Note: This page contains sample records for the topic versatile skin bioactive from
While these samples are representative of the content of,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.

Tropoelastin: a versatile, bioactive assembly module.  


Elastin provides structural integrity, biological cues and persistent elasticity to a range of important tissues, including the vasculature and lungs. Its critical importance to normal physiology makes it a desirable component of biomaterials that seek to repair or replace these tissues. The recent availability of large quantities of the highly purified elastin monomer, tropoelastin, has allowed for a thorough characterization of the mechanical and biological mechanisms underpinning the benefits of mature elastin. While tropoelastin is a flexible molecule, a combination of optical and structural analyses has defined key regions of the molecule that directly contribute to the elastomeric properties and control the cell interactions of the protein. Insights into the structure and behavior of tropoelastin have translated into increasingly sophisticated elastin-like biomaterials, evolving from classically manufactured hydrogels and fibers to new forms, stabilized in the absence of incorporated cross-linkers. Tropoelastin is also compatible with synthetic and natural co-polymers, expanding the applications of its potential use beyond traditional elastin-rich tissues and facilitating finer control of biomaterial properties and the design of next-generation tailored bioactive materials. PMID:23938199

Wise, Steven G; Yeo, Giselle C; Hiob, Matti A; Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; Kaplan, David L; Ng, Martin K C; Weiss, Anthony S



A Versatile Method for Functionalizing Surfaces with Bioactive Glycans  

PubMed Central

Microarrays and biosensors owe their functionality to our ability to display surface-bound biomolecules with retained biological function. Versatile, stable, and facile methods for the immobilization of bioactive compounds on surfaces have expanded the application of high-throughput ‘omics’-scale screening of molecular interactions by non-expert laboratories. Herein, we demonstrate the potential of simplified chemistries to fabricate a glycan microarray, utilizing divinyl sulfone (DVS)-modified surfaces for the covalent immobilization of natural and chemically derived carbohydrates, as well as glycoproteins. The bioactivity of the captured glycans was quantitatively examined by surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi). Composition and spectroscopic evidence of carbohydrate species on the DVS-modified surface were obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), respectively. The site-selective immobilization of glycans based on relative nucleophilicity (reducing sugar vs. amine- and sulfhydryl-derived saccharides) and anomeric configuration was also examined. Our results demonstrate straightforward and reproducible conjugation of a variety of functional biomolecules onto a vinyl sulfone-modified biosensor surface. The simplicity of this method will have a significant impact on glycomics research, as it expands the ability of non-synthetic laboratories to rapidly construct functional glycan microarrays and quantitative biosensors.

Cheng, Fang; Shang, Jing; Ratner, Daniel M.



Diphenylthiourea, a common rubber chemical, is bioactivated to potent skin sensitizers.  


Diphenylthiourea (DPTU) is a known skin sensitizer commonly used as a vulcanization accelerator in the production of synthetic rubber, for example, neoprene. The versatile usage of neoprene is due to the multifaceted properties of the material; for example, it is stretchable, waterproof, and chemical- and abrasion-resistant. The wide application of neoprene has resulted in numerous case reports of dermatitis patients allergic to DPTU. The mechanism by which DPTU works as a contact allergen has not been described; thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate if DPTU is a prohapten that can be activated by skin metabolism. The metabolic activation and covalent binding of (14)C-labeled DPTU to proteins were tested using a skinlike cytochrome P450 (P450) cocktail containing the five most abundant P450s found in human skin (CYP1A1, 1B1, 2B6, 2E1, and 3A5) and human liver microsomes. The incubations were carried out in the presence or absence of the metabolite trapping agents glutathione, methoxylamine, and benzylamine. The metabolism mixtures were analyzed by LC-radiochromatography, LC-MS, and LC-MS/MS. DPTU was mainly metabolically activated to reactive sulfoxides resulting in desulfurated adducts in both enzymatic systems used. Also, phenylisothiocyanate and phenylisocyanate were found to be metabolites of DPTU. The sensitizing capacity of the substrate (DPTU) and three metabolites was tested in the murine local lymph node assay. Two out of three metabolites tested were strong skin sensitizers, whereas DPTU itself, as previously known, was negative using this mouse model. In conclusion, DPTU forms highly reactive metabolites upon bioactivation by enzymes present in the skin. These metabolites are able to induce skin sensitization and are probable causes for DPTU allergy. To increase the possibilities of diagnosing contact allergy to DPTU-containing items, we suggest that suitable metabolites of DPTU should be used for screening testing. PMID:21073181

Samuelsson, Kristin; Bergström, Moa Andresen; Jonsson, Charlotte A; Westman, Gunnar; Karlberg, Ann-Therese



Pilot Study on the Bioactivity of Vitamin D in the Skin after Oral Supplementation

Meetings & Events Investigators' - Site Coordinators' Opportunity for Research Excellence (I-SCORE) Workshop March 20-21, 2014 Poster Presentations – Full List « Previous | Next »   Pilot Study on the Bioactivity of Vitamin D in the Skin after Oral


Andrographolide and its analogues: versatile bioactive molecules for combating inflammation and cancer.  


1.?Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f) Nees, commonly known as 'king of bitters', is a herbaceous plant belonging to the Family Acanthaceae. It has been widely used for centuries in Asian countries like China, India, Thailand and Malaysia for the treatment of sore throat, flu and upper respiratory tract infections. 2.?Andrographolide, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide and neoandrographolide are examples of the major labdane diterpenoids isolated from A. paniculata. These bioactive molecules have exhibited varying degrees of anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models of inflammation and cancer. 3.?Extensive libraries of andrographolide analogues have been synthesised mainly by modifying the ?,?-unsaturated ?-butyrolactone moiety, the two double bonds ?(8,(17)) and ?(12,(13)) and the three hydroxyls at C-3 (secondary), C-14 (allylic) and C-19 (primary). Many of these synthetic analogues exhibit superior anticancer activity over the naturally occurring andrographolides. 4.?Andrographolide and its derivatives have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects in experimental models of asthma, stroke and arthritis, as well as in patients with upper respiratory tract infections. Andrographolide reduces the production of cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, nitric oxide and lipid mediators, probably via inhibition of the nuclear factor (NF)-?B signalling pathway. 5.?The anticancer mechanisms for andrographolide include inhibition of Janus tyrosine kinases-signal transducers and activators of transcription, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and NF-?B signalling pathways, suppression of heat shock protein 90, cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases, metalloproteinases and growth factors, and the induction of tumour suppressor proteins p53 and p21, leading to inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, survival, metastasis and angiogenesis. 6.?Andrographolide drug discovery is a promising strategy for the development of a novel class of anti-inflammatory and anticancer drugs. PMID:22017767

Lim, Jonathan Chee Woei; Chan, Tze Khee; Ng, David S W; Sagineedu, Sreenivasa R; Stanslas, Johnson; Wong, W S Fred



Oral intake of specific bioactive collagen peptides reduces skin wrinkles and increases dermal matrix synthesis.  


Dietary consumption of food supplements has been found to modulate skin functions and can therefore be useful in the treatment of skin aging. However, there is only a limited number of clinical studies supporting these claims. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the effectiveness of the specific bioactive collagen peptide (BCP) VERISOL® on eye wrinkle formation and stimulation of procollagen I, elastin and fibrillin biosynthesis in the skin was assessed. A hundred and fourteen women aged 45-65 years were randomized to receive 2.5 g of BCP or placebo, once daily for 8 weeks, with 57 subjects being allocated to each treatment group. Skin wrinkles were objectively measured in all subjects, before starting the treatment, after 4 and 8 weeks as well as 4 weeks after the last intake (4-week regression phase). A subgroup was established for suction blister biopsies analyzing procollagen I, elastin and fibrillin at the beginning of the treatment and after 8 weeks of intake. The ingestion of the specific BCP used in this study promoted a statistically significant reduction of eye wrinkle volume (p < 0.05) in comparison to the placebo group after 4 and 8 weeks (20%) of intake. Moreover a positive long-lasting effect was observed 4 weeks after the last BCP administration (p < 0.05). Additionally, after 8 weeks of intake a statistically significantly higher content of procollagen type I (65%) and elastin (18%) in the BCP-treated volunteers compared to the placebo-treated patients was detected. For fibrillin, a 6% increase could be determined after BCP treatment compared to the placebo, but this effect failed to reach the level of statistical significance. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the oral intake of specific bioactive collagen peptides (Verisol®) reduced skin wrinkles and had positive effects on dermal matrix synthesis. PMID:24401291

Proksch, E; Schunck, M; Zague, V; Segger, D; Degwert, J; Oesser, S



Epigenetic alterations in ultraviolet radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis: interaction of bioactive dietary components on epigenetic targets.  


