA suggested boundaries, we use the large and heterogeneous Compaq skin database.

Gasparini, Francesca; Schettini, Raimondo



Variations in Human Skin Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, the students examine their skin types, similarities, differences, etc. and discuss the social implications of each group. They also examine the factors that influence variations in skin color in greater depth. The class is separated into groups and work on presentations, designed to foster peer-teaching with guidance from the instructor. The presentations to be worked on by the students are: Modern Human Variation: Overview, Skin Color Adaptation, and A new Light on Skin Color. All of the resources needed for the students presentations are included. Following each presentation, tips for review and discussion of the learning objectives are given.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)



Meliavolkenin, a new bioactive triterpenoid from Melia volkensii (Meliaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meliavolkenin, a new triterpene with an apotirucallane skeleton, has been isolated from the root bark of Melia volkensli (Meliaceae) by bioactivity-directed fractionation using the brine shrimp lethality test. The structure has been elucidated using spectral and chemical data. The relative stereochemistries were determined by reduction and acetonide derivations, and the ring conformations were analyzed using the results of NOESY experiments.

Lu Zeng; Zhe-ming Gu; Ching-jer Chang; Karl V. Wood; Jerry L. McLaughlin



Preparation and bioactivity evaluation of bone-like hydroxyapatite nanopowder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium phosphate ceramic such as hydroxyapatite (HA) is good candidate for bone substitutes due to their chemical and structural similarity to bone minerals. The bone mineral consists of tiny hydroxyapatite crystals in the nanoregime. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite is also expected to have better bioactivity than coarser crystals. This paper reports on the preparation and in vitro evaluation of bone-like hydroxyapatite nanopowder.

M. H. Fathi; A. Hanifi; V. Mortazavi



Dereplication of phorbol bioactives: Lyngbya majuscula and Croton cuneatus  

SciTech Connect

Lyngbya majuscula and Croton cuneatus were used as prototypes for the dereplication of phorbol ester receptor binding activity using a combination of hplc-uv and online phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu) receptor binding and batch fractionation over either Si gel or diolbonded Si gel. Debromoaplysiatoxin was responsible for the bioactivity of Lyngbya, whereas a complex of potent phorbol esters was detected in C. cuneatus.

Beutler, J.A.; Alvarado, A.B.; Schaufelberger, D.E.; Andrews, P.; McCloud, T.G. (Developmental Therapeutics Program, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland (USA))



Bioactivity of essential oils and their volatile aroma components: Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioactivity of essential oils and their flavor and fragrance components have been known since ancient times. Essential oils are a mixture of numerous compounds characterized by an essence of aromatic plants. Currently, approximately 3000 essential oils are known, 300 of which are commercially important, in particular for the pharmaceutical, food, household and cosmetic industries. Essential oils have been known

Hamdy A. E. Shaaban; Ahmed H. El-Ghorab; Takayuki Shibamoto



Extraction of bioactive components from Centella asiatica using subcritical water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive components, asiatic acid and asiaticoside, were extracted from Centella asiatica using subcritical water as an extraction solvent. Extraction yields of asiatic acid and asiaticoside were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at temperatures from 100 to 250°C and pressures from 10 to 40MPa. As temperature or pressure increased, the extraction yield of asiatic acid and asiaticoside increased. At the

Wan-Joo Kim; Jaehoon Kim; Bambang Veriansyah; Jae-Duck Kim; Youn-Woo Lee; Seong-Geun Oh; Raymond R. Tjandrawinata



Bioactive substances of plant origin in food impact on genomics  

E-print Network

, phytoestrogens, phytosterols, phytates and polyun- saturated fatty acids. Most of them are featured nutraceuticals on the activity of tran- scription factors such as AP-1, NF-kB, SREBPs, PPARs as final targets manipulations. bioactive compounds / antioxidants / transcription factors / AP-1 / NF-kB / PPARs / SREBPs / gene

Boyer, Edmond


Plants and Bioactive Compounds for the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interest on natural products, especially plants, for the treatment of Parkinson's disease has been growing. This paper reviews basic and clinical aspects of medicinal plants and their bioactive compounds that could be used for this purpose. Two main therapeutic approaches were found: 1- symptomatic control; 2- protective treatments. For the first case the plant with best results supported by

L. C. S. L. Morais; J. M. Barbosa-Filho; R. N. Almeida



Mechanical performance of novel bioactive glass containing dental restorative composites  

E-print Network

Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA AbstractMechanical performance of novel bioactive glass containing dental restorative composites D for remineralization of tooth tissue, and therefore may be a strategic additive for dental restorative materials

Kruzic, Jamie


Greener and Expeditious Synthesis of Bioactive Heterocycles using Microwave Irradiation  

EPA Science Inventory

The utilization of green chemistry techniques is dramatically reducing chemical waste and reaction times as has recently been proven in several organic syntheses and chemical transformations. To illustrate these advantages in the synthesis of bio-active heterocycles, we have stud...


Bioportide: an emergent concept of bioactive cell-penetrating peptides.  


Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have proven utility for the highly efficient intracellular delivery of bioactive cargoes that include peptides, proteins, and oligonucleotides. The many strategies developed to utilize CPPs solely as pharmacokinetic modifiers necessarily requires them to be relatively inert. Moreover, it is feasible to combine one or multiple CPPs with bioactive cargoes either by direct chemical conjugation or, more rarely, as non-covalent complexes. In terms of the message-address hypothesis, this combination of cargo (message) linked to a CPP (address) as a tandem construct conforms to the sychnological organization. More recently, we have introduced the term bioportide to describe monomeric CPPs that are intrinsically bioactive. Herein, we describe the design and biochemical properties of two rhegnylogically organized monometic CPPs that collectively modulate a variety of biological and pathophysiological phenomena. Thus, camptide, a cell-penetrant sequence located within the first intracellular loop of a human calcitonin receptor, regulates cAMP-dependent processes to modulate insulin secretion and viral infectivity. Nosangiotide, a bioportide derived from endothelial nitric oxide synthase, potently inhibits many aspects of the endothelial cell morphology and movement and displays potent anti-angiogenic activity in vivo. We conclude that, due to their capacity to translocate and target intracellular signaling events, bioportides represent an innovative generic class of bioactive agents. PMID:22527714

Howl, John; Matou-Nasri, Sabine; West, David C; Farquhar, Michelle; Slaninová, Ji?ina; Ostenson, Claes-Göran; Zorko, Matjaz; Ostlund, Pernilla; Kumar, Shant; Langel, Ulo; McKeating, Jane; Jones, Sarah



Bioportides: bioactive cell-penetrating peptides that modulate cellular dynamics.  


The study and exploitation of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) now extends into a third exciting decade. Pharmacokinetic modulators, including the more common sequences Tat, penetratin and transportan-10, markedly enhance the intracellular delivery of small drugs, peptides, oligonucleotides and proteins. We introduced the term bioportide to distinguish cell penetrant peptides with intrinsic bioactivities from more typically inert CPP vectors. Our first examples included rhegnylogically organised bioportides, monomeric peptides presenting pharmacophores for both cellular internalization and bioactivity discontinuously distributed within the primary sequence. However, it is conceptually expedient to employ the same terminology to encompass sychnologic bioportides that comprise an inert CPP vector conjugated to an otherwise impermeable bioactive peptide. In such cases the CPP provides an obvious address function whilst the bioactive cargo, often a protein mimetic sequence, is the message. Additional targeting sequences, usually added as chimeric extensions, can also be accommodated within the design of CPPs and bioportides to enable cell- and tissue-selective targeting. Thus, the identification and exploitation of bioportides provides further scope to employ CPPs as research tools, diagnostics and therapeutics spanning a range of pathologies. PMID:23843291

Lukanowska, Monika; Howl, John; Jones, Sarah



Bioactivity and Structure of Biophenols as Mediators of Chronic Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biophenols and their associated activity have generated intense interest. Current topics of debate are their bioavailability and bioactivity. It is generally assumed that their plasma concentrations are insufficient to produce the health benefits previously attributed to their consumption. However, data on localized in vivo concentrations are not available and many questions remain unanswered. Potential mechanisms by which they may exert

Gregory Tucker; Kevin Robards



Bioactivity-guided mapping and navigation of chemical space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure- and chemistry-based hierarchical organization of library scaffolds in tree-like arrangements provides a valid, intuitive means to map and navigate chemical space. We demonstrate that scaffold trees built using bioactivity as the key selection criterion for structural simplification during tree construction allow efficient and intuitive mapping, visualization and navigation of the chemical space defined by a given library, which

Steffen Renner; Willem A L van Otterlo; Marta Dominguez Seoane; Sabine Möcklinghoff; Bettina Hofmann; Stefan Wetzel; Ansgar Schuffenhauer; Peter Ertl; Tudor I Oprea; Dieter Steinhilber; Luc Brunsveld; Daniel Rauh; Herbert Waldmann



Optical control over bioactive ligands at supramolecular surfaces.  


In this communication we report for the first time the use of azobenzene modified glycoconjugates to establish optical control over bioactive ligands at a supramolecular ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) surface. Several studies were conducted to investigate the photoresponsive immobilization of proteins and bacteria on these supramolecular surfaces. PMID:24975925

Voskuhl, J; Sankaran, S; Jonkheijm, P



Bioactive potential of Streptomyces associated with marine sponges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work deals with isolation of Streptomyces associated with marine sponges and its bioactive potential. Streptomyces sp. were isolated from the marine sponges Callyspongia diffusa, Mycale mytilorum, Tedania anhelans and Dysidea fragilis. From the initial screening, 94 cultures of Streptomyces were obtained and from these 58 cultures exhibited antagonism against bacteria, 36 strains against fungi and 27 strains exhibited

Selvakumar Dharmaraj; Alagarsamy Sumantha



Mango Bioactive Compounds and Related Nutraceutical Properties—A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mangos' popularity is on the rise due to its high nutraceutic and pharmaceutical value. The mango is unique because each of its parts—fruit, pulp, peel, seed, leaves, flowers and the bark—are utilizable. Polyphenolic compounds and related bioactivity in the fruit are higher in peel than pulp and highest in mango leaves and stem barks. There are various polyphenols in

Martin Masibo; Qian He



Hospital celebrates skin to skin contact to raise awareness.  


NEONATAL nurses at Birmingham's City Hospital have been celebrating the benefits of skin to skin contact with premature babies. They held a week of celebrations in the unit last month, in which they promoted the kangaroo care technique and breastfeeding to parents. PMID:23988055



Optimization and characterization of bioactive glass nanofibers and nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disease affects different areas of the bone and can impact individuals of all pathologies and ethnicities. These bone diseases can result in weakening which leads to trauma during ordinary function, the need for reconstructive surgery, and eventual bone replacement. Tissue engineering can provide a less traumatic and more fundamental solution to the current therapies. Bioactive glasses are promising materials in tissue engineering applications because of their ability to form hydroxycarbonate apatite in the presence of simulated body fluid, support cell adhesion, growth, and differentiation, induce bone formation, and concentrate bone morphogenic proteins in vivo. The research in this dissertation will attempt to improve the quality, yield, and toughness of bioactive glass nanofibrous scaffolds. The three specific aims of this research include, (1) Optimization and Characterization of Surfactant Modified Bioactive Glass (2) Optimization of Direct Synthesis Bioactive glass Nanofibers from Sols (3) Mechanical Properties and In-vitro Biomineralization of Bioglass-loaded Polyglyconate Nanocomposites Created Using the Particulate Leaching Method. The purpose of the first specific aim was to optimize the processing of bioactive glass nanofibers, resulting in greater fiber uniformity with a reduction in beading. The increase in viscosity coupled with the ability of the surfactant to limit polymeric secondary bonding led to improved fiber quality. The focal point of the second specific aim is the production of sol-gel derived glass fibers with high bioactivity prepared by electrospinning without the use of any polymer carrier system. Advantages of this method include decreased processing time, increased production of fibers, and a decrease in the loss of material due to the calcining process. The solvent cast/ particulate leaching method was used to create a nanocomposite of bioglass and the co-polymer polyglyconate (MaxonRTM) for bone tissue scaffolds The biocompatibility of the composite foams was observed and calcium phosphate presence was quantified. The incorporation of bioglass into the polymer matrix improved the strength (modulus - 21.47 MPa) and biocompatibility of the polyglyconate foam. Keywords: Bioactive glass, Electrospinning, Solvent Casting/Particulate Leaching Method, Nanocomposites

Scarber, Reginna E.


Characteristics of the Aging Skin  

PubMed Central

Significance Although most researches into the changes in skin with age focus on the unwelcome aesthetic aspects of the aging skin, skin deterioration with age is more than a merely cosmetic problem. Although mortality from skin disease is primarily restricted to melanoma, dermatological disorders are ubiquitous in older people with a significant impact on quality of life. The structural and functional deterioration of the skin that occurs with age has numerous clinical presentations, ranging from benign but potentially excruciating disorders like pruritus to the more threatening carcinomas and melanomas. Recent Advances The degenerative changes that occur in the aging skin are increasingly understood at both the molecular and cellular level, facilitating a deeper understanding of the structural and functional deterioration that these changes produce. Critical Issues A loss of both function and structural stability in skin proceeds unavoidably as individuals age, which is the result of both intrinsic and extrinsic processes, which contribute simultaneously to a progressive loss of skin integrity. Intrinsic aging proceeds at a genetically determined pace, primarily caused by the buildup of damaging products of cellular metabolism as well as an increasing biological aging of the cells. Estrogen levels strongly influence skin integrity in women as well; falling levels in midlife, therefore, produce premature aging as compared with similarly aged men. Extrinsic insults from the environment add to the dermatological signs of aging. Future Directions A deeper understanding of the physiological basis of skin aging will facilitate progress in the treatment of the unwelcome sequelae of aging skin, both cosmetic and pathogenic. PMID:24527317

Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Elsner, Peter; Maibach, Howard I.



Bioactive hydrogels with enhanced initial and sustained cell interactions  

PubMed Central

The highly tunable properties of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogel systems permit their use in a wide array of regenerative medicine and drug delivery applications. One of the most valuable properties of PEG hydrogels is their intrinsic resistance to protein adsorption and cell adhesion, as it allows for a controlled introduction of desired bioactive factors including proteins, peptides, and drugs. Acrylate-PEG-N-hydroxysuccinimide (Acr-PEG-NHS) is widely utilized as a PEG linker to functionalize bioactive factors with photocrosslinkable groups. This enables their facile incorporation into PEG hydrogel networks or the use of PEGylation strategies for drug delivery. However, PEG linkers can sterically block integrin binding sites on functionalized proteins and reduce cell-material interactions. In this study we demonstrate that reducing the density of PEG linkers on protein backbones during functionalization results in significantly improved cell adhesion and spreading to bioactive hydrogels. However, this reduction in functionalization density also increases protein loss from the matrix over time due to ester hydrolysis of the Acr-PEG-NHS linkers. To address this, a novel PEG linker, acrylamide-PEG-isocyanate (Aam-PEG-I), with enhanced hydrolytic stability was synthesized. It was found that decreasing functionalization density with Aam-PEG-I resulted in comparable increases in cell adhesion and spreading to Acr-PEG-NHS systems while maintaining protein and bioactivity levels within the hydrogel network over a significantly longer time frame. Thus, Aam-PEG-I provides a new option for protein functionalization for use in a wide range of applications that improves initial and sustained cell-material interactions to enhance control of bioactivity. PMID:23758437

Browning, Mary Beth; Russell, Brooke; Rivera, Jose; Hook, Magnus; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth M.



Hereditary Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous basal and squamous cell carcinomas are among the most frequent malignancies in the white population, with the annual incidence estimates ranging from 1 million to 3.5 million cases in the United States. These tumors can occur either sporadically or in the context of hereditary genodermatoses with cancer predisposition, such as basal cell nevus syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum, epidermolysis bullosa, or oculocutaneous albinism. Different genes and signaling pathways have been shown to play a central role in the development and growth of these tumors. This article overviews the clinical features, diagnostic criteria, and the most recent data on genetic routes of the major hereditary syndromes predisposed to the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer. PMID:23174490

Nikolaou, Vasiliki; Stratigos, Alexander J.; Tsao, Hensin



The Sensitive Skin Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Sensitive skin syndrome (SSS) is a common and challenging condition, yet little is known about its underlying pathophysiology. Patients with SSS often present with subjective complaints of severe facial irritation, burning, and/or stinging after application of cosmetic products. These complaints are out of proportion to the objective clinical findings. Defined as a self-diagnosed condition lacking any specific objective findings, SSS is by definition difficult to quantify and, therefore, the scientific community has yet to identify an acceptable objective screening test. In this overview we review recent epidemiological studies, present current thinking on the pathophysiology leading to SSS, discuss the challenges SSS presents, and recommend a commonsense approach to management. PMID:23248357

Lev-Tov, Hadar; Maibach, Howard I



Neuroimmunology of Stress: Skin Takes Center Stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like few other organs, the skin is continuously exposed to multiple exogenous and endogenous stressors. Superimposed on this is the impact of psychological stress on skin physiology and pathology. Here, we review the “brain–skin connection,” which may underlie inflammatory skin diseases triggered or aggravated by stress, and we summarize relevant general principles of skin neuroimmunology and neuroendocrinology. Specifically, we portray

Petra C Arck; Andrzej Slominski; Theoharis C Theoharides; Eva M J Peters; Ralf Paus



Moisturizing Different Racial Skin Types  

PubMed Central

The skin is a complex organ involved in thermoregulation, gas exchange, protection against pathogens, and barrier function to maintain proper hydration. When dry, the ability for skin to execute these tasks becomes impaired. Dry skin affects almost everyone as we age, but it is also dependent on external factors, such as dry climate, colder temperatures, and repeated washing. In addition, increasing evidence has shown racial variability in the physiological properties of skin, which directly impacts water content of the stratum corneum and sensitivity to exogenously applied agents. A multitude of products have been developed to treat dry skin, and as a group, moisturizers have been designed to either impart or restore hydration in the stratum corneum. Given the large number of moisturizers presently available, depending on individual components, several different mechanisms may be employed to promote skin hydration. As there exists dramatic racial variability in skin properties, certain moisturizers may thus be more effective in some and less effective in others to treat the common condition of dry skin. PMID:25013536

Wong, Victor W.; Longaker, Michael T.; Yang, George P.



Rheological behaviour of reconstructed skin.  


Reconstructed skins have been developed to replace skin when the integrity of tissue has been compromised following severe injury, and to provide alternative methods validating the innocuousness and effectiveness of dermatological and cosmetic products. However the functional properties of tissue substitutes have not been well characterised, mainly since mechanical measurement devices have not been designed to test cell culture materials in vitro. From the mechanical standpoint, reconstructed skin is a heterogeneous multi-layer viscoelastic material. To characterise the time-dependent behaviour of reconstructed skin, spherical indentation load-relaxation tests were performed with a specific original device adapted to measure small soft tissue samples. Load-relaxation indentation tests were performed on a standard reconstructed skin model and on sub-components of the reconstructed skin (3D-scaffold alone and dermal equivalent). Generalised Maxwell and Kelvin-Voigt rheological models are proposed for analysing the mechanical behaviour of each biological tissue. The results indicated a modification of the rheological behaviour of the samples tested as a function of their biological structure. The 3D-scaffold was modelled using the one-branch Maxwell model, while the dermis equivalent and the reconstructed skin were modeled using a one-branch and a two-branch Kelvin-Voigt model, respectively. Finally, we demonstrated that skin cells contribute to global mechanical behaviour through an increase of the instantaneous relaxation function, while the 3D-scaffold alone influences the mechanical response of long relaxation times. PMID:24956159

Pailler-Mattei, C; Laquièze, L; Debret, R; Tupin, S; Aimond, G; Sommer, P; Zahouani, H



Radiation Therapy for Skin Cancer  


... Other common treatments include surgery, chemotherapy and cryosurgery. Squamous cell carcinoma:This is the second most common type of skin cancer. These cancers also begin in the epidermis. Radiation therapy can be used to treat squamous cell cancers that start on the skin and ...


Skin Diseases in the Tropics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Common skin diseases are prevalent in tropical countries because of extreme weather conditions, mediocre hygiene, and lack of adequate treatment of infectious dermatoses. This guide describes the major endemic skin diseases and their signs for the purpose of helping unspecialized health agents train themselves and determine when a patient should…

Mahe, Antoine; And Others



Treatment Options for Photodamaged Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photodamage of the skin can be a detriment to physical and psychological health with a consequent negative impact on both personal and professional life. Medical treatments for photodamaged skin include topical all-trans-retinoic acid (tretinoin) as well as moisturizers, chemical peels, dermabrasion, ? hydroxy acids and cosmetic surgery. Of these treatment options, only tretinoin has been subjected to large-scale, controlled studies

Christopher E. M. Griffiths



Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin  

PubMed Central

Hyaluronan (HA) is present in many tissues of the body and is essential to maintain moistness in the skin tissues, which contain approximately half the body’s HA mass. Due to its viscosity and moisturizing effect, HA is widely distributed as a medicine, cosmetic, food, and, recently marketed in Japan as a popular dietary supplement to promote skin moisture. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study it was found that ingested HA increased skin moisture and improved treatment outcomes for patients with dry skin. HA is also reported to be absorbed by the body distributed, in part, to the skin. Ingested HA contributes to the increased synthesis of HA and promotes cell proliferation in fibroblasts. These effects show that ingestion of HA moisturizes the skin and is expected to improve the quality of life for people who suffer from dry skin. This review examines the moisturizing effects of dry skin by ingested HA and summarizes the series of mechanisms from absorption to pharmacological action. PMID:25014997



Genetics of Skin Cancer (PDQ®)

Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of skin cancer — basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma — including information about specific gene mutations and related cancer syndromes. The summary also contains information about interventions that may influence the risk of developing skin cancer in individuals who may be genetically susceptible to these syndromes.


Digital imaging of human skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a new method for quantitative analysis of erythema and pigmentation of the human skin using of the skin surface image. The erythema and pigmentation indices as well as the polarization degree of backscattered light are applied as the visualization parameters. The comparative analysis of the quality of various types of images is performed. Quality of reconstructed images was estimated in terms of image contrast. It is shown that the skin image contrast for the case of the erythema index as visualization parameter as well as the image contrast for the case of the pigmentation index as visualization parameter exceed at least in three times the similar values for the conventional color image or R, G, B image components. Maximum value of the contrast can be achieved in the case of using the polarization degree as the visualization parameter. The reported method of skin imaging can be used as an objective tool for diagnostics of the skin diseases.

Dolotov, Leonid E.; Kiseleva, Irina A.; Sinichkin, Yury P.; Zimnyakov, Dmitry A.



Conservative procedures in skin reconstitution.  


Skin exerts a number of essential protective functions ensuring homeostasis of the whole body. In the present review barrier function of skin and its expression of antimicrobial peptides are discussed. Barrier function is provided by the dynamic stratum corneum structure composed of lipids and corneocytes. Stratum corneum is a conditio sine qua non for terrestrial life. Impairment of barrier function can be due to injury and inflammatory skin diseases. Therapeutic options are discussed with special emphasis of radiodermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis in patients with hearing device. The use of antimicrobial peptides is illustrated by facial inflammatory skin diseases. In wound healing new developments include biotechnological developments of matrix- and growth factors and tissue-engineered skin substitutes. In everyday wound care of chronic wounds the concept of wound bed preparation (TIME) constitutes the base of successful treatment. PMID:22073065

Wollina, Uwe



Conservative procedures in skin reconstitution  

PubMed Central

Skin exerts a number of essential protective functions ensuring homeostasis of the whole body. In the present review barrier function of skin and its expression of antimicrobial peptides are discussed. Barrier function is provided by the dynamic stratum corneum structure composed of lipids and corneocytes. Stratum corneum is a conditio sine qua non for terrestrial life. Impairment of barrier function can be due to injury and inflammatory skin diseases. Therapeutic options are discussed with special emphasis of radiodermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis in patients with hearing device. The use of antimicrobial peptides is illustrated by facial inflammatory skin diseases. In wound healing new developments include biotechnological developments of matrix- and growth factors and tissue-engineered skin substitutes. In everyday wound care of chronic wounds the concept of wound bed preparation (TIME) constitutes the base of successful treatment. PMID:22073065

Wollina, Uwe



Non-thermic skin affections.  


The Centre for Burns can help by its means (material, technical and personal) in the treatment of burns with extensive and deep losses of the skin cover and other tissue structures and in some affections with a different etiology (non-thermic affections). Indicated for admission are, in particular, extensive exfoliative affections--Stevens-Johnson's syndrome (SJS), Lyell's syndrome--toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS), deep skin and tissue affections associated with fulminant purpura (PF), possibly other affections (epidermolysis bullosa, posttraumatic avulsions etc.). The similarity with burn injuries with loss of the skin cover grade II is typical, in particular in exfoliative affections with a need for adequate fluid replacement in the acute stage and aseptic surgical treatment of the affected area from the onset of the disease. In conditions leading to full thickness skin loss, in addition to general treatment rapid plastic surgical interventions dominate. PMID:11191420

Broz, L; Kripner, J



Instrumentation for assessment of tremor, skin vibrations, and cardiovascular variables in MIR space missions.  


A versatile and simple to use biomedical instrumentation for noninvasive examinations of cosmonauts at the Russian MIR space station was developed. It consists of a comfortable sensor jacket to assess signals from the body surface, a precision hand dynamometer to produce muscular and cardiovascular loads, and a small interactive microprocessor unit that controls the examination and stores measurement data. The sensor jacket includes highly sensitive piezo-resistive accelerometers, pulse sensors, an ECG system, and a skin-mountable mechanical vibrator. The functionality of this instrumentation was evaluated during long-term space flights and also proved very useful in laboratory and clinical studies. PMID:8682546

Gallasch, E; Rafolt, D; Moser, M; Hindinger, J; Eder, H; Wiesspeiner, G; Kenner, T



Chemical and bioactive quality traits during fruit ripening in eggplant (S. melongena L.) and allied species.  


A chemical and bioactive quality evaluation of phytochemicals content of 10 eggplant lines and three allied species (S. sodomaeum, S. aethiopicum and S. integrifolium) was performed. The eggplant lines were divided into the two subgroups of delphinidin-3-rutinoside (D3R) and nasunin (NAS) typologies, on the basis of the anthocyanin detected in their fruit skin. The allied species had higher glycoalkaloids content, lower soluble solids and PPO activity and absence of anthocyanins compared to the eggplant lines; S. sodomaeum stood out for high phenols content. Orthogonal contrast revealed a higher sugar content and low PPO activity in NAS- compared to D3R-typologies, whereas higher chlorogenic acid and anthocyanin contents were present in D3R-typologies. The main effect of the ripening was a decrease in phenols and in the PPO activity, not evidenced in S. sodomaeum, and an increase of glycoalkaloids in overripe fruits. A good relationship was found between superoxide anion scavenging capacity and chlorogenic acid. This study highlighted the pattern of accumulation, also evidencing variations, of several phytochemicals during the eggplant fruit development and ripening. PMID:23134376

Mennella, Giuseppe; Lo Scalzo, Roberto; Fibiani, Marta; D'Alessandro, Antonietta; Francese, Gianluca; Toppino, Laura; Acciarri, Nazzareno; de Almeida, Adelia Emilia; Rotino, Giuseppe Leonardo



Antimicrobial effectiveness of silver nanoparticles co-stabilized by the bioactive copolymer pluronic F68  

PubMed Central

Background Silver nanoparticles (AgNps) have attracted much interest in biomedical engineering, since they have excellent antimicrobial properties. Therefore, AgNps have often been considered for incorporation into medical products for skin pathologies to reduce the risk of contamination. This study aims at evaluating the antimicrobial effectiveness of AgNps stabilized by pluronic™ F68 associated with other polymers such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Methods AgNps antimicrobial activity was evaluated using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. The action spectrum was evaluated for different polymers associated with pluronic™ F68 against the gram negative bacteria P. aeuroginosa and E. coli and the gram positive bacteria S. Aureus. Results AgNps stabilized with PVP or PVA and co-stabilized with pluronic™ F68 are effective against E. coli and P. aeruginosa microorganisms, with MIC values as low as 0.78% of the concentration of the original AgNps dispersion. The antimicrobial action against S. aureus is poor, with MIC values not lower than 25%. Conclusions AgNps stabilized by different polymeric systems have shown improved antimicrobial activity against gram-negative microorganisms in comparison to unstabilized AgNps. Co-stabilization with the bioactive copolymer pluronic™ F68 has further enhanced the antimicrobial effectiveness against both microorganisms. A poor effectiveness has been found against the gram-positive S. aureus microorganism. Future assays are being delineated targeting possible therapeutic applications. PMID:23193983



Survey of skin pigmentation of yellow-skinned broiler chickens.  


The appearance of whole carcass and skin-on cut-up products is an important attribute that deeply affects the consumer's choice. Skin pigmentation is affected mainly by genetics, concentration and dietary source of pigments, health status of the birds, and scalding-plucking conditions during slaughtering, although other factors might play an important role. Retailers request batches of broiler chicken carcasses characterized by uniform skin pigmentation to be sold as whole carcass or parts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability of skin color of yellow-skinned broilers reared under intensive conditions. For the study, a total of 2,300 medium size broiler chickens (2,300 to 2,500 g of live weight) from 23 flocks (100 birds/flock; n = 12 flocks of males and n = 11 flocks of females; n = 12 flocks of Ross 508 and n = 11 flocks of Ross 308) were randomly selected in a single slaughterhouse. The color measurements were carried out on both breast and thigh pterylae as well as on shank skin adopting the L* a* b* system and using a Minolta colorimeter CR 300. The overall range in measured yellowness (b*) was fairly large for all skin color measurement positions. For breast, a mean value of 22.77 (SD = 5.12) was observed, with values ranging from 7.45 to 39.12. Average values of thigh and shank were 20.23 (SD = 5.02; range 1.99 to 37.82) and 53.99 (SD = 8.13; range 24.22 to 78.65), respectively. A higher skin yellowness was observed in females in all body parts as well as in Ross 308. Yellowness values of breast and thigh were significantly correlated (r = 0.85; P < 0.01), suggesting that the color evaluation may be carried out only on one measurement position of the skin. PMID:20548087

Sirri, F; Petracci, M; Bianchi, M; Meluzzi, A



Characteristics of pulsed power generator by versatile inductive voltage adder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pulsed power generator by inductive voltage adder, versatile inductive voltage adder (VIVA-I), which features a high average potential gradient (2.5 MV/m), was designed and is currently in operation,. It was designed to produce an output pulse of 4 MV/60 ns by adding 2 MV pulses in two-stages of induction cells, where amorphous cores are installed. As a pulse forming line, we used a Blumlein line with the switching reversed, where cores are automatically biased due to the presence of prepulse. Good reproducibility was obtained even in the absence of the reset pulse. Within [similar]40% of full charge voltage, pulsed power characteristics of Marx generator, pulse forming line (PFL), transmission line (TL), and induction cells were tested for three types of loads; open-circuit, dummy load of liquid (CuSO4) resistor, and electron beam diode. In the open-circuit test, [similar]2.0 MV of output voltage was obtained with good reproducibility. Dependences of output voltage on diode impedances were evaluated by using various dummy loads, and the results were found as expected. An electron-beam diode was operated successfully, and [similar]18 kA of beam current was obtained at the diode voltage of [similar]1 MV.

Yatsui, Kiyoshi; Shimiya, Kouichi; Masugata, Katsumi; Shigeta, Masao; Shibata, Kazuhiko



Scalable and versatile graphene functionalized with the Mannich condensate.  


The functionalized graphene (JTPG) is fabricated by chemical conversion of graphene oxide (GO), using tea polyphenols (TP) as the reducer and stabilizer, followed by further derivatization through the Mannich reaction between the pyrogallol groups on TP and Jeffamine M-2070. JTPG exhibits solubility in a broad spectrum of solvents, long-term stability and single-layered dispersion in water and organic solvents, which are substantiated by AFM, TEM, and XRD. The paper-like JTPG hybrids prepared by vacuum-assisted filtration exhibits an unusual combination of high toughness (tensile strength of ~275 MPa and break strain of ~8%) and high electrical conductivity (~700 S/m). Still, JTPG is revealed to be very promising in the fabrication of polymer/graphene composites due to the excellent solubility in the solvent with low boiling point and low toxicity. Accordingly, as an example, nitrile rubber/JTPG composites are fabricated by the solution compounding in acetone. The resulted composite shows low threshold percolation at 0.23 vol.% of graphene. The versatilities both in dispersibility and performance, together with the scalable process of JTPG, enable a new way to scale up the fabrication of the graphene-based polymer composites or hybrids with high performance. PMID:23465413

Liao, Ruijuan; Tang, Zhenghai; Lin, Tengfei; Guo, Baochun



A Versatile Software Program for Sampling Sferics and More  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2004, a data acquisition program was written to sample and store sferic waveforms for the upgraded Los Alamos Sferic Array (LASA). The program acquired data using the 20MHz PCI-DAS4020/12 Measurement Computing (MC) board on the stable Linux operating system. The capabilities of this original program have been described elsewhere [Stanley et al., 2004; Shao et al., 2006]. Starting in 2006, this program was modified and enhanced to support data acquisition for a new Charge Moment Change Network (CMCN) which detects and quantifies impulsive charge moment changes of potential sprite-producing lightning discharges in near real-time. Some of the more notable modifications included the addition of low-pass filtered continuous data output capabilities as well as support for National Instruments (NI) boards. The continuous data output was particularly well suited for the unambiguous detection of sferics with slow tails which are often found around the time of sprites and especially sprite halos. The program also utilizes a shared memory architecture which gives it even more versatility in real-time processing as well as enables other modes of data acquisition. In 2008, the program was updated to utilize the Linux Comedi drivers in place of the previous MC and NI drivers. With this modification, the program now supports an even wider variety of data acquisition boards and also runs on the latest Linux distributions.