The importance of epigenetic alterations in the development of various diseases including the cancers has been realized. As epigenetic changes are reversible heritable changes, these can be utilized as an effective strategy for the prevention of cancers. DNA methylation is the most characterized epigenetic mechanism that can be inherited without changing the DNA sequence. Although limited available data suggest that silencing of tumor suppressor genes in ultraviolet (UV) radiation-exposed epidermis leads to photocarcinogenesis and is associated with a network of epigenetic modifications including alterations in DNA methylation, DNA methyltransferases and histone acetylations. Various bioactive dietary components have been shown to protect skin from UV radiation-induced skin tumors in animal models. The role of bioactive dietary components, such as, (-)-epicatechins from green tea and proanthocyanidins from grape seeds has been assessed in chemoprevention of UV-induced skin carcinogenesis and underlying epigenetic mechanism in vitro and in vivo animal models. These bioactive components have the ability to block UV-induced DNA hypermethylation and histone modifications in the skin required for the silencing of tumor suppressor genes (e.g. Cip1/p21, p16(INK4a) ). This information is of importance for understanding the role of epigenetic modulation in UV-induced skin tumor and the chemopreventive mechanism of bioactive dietary components. PMID:22017262

Katiyar, Santosh K; Singh, Tripti; Prasad, Ram; Sun, Qian; Vaid, Mudit



Epigenetic Alterations in Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Skin Carcinogenesis: Interaction of Bioactive Dietary Components on Epigenetic Targets†  

PubMed Central

The importance of epigenetic alterations in the development of various diseases including the cancers has been realized. As epigenetic changes are reversible heritable changes, these can be utilized as an effective strategy for the prevention of cancers. DNA methylation is the most characterized epigenetic mechanism that can be inherited without changing the DNA sequence. Although limited, but available data suggest that silencing of tumor suppressor genes in ultraviolet (UV) radiation-exposed epidermis leads to photocarcinogenesis and is associated with a network of epigenetic modifications including alterations in DNA methylation, DNA methyltransferases and histone acetylations. Various bioactive dietary components have been shown to protect skin from UV radiation-induced skin tumors in animal models. The role of bioactive dietary components, such as, (?)-epicatechins from green tea and proanthocyanidins from grape seeds, has been assessed in chemoprevention of UV-induced skin carcinogenesis and underlying epigenetic mechanism in vitro and in vivo animal models. These bioactive components have the ability to block UV-induced DNA hypermethylation and histone modifications in the skin required for the silencing of tumor suppressor genes (e.g., Cip1/p21, p16INK4a). These information are of importance for understanding the role of epigenetic modulation in UV-induced skin tumor and the chemopreventive mechanism of bioactive dietary components.

Katiyar, Santosh K.; Singh, Tripti; Prasad, Ram; Sun, Qian; Vaid, Mudit



Plakins, a versatile family of cytolinkers: roles in skin integrity and in human diseases.  


The plakin family consists of giant proteins involved in the cross-linking and organization of the cytoskeleton and adhesion complexes. They further modulate several fundamental biological processes, such as cell adhesion, migration, and polarization or signaling pathways. Inherited and acquired defects of plakins in humans and in animal models potentially lead to dramatic manifestations in the skin, striated muscles, and/or nervous system. These observations unequivocally demonstrate the key role of plakins in the maintenance of tissue integrity. Here we review the characteristics of the mammalian plakin members BPAG1 (bullous pemphigoid antigen 1), desmoplakin, plectin, envoplakin, epiplakin, MACF1 (microtubule-actin cross-linking factor 1), and periplakin, highlighting their role in skin homeostasis and diseases. PMID:24352042

Bouameur, Jamal-Eddine; Favre, Bertrand; Borradori, Luca



Bioactive alkaloids of frog skin: Combinatorial bioprospecting reveals that pumiliotoxins have an arthropod source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly 500 alkaloids have been detected in skin extracts from frogs of the family Dendrobatidae. All seem to have been sequestered unchanged into skin glands from alkaloid-containing arthropods. Ants, beetles, and millipedes seem to be the source of decahydroquinolines, certain izidines, coccinellines, and spiropyrrolizidine oximes. But the dietary source for a major group of frog-skin alkaloids, namely the pumiliotoxins (PTXs),

John W. Daly; Tetsuo Kaneko; Jason Wilham; H. Martin Garraffo; Thomas F. Spande; Alex Espinosa; Maureen A. Donnelly



The impact of grape skin bioactive functionality information on the acceptability of tea infusions made from wine by-products.  


The effect of information on the health benefits of bio-active compounds on the acceptability of 5 tea infusions made from grape skins generated from wine processing waste (from Vitis vinifera var. Pinot Noir and Pinot Gris) was investigated. Samples of tea infusions with natural additives (PNHGT25 and PGGT50) and without additives (control PN, control PG, and PNPG50) were evaluated by 45 in-home consumer panels (30 female, 15 male) before and after information on the health benefits of grape skins were provided. Information significantly increased the overall acceptability, overall aroma, flavor, and aftertaste of the infusions. The results obtained showed a clear tendency toward increased purchase intention (by 29%) when information on the health benefits of the tea infusion samples was provided to consumers. Interactions existed between gender/infusion samples and stage of information on the purchase intention. Females recorded a significant increase (by 53%) in purchase intention, whereas no change in the males' purchase intention was found after information was provided. PMID:20546418

Cheng, Vern Jou; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Sedcole, Richard; Hamid, Nazimah



The versatility of a glycerol-preserved skin allograft as an adjunctive treatment to free flap reconstruction.  


Skin allografts have been used in medical practice for over a century owing to their unique composition as a biological dressing. Skin allografts can be obtained in several preparations such as cryopreserved, glycerol-preserved, and fresh allograft. A glycerol-preserved allograft (GPA) was introduced in the early 1980s. It has several advantages compared with other dressings such as ease of processing, storage and transport, lower cost, less antigenicity, antimicrobial properties, and neo-vascularisation promoting properties. Skin allografts are mainly used in the management of severe burn injuries, chronic ulcers, and complex, traumatic wounds. Published reports of the use of skin allografts in association with free flap surgery are few or non existent. We would like to share our experience of several cases of free tissue transfer that utilised GPA as a temporary wound dressing in multiple scenarios. On the basis of this case series, we would like to recommend that a GPA be used as a temporary dressing in conjunction with free flap surgery when required to protect the flap pedicle, allowing time for the edema to subside and the wound can then be closed for a better aesthetic outcome. PMID:19881027

Mat Saad, A Z; Khoo, T L; Dorai, A A; Halim, A S



[Bioactive dressings].  


Wound healing is a complex process involving several cell types (keratinocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, etc.) as well as many growth factors (PDGF, TGF-betas, FGFs, VEGF, etc.). It can be challenging when wounds are deep or very large (third degree burn, ulceration after cutaneous tumor resection) or in presence of peripheral vascular disease, metabolic disturbances or peripheral neuropathy (chronic vascular or diabetic wounds). In order to promote skin regeneration, numerous bioactive dressings combining cells, matrices and growth factors are available on the market. This article provides a general overview of the various product categories and presents their main indications. The principal axes of the biomedical research in this area are also discussed. PMID:20229727

Grasset, N; Raffoul, W; Bigliardi, P



Fabrication of a nanofibrous scaffold with improved bioactivity for culture of human dermal fibroblasts for skin regeneration.  


Engineering dermal substitutes with electrospun nanofibres have lately been of prime importance for skin tissue regeneration. Simple electrospinning technology served to produce nanofibrous scaffolds morphologically and structurally similar to the extracellular matrix of native tissues. The nanofibrous scaffolds of poly(L-lactic acid)-co-poly(?-caprolactone) (PLACL) and PLACL/gelatin complexes were fabricated by the electrospinning process. These nanofibres were characterized for fibre morphology, membrane porosity, wettability and chemical properties by FTIR analysis to culture human foreskin fibroblasts for skin tissue engineering. The nanofibre diameter was obtained between 282 and 761 nm for PLACL and PLACL/gelatin scaffolds; expressions of amino and carboxyl groups and porosity up to 87% were obtained for these fibres, while they also exhibited improved hydrophilic properties after plasma treatment. The results showed that fibroblasts proliferation, morphology, CMFDA dye expression and secretion of collagen were significantly increased in plasma-treated PLACL/gelatin scaffolds compared to PLACL nanofibrous scaffolds. The obtained results prove that the plasma-treated PLACL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffold is a potential biocomposite material for skin tissue regeneration. PMID:21205999

Chandrasekaran, Arun Richard; Venugopal, J; Sundarrajan, S; Ramakrishna, S



Extracellular matrix formation in self-assembled minimalistic bioactive hydrogels based on aromatic peptide amphiphiles  

PubMed Central

The hitherto inconsistency in clinical performance for engineered skin drives the current development of novel cell-scaffolding materials; one challenge is to only extract essential characteristics from the complex native ECM (extracellular matrix) and incorporate them into a scaffold with minimal complexity to support normal cell functions. This study involved small-molecule-based bioactive hydrogels produced by the co-assembly of two aromatic peptide amphiphiles: Fmoc-FF (Fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine) and Fmoc-RGD (arginine–glycine–aspartic acid). Three-dimensionally cultured human dermal fibroblasts deposited dense ECM networks including fibronectin and collagen I within the hydrogels in a 14-day culture. The fibroblasts organized the fibrous ECM and contracted the gel without differentiating into myofibroblasts. The stiffness of the cell-gel constructs increased dramatically due to ECM formation and gel contraction. This created an economical biomimetic model-scaffold to further understand skin reconstruction in vitro and supplied a design pathway to create versatile cell-scaffolds with varied bioactivities and simplicity.

Zhou, Mi; Ulijn, Rein V



Apigenin, a bioactive flavonoid from Lycopodium clavatum, stimulates nucleotide excision repair genes to protect skin keratinocytes from ultraviolet B-induced reactive oxygen species and DNA damage.  