Stanley, M. A.; Lyons, W. A.; Cummer, S. A.; Jaugey, N.



Ultrafast and versatile spectroscopy by temporal Fourier transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most remarkable and useful properties of a spatially converging lens system is its inherent ability to perform the Fourier transform; the same applies for the time-lens system. At the back focal plane of the time-lens, the spectral information can be instantaneously obtained in the time axis. By implementing temporal Fourier transform for spectroscopy applications, this time-lens-based architecture can provide orders of magnitude improvement over the state-of-art spatial-dispersion-based spectroscopy in terms of the frame rate. On the other hand, in addition to the single-lens structure, the multi-lens structures (e.g. telescope or wide-angle scope) will provide very versatile operating conditions. Leveraging the merit of instantaneous response, as well as the flexible lens structure, here we present a 100-MHz frame rate spectroscopy system - the parametric spectro-temporal analyzer (PASTA), which achieves 17 times zoom in/out ratio for different observation ranges.

Zhang, Chi; Wei, Xiaoming; Marhic, Michel E.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.



Collinear technology for holographic versatile disc (HVD) system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD TM) using Collinear TM Technologies is proposed by OPTWARE Corporation, in which the information and reference beams are displayed co-axially by the same SLM. With this unique configuration the optical pickup can be designed as small as the DVD's, and can be placed on one side of the recording disc. In HVD TM structure, the pre-formatted meta-data reflective layer is used for the focus/tracking servo and reading address information, and the dichroic mirror layer is used for detecting holographic recording information without interfering with the preformatted information. A 2-dimensional digital page data format is used and the shift-multiplexing method is employed to increased recording density of HVD TM. Experimental and theoretical studies suggest that the holographic material is very effective to increased recording density of the system. As the servo technology is being introduced to control the objective lens to be maintained precisely to the disc in the recording and the reconstructing process, a vibration isolator is no longer necessary. HVD TM will be compatible with existing disc storage systems, like CD and DVD, and enable us to expand its applications into other optical information storage systems.

Tan, Xiaodi; Horimai, Hideyoshi; Shimura, Tsutomu; Ichimura, Shotaro; Fujimura, Ryushi; Kuroda, Kazuo



Ultrafast and versatile spectroscopy by temporal Fourier transform  

PubMed Central

One of the most remarkable and useful properties of a spatially converging lens system is its inherent ability to perform the Fourier transform; the same applies for the time-lens system. At the back focal plane of the time-lens, the spectral information can be instantaneously obtained in the time axis. By implementing temporal Fourier transform for spectroscopy applications, this time-lens-based architecture can provide orders of magnitude improvement over the state-of-art spatial-dispersion-based spectroscopy in terms of the frame rate. On the other hand, in addition to the single-lens structure, the multi-lens structures (e.g. telescope or wide-angle scope) will provide very versatile operating conditions. Leveraging the merit of instantaneous response, as well as the flexible lens structure, here we present a 100-MHz frame rate spectroscopy system – the parametric spectro-temporal analyzer (PASTA), which achieves 17 times zoom in/out ratio for different observation ranges. PMID:24939667

Zhang, Chi; Wei, Xiaoming; Marhic, Michel E.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.



Robust and Versatile Black-Box Certification of Quantum Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-testing refers to the fact that, in some quantum devices, both states and measurements can be assessed in a black-box scenario, on the sole basis of the observed statistics, i.e., without reference to any prior device calibration. Only a few examples of self-testing are known, and they just provide nontrivial assessment for devices performing unrealistically close to the ideal case. We overcome these difficulties by approaching self-testing with the semidefinite programing hierarchy for the characterization of quantum correlations. This allows us to improve dramatically the robustness of previous self-testing schemes; e.g., we show that a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt violation larger than 2.57 certifies a singlet fidelity of more than 70%. In addition, the versatility of the tool brings about self-testing of hitherto impossible cases, such as the robust self-testing of nonmaximally entangled two-qutrit states in the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu scenario.

Yang, Tzyh Haur; Vértesi, Tamás; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Scarani, Valerio; Navascués, Miguel



Versatile optofluidic ring resonator lasers based on microdroplets.  


We develop a novel nL-sized microdroplet laser based on the capillary optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR). The microdroplet is generated in a microfluidic channel using two immiscible fluids and is subsequently delivered to the capillary OFRR downstream. Despite the presence of the high refractive index (RI) carrier fluid, the lasing emission can still be achieved for the droplet formed by low RI solution. The lasing threshold of 1.54 µJ/mm(2) is achieved, >6 times lower than the state-of-the-art, thanks to the high Q-factor of the OFRR. Furthermore, the lasing emission can be conveniently coupled into an optical fiber. Finally, tuning of the lasing wavelength is achieved via highly efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer processes by merging two different dye droplets in the microfluidic channel. Versatility combined with improved lasing characteristics makes our OFRR droplet laser an attractive platform for high performance optofluidic lasers and bio/chemical sensing with small sample volumes. PMID:21996908

Lee, Wonsuk; Luo, Yunhan; Zhu, Qiran; Fan, Xudong



Robust and versatile black-box certification of quantum devices.  


Self-testing refers to the fact that, in some quantum devices, both states and measurements can be assessed in a black-box scenario, on the sole basis of the observed statistics, i.e., without reference to any prior device calibration. Only a few examples of self-testing are known, and they just provide nontrivial assessment for devices performing unrealistically close to the ideal case. We overcome these difficulties by approaching self-testing with the semidefinite programing hierarchy for the characterization of quantum correlations. This allows us to improve dramatically the robustness of previous self-testing schemes; e.g., we show that a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt violation larger than 2.57 certifies a singlet fidelity of more than 70%. In addition, the versatility of the tool brings about self-testing of hitherto impossible cases, such as the robust self-testing of nonmaximally entangled two-qutrit states in the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu scenario. PMID:25105599

Yang, Tzyh Haur; Vértesi, Tamás; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Scarani, Valerio; Navascués, Miguel



Versatile data acquisition system and the ISOL facility TRISTAN  

SciTech Connect

The on-line mass separator, TRISTAN, is located at Brookhaven's High Flux Beam Reactor. A Nielsen-type ion source, which can contain up to 8g. of /sup 235/U in an external beam with a flux of approx. 2 x 10/sup 9/ n/cm/sup 2//sec is used to generate short-lived fission products. A Users Group has been formed to coordinate research between University groups and BNL. Developments planned for TRISTAN include FEBIAD, surface ionization and negative-surface ionization-type ion sources, and a He-jet system as well as construction of new experimental facilities. An off-line separator, ISTU, is available for the development program. A versatile, modular data acquisition system to service experiments on TRISTAN and other nuclear research facilities at the HFBR using Camac interfacing is described. Standard, commercially-available electronic instruments and computer programs, such as FORTRAN and system routines, are used throughout. Simple interfaces have been built to adapt non-Camac equipment to Camac input registers.

Gill, R.L.; Stelts, M.L.; Chrien, R.E.; Manzella, V.; Liou, H.I.; Shostak, S.



Attached shuttle payload carriers: Versatile and affordable access to space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The shuttle has been primarily designed to be a versatile vehicle for placing a variety of scientific and technological equipment in space including very large payloads; however, since many large payloads do not fill the shuttle bay, the space and weight margins remaining after the major payloads are accommodated often can be made available to small payloads. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has designed standardized mounting structures and other support systems, collectively called attached shuttle payload (ASP) carriers, to make this additional space available to researchers at a relatively modest cost. Other carrier systems for ASP's are operated by other NASA centers. A major feature of the ASP carriers is their ease of use in the world of the Space Shuttle. ASP carriers attempt to minimized the payload interaction with Space Transportation System (STS) operations whenever possible. Where this is not possible, the STS services used are not extensive. As a result, the interfaces between the carriers and the STS are simplified. With this near autonomy, the requirements for supporting documentation are considerably lessened and payload costs correspondingly reduced. The ASP carrier systems and their capabilities are discussed in detail. The range of available capabilities assures that an experimenter can select the simplest, most cost-effective carrier that is compatible with his or her experimental objectives. Examples of payloads which use ASP basic hardware in nonstandard ways are also described.



miR-9: a versatile regulator of neurogenesis.  


Soon after its discovery, microRNA-9 (miR-9) attracted the attention of neurobiologists, since it is one of the most highly expressed microRNAs in the developing and adult vertebrate brain. Functional analyses in different vertebrate species have revealed a prominent role of this microRNA in balancing proliferation in embryonic neural progenitor populations. Key transcriptional regulators such as FoxG1, Hes1 or Tlx, were identified as direct targets of miR-9, placing it at the core of the gene network controlling the progenitor state. Recent data also suggest that this function could extend to adult neural stem cells. Other studies point to a role of miR-9 in differentiated neurons. Moreover miR-9 has been implicated in human brain pathologies, either displaying a protective role, such as in Progeria, or participating in disease progression in brain cancers. Altogether functional studies highlight a prominent feature of this highly conserved microRNA, its functional versatility, both along its evolutionary history and across cellular contexts. PMID:24312010

Coolen, Marion; Katz, Shauna; Bally-Cuif, Laure



Versatile loops in mycocypins inhibit three protease families.  


Mycocypins, clitocypins and macrocypins, are cysteine protease inhibitors isolated from the mushrooms Clitocybe nebularis and Macrolepiota procera. Lack of sequence homology to other families of protease inhibitors suggested that mycocypins inhibit their target cysteine protease by a unique mechanism and that a novel fold may be found. The crystal structures of the complex of clitocypin with the papain-like cysteine protease cathepsin V and of macrocypin and clitocypin alone have revealed yet another motif of binding to papain like-cysteine proteases, which in a yet unrevealed way occludes the catalytic residue. The binding is associated with a peptide-bond flip of glycine that occurs before or concurrently with the inhibitor docking. Mycocypins possess a beta-trefoil fold, the hallmark of Kunitz-type inhibitors. It is a tree-like structure with two loops in the root region, a stem comprising a six-stranded beta-barrel, and two layers of loops (6 + 3) in the crown region. The two loops that bind to cysteine cathepsins belong to the lower layer of the crown loops, whereas a single loop from the crown region can inhibit trypsin or asparaginyl endopeptidase, as demonstrated by site-directed mutagenesis. These loops present a versatile surface with the potential to bind to additional classes of proteases. When appropriately engineered, they could provide the basis for possible exploitation in crop protection. PMID:19846555

Renko, Miha; Sabotic, Jerica; Mihelic, Marko; Brzin, Joze; Kos, Janko; Turk, Dusan



Graphene veils: A versatile surface chemistry for sensors.  


Thin spun-coat films (~4 nm thick) of graphene oxide (GO) constitute a versatile surface chemistry compatible with a broad range of technologically important sensor materials. Countless publications are dedicated to the nuances of surface chemistries that have been developed for sensors, with almost every material having unique characteristics. There would be enormous value in a surface chemistry that could be applied generally with functionalization and passivation already optimized regardless of the sensor material it covered. Such a film would need to be thin, conformal, and allow for multiple routes toward covalent linkages. It is also vital that the film permit the underlying sensor to transduce. Here we show that GO films can be applied over a diverse set of sensor surfaces, can link biomolecules through multiple reaction pathways, and can support cell growth. Application of a graphene veil atop a magnetic sensor array is demonstrated with an immunoassay. We also present biosensing and material characterization data for these graphene veils. PMID:25005690

Mulvaney, Shawn P; Stine, Rory; Long, Nina C; Tamanaha, Cy R; Sheehan, Paul E



Fullerene nanowires as a versatile platform for organic electronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of organic semiconducting nanowires that act as charge carrier transport pathways in flexible and lightweight nanoelectronics is a major scientific challenge. We report on the fabrication of fullerene nanowires that is universally applicable to its derivatives (pristine C60, methanofullerenes of C61 and C71, and indene C60 bis-adduct), realized by the single particle nanofabrication technique (SPNT). Nanowires with radii of 8-11 nm were formed via a chain polymerization reaction induced by a high-energy ion beam. Fabrication of a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT): [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cell including PC61BM nanowires with precisely-controlled length and density demonstrates how application of this methodology can improve the power conversion efficiency of these inverted cells. The proposed technique provides a versatile platform for the fabrication of continuous and uniform n-type fullerene nanowires towards a wide range of organic electronics applications.

Maeyoshi, Yuta; Saeki, Akinori; Suwa, Shotaro; Omichi, Masaaki; Marui, Hiromi; Asano, Atsushi; Tsukuda, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Masaki; Kishimura, Akihiro; Kataoka, Kazunori; Seki, Shu



Versatile approach for the fabrication of functional wrinkled polymer surfaces.  


A simple and versatile approach to obtaining patterned surfaces via wrinkle formation with variable dimensions and functionality is described. The method consists of the simultaneous heating and irradiation with UV light of a photosensitive monomer solution confined between two substrates with variable spacer thicknesses. Under these conditions, the system is photo-cross-linked, producing a rapid volume contraction while capillary forces attempt to maintain the contact between the monomer mixture and the cover. As a result of these two interacting forces, surface wrinkles were formed. Several parameters play a key role in the formation and final characteristics (amplitude and period) of the wrinkles generated, including the formulation of the photosensitive solution (e.g., the composition of the monomer mixture) and preparation conditions (e.g., temperature employed, irradiation time, and film thickness). Finally, in addition, the possibility of modifying the surface chemical composition of these wrinkled surfaces was investigated. For this purpose, either hydrophilic or hydrophobic comonomers were included in the photosensitive mixture. The resulting surface chemical composition could be finely tuned as was demonstrated by significant variations in the wettability of the structured surfaces, between 56° and 104°, when hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers were incorporated, respectively. PMID:25316583

Palacios-Cuesta, Marta; Liras, Marta; Del Campo, Adolfo; García, Olga; Rodríguez-Hernández, Juan



A Versatile Model of Small Solar System Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A versatile model has been developed that represents the three-dimensional shape and surface properties of cometary nuclei and asteroids and consistently simulates the aspects of illumination, thermal emission, rotational state, and gas production (when volatiles are present). The geometrical model approximates a triaxial ellipsoid by a large number of triangular patches that can be modified to add surface features, such as craters, mounds, mesas, plains, and other features. The physical model allows arbitrary illumination and viewing angles with shadowing and scattering properties that may vary over the surface. By considering the energy balance at each surface patch, temperatures and sublimation rates are found which are integrated to yield total thermal emission and gas production. Applications of the model to comets (19P/Borrelly and 10P/Tempel 2) and asteroids (216 Kleopatra and 951 Gaspra) are presented. The model is useful for planning spacecraft encounters with small solar system objects and for analyzing observations and in situ measurements of these bodies from spacecraft when available.

Boice, D.


Development of bioactive materials using reticulated ceramics for bone substitute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For hard tissue prosthetics, it is necessary to seek novel synthesis routes by which a real structural bone can be simulated in terms of bioactivity, porosity, and mechanical behavior. The work presented here deals with the development of such a component by a novel synthesis route for bone implantation. To enhance the mechanical properties, an industrial alumina has been selected as the substrate. Alumina is not only bio inert but also mechanically strong which makes it an ideal substrate for bone substitute. The high porosity is achieved via a sponge technique by which both pore size and density can be changed easily. The bioactivity is induced by coating a highly bioactive HA film onto the inner pore surfaces of the reticulated alumina. Based on this concept, the research has focused on the coating of HA onto inner pore surfaces of the reticulated alumina via several effective methods that are developed in our laboratory. No previous studies have so far been reported on coating inner surfaces of small-diameter pores ranging from 0.1--1.0 mm. The key materials processing issues dealt with in this work include precursor chemistry, coating procedures, synthesis of coated component, interface structure study, film adhesion strength testing, and mechanical properties of the component. This novel approach has shown great promise in synthesizing bone substitutes. To determine the applicability of the coated component in hard tissue prosthetics, a bioactivity study has been carried out. By immersing the synthetic HA into simulated body fluid (SBF), the bioresponse has been measured for a variety of samples with different processing conditions. Fundamental aspects of this study are centered on the effects of structural characteristics of HA on the bioactivity. Based on extensive IR and XRD experimental data, it has been found that the bioactivity of HA is sensitively controlled by the structural crystallinity of the HA and its specific surface area. Furthermore, based on the extensive experimental data obtained in this dissertation, detailed recommendations have been made for future research. It is recommended that the porous composite is to be further developed to possess a porosity gradient similar to the bone structure.

Jiang, Gengwei


Treating Acne in Skin of Color  


... decolorize skin. Topical acne medications for skin of color. Clinical studies show that some topical medications, such ... safely and effectively treat acne in skin of color without the drying effects when used properly. Topical ...


Capturing skin properties from dynamic mechanical analyses  

E-print Network

Existing skin mechanical testing devices focus on measuring skin elasticity and are not tailored to assess the dynamic behavior of skin. The mathematical techniques used to analyze data collected using these devices are ...

Sandford, Erika J. (Erika Jaye)



Skin and glucocorticoids: effects of local skin glucocorticoid impairment on skin homeostasis.  


The role of skin as a de novo source of glucocorticoids and the importance of cutaneous glucocorticoidogenesis as a homeostatic mechanism in human skin is highlighted by Slominski et al. in a recently published issue. Impairment of glucocorticoidogenesis through noxious stimuli, such as UVB, can explain pathophysiology of skin diseases (e.g. rosacea). In addition to keratinocytes, melanocytes and fibroblasts, cutaneous adnexes also play a significant role as targets and sources of glucocorticoids, because they express most of the enzymes required for steroidogenesis. Glucocorticoids are also involved in the pathogenesis of acne lesions, affecting sebum production in vivo and in vitro. Certain steroidogenic enzymes, such as 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, are upregulated in acne lesions. On this background, the paper by Slominski et al. provides further insights into dermatoendocrinology, with emphasis on the importance of an impairment of the skin's own hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-like axis in the pathophysiology of several skin diseases. PMID:25056134

Nikolakis, Georgios; Zouboulis, Christos C



Ultraviolet Light and Skin Cancer in Athletes  

PubMed Central

The incidence of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide. Ultraviolet light exposure is the most important risk factor for cutaneous melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Nonmelanoma skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Constitutive skin color and genetic factors, as well as immunological factors, play a role in the development of skin cancer. Ultraviolet light also causes sunburn and photoaging damage to the skin. PMID:23015891

Harrison, Shannon C.; Bergfeld, Wilma F.



Preventive Skin Care Fact or Fiction?  

E-print Network

The Good Source of Vitamin D Mood Enhancer The Bad Premature Skin Aging Cararacts Skin Cancer ** #12;What is skin cancer? #12;How common is skin cancer? 1 out of 3 cancers = skin cancer 1 10 million and counting 1 20

Goldman, Steven A.


Identification and characterisation of water and alkali soluble oligosaccharides from hazelnut skin (Corylus avellana L.).  


Hazelnut skins are a good example of agricultural by-product with the potential to become a valuable source of functional ingredients. In this work, the fibre from hazelnut skins was extracted by using water and alkali solution and characterised by a suite of analytical tools (MALDI-FTICR, nano LC-Chip-Q-ToF and gas chromatography). Over thirty complex free oligosaccharides, composed mainly of galacturonic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine, were characterised for the first time in the present study. Their concentration ranged between 16 and 34mg per g of extract. The oligosaccharides isolated from this agricultural by-product are mainly hexose oligosaccharides (potentially galacto-oligosaccharides,) and xyloglucans. The identified composition could justify the bioactive activity of the extracts, namely prebiotic activity, previously demonstrated. PMID:23692758

Montella, Rosa; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Travaglia, Fabiano; Locatelli, Monica; Bordiga, Matteo; Meyrand, Mickael; Barile, Daniela; Arlorio, Marco



Potential use of Cytisus scoparius extracts in topical applications for skin protection against oxidative damage.  


Cytisus scoparius L. is used in folk medicine for the treatment of several ailments in which the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of its carotenoid and flavonoid content is suggested to play an important role. We postulate that flavonoid- and carotenoid-rich extracts from C. scoparius may become useful in the preparation of formulations for topical application to protect the skin against oxidative damage mediated by high energy UV light radiation. The aim of this work was to apply an extraction process to obtain a bioactive extract from C. scoparius for the potential use in topical applications. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts from C. scoparius were characterized for its reducing capacity, radical scavenging capacity, and on the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS). The extracts showed activities comparable to that of synthetic antioxidants, and absence of skin-irritant effects at 1%. Those make them good candidates to be used in topical applications as active ingredients. PMID:23751539

González, Noelia; Ribeiro, Daniela; Fernandes, Eduarda; Nogueira, Daniele R; Conde, Enma; Moure, Andrés; Vinardell, María Pilar; Mitjans, Montserrat; Domínguez, Herminia



Pre-bottling use of dehydrated waste grape skins to improve colour, phenolic and aroma composition of red wines.  


Different dehydrated waste grape skins from the juice industry were added into aged and young red wines as an innovative way of compensating for colour loss before bottling. After addition of grape skins, colour intensity of wines increased a mean 11% and a maximum of 31% with predominance of the red component. Total polyphenols mean increase was 10% with a maximum value of 20%. Analysis of low molecular weight phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD showed a significant (p<0.05) content increase of the bioactive compounds gallic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and (E)-resveratrol. Anthocyanins content also increased at an average of 50mg/l. The volatile profile of wines analysed by SBSE-GC-MS was only moderately influenced by the treatments. Mixtures of dehydrated waste grape skins were useful to improve the colour and polyphenol profile of red wines, considering them a useful tool for correcting colour loss before bottling. PMID:23017417

Pedroza, Miguel Angel; Carmona, Manuel; Alonso, Gonzalo Luis; Salinas, Maria Rosario; Zalacain, Amaya



Skin biothermomechanics for medical treatments.  


Electromagnetic heating, such as microwave, radiofrequency, and laser etc., is widely used in medical treatments. Recent advances in these technologies resulted in remarkable developments of thermal treatments for a multitude of diseases and injuries involving skin tissue. The comprehension of heat transfer and related thermomechanics in skin tissue during these treatments is thus of great importance, and can contribute to the further developments of these medical applications. Biothermomechanics of skin is highly interdisciplinary, involving bioheat transfer, burn damage, biomechanics, and physiology. The aim of this study is to develop a computational approach to examine the heat transfer process, heat-induced mechanical response, as well as the associated pain level, so that the differences among the clinically applied heating modalities can be quantified. In this paper, numerical simulation with the finite difference method (FDM) was used to analyze the temperature, burn damage, and thermal stress distributions in the skin tissue subjected to various thermal treatments. The results showed that the thermomechanical behavior of skin tissue is very complex: blood perfusion has little effect on thermal damage, but a large influence on skin temperature distribution, which, in turn, influences significantly the resulting thermal stress field; for laser heating, the peak temperature is higher for lasers with shorter wavelengths, but the peak is closer to the skin surface; the thermal stress due to laser and microwave heating is mainly limited to the top epidermis layer due to the exponential decrease of heat generation along skin depth; the thin (and commonly overlooked) stratum corneum layer dominates the thermomechanical response of skin tissue. PMID:19627782

Xu, F; Wen, T; Lu, T J; Seffen, K A



Lyme borreliosis and skin.  


Lyme disease is a multisystem illness which is caused by the strains of spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and transmitted by the tick, Ixodes. Though very commonly reported from the temperate regions of the world, the incidence has increased worldwide due to increasing travel and changing habitats of the vector. Few cases have been reported from the Indian subcontinent too. Skin manifestations are the earliest to occur, and diagnosing these lesions followed by appropriate treatment, can prevent complications of the disease, which are mainly neurological. The three main dermatological manifestations are erythema chronicum migrans, borrelial lymphocytoma and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. Many other dermatological conditions including morphea, lichen sclerosus and lately B cell lymphoma, have been attributed to the disease. Immunofluorescence and polymerase reaction tests have been developed to overcome the problems for diagnosis. Culture methods are also used for diagnosis. Treatment with Doxycycline is the mainstay of management, though prevention is of utmost importance. Vaccines against the condition are still not very successful. Hence, the importance of recognising the cutaneous manifestations early, to prevent systemic complications which can occur if left untreated, can be understood. This review highlights the cutaneous manifestations of Lyme borreliosis and its management. PMID:23723463

Vasudevan, Biju; Chatterjee, Manas



Lyme Borreliosis and Skin  

PubMed Central

Lyme disease is a multisystem illness which is caused by the strains of spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and transmitted by the tick, Ixodes. Though very commonly reported from the temperate regions of the world, the incidence has increased worldwide due to increasing travel and changing habitats of the vector. Few cases have been reported from the Indian subcontinent too. Skin manifestations are the earliest to occur, and diagnosing these lesions followed by appropriate treatment, can prevent complications of the disease, which are mainly neurological. The three main dermatological manifestations are erythema chronicum migrans, borrelial lymphocytoma and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. Many other dermatological conditions including morphea, lichen sclerosus and lately B cell lymphoma, have been attributed to the disease. Immunofluorescence and polymerase reaction tests have been developed to overcome the problems for diagnosis. Culture methods are also used for diagnosis. Treatment with Doxycycline is the mainstay of management, though prevention is of utmost importance. Vaccines against the condition are still not very successful. Hence, the importance of recognising the cutaneous manifestations early, to prevent systemic complications which can occur if left untreated, can be understood. This review highlights the cutaneous manifestations of Lyme borreliosis and its management. PMID:23723463

Vasudevan, Biju; Chatterjee, Manas



Nanocellulose-based composites and bioactive agents for food packaging.  


Global environmental concern, regarding the use of petroleum-based packaging materials, is encouraging researchers and industries in the search for packaging materials from natural biopolymers. Bioactive packaging is gaining more and more interest not only due to its environment friendly nature but also due to its potential to improve food quality and safety during packaging. Some of the shortcomings of biopolymers, such as weak mechanical and barrier properties can be significantly enhanced by the use of nanomaterials such as nanocellulose (NC). The use of NC can extend the food shelf life and can also improve the food quality as they can serve as carriers of some active substances, such as antioxidants and antimicrobials. The NC fiber-based composites have great potential in the preparation of cheap, lightweight, and very strong nanocomposites for food packaging. This review highlights the potential use and application of NC fiber-based nanocomposites and also the incorporation of bioactive agents in food packaging. PMID:24188266

Khan, Avik; Huq, Tanzina; Khan, Ruhul A; Riedl, Bernard; Lacroix, Monique



SFE kinetics of bioactive compounds from Helianthus annuus L.  


The kinetics of the supercritical fluid extraction of bioactive compounds from sunflower using CO(2) as solvent were studied in order to establish an efficient method for this extraction. The influence of time of extraction at different solvent flow rates was investigated. The extraction pressure and temperature were optimized in previous studies and these values used were 400 bar and 50 degrees C. The extraction yields and the bioactivity levels of the extracts were also analysed. The results indicate that the most appropriate extraction time is between 120 and 180 min depending on the solvent flow and the pretreatment of the sample. The dried sample extracted at 40 g/min, the congealed sample extracted at the same flow and 180 min, and the dried sample extracted at 25 g/min for 120 min showed the best activity profiles. The extractions were carried out in a pilot plant with an extraction vessel with a capacity of 2 L. PMID:19330786

Casas, Lourdes; Mantell, Casimiro; Rodríguez, Miguel; Torres, Ascensión; Macías, Francisco A; Martínez de la Ossa, Enrique J



Preparation of bioactive porous HA/PCL composite scaffolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic scaffold has been widely attracted the attention to act as a three-dimensional (3D) template for cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and thus promoting bone and cartilage regeneration because of its osteoinduction. However, the porous bioceramic scaffold is fragile so that it is not suitable to be applied in clinic for bone repair or replacement. Therefore, it is significant to improve the mechanical property of porous HA bioceramics while the interconnected structure is maintained for tissue ingrowth in vivo. In the present research, a porous composite scaffold composed of HA scaffold and polycaprolactone (PCL) lining was fabricated by the method of polymer impregnating to produce HA scaffold coated with PCL lining. Subsequently, the composite scaffolds were deposited with biomimetic coating for improving the bioactivity. The HA/PCL composite scaffolds with improved mechanical property and bioactivity is expected to be a promising bone substitute in tissue engineering applications.

Zhao, J.; Guo, L. Y.; Yang, X. B.; Weng, J.



Natural bioactive compounds of Citrus limon for food and health.  


Citrus genus is the most important fruit tree crop in the world and lemon is the third most important Citrus species. Several studies highlighted lemon as an important health-promoting fruit rich in phenolic compounds as well as vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, essential oils and carotenoids. Lemon fruit has a strong commercial value for the fresh products market and food industry. Moreover, lemon productive networks generate high amounts of wastes and by-products that constitute an important source of bioactive compounds with potential for animal feed, manufactured foods, and health care. This review focuses on the phytochemistry and the analytical aspects of lemon compounds as well as on the importance for food industry and the relevance of Citrus limon for nutrition and health, bringing an overview of what is published on the bioactive compounds of this fruit. PMID:19748198

González-Molina, E; Domínguez-Perles, R; Moreno, D A; García-Viguera, C



Production of Bioactive Compounds by Actinomycetes and Their Antioxidant Properties  

PubMed Central

An actinomycete was isolated from mangrove soil collected from Nellore region of Andhra Pradesh, India, and screened for its ability to produce bioactive compounds. The cultural, morphological, and biochemical characters and 16S rRNA sequencing suggest that the isolated strain is Nocardiopsis alba. The bioactive compounds produced by this strain were purified by column chromatography. The in vitro antioxidant capacity of the isolated compounds (fractions) was estimated and fraction F2 showed very near values to the standard ascorbic acid. The potential fraction obtained by column chromatography was subjected to HPLC for further purification, then this purified fraction F2 was examined by FTIR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy to elucidate its chemical structure. By spectral data, the structure of the isolated compound was predicted as “(Z)-1-((1-hydroxypenta-2,4-dien-1-yl)oxy)anthracene-9,10-dione.” PMID:24790761

Janardhan, Avilala; Kumar, Arthala Praveen; Viswanath, Buddolla; Saigopal, D. V. R.; Narasimha, Golla



Analysis, structural characterization, and bioactivity of oligosaccharides derived from lactose.  


The increasing interest for prebiotic carbohydrates as functional food ingredients has promoted the synthesis of galactooligosaccharides and new lactose derivatives. This review provides a comprehensive overview on the chromatographic analysis, structural characterization, and bioactivity studies of lactose-derived oligosaccharides. The most common chromatographic techniques used for the separation and structural characterization of this type of oligosaccharides, including GC and HPLC in different operational modes, coupled to various detectors are discussed. Insights on oligosaccharide MS fragmentation patterns, using different ionization sources and mass analyzers, as well as data on structural analysis by NMR spectroscopy are also described. Finally, this article deals with the bioactive effects of galacto oligosaccharides and oligosaccharides derived from lactulose on the gastrointestinal and immune systems, which support their consumption to provide significant health benefits. PMID:24446419

Moreno, F Javier; Montilla, Antonia; Villamiel, Mar; Corzo, Nieves; Olano, Agustín



Essential oils: extraction, bioactivities, and their uses for food preservation.  