In this study, we examined the antioxidative and the DNA protective potentials of apigenin, a flavonoid polyphenol isolated from Lycopodium clavatum, in both in-vitro (HaCaT skin keratinocytes) and in-vivo (mice) models against UV-B radiation. We used DAPI staining in UV-B-irradiated HaCaT skin keratinocytes pre-treated with and without apigenin to assess DNA damage. We also used a flow-cytometric analysis in mice exposed to UV-B radiation with or without topical application of apigenin to assess, through a comet assay, chromosomal aberrations and quanta from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Data from the stability curves for the Gibb's free energy determined from a melting-temperature profile study indicated that apigenin increased the stability of calf thymus DNA. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that apigenin caused a reduction in the number of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) after 24 h, the time at which the nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes were activated. Thus, apigenin accelerated reversal of UV-B-induced CPDs through up-regulation of NER genes, removal of cyclobutane rings, inhibition of ROS generation, and down-regulation of NF-?B and MAPK, thereby revealing the precise mechanism of DNA repair. PMID:24139463

Das, Sreemanti; Das, Jayeeta; Paul, Avijit; Samadder, Asmita; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman



Versatile Transceiver developments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SLHC experiment upgrades will make substantial use of optical links to enable high-speed data readout and control. The Versatile Link project will develop and assess optical link architectures and components suitable for deployment at SLHC. The on-detector element will be a bidirectional opto-electronic module: the Versatile Transceiver (VTRx) that will be based on a commercially available module type minimally customized to meet the constraints of the SLHC on-detector environment in terms of mass, volume, power consumption, operational temperature and radiation environment. This paper brings together the status of development of the VTRx in terms of packaging, environmental testing and functional testing.

Troska, J.; Bobillier, V.; Detraz, S.; Papadopoulos, S.; Papakonstantinou, I.; Storey, S.; Sigaud, C.; Stejskal, P.; Soos, C.; Vasey, F.



Transfersomes: self-optimizing carriers for bioactives.  


The transdermal route of drug delivery has gained great interest of pharmaceutical research, as it circumvents number of problems associated with oral route of drug administration. The major barrier in transdermal delivery of drug is the skin intrinsic barrier, the stratum corneum, the outermost envelop of the skin that offers the principal hurdle for diffusion of hydrophilic ionizable bioactives. Recently, various strategies have been used to augment the transdermal delivery of bioactives. Mainly, they include iontophoresis, electrophoresis, sonophoresis, chemical permeation enhancers, microneedles, and vesicular system (liposomes, niosomes, elastic liposomes such as ethosomes and transfersomes). Among these strategies transferosomes appear promising. Transport of this vesicular system through skin and epithelial hurdle depends upon the flexibility of their membrane, which can be attained using appropriate ratio of surfactant. Transfersomes have shown immense potential in drug delivery across the skin. Recent success also demonstrates the potential of transfersome in vaccine, steroid, protein, and peptide delivery across the skin. It is also used for transporting genetic material and achieving transfection. This review highlights the various aspects of the transferosomes in the effective delivery of drug/bioactives across the skin. PMID:19055232

Rai, Kavita; Gupta, Yashwant; Jain, Anekant; Jain, Sanjay K



Versatile communications terminal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Widely-separated parties are linked into efficient communications network by versatile control terminal. Terminal handles voice and data communications via both telephone lines and radio-frequency channels. It includes telephone-to-radio "patch", telephone autodialer, and other advanced features to provide rapid communications for applications such as emergency medical services (EMS) operations.

Belasco, N.; Pool, S. L.; Sinderson, R. L.



DVD - digital versatile disks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An international standard has emerged for the first true multimedia format. Digital Versatile Disk (by its official name), you may know it as Digital Video Disks. DVD has applications in movies, music, games, information CD-ROMS, and many other areas wher...

R. Gaunt



DVD - digital versatile disks  

Microsoft Academic Search

An international standard has emerged for the first true multimedia format. Digital Versatile Disk (by its official name), you may know it as Digital Video Disks. DVD has applications in movies, music, games, information CD-ROMS, and many other areas where massive amounts of digital information is needed. Did I say massive amounts of data? Would you believe over 17 gigabytes




Versatile Controller For CCD's  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

General-purpose controller for charge-coupled device (CCD) programmed to accommodate variety of CCD designs. In operation of controller, software used to specify CCD-clock waveforms, available in great diversity. Includes timing-signal generator controlled by microcomputer. Flexibility and speed makes it versatile tool for laboratory testing and for variety of applications. Controller operates existing CCD's and able to operate CCD's expected to be developed in foreseeable future.

Novello, J.; Chen, P. C.



Versatility of microbial transglutaminase.  


Although microbial transglutaminases (mTGs) were initially discovered to offset the cost of producing mammalian transglutaminases for food applications, they have quickly become important tools in research and biotechnology. Today, mTGs are utilized for a large number of applications to conjugate proteins and peptides to small molecules, polymers, surfaces, and DNA, as well as to other proteins. It is important to know how to maximize the advantages of the enzymatic approach and avoid undesired cross-linking. This review focuses on the versatility of transglutaminases in the field of bioconjugation and covers recent developments in utilizing mTG for generating antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) for therapeutic applications. PMID:24694238

Strop, Pavel



Versatile casein kinase 1  

PubMed Central

Members of casein kinase 1 (CK1) are evolutionarily conserved eukaryotic protein kinases, which play fundamental roles in various cellular, physiological and developmental processes. One of the key mechanisms by which the activity of these multifunctional CK1 members is controlled appears to be their specific spatiotemporal compartmentalization within the cell. Plant genomes encode dozens of CK1 homologs, the function of which are not yet well characterized, however, evolutionary conservation of these genes predicts their fundamental roles in plants. Characterization of Arabidopsis CK1-like 6 (CKL6) that we have recently reported sheds new light on the existence of parallel and unique aspects of the mechanism involved in specific subcellular targeting as well as cellular function of CK1 in plants. In this addendum, I will focus my discussion on the versatility of CKL6 partitioning at different subcellular compartments and propose that this capability likely reflects its multiple functions in modulating an array of cellular targets.



Bioactivation of particles  


Particles are bioactivated by attaching bioactivation peptides to the particle surface. The bioactivation peptides are peptide-based compounds that impart one or more biologically important functions to the particles. Each bioactivation peptide includes a molecular or surface recognition part that binds with the surface of the particle and one or more functional parts. The surface recognition part includes an amino-end and a carboxy-end and is composed of one or more hydrophobic spacers and one or more binding clusters. The functional part(s) is attached to the surface recognition part at the amino-end and/or said carboxy-end.

Pinaud, Fabien (Berkeley, CA); King, David (San Francisco, CA); Weiss, Shimon (Los Angeles, CA)



Bioactive formulations with sugar-derived surfactants: a new approach for photoprotection and controlled release of promethazine.  


Skin deep: A bioactive formulation for dermal delivery of antihistamines is obtained by using the original properties of catanionic associations towards self-assembly in water. The drug, which participates in its own transport, is preserved from photodegradation when solubilised in the bioactive formulation. The drug release through the skin is also delayed. PMID:23436492

Bize, Cécile; Garrigues, Jean-Christophe; Corbet, Jean-Pierre; Rico-Lattes, Isabelle; Blanzat, Muriel



Skin Pigment  


... Skin Infections Fungal Skin Infections Viral Skin Infections Sunlight and Skin Damage Noncancerous Skin Growths Skin Cancers ... the body or small patches. When exposed to sunlight, melanocytes produce increased amounts of melanin, causing the ...


Bioactive glass in tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on recent advances in the development and use of bioactive glass for tissue engineering applications. Despite its inherent brittleness, bioactive glass has several appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. New bioactive glasses based on borate and borosilicate compositions have shown the ability to enhance new bone formation when compared to silicate bioactive glass.

Mohamed N. Rahaman; Delbert E. Day; B. Sonny Bal; Qiang Fu; Steven B. Jung; Lynda F. Bonewald; Antoni P. Tomsia



The Versatile Use of Temporoparietal Fascial Flap  

PubMed Central

Background: The pedicled or free temporoparietal fascial has been used in many areas, especially in head and neck reconstruction. This thin, pliable, highly vascularized flap may be also transferred as a carrier of subjacent bone or overlying skin. Objective: The aim of this study is to report our experience in versatile use of temporoparietal fascial flap (TPFF) and discuss the surgical anatomy and technique. Patients and Methods: A total number of 57 TPFFs have been used in periorbital, mid-facial, auricular, and tracheal reconstruction due to tumor resection, trauma, and congenital ear deformities. Results: All the flaps were successfully transferred without any major complication. The cosmetic results were quite satisfactory to all patients. Conclusion: The advantages and minimal donor site morbidity of TPPF makes this flap a good choice in many reconstructive procedures.

Demirdover, Cenk; Sahin, Baris; Vayvada, Haluk; Oztan, Hasan Yucel



Encapsulation of Bioactives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food bioactives are physiologically active components in food or dietary supplements of plant or animal origin that have a\\u000a role in health beyond basic nutrition. The addition of bioactive components to foods, particularly those foods that are consumed\\u000a as part of the normal diet of target populations, offers opportunities for improving the health and well-being of consumers.\\u000a The interest of

M. A. Augustin; L. Sanguansri


A versatile laboratory cryogenic plant  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of Theoretical and Experimental physics has designed a versatile cryogenic plant (VCP) which can liquefy helium, hydrogen, neon, and can extract neon from a gaseous neon-helium mixture. It can also be used as a refrigerator for cryostating external objects. The versatile cryogenic plant is schematicized and the refrigerating capacity and VCP control panel are detailed. Characteristic features which distinguish the VCP from other plants are specified. The processes involved in the liquefaction of helium, hydrogen, or neon, and the cryostating and cooling of an external object are explained. The use of the plant showed it to be economic, reliable, and convenient to operate.

Dobrov, V.M.; Marevichev, I.P.; Petrova, Y.B.; Povarov, Y.I.



Skin Cancer  


... Z Diseases and treatments Q - T Skin cancer Skin cancer It is possible to find skin cancer early. ... see a dermatologist. Learn more. Common types of skin cancer Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) This is the most ...


Just how versatile are domains?  

PubMed Central

Background Creating new protein domain arrangements is a frequent mechanism of evolutionary innovation. While some domains always form the same combinations, others form many different arrangements. This ability, which is often referred to as versatility or promiscuity of domains, its a random evolutionary model in which a domain's promiscuity is based on its relative frequency of domains. Results We show that there is a clear relationship across genomes between the promiscuity of a given domain and its frequency. However, the strength of this relationship differs for different domains. We thus redefine domain promiscuity by defining a new index, DV I ("domain versatility index"), which eliminates the effect of domain frequency. We explore links between a domain's versatility, when unlinked from abundance, and its biological properties. Conclusion Our results indicate that domains occurring as single domain proteins and domains appearing frequently at protein termini have a higher DV I. This is consistent with previous observations that the evolution of domain re-arrangements is primarily driven by fusion of pre-existing arrangements and single domains as well as loss of domains at protein termini. Furthermore, we studied the link between domain age, defined as the first appearance of a domain in the species tree, and the DV I. Contrary to previous studies based on domain promiscuity, it seems as if the DV I is age independent. Finally, we find that contrary to previously reported findings, versatility is lower in Eukaryotes. In summary, our measure of domain versatility indicates that a random attachment process is sufficient to explain the observed distribution of domain arrangements and that several views on domain promiscuity need to be revised.



Electrostatic Control of Bioactivity  

SciTech Connect

The power of independence: When exhibited on the surface of self-assembling peptide-amphiphile nanofibers, the hydrophobic laminin-derived IKVAV epitope induced nanofiber bundling through interdigitation with neighboring fibers and thus decreased the bioactivity of the resulting materials. The inclusion of charged amino acids in the peptide amphiphiles disrupted the tendency to bundle and led to significantly enhanced neurite outgrowth.

Goldberger, Joshua E.; Berns, Eric J.; Bitton, Ronit; Newcomb, Christina J.; Stupp, Samuel I. (NWU)



Porous bioactive materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioactive materials chemically bond to tissues through the development of biologically active apatite. Porous structures in biomaterials are designed to enhance bioactivity, grow artificial tissues and achieve better integration with host tissues in the body. The goal of this research is to design, fabricate and characterize novel porous bioactive materials. 3D ordered macroporous bioactive glasses (3DOM-BGs, pore size: 200--1000 nm) were prepared using a sol-gel process and colloidal crystal templates. 3DOM-BGs are more bioactive and degradable than mesoporous (pore size <50 nm) sol-gel BGs in simulated body fluid (SBF). Apatite formation and 3DOM-BG degradation rates increased with the decrease of soaking ratio. Apatite induction time in SBF increased with 3DOM-BG calcination temperature (600--800°C). Apatite formation and 3DOMBG degradation were slightly enhanced for a phosphate containing composition. Large 3DOM-BG particles formed less apatite and degraded less completely as compared with small particles. An increase in macropore size slowed down 3DOM-BG degradation and apatite formation processes. After heating the converted apatite at a temperature higher than 700°C, highly crystalline hydroxyapatite and a minor tri-calcium phosphate phase formed. 3DOM-BGs have potential applications as bone/periodontal fillers, and drugs and biological factors delivery agents. Anchoring artificial soft tissues (e.g., cartilage) to native bone presents a challenge. Porous polymer/bioactive glass composites are candidate materials for engineering artificial soft tissue/bone interfaces. Porous composites consisting of polymer matrices (e.g., polysulfone, polylactide, and polyurethane) and bioactive glass particles were prepared by polymer phase separation techniques adapted to include ceramic particles. Composites (thickness: 200--500 mum) have asymmetric structures with dense top layers and porous structures beneath. Porous structures consist of large pores (>100 mum) in a network of smaller (<10 mum) interconnected pores. Dense layers can be removed and large pores exposed by abrasion or salt leaching techniques. Composite modulus was enhanced with the increase of glass content, due to the change in composition and pore content. The growth of bone-like apatite on and inside composites after soaking in SBF demonstrated their potential for integration with bone. Cell culture studies revealed that composite surfaces were suitable for attachment, spreading and proliferation of chondrocytes.

Zhang, Kai


Versatile Wearable Computer for Drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A versatile wearable computer for drivers (VWCD) was proposed that can extend in-vehicle multi-modal display spaces. In the\\u000a first development phase, LEDs, mini video displays, earphones, and vibrators were included as visual, auditory and tactile\\u000a displays, and were all attached to an eyeglass frame. One electrocardiographic electrode was attached to the VWCD to obtain\\u000a the driver’s heart rate signal at

Gyouhyung Kyung; Songyi Chae; Kyung Hyun Nam; Kyungmin Lee; Wanjae Shin


QOMET: A Versatile WLAN Emulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the design of QOMET, the Wireless LAN (WLAN) emulator that we develop. Our approach to WLAN emulation is a versatile two-stage scenario-driven design. In the first stage a real-world scenario representation provided by the user is converted successively into physical, data link and network layer effects that correspond to the emulated WLAN scenario. The output

Razvan Beuran; Lan Tien Nguyen; Khin Thida Latt; Junya Nakata; Yoichi Shinoda



Polysaccharides and their derivatives for versatile tissue engineering application.  


Research and development in the design, synthesis, modification, evaluation, and characterization of polysaccharide-based bioactive polymeric materials for guiding and promoting new tissue in-growth is reviewed. Emphasis is given in this interdisciplinary field of tissue engineering (TE) with particular reference to bone, cartilage, and skin TE. Current strategies in scaffold-guided TE approaches using polymers of natural origin and their composites are elaborated. Innovative modification techniques in creating functional materials for advanced TE applications are presented. Challenges and possible solutions in the technological innovation in factor molecules incorporation and surface functionalization for improving the fabrication of biomaterials scaffolds for cost-effective TE are also presented. PMID:23512290

Khan, Ferdous; Ahmad, Sheikh Rafi



Bioactive glass in tissue engineering.  


This review focuses on recent advances in the development and use of bioactive glass for tissue engineering applications. Despite its inherent brittleness, bioactive glass has several appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. New bioactive glasses based on borate and borosilicate compositions have shown the ability to enhance new bone formation when compared to silicate bioactive glass. Borate-based bioactive glasses also have controllable degradation rates, so the degradation of the bioactive glass implant can be more closely matched to the rate of new bone formation. Bioactive glasses can be doped with trace quantities of elements such as Cu, Zn and Sr, which are known to be beneficial for healthy bone growth. In addition to the new bioactive glasses, recent advances in biomaterials processing have resulted in the creation of scaffold architectures with a range of mechanical properties suitable for the substitution of loaded as well as non-loaded bone. While bioactive glass has been extensively investigated for bone repair, there has been relatively little research on the application of bioactive glass to the repair of soft tissues. However, recent work has shown the ability of bioactive glass to promote angiogenesis, which is critical to numerous applications in tissue regeneration, such as neovascularization for bone regeneration and the healing of soft tissue wounds. Bioactive glass has also been shown to enhance neocartilage formation during in vitro culture of chondrocyte-seeded hydrogels, and to serve as a subchondral substrate for tissue-engineered osteochondral constructs. Methods used to manipulate the structure and performance of bioactive glass in these tissue engineering applications are analyzed. PMID:21421084

Rahaman, Mohamed N; Day, Delbert E; Bal, B Sonny; Fu, Qiang; Jung, Steven B; Bonewald, Lynda F; Tomsia, Antoni P



Bioactive glass in tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on recent advances in the development and use of bioactive glass for tissue engineering applications. Despite its inherent brittleness, bioactive glass has several appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. New bioactive glasses based on borate and borosilicate compositions have shown the ability to enhance new bone formation when compared to silicate bioactive glass. Borate-based bioactive glasses also have controllable degradation rates, so the degradation of the bioactive glass implant can be more closely matched to the rate of new bone formation. Bioactive glasses can be doped with trace quantities of elements such as Cu, Zn and Sr, which are known to be beneficial for healthy bone growth. In addition to the new bioactive glasses, recent advances in biomaterials processing have resulted in the creation of scaffold architectures with a range of mechanical properties suitable for the substitution of loaded as well as non-loaded bone. While bioactive glass has been extensively investigated for bone repair, there has been relatively little research on the application of bioactive glass to the repair of soft tissues. However, recent work has shown the ability of bioactive glass to promote angiogenesis, which is critical to numerous applications in tissue regeneration, such as neovascularization for bone regeneration and the healing of soft tissue wounds. Bioactive glass has also been shown to enhance neocartilage formation during in vitro culture of chondrocyte-seeded hydrogels, and to serve as a subchondral substrate for tissue-engineered osteochondral constructs. Methods used to manipulate the structure and performance of bioactive glass in these tissue engineering applications are analyzed.

Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Day, Delbert E.; Bal, B. Sonny; Fu, Qiang; Jung, Steven B.; Bonewald, Lynda F.; Tomsia, Antoni P.



Preparation and bioactivity of sol-gel macroporous bioactive glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive glass is well known for its ability of bone regeneration, and sol-gel bioactive glass has many advantages compared with melt-derived bioactive glass. 3-D scaffold prepared by the sol-gel method is a promising substrate material for bone tissue engineering and large-scale bone repair. Porous sol-gel glass in the CaO-SiO2-P2O5 system with macropores larger than 100 ?m was prepared by the

Zhihua Zhou; Jianming Ruan; Jianpeng Zou; Zhongcheng Zhou



Skin Conditions  


... redness, swelling, burning, and itching. Allergies, irritants, your genetic makeup, and certain diseases and immune system problems can cause rashes, hives, and other skin conditions. Many skin problems, ...


A versatile programmable pattern generator.  


A versatile visual pattern generator is described that can be programmed by a microcomputer and is developed as a part of a portable visual evoked potential analysis system. The hardware is contained on one printed circuit board (3" X 10", 7.5 X 25.5 cm) residing in an interface connector of a microcomputer (Apple II). The generator produces signals for commercial 50 Hz video monitors; a calibration procedure based on a photocell measurement corrects for the non-linear voltage intensity characteristic of the phosphor of the video monitor. PMID:3617543

Sportel, H; Smit, H W; Grimbergen, C A



Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases  


... color or outline, or in any other way. Psoriasis © 2008 Logical Images, Inc. Psoriasis —A skin disease that causes scaling and swelling. Most psoriasis causes patches of thick, red skin with silvery ...


Bioactive cystine knot proteins.  


The cystine knot is a structural motif that confers exceptional stability on proteins. Here we provide an update on the topology of the cystine knot and the combinatorial diversity of proteins that contain it. We describe recent chemical biology studies that have utilised this structural motif for the development of potential therapeutic or diagnostic agents. The cystine knot appears to have evolved in fungi, plants and animals as a stable and adaptable framework for the display of a wide variety of bioactive peptide sequences, but is amenable to chemical or recombinant synthesis and thus has a wide range of applications in chemistry, biology and medicine. PMID:21362584

Daly, Norelle L; Craik, David J



Analytical investigations of poly(acrylic acid) coatings electrodeposited on titanium-based implants: a versatile approach to biocompatibility enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polyacrylic acid film was synthesized on titanium substrates from aqueous solutions via an electroreductive process for\\u000a the first time. This work was done in order to develop a versatile coating for titanium-based orthopaedic implants that acts\\u000a as both an effective bioactive surface and an effective anti-corrosion barrier. The chemical structure of the PAA coating\\u000a was investigated by X-ray photoelectron

E. De Giglio; S. Cometa; N. Cioffi; L. Torsi; L. Sabbatini



Skin tightening.  


Skin tightening describes the treatment of skin laxity via radiofrequency (RF), ultrasound, or light-based devices. Skin laxity on the face is manifested by progressive loss of skin elasticity, loosening of the connective tissue framework, and deepening of skin folds. This results in prominence of submandibular and submental tissues. Genetic factors (chronological aging) and extrinsic factors (ultraviolet radiation) both contribute to skin laxity. There are many RF, ultrasound, and light-based devices directed at treating skin laxity. All of these devices target and heat the dermis to induce collagen contraction. Heating of the dermis causes collagen denaturation and immediate collagen contraction in addition to long-term collagen remodeling. Via RF, light, or ultrasound, these skin tightening devices deliver heat to the dermis to create new collagen and induce skin tightening. This chapter will provide an overview of the various skin tightening devices. PMID:21865807

Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Kammer, Jenna N



Bioactive polyacetylenes in food plants of the Apiaceae family: occurrence, bioactivity and analysis.  


Many bioactive compounds with known effects on human physiology and disease have been identified through studies of plants used in traditional medicine. Some of these substances occur also in common food plants, and hence could play a significant role in relation to human health. Food plants of the Apiaceae plant family such as carrots, celery and parsley, contain a group of bioactive aliphatic C17-polyacetylenes. These polyacetylenes have shown to be highly toxic towards fungi, bacteria, and mammalian cells, and to display neurotoxic, anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet-aggregatory effects and to be responsible for allergic skin reactions. The effect of these polyacetylenes towards human cancer cells, their human bioavailability and their ability to reduce tumour formation in a mammalian in vivo model indicates that they may also provide benefits for health. The present state of knowledge on the occurrence of polyacetylenes in Apiaceae food plants, their biochemistry and bioactivity is presented in this review as well as relatively new methods for the isolation and quantification of these compounds from plants, plant products and biological fluids. PMID:16520011

Christensen, Lars P; Brandt, Kirsten



Bioactivity in Organic Chemistry Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are three ways in which bioactivity of organic compounds has been introduced in organic chemistry courses. One is to point out a typical bioactivity of a given functional group. A second is to discuss biorganic mechanisms. A third is to draw structure-activity correlations (SAR). (Author/HM)

Ferguson, Lloyd N.



Bioactive metabolites from marine microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diverse arrays of new bioactive secondary metabolites have been isolated from marine microorganisms; and the number of publications in this area has greatly increased in recent years. In this review, the emphasis is placed on new compounds with antitumor, enzyme inhibitors, antivirus, and other bioactive metabolites from fungi, bacteria, actinomycetes, and cyanobacteria reported between 2000 and 2005. Supply is a

Xiaohong Liu; Fang Xu; Changlun Shao; Zhigang She; Yongcheng Lin; Wing Lai Chan



The chemical versatility of RNA  

PubMed Central

The ability of RNA to both store genetic information and catalyse chemical reactions has led to the hypothesis that it predates DNA and proteins. While there is no doubt that RNA is capable of storing the genetic information of a primitive organism, only two classes of reactions—phosphoryl transfer and peptide bond formation—have been observed to be catalysed by RNA in nature. However, these naturally occurring ribozymes use a wide range of catalytic strategies that could be applied to other reactions. Furthermore, RNA can bind several cofactors that are used by protein enzymes to facilitate a wide variety of chemical processes. Despite its limited functional groups, these observations indicate RNA is a versatile molecule that could, in principle, catalyse the myriad reactions necessary to sustain life.

Hiller, David A.; Strobel, Scott A.



Highly versatile tapeout automation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing a tapeout automation system that works in a static environment where inputs and outputs can be defined - as in a vertically integrated Semiconductor Company - is relatively straightforward. In an environment with a large variety of inputs and outputs, a more versatile system must be developed. The key elements of such a system must be flexibility and ease of maintenance. In order to accomplish this, D2W has developed a software-independent suite of tools which employs a highly modular approach and dynamic variable substitution to enable everything from multi-processing to customer-specific documentation. This system routinely manages tapeout flows with several thousand variables in a highly accurate, high speed, fully automated mode. These tools have been developed and refined over a period of 10 years and deployed for tapeouts to more than 40 companies, implementing in excess of 100 technologies, and successfully interfacing with 14 or more commercial and captive mask shops worldwide

Morse, Richard D.



The versatility and universality of calcium signalling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The universality of calcium as an intracellular messenger depends on its enormous versatility. Cells have a calcium signalling toolkit with many components that can be mixed and matched to create a wide range of spatial and temporal signals. This versatility is exploited to control processes as diverse as fertilization, proliferation, development, learning and memory, contraction and secretion, and must be

Michael J. Berridge; Peter Lipp; Martin D. Bootman



Peptide-amphiphile nanofibers: A versatile scaffold for the preparation of self-assembling materials  

PubMed Central

Twelve derivatives of peptide-amphiphile molecules, designed to self-assemble into nanofibers, are described. The scope of amino acid selection and alkyl tail modification in the peptide-amphiphile molecules are investigated, yielding nanofibers varying in morphology, surface chemistry, and potential bioactivity. The results demonstrate the chemically versatile nature of this supramolecular system and its high potential for manufacturing nanomaterials. In addition, three different modes of self-assembly resulting in nanofibers are described, including pH control, divalent ion induction, and concentration.

Hartgerink, Jeffrey D.; Beniash, Elia; Stupp, Samuel I.



Evolving practice of the Helsinki Skin Bank.  


The purpose of this study is to review the management and running of the Helsinki Skin Bank between the years 2001 and 2008. Further aims were to assess the microbiological safety of the glycerol-preserved allograft skin and analyse its clinical use. The files of the Helsinki Skin Bank were reviewed for allograft skin harvested from organ donors between 2001 and 2008. Data on harvested skin area and microbiological culture results were collected. The patients receiving allograft were also identified and operation indications analysed. Allograft skin was collected from 115 donors, with a mean of 44,335 cm(2) per year. No skin batches were discarded. Microbiological cultures of the allograft skin batches were negative in 86 (75%) cases. Thirty-five donor skin batches were used in 69 operations. The most common indication was 'Biological dressing on partial-thickness burns', comprising 52% of cases. The cost per cm(2) was 0.81euro. The use of allograft skin in the Helsinki Skin Bank is microbiologically safe and continues to provide a versatile and useful treatment modality in many major burn cases with few observed complications. As compared with synthetically produced temporary dressings currently available, our allograft skin is also more economical. PMID:20492012

Lindford, Andrew J; Frey, Ira; Vuola, Jyrki; Koljonen, Virve



Dry Skin  


... for dealing with dry skin: • Take short, warm baths or showers. They do not remove skin oils ... and are not necessarily bad; in fact, most bath bars are detergents and not soaps. Often, detergents ...