Essential oils are concentrated liquids of complex mixtures of volatile compounds and can be extracted from several plant organs. Essential oils are a good source of several bioactive compounds, which possess antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. In addition, some essential oils have been used as medicine. Furthermore, the uses of essential oils have received increasing attention as the natural additives for the shelf-life extension of food products, due to the risk in using synthetic preservatives. Essential oils can be incorporated into packaging, in which they can provide multifunctions termed "active or smart packaging." Those essential oils are able to modify the matrix of packaging materials, thereby rendering the improved properties. This review covers up-to-date literatures on essential oils including sources, chemical composition, extraction methods, bioactivities, and their applications, particularly with the emphasis on preservation and the shelf-life extension of food products. PMID:24888440

Tongnuanchan, Phakawat; Benjakul, Soottawat



Bayesian Models Leveraging Bioactivity and Cytotoxicity Information for Drug Discovery  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Identification of unique leads represents a significant challenge in drug discovery. This hurdle is magnified in neglected diseases such as tuberculosis. We have leveraged public high-throughput screening (HTS) data, to experimentally validate virtual screening approach employing Bayesian models built with bioactivity information (single-event model) as well as bioactivity and cytotoxicity information (dual-event model). We virtually screen a commercial library and experimentally confirm actives with hit rates exceeding typical HTS results by 1-2 orders of magnitude. The first dual-event Bayesian model identified compounds with antitubercular whole-cell activity and low mammalian cell cytotoxicity from a published set of antimalarials. The most potent hit exhibits the in vitro activity and in vitro/in vivo safety profile of a drug lead. These Bayesian models offer significant economies in time and cost to drug discovery. PMID:23521795

Ekins, Sean; Reynolds, Robert C.; Kim, Hiyun; Koo, Mi-Sun; Ekonomidis, Marilyn; Talaue, Meliza; Paget, Steve D.; Woolhiser, Lisa K.; Lenaerts, Anne J.; Bunin, Barry A.; Connell, Nancy; Freundlich, Joel S.



Sulfated polysaccharides as bioactive agents from marine algae.  


Recently, much attention has been paid by consumers toward natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in nutraceuticals. Marine algae are considered as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Marine algae are rich in sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) such as carrageenans in red algae, fucoidans in brown algae and ulvans in green algae. These SPs exhibit many health beneficial nutraceutical effects such as antioxidant, anti-allergic, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anticancer and anticoagulant activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential to be further developed as medicinal food products or nutraceuticals in the food industry. This contribution presents an overview of nutraceutical effects and potential health benefits of SPs derived from marine algae. PMID:23994790

Ngo, Dai-Hung; Kim, Se-Kwon



Bioactive hemicelluloses alkali-extracted from Fallopia sachalinensis leaves.  


Fallopia sachalinensis, regarded as an invasive plant in Europe and designated for disposal, is traditionally used in Japan and China as herbal medicine. Attempted for valorization of the leaves, this paper reports on two protein-free polysaccharide fractions, a neutral (FS-5A) and an acidic (FS-5B) one, obtained via alkali extraction and consecutive purification. Both fractions were characterized by chemical, molecular, structural and bioactive properties. FTIR and 1D/2D NMR analyses revealed that FS-5A consisted of a fucogalactoxyloglucan, whereas, glucuronoxylan was the major hemicellulose in FS-5B accompanied with low proportions of fucosylated xyloglucan and pectic RG-I. Both hemicellulose fractions exhibited significant immunostimulating activity in the complement-fixation test and the latter had noticeable DPPH radical-scavenging ability. The results completed information about neutral and acidic bioactive polysaccharide components present in the leaves of F. sachalinensis. PMID:25238126

Koš?álová, Zuzana; Hromádková, Zdenka; Paulsen Berit, Smestad; Ebringerová, Anna



Skin-to-skin (kangaroo) care, respiratory control, and thermoregulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To demonstrate that skin-to-skin care (SSC) has no detrimental effects on the frequency of episodes of bradycardia and\\/or hypoxemia. Methods: Twenty-two spontaneously breathing preterm infants (median gestational age at birth, 29 weeks [range, 24-31 weeks]; age at study, 26 days [range, 7-72 days]; weight at study, 1310 g [range, 725-1890 g]) had three 2-hour recordings of breathing movements, nasal

Bettina Bohnhorst; Tim Heyne; Corinna S. Peter; Christian F. Poets



The Human Skin Microbiome in Health and Skin Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The human skin, as the largest organ of the human body, protects the underlying tissues and plays an important role as a front-line\\u000a defense system against external environmental changes and invading pathogens. It is colonized by a unique and complex microbial\\u000a ecosystem, including bacteria, fungi, and bacteriophages, some of which could become pathogenic under certain circumstances.\\u000a The skin microbiota is

Huiying Li


Bioactive norsesquiterpenes from Helianthus annuus with potential allelopathic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six bioactive norsesquiterpenes have been isolated from Helianthus annus (sunflower) var. SH-222® and VYP®. Three new ionone type bisnorsesquiterpenes and a new norbisabolene are potential allelopathic agents. Their structures were determined through the analysis of their homo- and hetero-nuclear 2D-NMR spectral data. On the basis of combined studies of the theoretical conformations and NOEDIFF data the relative stereochemistry is proposed.

Francisco A. Macías; Rosa M. Varela; Ascensión Torres; Rosa M. Oliva; José M. G. Molinillo



Bioactivation of pentaerythrityl tetranitrate by mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase.  


Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) contributes to vascular bioactivation of the antianginal drugs nitroglycerin (GTN) and pentaerythrityl tetranitrate (PETN), resulting in cGMP-mediated vasodilation. Although continuous treatment with GTN results in the loss of efficacy that is presumably caused by inactivation of ALDH2, PETN does not induce vascular tolerance. To clarify the mechanisms underlying the distinct pharmacological profiles of GTN and PETN, bioactivation of the nitrates was studied with aortas isolated from ALDH2-deficient and nitrate-tolerant mice, isolated mitochondria, and purified ALDH2. Pharmacological inhibition or gene deletion of ALDH2 attenuated vasodilation to both GTN and PETN to virtually the same degree as long-term treatment with GTN, whereas treatment with PETN did not cause tolerance. Purified ALDH2 catalyzed bioactivation of PETN, assayed as activation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and formation of nitric oxide (NO). The EC(50) value of PETN for sGC activation was 2.2 ± 0.5 ?M. Denitration of PETN to pentaerythrityl trinitrate was catalyzed by ALDH2 with a specific activity of 9.6 ± 0.8 nmol · min(-1) · mg(-1) and a very low apparent affinity of 94.7 ± 7.4 ?M. In contrast to GTN, PETN did not cause significant inactivation of ALDH2. Our data suggest that ALDH2 catalyzes bioconversion of PETN in two distinct reactions. Besides the major denitration pathway, which occurs only at high PETN concentrations, a minor high-affinity pathway may reflect vascular bioactivation of the nitrate yielding NO. The very low rate of ALDH2 inactivation, presumably as a result of low affinity of the denitration pathway, may at least partially explain why PETN does not induce vascular tolerance. PMID:21156756

Griesberger, Martina; Kollau, Alexander; Wölkart, Gerald; Wenzl, M Verena; Beretta, Matteo; Russwurm, Michael; Koesling, Doris; Schmidt, Kurt; Gorren, Antonius C F; Mayer, Bernd



LbL Films as Reservoirs for Bioactive Molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This review presents recent progress in utilizing polymeric films made by the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique (so-called multilayered\\u000a films) as reservoirs for hosting and releasing bioactive molecules. This relatively new technique is distinguished by its\\u000a high modularity and structural control at the nanometer level, giving polymeric surface films with tuneable physicochemical\\u000a properties. A significant increase in research activities regarding the bioapplications

D. Volodkin; A. Skirtach; H. Möhwald


Dietary plant bioactives for poultry health and productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?Plants and their biologically active chemical constituents, sometimes called secondary metabolites or bioactives, present numerous opportunities for the improvement of livestock production by inclusion in the diet.2.?Many such plant derived materials have well established therapeutic values in man; however, their potential as feed additives in animal production, particularly of poultry, remains largely unexploited.3.?There is increasing evidence indicating that they can

R. J. Wallace; W. Oleszek; C. Franz; I. Hahn; K. H. C. Baser; A. Mathe; K. Teichmann



Marine Bioactives: Pharmacological Properties and Potential Applications against Inflammatory Diseases  

PubMed Central

Inflammation is a hot topic in medical research, because it plays a key role in inflammatory diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other forms of arthritis, diabetes, heart diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, allergies, asthma, even cancer and many others. Over the past few decades, it was realized that the process of inflammation is virtually the same in different disorders, and a better understanding of inflammation may lead to better treatments for numerous diseases. Inflammation is the activation of the immune system in response to infection, irritation, or injury, with an influx of white blood cells, redness, heat, swelling, pain, and dysfunction of the organs involved. Although the pathophysiological basis of these conditions is not yet fully understood, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have often been implicated in their pathogenesis. In fact, in inflammatory diseases the antioxidant defense system is compromised, as evidenced by increased markers of oxidative stress, and decreased levels of protective antioxidant enzymes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). An enriched diet containing antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, ?-carotene and phenolic substances, has been suggested to improve symptoms by reducing disease-related oxidative stress. In this respect, the marine world represents a largely untapped reserve of bioactive ingredients, and considerable potential exists for exploitation of these bioactives as functional food ingredients. Substances such as n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and peptides provide a myriad of health benefits, including reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory activities. New marine bioactives are recently gaining attention, since they could be helpful in combating chronic inflammatory degenerative conditions. The aim of this review is to examine the published studies concerning the potential pharmacological properties and application of many marine bioactives against inflammatory diseases. PMID:22690145

D'Orazio, Nicolantonio; Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Gemello, Eugenio; De Girolamo, Massimo; Cusenza, Salvatore; Riccioni, Graziano



Solid Lipid Nanoparticles as Delivery Systems for Bioactive Food Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inclusion of bioactive compounds, such as carotenoids, omega-3 fatty acids, or phytosterols, is an essential requisite\\u000a for the production of functional foods designed to improve the long-term health and well-being of consumers worldwide. To\\u000a incorporate these functional components successfully in a food system, structurally sophisticated encapsulation matrices have\\u000a to be engineered, which provide maximal physical stability, protect ingredients against

Jochen Weiss; Eric A. Decker; D. Julian McClements; Kristberg Kristbergsson; Thrandur Helgason; Tarek Awad



Bioactive peptides and proteins from foods: indication for health effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some dietary proteins cause specific effects going beyond nutrient supply. A number of proteins seem to act directly in the\\u000a intestine, such as IGFs, lactoferrin and immunoglobulins. Many substances, however, are peptides encrypted in intact molecules\\u000a and are released from their encrypted position by enzymes during gastrointestinal transit or by fermentation or ripening during\\u000a food processing. Among food-derived bioactive proteins

Niels Peter Möller; Katharina Elisabeth Scholz-Ahrens; Nils Roos; Jürgen Schrezenmeir



Mechanical alloying synthesis and bioactivity evaluation of nanocrystalline fluoridated hydroxyapatite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was preparation, characterization and bioactivity evaluation of nanocrystalline fluoridated hydroxyapatite (FHA) with different degree of fluoridation via the mechanical alloying (MA) method, and investigating the effect of MA parameters on the synthesizing process. Nanocrystalline FHA with a chemical composition of Ca10(PO4)6OH2?xFx (where x values were selected equal to 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0) were

M. H. Fathi; E. Mohammadi Zahrani



Cranberries and Their Bioactive Constituents in Human Health12  

PubMed Central

Recent observational and clinical studies have raised interest in the potential health effects of cranberry consumption, an association that appears to be due to the phytochemical content of this fruit. The profile of cranberry bioactives is distinct from that of other berry fruit, being rich in A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs) in contrast to the B-type PACs present in most other fruit. Basic research has suggested a number of potential mechanisms of action of cranberry bioactives, although further molecular studies are necessary. Human studies on the health effects of cranberry products have focused principally on urinary tract and cardiovascular health, with some attention also directed to oral health and gastrointestinal epithelia. Evidence suggesting that cranberries may decrease the recurrence of urinary tract infections is important because a nutritional approach to this condition could lower the use of antibiotic treatment and the consequent development of resistance to these drugs. There is encouraging, but limited, evidence of a cardioprotective effect of cranberries mediated via actions on antioxidant capacity and lipoprotein profiles. The mixed outcomes from clinical studies with cranberry products could result from interventions testing a variety of products, often uncharacterized in their composition of bioactives, using different doses and regimens, as well as the absence of a biomarker for compliance to the protocol. Daily consumption of a variety of fruit is necessary to achieve a healthy dietary pattern, meet recommendations for micronutrient intake, and promote the intake of a diversity of phytochemicals. Berry fruit, including cranberries, represent a rich source of phenolic bioactives that may contribute to human health. PMID:24228191

Blumberg, Jeffrey B.; Camesano, Terri A.; Cassidy, Aedin; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Howell, Amy; Manach, Claudine; Ostertag, Luisa M.; Sies, Helmut; Skulas-Ray, Ann; Vita, Joseph A.



Neutral atom beam technique enhances bioactivity of PEEK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is currently gaining popularity in orthopedic and spinal applications but has potential drawbacks in use. PEEK is biocompatible, similar in elasticity to bone, and radiolucent; however, it has been shown to be inert and does not integrate well with bone. Recent efforts have focused on increasing the bioactivity of PEEK by modifying the surface to improve the bone-implant interface. We have employed a novel Accelerated Neutral Atom Beam technique (ANAB) to enhance the bioactivity of PEEK. ANAB employs an intense beam of cluster-like packets of accelerated unbonded neutral argon (Ar) gas atoms. These beams are created by first producing a highly energetic Gas Cluster Ion Beam (GCIB) comprised of van der Waals bonded Ar atoms, then transferring energy to the clusters so as to cause release of most of the interatomic bonds, and finally deflecting away the remaining electrically charged cluster cores of still bonded atoms. We identified that ANAB treatment of PEEK results in nanometer scale surface modifications as well as increased surface hydrophilicity. Human osteoblasts seeded onto the surface of ANAB-treated PEEK exhibited enhanced growth as compared to control PEEK as evidenced by cell proliferation assays and microscopy. This increase in bioactivity resulted in cell proliferation levels comparable to native titanium. An in vivo study using a rat calvarial critical size defect model revealed enhanced osseointegration where bone tissue formation was evident only on the ANAB treated PEEK. Taken together, these data suggest that ANAB treatment of PEEK has the potential to enhance its bioactivity, resulting in bone formation and significantly decreasing osseointegration time of orthopedic and spinal implants.

Khoury, Joseph; Kirkpatrick, Sean R.; Maxwell, Melissa; Cherian, Raymond E.; Kirkpatrick, Allen; Svrluga, Richard C.



Unbiased Evaluation of Bioactive Secondary Metabolites in Complex Matrices  

PubMed Central

The majority of bioactive principles in a complex matrix such as natural products and botanical medicines are secondary rather than primary metabolites. In addition to being chemically diverse, the bioactivity of an ethnobotanical can comprise from one to several bioactive compounds, present in a complex mixture. Conventional discovery efforts utilize bioassay-guided fractionation (BGF) to isolate individual active compounds. When applied to complex natural products, BGF is often challenged by an apparent loss of activity during fractionation, resulting in weakly active isolated compounds. Metabolomic analysis can potentially complement existing the BGF paradigm by capturing the chemical complexity of the metabolites. The proposed biochemometric approach establishes a link between the chemistry of a secondary metabolome and a deserved health impact, using a high-throughput, high-resolution capable biological endpoint. The proof of principle is demonstrated for the anti-tuberculosis (TB) activity of the Alaskan ethnobotanical, Oplopanax horridus. Biochemometric analysis identified the 100 most active constituents from thousands of metabolites in the active extract by means of 2D orthogonal chromatography using countercurrent and GC-MS methods. Previously isolated O. horridus phytoconstituents were used as reference markers of known structure and bio(in)activity. Positive correlations allowed distinction of anti-TB actives from inactive compounds. A total of 29 bioactives from 3 main structural classes were assigned based on MS data. Biochemometric analysis is a new tool for the standardization of herbal medicines and ethnobotanicals, as well as for drug discovery from nature. The method can assign multiple active compounds in complex mixtures without their prior isolation or structure elucidation, while still providing an interface to structural information. PMID:22766306

Inui, Taichi; Wang, Yuehong; Pro, Samuel M.; Franzblau, Scott G.; Pauli, Guido F.



Skin microbiome and skin disease: the example of rosacea.  