Skin Cancer  


Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...


Skin Complications  


... drugs that can help clear up this condition. Day-to-Day Skin Care See our tips for daily skin ... Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your ...


Cytoprotection by almond skin extracts or catechins of hepatocyte cytotoxicity induced by hydroperoxide (oxidative stress model) versus glyoxal or methylglyoxal (carbonylation model)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative and carbonyl stress are detrimental in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, as well as in other chronic diseases. However, this process may be decreased by dietary bioactive compounds. Almond skin is an abundant source of bioactive compounds and antioxidants, including polyphenolic flavonoids, which may contribute to the decrease in oxidative and carbonyl stress. In this study, four Almond Skin

Qiang Dong; Monica S. Banaich; Peter J. O’Brien



Production of Bioactive Secondary Metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter includes information based on published literature on utilization of agro industrial residues for the production\\u000a of bioactive compounds. Various approaches using microbial fermentation technology have been explored for the production of\\u000a bioactive compounds which as secondary metabolites could be produced by selected microorganisms. Certain factors have been\\u000a found to affect the productivity of these compounds, hence the yield

Poonam Nigam


Artificial skin.  


Replacement of skin has been one of the most challenging aims for surgeons ever since the introduction of skin grafts in 1871. It took more than one century until the breakthrough of Rheinwald and Green in 1975 that opened new possibilities of skin replacement. The combination of cell culture and polymer chemistry finally led to the field of tissue engineering. Many researchers all over the world have been fascinated by the chance of creating a skin-like substitute ex vivo without any further harm to the patients, especially those with massive burns. Many different approaches to create new substitutes and further improvements in genetical and stem cell research led to today's skin equivalents. But still, the "gold standard" for wound coverage is the autologous split-thickness skin graft. Future research will aim at originating biologically and physiologically equal skin substitutes for the treatment of severe burns and chronic ulcers. PMID:18085209

Föhn, M; Bannasch, H



Methanol: A Versatile Fuel for Immediate Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates the large-scale production and use of methanol as a substitute for the diminishing reserves of low-cost petroleum resources. Describes the manufacturing process and advantages of the versatile fuel. (JR)

Reed, T. B.; Lerner, R. M.



Versatile machine mills, saws light materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Versatile milling/sawing machine performs angle cuts, flat and profile milling, machining of grooves and slots, and edge trimming of phenolic panels. The machine is mounted on rails above a table equipped with vacuum capability for holding workpieces.

Rauschl, J. A.



Design of a Versatile Line Manipulator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A versatile line manipulator which is capable of achieving various data manipulating functions is described. This manipulator design is particularly attractive in applications requiring extensive spacing functions and/or operations for non 2's power set o...

T. Feng



Bioactivity of vitamin E.  


More than 80 years after the discovery of the essentiality of vitamin E for mammals, the molecular basis of its action is still an enigma. From the eight different forms of vitamin E, only alpha-tocopherol is retained in the body. This is in part due to the specific selection of RRR-alpha-tocopherol by the alpha-tocopherol transfer protein and in part by its low rate of degradation and elimination compared with the other vitamers. Since the tocopherols have comparable antioxidant properties and some tocotrienols are even more effective in scavenging radicals, the antioxidant capacity cannot be the explanation for its essentiality, at least not the only one. In the last decade, a high number of so-called novel functions of almost all forms of vitamin E have been described, including regulation of cellular signalling and gene expression. alpha-Tocopherol appears to be most involved in gene regulation, whereas gamma-tocopherol appears to be highly effective in preventing cancer-related processes. Tocotrienols appear to be effective in amelioration of neurodegeneration. Most of the novel functions of individual forms of vitamin E have been demonstrated in vitro only and require in vivo confirmation. The distinct bioactivities of the various vitamers are discussed, considering their metabolism and the potential functions of metabolites. PMID:19079884

Brigelius-Flohé, Regina



Fourier transform infrared spectrometry: a versatile technique for real world samples.  


The versatility of FTIR spectrometry was explored by considering a variety of samples drawn from industrial applications, materials science and biomedical research. These samples included polymeric insulators, bauxite ore, clay, human hair and human skin. A range of sampling techniques suitable for these samples is discussed, in particular FTIR microscopy, FTIR emission spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance and photoacoustic FTIR spectrometry. The power of modern data processing techniques, particularly multivariate analysis, to extract useful information from spectral data is also illustrated. PMID:9684399

Rintoul, L; Panayiotou, H; Kokot, S; George, G; Cash, G; Frost, R; Bui, T; Fredericks, P



Dendrimeric Nanoarchitectures Mediated Transdermal and Oral Delivery of Bioactives  

PubMed Central

Transdermal route is an evolving panorama in novel drug deliverance and with oral route they proffer immense potential. Most recently there is hastening in approaches for delivering bioactives via these routes, amongst them revolution has been made by dendrimers. Encapsulation and conjugation of bioactives with these virus sized robots have shown immense employment for delivery of hydrophobic and labile remedies. Transport of these nano-cruises from corner to corner of skin and through epithelial hurdle of gastrointestinal tract depends upon dendrimer characteristics. An improved thoughtful of these characteristics is an obligation for their use in these rambling fields. These characteristics embrace generation size, molecular weight, surface charge, incubation time and concentration. This context demarcates the imperative role of dendrimers in transdermal and oral drug delivery. This review also highlights concerning mechanism of convey of nanoarrays via epithelial hurdle of GIT.

Gajbhiye, V.; Kumar, P. Vijayaraj; Sharma, A.; Agarwal, A.; Asthana, A.; Jain, N. K.



Bioactive nanoparticle through postmodification of colloidal silica.  


Bioactive nanoparticles with controllable size and good colloidal stability were synthesized through surface modification of colloidal silica nanoparticles with Ca(OH)2 as the modifier. These modified nanoparticles showed good bioactivity, showing evidence of hydroxyapatite formation when incubated in simulated body fluid within 3 days. Comparison of bioactivity was made among different sized particles from nanoscale to microscale. It was found the bioactivity of these calcium modified colloidal silica particles generally decreased with particle size in the explored size range (40 nm particles showed bioactivity within 1 day). These particles were also found to be noncytotoxic but promote preosteoblast growth, thus making them promising bioactive additives for bone repair materials. PMID:24673431

Wang, Chen; Xie, Yue; Li, Ailing; Shen, Hong; Wu, Decheng; Qiu, Dong



Gamma Radiation Effects on Peanut Skin Antioxidants  

PubMed Central

Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached-deodorized (RBD) soybean oil. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Oil Stability Index method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. All extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Oil Stability Index method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts’ antioxidative properties when added to soybean oil.

de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-D'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin



Gamma radiation effects on peanut skin antioxidants.  


Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached-deodorized (RBD) soybean oil. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Oil Stability Index method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. All extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Oil Stability Index method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts' antioxidative properties when added to soybean oil. PMID:22489142

de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-D'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin



Bioactive proteins in breast milk.  


Human milk contains many proteins that have been shown to be bioactive, but it is still not known whether these activities are exerted in breast-fed infants. These bioactivities include enzyme activities, enhancement of nutrient absorption, growth stimulation, modulation of the immune system and defence against pathogens. The antimicrobial activities are very diverse, ranging from stimulation of beneficial microorganisms (i.e. prebiotic effects), killing or inhibition of growth of pathogens, to mechanisms preventing attachment or invasion of harmful microorganisms. Among the bioactive proteins are lactoferrin, lysozyme, secretory immunoglobulin A, haptocorrin, lactoperoxidase, ?-lactalbumin, bile salt stimulated lipase, ?- and ?-casein, and tumour growth factor ?. Human milk proteins may be largely resistant against digestion in the gastrointestinal tract, be partially digested into bioactive peptides, or be more or less completely digested and utilised as a source of amino acids. These events can be studied using an in vitro digestion model, which is useful for predicting results in human infants. Some bovine milk proteins, for example, lactoferrin and tumour growth factor ?, may also resist proteolysis and be capable of exerting bioactivities similar to those of human milk proteins. PMID:23448314

Lönnerdal, Bo



Bioactive glycosides from Chinese medicines.  


Glycosides are the bioactive components of many famous Chinese medicines. Here reported are some bioactive glycosides we discovered from Chinese medicines in recent years. (1) Phenolic glycosides from Chinese medicines: Gastrodia elata, Aconitum austroyunanense and Helicia erratica, three bioactive phenolic glycosides were discovered and two of them have been developed into new drugs. (2) Terpenoidal glycosides: a) Monoterpenoid: the sweroside from Swertia moleensis has been developed into an anti-hepatitis drug; b) Diterpenoid: Phlomis betonicoides contains sweet glycosides; c) Triterpenoid: many biologically active triterpenoid glycosides were isolated from Panax plants and Siraitia grosvenorii. (3) Steroidal glycosides: a) C21-steroid: Cynanchum otophyllum and C. atratrum contain anti-epilepsy and anti-tumor glycosides; b) C27-steroid Hemostatic saponins were found in Paris polyphylla. PMID:1842007

Zhou, J



The versatility of the Lapidus arthrodesis.  