The imbalance and/or the perturbation of the microbial populations that colonize the skin and that contribute to its defense may represent one of the causes of the development of noninfectious skin diseases. Atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, and rosacea can be listed among these kinds of pathologies. In particular, considering that microbes have been long addressed as having a role in rosacea, this common dermatosis can be an interesting model to evaluate the correlation between microbiome alterations and the occurrence of clinical manifestations. Different microorganisms have been suggested to have a role in rosacea, but no direct correlation with the incidence of the pathology has been clearly defined. Skin microbiome composition is crucial for the correct skin immune functions and recent findings indicate an abnormal activation of innate immune system associated with the rosacea. The enhanced expression of toll-like receptor 2 in the epidermis of rosacea patients can represent a possible explanation for the amplified inflammatory response to external stimuli observed during the disease. In addition, significantly higher small intestinal bacterial overgrowth prevalence in rosacea subjects has been found and its eradication has been associated with a regression of the skin lesions. In conclusion, both skin and gut microbiome seem to have a role, even if synergistic with other factors, in the pathogenesis of rosacea. A deeper knowledge of human microbiome composition and microbe-host interactions will contribute to clarify the mechanism of development of rosacea and possibly will provide innovative therapeutic approaches. PMID:25291137

Picardo, Mauro; Ottaviani, Monica



Versatile multi-functionalization of protein nanofibrils for biosensor applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protein nanofibrils offer advantages over other nanostructures due to the ease in their self-assembly and the versatility of surface chemistry available. Yet, an efficient and general methodology for their post-assembly functionalization remains a significant challenge. We introduce a generic approach, based on biotinylation and thiolation, for the multi-functionalization of protein nanofibrils self-assembled from whey proteins. Biochemical characterization shows the effects of the functionalization onto the nanofibrils' surface, giving insights into the changes in surface chemistry of the nanostructures. We show how these methods can be used to decorate whey protein nanofibrils with several components such as fluorescent quantum dots, enzymes, and metal nanoparticles. A multi-functionalization approach is used, as a proof of principle, for the development of a glucose biosensor platform, where the protein nanofibrils act as nanoscaffolds for glucose oxidase. Biotinylation is used for enzyme attachment and thiolation for nanoscaffold anchoring onto a gold electrode surface. Characterization via cyclic voltammetry shows an increase in glucose-oxidase mediated current response due to thiol-metal interactions with the gold electrode. The presented approach for protein nanofibril multi-functionalization is novel and has the potential of being applied to other protein nanostructures with similar surface chemistry.Protein nanofibrils offer advantages over other nanostructures due to the ease in their self-assembly and the versatility of surface chemistry available. Yet, an efficient and general methodology for their post-assembly functionalization remains a significant challenge. We introduce a generic approach, based on biotinylation and thiolation, for the multi-functionalization of protein nanofibrils self-assembled from whey proteins. Biochemical characterization shows the effects of the functionalization onto the nanofibrils' surface, giving insights into the changes in surface chemistry of the nanostructures. We show how these methods can be used to decorate whey protein nanofibrils with several components such as fluorescent quantum dots, enzymes, and metal nanoparticles. A multi-functionalization approach is used, as a proof of principle, for the development of a glucose biosensor platform, where the protein nanofibrils act as nanoscaffolds for glucose oxidase. Biotinylation is used for enzyme attachment and thiolation for nanoscaffold anchoring onto a gold electrode surface. Characterization via cyclic voltammetry shows an increase in glucose-oxidase mediated current response due to thiol-metal interactions with the gold electrode. The presented approach for protein nanofibril multi-functionalization is novel and has the potential of being applied to other protein nanostructures with similar surface chemistry. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Cyclic voltammetry characterization of biosensor platforms including bare Au electrodes (Fig. S1), biosensor response to various glucose concentrations (Fig. S2), and AFM roughness measurements due to WPNF modifications (Fig. S3). See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05752f

Sasso, L.; Suei, S.; Domigan, L.; Healy, J.; Nock, V.; Williams, M. A. K.; Gerrard, J. A.



The Impact of Bioactive Lipids on Cardiovascular Development  

PubMed Central

Lysophospholipids comprise a group of bioactive molecules with multiple biological functions. The cardinal members of this signalling molecule group are sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC), lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) which are, at least in part, homologous to each other. Bioactive lipids usually act via G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), but can also function as direct intracellular messengers. Recently, it became evident that bioactive lipids play a role during cellular differentiation development. SPC induces mesodermal differentiation of mouse ES cells and differentiation of promyelocytic leukemia cells, by a mechanism being critically dependent on MEK-ERK signalling. LPA stimulates the clonal expansion of neurospheres from neural stem/progenitor cells and induces c-fos via activation of mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1) in ES cells. S1P acts on hematopoietic progenitor cells as a chemotactic factor and has also been found to be critical for cardiac and skeletal muscle regeneration. Furthermore, S1P promotes cardiogenesis and similarly activates Erk signalling in mouse ES cells. Interestingly, S1P may also act to maintain human stem cell pluripotency. Both LPA and S1P positively regulate the proliferative capacity of murine ES cells. In this paper we will focus on the differential and developmental impact of lysophospholipids on cardiovascular development. PMID:21876704

Kleger, Alexander; Liebau, Stefan; Lin, Qiong; von Wichert, Gotz; Seufferlein, Thomas



Secondary Metabolites from Higher Fungi: Discovery, Bioactivity, and Bioproduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Medicinal higher fungi such as Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum have been used as an alternative medicine remedy to promote health and longevity for people in China and other regions of the world since ancient times. Nowadays there is an increasing public interest in the secondary metabolites of those higher fungi for discovering new drugs or lead compounds. Current research in drug discovery from medicinal higher fungi involves a multifaceted approach combining mycological, biochemical, pharmacological, metabolic, biosynthetic and molecular techniques. In recent years, many new secondary metabolites from higher fungi have been isolated and are more likely to provide lead compounds for new drug discovery, which may include chemopreventive agents possessing the bioactivity of immunomodulatory, anticancer, etc. However, numerous challenges of secondary metabolites from higher fungi are encountered including bioseparation, identification, biosynthetic metabolism, and screening model issues, etc. Commercial production of secondary metabolites from medicinal mushrooms is still limited mainly due to less information about secondary metabolism and its regulation. Strategies for enhancing secondary metabolite production by medicinal mushroom fermentation include two-stage cultivation combining liquid fermentation and static culture, two-stage dissolved oxygen control, etc. Purification of bioactive secondary metabolites, such as ganoderic acids from G. lucidum, is also very important to pharmacological study and future pharmaceutical application. This review outlines typical examples of the discovery, bioactivity, and bioproduction of secondary metabolites of higher fungi origin.

Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Xiao, Jian-Hui


Silver-containing mesoporous bioactive glass with improved antibacterial properties.  


The aim of the present work is the study of the bacteriostatic/bactericidal effect of a silver-containing mesoporous bioactive glass obtained by evaporation-induced self-assembly and successive thermal stabilization. Samples of the manufactured mesophase were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy and N? adsorption/desorption at 77 K, revealing structural and textural properties similar to SBA-15 mesoporous silica. Glass samples used for bioactivity experiments were put in contact with a standardized, commercially available cell culture medium instead of lab-produced simulated body fluid, and were then characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. All these analyses confirmed the development of a hydroxyl carbonate apatite layer on glass particles. Moreover, the investigated mesostructure showed a very good antibacterial effect against S. aureus strain, with a strong evidence of bactericidal activity already registered at 0.5 mg/mL of glass concentration. A hypothesis about the mechanism by which Ag affects the bacterial viability, based on the intermediate formation of crystalline AgCl, was also taken into account. With respect to what already reported in the literature, these findings claim a deeper insight into the possible use of silver-containing bioactive glasses as multifunctional ceramic coatings for orthopedic devices. PMID:23712538

Gargiulo, Nicola; Cusano, Angela Maria; Causa, Filippo; Caputo, Domenico; Netti, Paolo Antonio



Apatite formation on bioactive zirconium metal prepared by chemical treatment.  


Bioactive metallic materials, which can directly bond to living bone, are badly needed in dental and orthopedic implants for better long-term results. Forming a layer of bone-like apatite on the surface of the metal is one of the most promising methods to increase its bioactivity. This study creates a new chemical treatment for zirconium metal to induce apatite formation in a simulated body fluid (SBF), and analyzes the apatite layer by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Zirconium samples were soaked in 10% CuCl2 aqueous solution at 80 degrees C for 72 hours, heat-treated at 500 degrees C for one hour and soaked in SBF for various periods. An apatite-like layer appeared on the zirconium surface as early as three days in SBF, and increased with immersion time. EDS and FTIR confirmed that the deposited layer was apatite. This implies that bioinert zirconium metal can become bioactive by forming an apatite layer in a simulated body fluid after a suitable chemical treatment. The ZrOOH+ hydrogel layer produced on the zirconium surface by CuCl2 and heat-treatments is thought to induce the apatite formation. PMID:12085656

Shi, Xinfeng; Hulbert, Samuel



Bioactive compound from Pseudomonas synxantha inhibits the growth of Mycobacteria.  


Tuberculosis is a dreaded disease and the current situation demands new anti-tubercular agent(s) for the management of public health. Towards this direction, we obtained a contaminant organism on a Mycobacterium smegmatis lawn having growth inhibitory activity against the later. In the current study, efforts were targeted to identify this organism and characterize the bioactive compound from this isolate that inhibited the growth of Mycobacteria. The result revealed that the organism is a strain of Pseudomonas synxantha. Biophysical analyses including (1)H and (13)C NMR, ESI-mass spectroscopy, FTIR showed that the bioactive compound is a long chain aliphatic hydrocarbon with a terminal alyl bond and intermediate electronegative atom. The compound exhibited strong growth inhibitory activities against M. smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains H37Ra, H37Rv and BCG. Further experiments showed that both P. synxantha and its secretory metabolites are capable of inducing hemolysis of human blood. Thus the results of this study clearly indicate that the bioactive compound produced by P. Synxantha has biosurfactant activities as well as anti-myco-bacterial properties. PMID:24439826

Mukherjee, Koushik; Mandal, Santanu; Mukhopadhyay, Balaram; Mandal, Nitai Chandra; Sil, Alok Kumar



Bioactive glass/ZrO2 composites for orthopaedic applications.  


Binary biocomposites were realized by combining yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) with a bioactive glass matrix. Few works are available regarding composites containing zirconia and a relatively high content of glass because the resulting samples are usually biocompatible but not bioactive after thermal treatment. In the present research, the promising properties of the new BG_Ca-K glass, with its low tendency to crystallize and high apatite-forming ability, allowed us to sinter the composites at a relatively low temperature with excellent effects in terms of bioactivity. In addition, it was possible to benefit from the good mechanical behaviour of Y-TZP, thus obtaining samples with microhardness values that were among the highest reported in the literature. After a detailed analysis regarding the thermal behaviour of the composite powders, the sintered bodies were fully characterized by means of x-ray diffraction, SEM equipped with EDS, density measurements, volumetric shrinkage determination, mechanical testing and in vitro evaluation in a simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. According to the experimental results, the presence of Y-TZP improved the mechanical performance. Meanwhile, the BG_Ca-K glass, which mainly preserved its amorphous structure after sintering, provided the composites with a good apatite-forming ability in SBF. PMID:24343516

Bellucci, D; Sola, A; Cannillo, V



A peptidomics strategy for discovering endogenous bioactive peptides.  


Peptide hormones and neuropeptides constitute an important class of naturally occurring peptides that are generated from precursor proteins by limited proteolytic processing. An important but unaddressed issue in peptidomics is to pin down novel bioactive peptides in a bulk of peptide sequences provided by tandem mass spectrometry. Here, we describe an approach to simultaneously screen for bioactive peptides and their target tissues. The principle behind this approach is to identify intact secretory peptides that have the ability to raise intracellular calcium levels. In practice, we used nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to analyze peptides released by exocytosis from cultured cells. Peptide sequence information was utilized to deduce intact peptide forms, among which those highly conserved between species are selected and tested on an ex vivo calcium assay using tissue pieces from transgenic mice that systemically express the calcium indicator apoaequorin. The calcium assay can be applied to various cell types, including those not amenable to in vitro culture. We used this approach to identify novel bioactive neuropeptides derived from the neurosecretory protein VGF, which evoke a calcium response in the pituitary and hypothalamus. PMID:20681733

Sasaki, Kazuki; Takahashi, Noriyuki; Satoh, Mitsuo; Yamasaki, Motoo; Minamino, Naoto



UVMULTIFIT: A versatile tool for fitting astronomical radio interferometric data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The analysis of astronomical interferometric data is often performed on the images obtained after deconvolving the interferometer's point spread function. This strategy can be understood (especially for cases of sparse arrays) as fitting models to models, since the deconvolved images are already non-unique model representations of the actual data (i.e., the visibilities). Indeed, the interferometric images may be affected by visibility gridding, weighting schemes (e.g., natural vs. uniform), and the particulars of the (non-linear) deconvolution algorithms. Fitting models to the direct interferometric observables (i.e., the visibilities) is preferable in the cases of simple (analytical) sky intensity distributions. Aims: We present UVMULTIFIT, a versatile library for fitting visibility data, implemented in a Python-based framework. Our software is currently based on the CASA package, but can be easily adapted to other analysis packages, provided they have a Python API. Methods: The user can simultaneously fit an indefinite number of source components to the data, each of which depend on any algebraic combination of fitting parameters. Fits to individual spectral-line channels or simultaneous fits to all frequency channels are allowed. Results: We have tested the software with synthetic data and with real observations. In some cases (e.g., sources with sizes smaller than the diffraction limit of the interferometer), the results from the fit to the visibilities (e.g., spectra of close by sources) are far superior to the output obtained from the mere analysis of the deconvolved images. Conclusions: UVMULTIFIT is a powerful improvement of existing tasks to extract the maximum amount of information from visibility data, especially in cases close to the sensitivity/resolution limits of interferometric observations.

Martí-Vidal, I.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Muller, S.; Casey, S.



Versatile all-digital time interval measuring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a design and performance of a versatile all-digital time interval measuring system. The measurement method is based on an interpolation principle. In this principle the time interval is first roughly digitized by a coarse counter driven by a high stability reference clock and the fractions between the clock periods are measured by two Time-to-Digital Converter chips TDC-GPX manufactured by Acam messelectronic. Control circuits allow programmable customization of the system to satisfy many applications such as laser range finding, event counting, or time-of-flight measurements in various physics experiments. The system has two reference clocks inputs and two independent channels for measuring start and stop events. Only one 40 MHz reference is required for the measurement. The second reference can be, for example, 1 PPS (Pulse per Second) signal from a GPS (Global Positioning System) to time tag events. Time intervals are measured using the highest resolution mode of the TDC-GPX chips. The resolution of each chip is software programmable and is PLL (Phase Locked Loop) stabilized against temperature and voltage variations. The system can achieve a timing resolution better than 15 ps rms with up to 90 kHz repetition rate. The time interval measurement range is from 0 ps up to 1 second. The power consumption of the whole system is 18 W including an embedded computer board and an LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screen. The embedded computer controls the whole system, collects and evaluates measurement data and with the display provides a user interface. The system is implemented using commercially available components.

Vyhlidal, David; Cech, Miroslav



Lithium: a versatile tool for understanding renal physiology  

PubMed Central

By virtue of its unique interactions with kidney cells, lithium became an important research tool in renal physiology and pathophysiology. Investigators have uncovered the intricate relationships of lithium with the vasopressin and aldosterone systems, and the membrane channels or transporters regulated by them. While doing so, their work has also led to 1) questioning the role of adenylyl cyclase activity and prostaglandins in lithium-induced suppression of aquaporin-2 gene transcription; 2) unraveling the role of purinergic signaling in lithium-induced polyuria; and 3) highlighting the importance of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Lithium-induced remodeling of the collecting duct has the potential to shed new light on collecting duct remodeling in disease conditions, such as diabetes insipidus. The finding that lithium inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK3?) has opened an avenue for studies on the role of GSK3? in urinary concentration, and GSK isoforms in renal development. Finally, proteomic and metabolomic profiling of the kidney and urine in rats treated with lithium is providing insights into how the kidney adapts its metabolism in conditions such as acquired NDI and the multifactorial nature of lithium-induced NDI. This review provides state-of-the-art knowledge of lithium as a versatile tool for understanding the molecular physiology of the kidney, and a comprehensive view of how this tool is challenging some of our long-standing concepts in renal physiology, often with paradigm shifts, and presenting paradoxical situations in renal pathophysiology. In addition, this review points to future directions in research where lithium can lead the renal community. PMID:23408166

Ecelbarger, Carolyn M.



Phosphatidic acid, a versatile water-stress signal in roots.  