Lapidus Arthrodesis is probably the most versatile procedure of the foot and ankle surgeon. The procedure was conceived initially for the surgical treatment of met primus adductus associated with hallux valgus, but has also been used for the treatment of a variety of other conditions including hallux limitus, revision bunion surgery, medial column stabilization, and others. Although the use of the Lapidus in bunion surgery is well supported in the literature, surgeons have been expanding its indications to manage a variety of disorders affecting the foot. As more surgeons continue to gain experience with the procedure, additional studies will emerge, further supporting its versatility in the realm of foot surgery. PMID:19505642

Blitz, Neal M



The versatility and universality of calcium signalling.  


The universality of calcium as an intracellular messenger depends on its enormous versatility. Cells have a calcium signalling toolkit with many components that can be mixed and matched to create a wide range of spatial and temporal signals. This versatility is exploited to control processes as diverse as fertilization, proliferation, development, learning and memory, contraction and secretion, and must be accomplished within the context of calcium being highly toxic. Exceeding its normal spatial and temporal boundaries can result in cell death through both necrosis and apoptosis. PMID:11413485

Berridge, M J; Lipp, P; Bootman, M D



[Nutrigenomics--bioactive dietary components].  


Nutrigenomics analyzes relations between diet and genes, and identifies mechanisms in which food and nutrition affect health and lifestyles and noncommunicable diseases (R. Chadwick, 2004). Bioactive dietary components are signal molecules that carry information from the external environment and affect in terms of quantity and quality in the process of gene expression. The biological effect of bioactive dietary components depends on various of physiological processes that can occur within a few genes. Polymorphism of genes can change their function and physiological response of the body for nutrients. Bioactive dietary components work on at least two levels of the expression of genes as factors regulating chromatin structure and as factors directly regulate the activity of nuclear receptors. The processes of synthesis and DNA repair are regulated by some of vitamins, macro-and micro-elements. They provide, among others, cofactors of enzymes that catalyze the replication of DNA methylation and its repair. DNA methylation profile may change under the influence of diet, single nucleotide polymorphisms and environmental factors. Bioactive dietary components may directly affect the process of gene expression by acting as ligands for nuclear receptors. Sensitive to dietary group of nuclear receptors are sensory receptors. This group includes, among others receptor PPAR (peroxisome proliferator activated), responsible for energy metabolism and receptors LXR (liver X receptor), FXR (farnesoid X receptor) and RXR, which is responsible for the metabolism of cholesterol. PMID:23619224

G?tek, Monika; Czech, Natalia; Fizia, Katarzyna; Bia?ek-Dratwa, Agnieszka; Muc-Wierzgo?, Ma?gorzata; Kokot, Teresa; Nowakowska-Zajdel, Ewa



Bare Bones of Bioactive Glass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Paul Ducheyne, a principal investigator in the microgravity materials science program and head of the University of Pernsylvania's Center for Bioactive Materials and Tissue Engineering, is leading the trio as they use simulated microgravity to determine the optimal characteristics of tiny glass particles for growing bone tissue. The result could make possible a much broader range of synthetic bone-grafting applications. Even in normal gravity, bioactive glass particles enhance bone growth in laboratory tests with flat tissue cultures. Ducheyne and his team believe that using the bioactive microcarriers in a rotating bioreactor in microgravity will produce improved, three-dimensional tissue cultures. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and University of Pennsylvania Center for Bioactive Materials and Tissue Engineering.



Carbonate formation on bioactive glasses.  


The system termed 58S is a sol-gel-synthesized bioactive glass composed of SiO2, CaO, and P2O5, used in medicine as bone prosthetic because, when immersed in a physiological fluid, a layer of hydroxycarbonate apatite is formed on its surface. The mechanism of bioactive glass 58S carbonation was studied in the vacuum by means of in-situ FTIR spectroscopy with the use of CO2, H2O, and CD3CN as probe molecules. The study in the vacuum was necessary to identify both the molecules specifically involved in the carbonation process and the type of carbonates formed. Bioactive glass 58S was compared to a Ca-doped silica and to CaO. On CaO, ionic carbonates could form by contact with CO2 alone, whereas on 58S and on Ca-doped silica carbonation occurred only if both CO2 and an excess of H2O were present on the sample. The function of H2O was not only to block surface cationic sites, so that CO2 could not manifest its Lewis base behavior, but also to form a liquid-like (mono)layer that allowed the formation of carbonate ions. The presence of H2O is also supposed to promote Ca2+ migration from the bulk to the surface. Carbonates formed at the surface of CaO and of Ca-bearing silicas (thus including bioactive glasses) are of the same type, but are produced through two different mechanisms. The finding that a water excess is necessary to start heavy carbonation on bioactive glasses seemed to imply that the mechanism leading to in-situ carbonation simulates, in a simplified and easy-to-reproduce system, what happens both in solution, when carbonates are incorporated in the apatite layer, and during sample shelf-aging. PMID:15248726

Cerruti, Marta; Morterra, Claudio



Skin Tightening  


... used for this non-invasive skin tightening include: Infrared laser Pulsed infrared light Radiofrequency Signs of Aging Treated Different devices ... References: Alexiades-Armenakas MR, Dover JS, Arndt KA. “Laser Therapy.” In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Rapini RP et ...


Skin Cancer  


... exposure to ultraviolet light, which is found in sunlight and in lights used in tanning salons. What ... the safe-sun guidelines. 1. Avoid the sun. Sunlight damages your skin. The sun is strongest during ...


Dry skin  


... air outside and heated air inside cause low humidity. Forced-air furnaces make skin even drier. The ... as chemicals and solvents Sudden changes in body temperature or stress, which may cause you to sweat ...


Aging Skin  


... on Aging skin Read more from Varicose Veins and Spider Veins Fact Sheet - This fact sheet provides information about varicose and spider veins, including the causes, prevention, potential dangers, and treatment. ...


Skin lumps  


... the kind that feel soft and roll easily (lipomas). A lump or swelling that appears suddenly (over ... Lipomas, fatty lumps under the skin Enlarged lymph glands , usually in the armpits, neck, and groin Cyst , ...


Skin Examinations  


... when performing a skin self-exam: Full-length mirror Handheld mirror Well-lit room that offers privacy Pen or ... Examine your body front and back in the mirror, then right and left sides with arms raised. ...


Sun & Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson from Science NetLinks, students discuss what they already know about the impact sun exposure has on their skin and what they typically do to protect themselves, if anything. Using a number of online resources, they then learn how to care for their skin, about the damaging effects of sunburns and tanning, and how sunscreens provide protection from the sun's harmful UV rays.

Science Netlinks;



Skin dimples.  


Skin dimples are a common occurrence in children. Besides being of cosmetic significance, they may give an important clue to an underlying genetic or metabolic problem. A simplified location-based algorithmic approach to diagnose the underlying cause of skin dimples is presented. Clinical significance of medically important dimples, especially sacral dimples, its association with occult spinal dysraphism, and a cost-effective diagnostic strategy for its imaging is discussed. PMID:24738724

Kumar, Ajay; Kanojia, Rajesh K; Saili, Arvind



Versatile lunar lander for First Lunar Outpost  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stage-and-a-half cryogenic lunar lander for the First Lunar Outpost (FLO) is presented. Minimizing the impact of earth launch development and maximizing the compatibility with existing launch assets are emphasized in the lunar lander design. A standard platform, adaptable service module, and a modular engine cluster provide the versatility in a lander that can deliver the combined crew module and

Henry H. Woo; Henry J. Schmidt



A Versatile Technique for Solving Quintic Equations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we present a versatile technique to solve several types of solvable quintic equations. In the technique described here, the given quintic is first converted to a sextic equation by adding a root, and the resulting sextic equation is decomposed into two cubic polynomials as factors in a novel fashion. The resultant cubic equations are…

Kulkarni, Raghavendra G.



Identifying Financially Versatile Milk Production Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European dairy industry faces an increasingly uncertain world. There is uncertainty about, for example, subsidy payment levels and compliance conditions, global competition, price variability, consumer demand, carbon footprints, water quality, animal welfare, food safety, and the environment. Farmers can reduce their exposure to these uncertainties by adopting production systems that are financially versatile over a wide range of possible

Duncan J. Anderson; Claire G. Jack; Niamh Connolly



Versatile microflex-based interconnection technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new interconnection technique has been developed that allows versatile multiple strand connections between microsensors, sensor arrays, and chips designed for wire bonding. The new technique has been termed `microflex interconnects' (MFI). Conventional wire bonding technique is commonly restricted to planar interconnects with a limited degree of freedom for placing microsystem components. The MFI technique has overcome this limitation by

Hansjoerg Beutel; Thomas Stieglitz; Joerg-Uwe Meyer



Perfluorocyclobutane (PFCB) polyaryl ethers: versatile coatings materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyclopolymerization of aromatic trifluorovinyl ether (TFVE) monomers offers a versatile route to a unique class of linear and network fluoropolymers containing the perfluorocyclobutyl (PFCB) linkage. Polymerization proceeds by a thermal — radical mediated — step-growth mechanism and provides well-defined polymers containing known fluoroolefin end groups. PFCB polymers combine the engineering thermoplastic nature of polyaryl ethers with fluorocarbon segments and

Dennis W. Smith Jr; David A. Babb; Hiren V. Shah; Adrienne Hoeglund; R. Traiphol; Dvora Perahia; Harold W Boone; Charles Langhoff; Mike Radler



A versatile bistatic & polarimetric marine radar simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a versatile simulator for marine radars that can, in particular, be used in multistatic configurations. Today, most simulators modelize the sea clutter by a random noise; however, no obvious relation exists between physical parameters (e.g. wind speed or salinity) and the shape of the probabilistic law of noise. On the contrary, we modelize the whole acquisition chain: antennas

A. Arnold-Bos; A. Martin; A. Khenchaf



Enabling service adaptability with versatile anycast  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY We present versatile anycast, which allows a service running on a varying collection of nodes scattered over a wide-area network to present itself to the clients as one running on a single node. Providing a single logical address enables the client-side software to preserve the traditional service access model based on single access points. At the same time, the

Michal Szymaniak; Guillaume Pierre; Mariana Simons-nikolova; Maarten Van Steen



Skin care and incontinence  


Incontinence - skin care ... in a wheelchair, regular chair, or bed TAKING CARE OF THE SKIN Using diapers and other products ... skin. Over time, the skin breaks down. Special care must be taken to keep the skin clean ...