Adequate water supply is of utmost importance for growth and reproduction of plants. In order to cope with water deprivation, plants have to adapt their development and metabolism to ensure survival. To maximize water use efficiency, plants use a large array of signaling mediators such as hormones, protein kinases, and phosphatases, Ca(2) (+), reactive oxygen species, and low abundant phospholipids that together form complex signaling cascades. Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a signaling lipid that rapidly accumulates in response to a wide array of abiotic stress stimuli. PA formation provides the cell with spatial and transient information about the external environment by acting as a protein-docking site in cellular membranes. PA reportedly binds to a number of proteins that play a role during water limiting conditions, such as drought and salinity and has been shown to play an important role in maintaining root system architecture. Members of two osmotic stress-activated protein kinase families, sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 and mitogen activated protein kinases were recently shown bind PA and are also involved in the maintenance of root system architecture and salinity stress tolerance. In addition, PA regulates several proteins involved in abscisic acid-signaling. PA-dependent recruitment of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase under water limiting conditions indicates a role in regulating metabolic processes. Finally, a recent study also shows the PA recruits the clathrin heavy chain and a potassium channel subunit, hinting toward additional roles in cellular trafficking and potassium homeostasis. Taken together, the rapidly increasing number of proteins reported to interact with PA implies a broad role for this versatile signaling phospholipid in mediating salt and water stress responses. PMID:24391659

McLoughlin, Fionn; Testerink, Christa



Versatile in situ gas analysis apparatus for nanomaterials reactors.  


We report a newly developed technique for the in situ real-time gas analysis of reactors commonly used for the production of nanomaterials, by showing case-study results obtained using a dedicated apparatus for measuring the gas composition in reactors operating at high temperature (<1000 °C). The in situ gas-cooled sampling probe mapped the chemistry inside the high-temperature reactor, while suppressing the thermal decomposition of the analytes. It thus allows a more accurate study of the mechanism of progressive thermocatalytic cracking of precursors compared to previously reported conventional residual gas analyses of the reactor exhaust gas and hence paves the way for the controlled production of novel nanomaterials with tailored properties. Our studies demonstrate that the composition of the precursors dynamically changes as they travel inside of the reactor, causing a nonuniform growth of nanomaterials. Moreover, mapping of the nanomaterials reactor using quantitative gas analysis revealed the actual contribution of thermocatalytic cracking and a quantification of individual precursor fragments. This information is particularly important for quality control of the produced nanomaterials and for the recycling of exhaust residues, ultimately leading toward a more cost-effective continuous production of nanomaterials in large quantities. Our case study of multiwall carbon nanotube synthesis was conducted using the probe in conjunction with chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques. Given the similarities of this particular CVD setup to other CVD reactors and high-temperature setups generally used for nanomaterials synthesis, the concept and methodology of in situ gas analysis presented here does also apply to other systems, making it a versatile and widely applicable method across a wide range of materials/manufacturing methods, catalysis, as well as reactor design and engineering. PMID:25090251

Meysami, Seyyed Shayan; Snoek, Lavina C; Grobert, Nicole



POLS: A versatile tool for sampling polygon GIS layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce POLS (shorthand for POLygon Sampling), a versatile GIS tool for extracting a random subset of polygons from a vector layer. POLS enables users to optionally (i) set the sampling intensity in terms of percent area of the layer, number of polygons, or both; (ii) specify different strata to be sampled with equal or different intensity; (iii) preclude the occurrence of adjacent polygons in the sample; (iv) ensure that the output sample is spatially balanced; (v) estimate empirically (through simulation) the inclusion probability of each individual polygon; and (vi) compute the Horvitz-Thompson Estimator (HTE) and its confidence interval for target variables measured in the sample polygons. POLS is specially suited for accuracy assessments of thematic maps that use polygons as sampling units, but it can also be applied to any probability-based survey that relies on GIS polygons. The option enforcing non-adjacency potentially increases sampling efficiency by reducing the effect of spatial autocorrelation. The spatial balance option ensures that the polygons in the sample are well distributed across the extent of the layer. When the non-adjacency constraint is used, the tool applies a novel random-selection algorithm that is designed to reduce the impact of this constraint on both the inclusion probability and the spatial distribution of sample polygons. We describe the tool and the algorithm behind it, compare the latter with two other methods that we previously tested, study the impact of the non-adjacency constraint and the spatial balance on the inclusion probability, and demonstrate the estimation of both the HTE and its variance for a sample target variable. The tool is freely available on the internet.

Castilla, Guillermo; Hernando, Ana; Zhang, Chunhua; Mauro, Francisco; McDermid, Greg



Radiochemistry: A versatile diagnostic for the NIF ignition campaign  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to provide quick, clear, concise information about radiochemical diagnostics for the NIF program. Radiochemistry is perhaps the most versatile, flexible and dynamic of all nuclear diagnostics because it provides quantitative data on multiple capsule performance parameters such as mix, asymmetry of implosion, shell and fuel {rho}R, yield, neutron spectral information, high energy neutron information, fill tube jets, charged particle stopping, and the fission yield of the hohlraum by employing a variety of nuclear reactions on materials either present naturally in the capsule or specifically doped into the capsule. The choice and location of the doped material, together with the specific nuclear reaction used to produce a measurable product nuclide or ratio of nuclides, provides significant diagnostic information on the performance of the capsule during the experiment. The nature of the experiment, design of the capsule including fuel(s), and desired diagnostic information would dictate the radiochemical dopants used on any given shot--not all reactions would be possible nor monitored on any given experiment. Some of this diagnostic information is obtainable with other diagnostics, for example, the neutron yield is measured using Cu-activation pucks or nTOF. The unique niche of radiochemistry, for which few other measurements are currently planned, is the quantification of ablator/fuel mix. This diagnostic can supply complementary information on ablator {rho}R, asymmetry and unique information on mix--three of the four important concerns of the ignition campaign. This paper will not discuss the additional nuclear chemistry and physics possible by utilizing radiochemistry collection and similar nuclear reactions.

Stoyer, M A; Cerjan, C J; Moody, K J; Hoffman, R D; Bernstein, L A; Shaughnessy, D A



Versatility of nasolabial flaps in oral cavity reconstructions  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Describe the techniques involved and the results obtained witn nasolabial flaps in small and medium-sized defects of the oral cavity. The procedure is an easy resconstructive option with a high success rate and with very good aesthetic and functional outcomes. Study Design: A retrospective analysis of 16 nasolabial flap reconstructions in 15 oncological patients with oral cavity defects undergoing single-stage surgical interventions. We evaluate the tumor type, its location, size, the resective and reconstructive techniques involved, as well as any complications. Results: Out of 15 patients, 9 were male and 6 female, with ages ranging from 60-85 years. The primary tumor was located in the mandibular or maxillary gingiva in 7 patients, the lateral margin of the tongue in 5, the floor of the mouth in 3 and the mandibular symphysis in a single patient. The tumors were of a small to medium size. All patients underwent intraoral resections. In most cases, a cervical dissection was performed. All flaps were completed as single-stage surgical interventions, with 14 unilateral and 2 bilateral procedures. Five patients had received radiotherapy treatment for previous tumors. During the follow up period, which ranged from 4 months to 8 years, only one patient required their flap to be thinned, there were two incidents of surgical wound dehiscence, two hematomas and one orocutaneous fistula, none of which affected the survival of the flap. Conclusions: The nasolabial flap proves highly versatile in oral cavity reconstructions, coupled with a minimal morbidity of the donor region and good aesthetic and functional results. Its high vascularity allows for cervical dissections to be carried out or even for radiotherapy to be administered prior to it. It is straightforward, safe, and carrying it out as a single-stage intervention makes it the ideal surgical option for small to medium intraoral defects in edentulous patients with other comorbidities. Key words:Nasolabial flap, oral cavity reconstruction, oral cavity defects.

Cebrian-Carretero, Jose L.; Moran-Soto, Maria J.; Burgueno-Garcia, Miguel



From Arts to Neurobiology - Versatile Duke Scientist Chosen for NSF Waterman Award  

NSF Publications Database

... Fannoney (703) 292-8096 From Arts to Neurobiology - Versatile Duke Scientist ... at the New York High School for the Performing Arts) for doing Soviet-style lifts in a War and ...


Sun Safety: Save Your Skin  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Articulos en Espanol Sun Safety: Save Your Skin (video) Search the Consumer Updates Section Get Consumer Updates ... Feed Read this article In this Consumer Update video, FDA Dermatologist Jane Liedtka, M.D., and FDA ...


[Skin disorders in diabetes mellitus].  


Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common diseases in the Western industrialized countries with about 300 million affected patients worldwide. The hyperglycemic state of diabetes mellitus leads to changes in practically every cell type and organ of the human body. Skin changes are considered the most common manifestations of diabetes mellitus. As skin changes can manifest before onset of diabetes mellitus they may have a diagnostic relevance. Other changes and diseases of the skin develop during the course of diabetes mellitus and may be associated with complications in internal organs or may occur as an adverse effect of antidiabetic therapy. In particular the presence of the diabetic foot syndrome is associated with significantly increased morbidity and mortality of diabetes patients as well as with markedly elevated direct and indirect costs for the health care system. In this article the most common skin diseases of patients with diabetes mellitus as well as their pathophysiology and current treatment are reviewed. PMID:25262886

Gkogkolou, Paraskevi; Böhm, Markus



Tropical Travel and Skin Infections  


... Media contacts Public service advertisements Stats and facts Gold Triangle Awards Stories and news News releases Press ... Teenage skin Tropical travel Vitamin D Cosmetic treatments Gold Triangle Awards Home Media resources Stats and facts ...


Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.


Skin Cancer Non-Melanoma  


... of skin cancer are basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma . Carcinoma is cancer that begins in the cells ... seldom spreads to other parts of the body. Squamous cell carcinoma also rarely spreads, but it does so more ...


General Information about Skin Cancer  


... not spread to other parts of the body. Squamous cell carcinoma Enlarge A skin cancer lesion that looks raised ... trials is available from the NCI Web site . Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treatment of squamous cell carcinoma may include the ...


Skin Cancer - Featured Clinical Trials

Skin Cancer - Featured Clinical Trials The following list shows Featured Clinical Trials for a specific type of cancer. You may also want to view: Multiple Cancer Types - Featured Clinical Trials Supportive Care - Featured Clinical Trials


Sun Safety: Save Your Skin!  


... who work outdoors need to take precautions, too. SUN SAFETY Save Your Skin! 2 / FDA Consumer Health ... may increase sun sensitivity. Reduce Time in the Sun It’s important to limit sun exposure between 10 ...


Scaly-skinned Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

The style of erosion along the highlands-lowlands boundary of southern Elysium Planitia has produced a strange pattern of troughs that look like the skin of a reptile. In reality, a very clear process of landscape degradation is evident in this image. Some process has produced polygon-shaped troughs that create zones of weakness in the uppermost crust. It is likely that wind-blown particles deepen and widen the troughs, producing isolated knobs and mesas. Ultimately, the erosional reworking of the landscape is so complete that all signs of the upper layer are removed, leaving the smooth lowland surface to the north.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.



A Versatile Step-Up/Step-Down Switched-Capacitor-Based DC-DC Converter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For battery-powered electronic products, one way to extend battery life is to use a versatile step-up/step-down DC-DC converter. A new versatile step-up/step-down switched-capacitor-based converter structure is proposed, and its efficiency is analyzed. In the step-down case, the efficiency is the same as, or even better than the efficiency of linear regulators.

Wei, Chia-Ling; Wu, Lu-Yao; Yang, Hsiu-Hui; Tsai, Chien-Hung; Liu, Bin-Da; Chang, Soon-Jyh


Skin: Behavior and Health Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students become better aware of how their personal behavior and the environment can have a considerable impact on their health in general, particularly the health of their skin. In this exercise, students draw a model of a healthy and unhealthy person. This prompts a discussion on behavior and environmental behaviors that affect health. They also learn what good health is and the benefits of a healthy lifestyle. Finally, the students determine their skin types.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science;)



Drug Hypersensitivity Reactions Involving Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immune reactions to drugs can cause a variety of diseases involving the skin, liver, kidney, lungs, and other organs. Beside\\u000a immediate, IgE-mediated reactions of varying degrees (urticaria to anaphylactic shock), many drug hypersensitivity reactions\\u000a appear delayed, namely hours to days after starting drug treatment, showing a variety of clinical manifestations from solely\\u000a skin involvement to fulminant systemic diseases which may

Oliver Hausmann; Benno Schnyder; Werner J. Pichler


Fluoride release and bioactivity evaluation of glass ionomer: Forsterite nanocomposite  

PubMed Central

Background: The most important limitation of glass ionomer cements (GICs) is the weak mechanical properties. Our previous research showed that higher mechanical properties could be achieved by addition of forsterite (Mg2SiO4) nanoparticles to ceramic part of GIC. The objective of the present study was to fabricate a glass ionomer- Mg2SiO4 nanocomposite and to evaluate the effect of addition of Mg2SiO4 nanoparticles on bioactivity and fluoride release behavior of prepared nanocomposite. Materials and Methods: Forsterite nanoparticles were made by sol-gel process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique was used in order to phase structure characterization and determination of grain size of Mg2SiO4 nanopowder. Nanocomposite was fabricated via adding 3wt.% of Mg2SiO4 nanoparticles to ceramic part of commercial GIC (Fuji II GC). Fluoride ion release and bioactivity of nanocomposite were measured using the artificial saliva and simulated body fluid (SBF), respectively. Bioactivity of specimens was investigated by Fourier transitioned-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electronmicroscopy (SEM), Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and registration of the changes in pH of soaking solution at the soaking period. Statistical analysis was carried out by one Way analysis of variance and differences were considered significant if P < 0.05. Results: The results of XRD analysis confirmed that nanocrystalline and pure Mg2SiO4 powder was obtained. Fluoride ion release evaluation showed that the values of released fluoride ions from nanocomposite are somewhat less than Fuji II GC. SEM images, pH changes of the SBF and results of the ICP-OES and FTIR tests confirmed the bioactivity of the nanocomposite. Statistical analysis showed that the differences between the results of all groups were significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Glass ionomer- Mg2SiO4 nanocomposite could be a good candidate for dentistry and orthopedic applications, through of desirable fluoride ion release and bioactivity. PMID:24130579

Sayyedan, Fatemeh Sadat; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Edris, Hossein; Doostmohammadi, Ali; Mortazavi, Vajihesadat; Shirani, Farzaneh



Synthesis and characterization of TEP-EDTA-regulated bioactive hydroxyapatite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydroxyapatite (HA), Ca10(PO4)6(OH) 2, the stoichiometric equivalent of the ceramic phase of bone, is the preferred material for hard tissue replacement due to its bioactivity. However, bioinert metals are utilized in load-bearing orthopedic applications due to the poor mechanical properties of HA. Consequently, attention has been given to HA coatings for metallic orthopedic implants to take advantage of the bioactivity of HA and the mechanical properties of metals. Commercially, the plasma spray process (PS-HA) is the method most often used to deposit HA films on metallic implants. Since its introduction in the 1980's, however, concerns have been raised about the consequences of PS-HA's low crystallinity, lack of phase purity, lack of film-substrate chemical adhesion, passivation properties, and difficulty in coating complex geometries. Thus, there is a need to develop inexpensive reproducible next-generation HA film deposition techniques, which deposit high crystallinity, phase pure, adhesive, passivating, conformal HA films on clinical metallic substrates. The aim of this dissertation was to intelligently synthesize and characterize the material and biological properties of HA films on metallic substrates synthesized by hydrothermal crystallization, using thermodynamic phase diagrams as the starting point. In three overlapping interdisciplinary studies the potential of using ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid/triethyl phosphate (EDTA/TEP) doubly regulated hydrothermal crystallization to deposit HA films, the TEP-regulated, time-and-temperature-dependent process by which films were deposited, and the bioactivity of crystallographically engineered films were investigated. Films were crystallized in a 0.232 molal Ca(NO3)2-0.232 molal EDTA-0.187 molal TEP-1.852 molal KOH-H2O chemical system at 200°C. Thermodynamic phase diagrams demonstrated that the chosen conditions were expected to produce Ca-P phase pure HA, which was experimentally confirmed. EDTA regulation of Ca2+ concentration enabled the HA crystallization process to be growth dominated, producing films composed of high crystallinity, hexagonal grains on multiple metallic substrates. TEP regulation of HA crystallization enabled the deposition of an adhesive CaTiO3 intermediate layer, and then HA in a continuous, phase sequenced process on Ti6Al4V substrates, the first such process reported in the hydrothermal HA literature. The HA film was found to be deposited by a passivating competitive growth mechanism that enabled the [0001] crystallographic orientation of hexagonal single crystals to be engineered with synthesis time. Bioactivity analysis demonstrated that films were bioactive and bone bonding. Together, these results suggest that these HA films are candidates for use on metallic orthopedic implants, namely Ti6Al4V.

Haders, Daniel Joseph, II


Skin cancer epidemiology: research needs.  


The basis data currently being used to estimate and evaluate the dose-response relationship of UV-B and skin cancer are from a 6-month survey for four areas that participated in the TNCS, 1971-1972. Although most investigators from various fields of interest outside of cancer research, i.e. aviation, environmental ecology, physics, chemistry, and photobiology, etc., may admit an association between nonmelanoma skin cancer and UV-B exists, they point out that 1) the epidemiologic data currently available are too sparse and lack certain detail, such as exposure patterns and skin types, and 2) more data of this type are needed over a broad geographical range to allow for more precise measurements of the effects of stratospheric ozone depletion. They argue that the present relationships could change drastically with the addition even of a few more points (geographical locations) and that location-specific and demographic factors should be evaluated. Therefore, these data need to be updated and expanded to include more locations over a longer study period. The National Cancer Institute and the Environmental Protection Agency undertook a special skin cancer study from June 1, 1977 to May 31, 1978. The objectives of this study were: 1) to determine the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer (basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas) in various population groups within the United States, and 2) to ascertain and measure epidemiologic factors that may contribute toward the excess risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer in specific population groups. PMID:753973

Scotto, J; Fears, T R



Microvascular function in skin windows.  

PubMed Central

The dermal microvasculature is an integral component of skin windows. However, in spite of the obvious dependence of the skin window model on vascular function, its almost exclusive application has been the study of leukocyte function and recovery of the cellular components of inflammatory exudates. In the studies reported here, skin window chambers were employed for assessment of function of the underlying microvasculature in rats given intravenous infusions of Evans blue dye or colloidal carbon. Increased vascular permeability was documented by photometric measurement of Evans blue dye, and vascular labeling of dermal vessels with colloidal carbon was assessed histologically. Zymosan-activated serum elicited accumulation of both leukocytes and Evans blue dye in chamber fluid overlying skin windows, confirming the responsiveness of the preparations. With serotonin as a model vasoactive substance, both increased vascular permeability and vascular labeling were directly related to serotonin concentration in the chamber fluid. It is estimated that plasma exudates were distributed as approximately 10% in the fluid and 90% in the dermis. Finally, serotonin-induced exudates recovered from the 0.3-ml chambers were estimated to be up to 3 microliter of plasma based on Evans blue dye measurement or up to 70 micrograms of protein based on Lowry assay. Thus, soluble components of skin window exudates were recovered for examination, and the dermal microvasculature was shown to be an important functional component of the skin window model that was directly accessible for study. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:3548407

Humphrey, D. M.; Cavanaugh, C.



Marine-derived bioactive peptides as new anticoagulant agents: a review.  


The development of more effective antithrombotic agents with reduced side risk is necessary for the prevention of thromboembolic events. In recent years, bioactive peptides derived from food proteins have received considerable attention because of their numerous healths beneficial. Based on their amino acids sequences these peptides can exhibit various biological activities including, antihypertensive, antioxidative and antibacterial activities. Moreover, several naturally or food proteins-derived bioactive peptides that could prolong the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT) have been isolated. Due to their therapeutic potential in the treatment or prevention of various diseases, bioactive peptides can be used as functional food ingredients, nutraceuticals or pharmaceuticals. Marine organisms represent a valuable source of new bioactive substances including bioactive peptides. This paper presents an overview of the bioactive anticoagulant peptides derived from fish protein sources, as well as the enzymatic proteolysis approach used for the development of these new biopeptides. PMID:23721316

Nasri, Rim; Nasri, Moncef



Cold-set whey protein microgels as pH modulated immobilisation matrices for charged bioactives.  


The ability of cold-set whey protein microgels to function as pH-sensitive immobilisation matrices for bioactives was investigated. A pH dependent interaction was confirmed between the microgels and charged bioactives and this binding was impeded by the presence of competing ions in the solution, suggesting an electrostatic interaction. The use of a computer generated prediction model for the pH-dependent association of the microgels and further bioactives (including cationic and anionic peptides) was validated. The prediction model was efficient at determining the pH at which the maximum microgel-bioactive interaction occurred. This study highlights the capabilities of these food-grade whey based microgels as matrices that enable the immobilisation of a variety of bioactives by a charge interaction, and shows the potential for these matrices to function as smart delivery systems, in which uptake and release of bioactives is facilitated by environmental pH change. PMID:24629958

Egan, Thelma; O'Riordan, Dolores; O'Sullivan, Michael; Jacquier, Jean-Christophe



Three bioactive cyclic dipeptides from the Bacillus sp. N strain associated with entomopathogenic nematode.  


In continuation of our search for new bioactive secondary metabolites from Bacillus cereus associated with entomopathogenic nematode (EPN), three cyclic dipeptides (CDPs), cyclo(L-Leu-D-Arg) (1), cyclo(2-hydroxy-Pro-L-Leu) (2), and cyclo(L-Val-L-Pro) (3) were purified from the ethyl acetate extract of B. cereus. The chemical structure of the compounds was identified by 1D, 2D NMR and HR-ESI-MS. Cyclo(L-Leu-D-Arg) recorded best antifungal activity and the highest activity was recorded against Cryptococcus neoformans (1 ?g/mL), which is better than the standard antifungal agent amphotericin B. MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay was used for finding cell proliferation inhibition and cyclo(L-Leu-D-Arg) recorded significant activity against breast cancer cell line (MDAM-B231) (IC50 value: 25 ?M) and the three cyclic dipeptides recorded no toxicity against normal human cell (fore skin (FS) normal fibroblast) up to 50 ?M except cyclo(L-Val-L-Pro). Cyclo(L-Leu-D-Arg) induced significant morphological changes and DNA fragmentation associated with apoptosis in MDAM-B231 cells by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and flow cytometry analysis. Out of three cyclic dipeptides tested only cyclo(2-hydroxy-Pro-L-Leu) recorded significant antioxidant activity. The hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of cyclo(2-hydroxy-Pro-L-Leu) is greater than BHA, the standard antioxidant agent. Cyclo(L-Leu-D-Arg) was isolated for the first time from a natural source with a d-arginine residue. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the bioactivity of the isolated cyclic dipeptides is reported against medically important fungi and cancer cells. This study is a significant contribution to the knowledge of cyclo(L-Leu-D-Arg) from B. cereus as potential sources of new drugs in the pharmacological industry, especially as potent antifungal and anticancer agent. PMID:24291459

Nishanth, Sasidharan Kumar; Nambisan, Bala; Dileep, C



Circadian variation of skin reactivity and allergy skin tests.  


Previous investigations of the circadian variation in skin reactivity suggested that results of skin tests obtained in the afternoon could vary from the results obtained in the early morning and therefore could result in a differing assessment of patient sensitivity. To determine whether this was a practical concern in the normal clinical setting, we studied 20 adults and 20 children who had skin prick tests positive (3+ or more) to short ragweed. These patients were skin tested in duplicate at 8 AM and at 4 PM with fivefold serial dilutions of short ragweed extracts (1:20 to 1:12,500, wt/vol) and of histamine hydrochloride (10 to 0.016 mg/ml). Areas of wheal and flare were recorded and measured by computed planimetry. In addition, results were also read according to a conventional scoring system. Mean wheal and erythema areas with ragweed and histamine at each dilution were compared between morning and their corresponding evening values. Although there was a trend for the morning means to be larger than evening means, no significant differences between the two sessions were observed at any dilution. Mean morning skin index scores, as calculated from the combined mean wheal and erythema areas, were larger than mean evening scores for ragweed and histamine, but the differences were not of a degree to be clinically important. This observation was also true for conventional scores. Comparing the results from the two groups of children who had their first set of skin tests performed either in the morning or afternoon session indicated that there was no evidence of a refractory state of the skin during the second test sessions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2732409

Vichyanond, P; Nelson, H S



A study of the postburned restored skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The color of restored skin (RS) resulting from healing of partial skin thickness burns was analyzed. Comparisons within symmetric skin areas were performed between RS and healthy undamaged skin (HS), using spectrophotometry, in 118 subjects, 64 males, 54 females with an age range of 1–70 years. A total of 379 samples were analyzed. The CIE-1976 color system was adopted where

D do A. Carvalho; U Mariani; D de S. Gomez; R Gemperli; M. C Ferreira



Shark Denticles Shark Skin Drag Reduction  

E-print Network

Shark Denticles Shark Skin Drag Reduction Shark Skin Drag Reduction Amy Lang1 , Maria Laura Riblets; Shark denticles; Shark skin separation control Definition The scales, or denticles, on fast-swimming sharks have evolved two mechanisms for controlling the boundary layer flow over the skin surface leading

Motta, Philip J.


Skin interaction with absorbent hygiene products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin problems due to the use of absorbent hygiene products, such as diapers, incontinence pads, and feminine sanitary articles, are mostly due to climate or chafing discomfort. If these conditions are allowed to prevail, these may develop into an irritant contact dermatitis and eventually superficial skin infections. Skin humidity and aging skin are among the most significant predisposing and aggravating

Bo Runeman



Skin temperature response during cycle ergometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic exercise has among other things an effect on core body temperature, skin bloodflow and skin temperature. The skin through vasodilatation is used to transfer metabolic heat from the core to the external environment preventing a rise in body temperature that would be harmful to body organs. The purpose of the study was to characterize the regional skin temperature response

T. J. Malkinson



[MPC0910112] Visiderm Skin Scanner Analysis  

E-print Network

cause squamous cell cancer that is believed to cause up to 20% of skin cancer deaths. ACKNOWLEDGMENT of either wellness or skin cancer. 2) The responsibility for follow-up on skin damage and to obtain further, including skin cancer. 5) Even if my results today do not indicate sun damage, this does not mean that I do

New Mexico, University of


Skin cancer and solar UV radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight is the most prominent and ubiquitous physical carcinogen in our natural environment. It is highly genotoxic but does not penetrate the body any deeper than the skin. Like all organisms regularly exposed to sunlight, the human skin is extremely well adapted to continuous UV stress. Well-pigmented skin is clearly better protected than white Caucasian skin.

F. R. de Gruijl



Recognising the signs of skin cancer.  


Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the UK, with about 100,000 cases reported each year (UK Skin Cancer Working Party, 2001). There are three main types of skin cancer, which can be divided into two categories: non-melanoma (basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma) and melanoma skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma is the most common and accounts for about 80 per cent of all skin cancers. Malignant melanoma is the least common type of skin cancer, accounting for about five per cent of all skin cancers. However, it has a high mortality rate because of its aggressive nature (Krige et al, 1991). PMID:13677122

Godsell, Gill


Marine algae-derived bioactive peptides for human nutrition and health.  


Within the parent protein molecule, most peptides are inactive, and they are released with biofunctionalities after enzymatic hydrolysis. Marine algae have high protein content, up to 47% of the dry weight, depending on the season and the species. Recently, there is an increasing interest in using marine algae protein as a source of bioactive peptides due to their health promotion and disease therapy potentials. This review presents an overview of marine algae-derived bioactive peptides and especially highlights some key issues, such as in silico proteolysis and quantitative structure-activity relationship studies, in vivo fate of bioactive peptides, and novel technologies in bioactive peptides studies and production. PMID:25179496

Fan, Xiaodan; Bai, Lu; Zhu, Liang; Yang, Li; Zhang, Xuewu



Skin interaction with absorbent hygiene products.  


Skin problems due to the use of absorbent hygiene products, such as diapers, incontinence pads, and feminine sanitary articles, are mostly due to climate or chafing discomfort. If these conditions are allowed to prevail, these may develop into an irritant contact dermatitis and eventually superficial skin infections. Skin humidity and aging skin are among the most significant predisposing and aggravating factors for dermatitis development. Improved product design features are believed to explain the decline in observed diaper dermatitis among infants. Where adult incontinence-related skin problems are concerned, it is very important to apply a holistic perspective to understand the influences due to the individual's incontinence level and skin condition, as well as the hygiene and skin care measures provided. Individuals with frail, sensitive skin or with skin diseases may preferably have to use high-quality products, equipped with superabsorbent polymers and water vapor-permeable back sheets, to minimize the risk of skin complications. PMID:18280904

Runeman, Bo



The role of skin substitutes in the management of chronic cutaneous wounds.  


Chronic wounds, including diabetic and venous ulcers, represent disruption of normal healing processes resulting in a pathological state of nonhealing cutaneous inflammation. They place an increasingly significant economic burden on healthcare providers as their prevalence is rising in keeping with an aging population. Current treatment modalities are slow acting and resource intensive. Bioengineered skin substitutes from autogenic, allogenic, or xenogenic sources have emerged as a new and alternative therapeutic option. A range of such products is licensed for clinical use, which differ in terms of structure and cellular content. Placed directly onto a prepared wound bed, skin substitutes may stimulate or accelerate healing by promoting revascularization, cellular migration, and repopulation of wound fields through provision of an appropriate scaffold material to facilitate these processes. Products containing fetal or autologous cells also benefit from early release of bioactive molecules including growth factors and cytokines. To date, limited numbers of randomized controlled trials studying skin substitutes have been published but evidence from case series and case-control studies is encouraging. This review discusses chronic wound biology, the influence that skin substitutes can exert on this environment, the products currently available, and examines the evidence for their use in chronic wound management. PMID:23437811

Greaves, Nicholas S; Iqbal, Syed A; Baguneid, Mohamed; Bayat, Ardeshir




E-print Network

NON-MELANOMA SKIN CANCER 21 3. NON-MELANOMA SKIN CANCER 3.1. SUMMARY Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC their cancer diagnosis. Table 3.1 Summary information for non-melanoma skin cancer in Ireland, 1995-melanoma skin cancer cases in Ireland, 1995-2007, by sex females males 3.2. INTERNATIONAL VARIATIONS

Paxton, Anthony T.


Skin Treatments and Dermatological Procedures to Promote Youthful Skin  

PubMed Central

The skin, the largest organ of the body, is the organ in which changes associated with aging are most visible. With increasing frequency, patients are requesting information and treatments that improve the appearance of their skin. Corresponding to this trend, there is an increasing number of products and methods available that claim to aid this pursuit. First, a change of the patient's lifestyle (eg, sun behavior, nicotine abuse, and nutrition) must take place. Only then may other methods be used. This article reflects on the following topics: topical retinoids, peels, botulinum neurotoxin, soft tissue fillers, lasers, topical and systemic endocrinological therapies, and phytohormones. A thorough knowledge of the properties (benefits, limitations, and complications) of the expanding array of possibilities for rejuvenation of the skin is essential for any physician treating patients with cosmetic complaints. PMID:18047257

Sator, Paul G



Hyperspectral imaging of bruised skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bruises can be important evidence in legal medicine, for example in cases of child abuse. Optical techniques can be used to discriminate and quantify the chromophores present in bruised skin, and thereby aid dating of an injury. However, spectroscopic techniques provide only average chromophore concentrations for the sampled volume, and contain little information about the spatial chromophore distribution in the bruise. Hyperspectral imaging combines the power of imaging and spectroscopy, and can provide both spectroscopic and spatial information. In this study a hyperspectral imaging system developed by Norsk Elektro Optikk AS was used to measure the temporal development of bruised skin in a human volunteer. The bruises were inflicted by paintball bullets. The wavelength ranges used were 400 - 1000 nm (VNIR) and 900 - 1700 nm (SWIR), and the spectral sampling intervals were 3.7 and 5 nm, respectively. Preliminary results show good spatial discrimination of the bruised areas compared to normal skin. Development of a white spot can be seen in the central zone of the bruises. This central white zone was found to resemble the shape of the object hitting the skin, and is believed to develop in areas where the impact caused vessel damage. These results show that hyperspectral imaging is a promising technique to evaluate the temporal and spatial development of bruises on human skin.

Randeberg, Lise L.; Baarstad, Ivar; Løke, Trond; Kaspersen, Peter; Svaasand, Lars O.



Bioactive Marine Drugs and Marine Biomaterials for Brain Diseases  

PubMed Central

Marine invertebrates produce a plethora of bioactive compounds, which serve as inspiration for marine biotechnology, particularly in drug discovery programs and biomaterials development. This review aims to summarize the potential of drugs derived from marine invertebrates in the field of neuroscience. Therefore, some examples of neuroprotective drugs and neurotoxins will be discussed. Their role in neuroscience research and development of new therapies targeting the central nervous system will be addressed, with particular focus on neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In addition, the neuronal growth promoted by marine drugs, as well as the recent advances in neural tissue engineering, will be highlighted. PMID:24798925

Grosso, Clara; Valentao, Patricia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B.



Bioactivities from Marine Algae of the Genus Gracilaria  

PubMed Central

Seaweeds are an important source of bioactive metabolites for the pharmaceutical industry in drug development. Many of these compounds are used to treat diseases like cancer, acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), inflammatio