Skin color - patchy  


Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. Mottling or mottled skin refers to blood vessel changes in ... in the skin cells that gives skin its color Growth of bacteria or other organisms on the ...


A nanotectonics approach to produce hierarchically organized bioactive glass nanoparticles-based macrospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioactive particles have been widely used in a series of biomedical applications due to their ability to promote bone-bonding and elicit favorable biological responses in therapies associated with the replacement and regeneration of mineralized tissues. In this work hierarchical architectures are prepared by an innovative methodology using SiO2-CaO sol-gel based nanoparticles. Inspired by colloidal crystals, spherical aggregates were formed on biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces using bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG-NPs) able to promote bone regeneration. A highly ordered organization, a common feature of mineralized structures in Nature, was achieved at both nano- and microlevels, being the crystallization degree of the structures controlled by the evaporation rates taking place at room temperature (RT) or at 4 °C. The crystallization degree of the structures influenced the Ca/P ratio of the apatitic film formed at their surface, after 7 days of immersion in SBF. This allows the regulation of bioactive properties and the ability to release potential additives that could be also incorporated in such particles with a high efficiency. Such a versatile method to produce bioactive particles with controlled size and internal structure could open new possibilities in designing new spherical devices for orthopaedic applications, including tissue engineering.

Luz, Gisela M.; Mano, João F.



A miniaturized and flexible optoelectronic sensing system for tactile skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a hybrid sensing module consisting of a general purpose electro-optical converter and three MEMS force sensors integrated into flexible substrates for tactile skin applications. The features of the converter, namely its flexible and thin substrate and small dimensions, programmability, optical coding and transmission of the information allow this versatile device to host different sensors,

L. Ascari; P. Corradi; L. Beccai; C. Laschi



Bioactive apocarotenoids from Tectona grandis.  


The bioactive fractions of Tectona grandis have yielded seven apocarotenoids, two of which have been isolated for the first time as natural products (tectoionols A and B). The chemical structures were determined through 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. The absolute configuration of tectoionol A was determined using a modified Mosher methodology. Some NMR assignments for the compounds 9(S)-4-oxo-7,8-dihydro-beta-ionol and 3beta-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-beta-ionone have been corrected on the basis of g-HSQC and g-HMBC experiments. The general bioactivities of isolated compounds have been studied using etiolated wheat coleoptiles. Those compounds that presented higher levels of activity were assayed on standard target species (Lactuca sativa, Lycopersicum esculentum, Lepidium sativum and Allium cepa). PMID:18834604

Macías, Francisco A; Lacret, Rodney; Varela, Rosa M; Nogueiras, Clara; Molinillo, Jose M G



Ex vivo percutaneous absorption of ketamine, bupivacaine, diclofenac, gabapentin, orphenadrine, and pentoxifylline: comparison of versatile cream vs. reference cream.  


This ex vivo human percutaneous absorption study evaluated a set of six model drugs (ketamine hydrochloride, bupivacaine hydrochloride, diclofenac sodium, gabapentin, orphenadrine citrate, pentoxifylline) from two popular formulations for topically applied compounding preparations. The compounded preparations used in this study were Versatile cream and a reference cream. Each formulation was applied to human trunk skin mounted on Franz Diffusion Cells, 50 mg/chamber (or 28.2 mg/cm2). Serial dermal receiver solutions were collected for 48 hours. Analysis of the resultant data supports the concept that the Versatile base formulation provides improved characteristics relative to the reference base. This is of key importance where the patient does not show clinical improvement when a conventional topical delivery vehicle is used in the formulation. From the results, it is reasonable to anticipate that, relative to the reference formulation, the Versatile formulation provides enhanced transdermal delivery of some analgesic medications. PMID:24579304

Wang, Xuexuan; Black, Laura



Stem Cells and Bioactive Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major advances in biological and materials research have created the possibilities for tissue engineering and regenerative\\u000a medicine. Finding the most effective ways of utilising stem cells, of several types, and triggering their differentiatoin\\u000a in a controlled manner will provide cell sources for cell replacement therapy. Materials will be bioresorbable in vivo and bioactive, contributing to differentiation, implantation and long-term engraftment

Robert C. Bielby; Julia M. Polak


Bioactivity of Lemon Balm Kombucha  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is inadequate published data referring to bioactivity of lemon balm tea and its Kombucha. The aim of this study, therefore,\\u000a was to investigate antimicrobial, antiproliferative, genotoxic, and antigenotoxic potential of lemon balm tea and its Kombucha\\u000a with consuming acidity. Antimicrobial activity was determined by agar-well diffusion method. Cell growth effects were determined\\u000a in HeLa, MCF7, and HT-29 human tumor

Dragana D. ?etojevi?-Simin; Aleksandra S. Veli?anski; Dragoljub D. Cvetkovi?; Siniša L. Markov; Jasminka Ž. Mr?anovi?; Višnja V. Bogdanovi?; Slavica V. Šolaji?


A versatile scalable PET processing system  

SciTech Connect

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) historically has major clinical and preclinical applications in cancerous oncology, neurology, and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, in a new direction, an application specific PET system is being developed at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in collaboration with Duke University, University of Maryland at Baltimore (UMAB), and West Virginia University (WVU) targeted for plant eco-physiology research. The new plant imaging PET system is versatile and scalable such that it could adapt to several plant imaging needs - imaging many important plant organs including leaves, roots, and stems. The mechanical arrangement of the detectors is designed to accommodate the unpredictable and random distribution in space of the plant organs without requiring the plant be disturbed. Prototyping such a system requires a new data acquisition system (DAQ) and data processing system which are adaptable to the requirements of these unique and versatile detectors.

H. Dong, A. Weisenberger, J. McKisson, Xi Wenze, C. Cuevas, J. Wilson, L. Zukerman



Versatile Rhodococcus equi – Escherichia coli shuttle vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhodococcus equi is an intracellular pathogen of macrophages, causing disease in young foals, humans, and sporadically other animals. Although R. equi is easy to grow and manipulate, the analysis of virulence is hampered by a lack of molecular tools. This paper describes the development of a number of versatile plasmids for use in R. equi. Plasmids pREV2 and pREV5 use

Michael W. Mangan; Gavin A. Byrne; Wim G. Meijer



Versatile Search of Scanned Arabic Handwriting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Searching handwritten documents is a relatively unexplored frontier for documents in any language. Traditional approaches\\u000a use either image-based or text-based techniques. This paper describes a framework for versatile search where the query can\\u000a be either text or image, and the retrieval method fuses text and image retrieval methods. A UNICODE and an image query are\\u000a maintained throughout the search, with

Sargur N. Srihari; Gregory R. Ball; Harish Srinivasan


Simple and versatile micro-cantilever sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the simplicity and versatility of micro-cantilever based sensors and to present the influence of added mass and stress on the frequency response of the sensor in order to determine the most suitable sensing domain for a given application. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The frequency response of micro-cantilevers depends not only on the

Gino Rinaldi; Muthukumaran Packirisamy; Ion Stiharu; Nezih Mrad



Your Skin  


... about it. Back Continue Dermis = Lots of Blood Vessels Your dermis is also full of tiny blood vessels. These keep your skin cells healthy by bringing ... need and by taking away waste. These blood vessels are hard to see in kids, but you ...


Different expression profiles of bioactive peptides in Pelophylax nigromaculatus from distinct regions.  


Amphibian skin is an abundant repository of bioactive peptides, important components of the defensive system. The variability of the bioactive peptide repertoires of individual species remains unclear. In this study, dark-spotted frogs were collected from Kunming in Yunnan Province, China and Guiyang in Guizhou Province, China to determine whether the bioactive peptides in amphibian skin differ between the two regions. Eight antimicrobial peptides and an antioxidant peptide were identified by screening of cDNA library. Among the identified peptides, three antimicrobial peptides (pelophylaxin-2GY, temporin-1GY, and temporin-1KM) and an antioxidant peptide (antioxidin-PN) are reported here for the first time. Nigrocin-1, nigrocin-2, and pelophylaxin-2 were expressed by frogs in both regions. Pelophylaxin-2GY and temporin-1GY were found only in the frogs from Guiyang, whereas antioxidin-PN, esculetin-1, esculetin-2, and temporin-1KM were found only in those from Kunming. This difference was confirmed by allele-specific RT-PCR. The bioactive peptides expressed clearly varied between these populations of the same species. PMID:23649276

Song, Yuzhu; Ji, Senlin; Liu, Wa; Yu, Xuya; Meng, Qingxiong; Lai, Ren



Bioactivity of tape cast and sintered bioactive glass-ceramic in simulated body fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common ceramic processing technique, tape casting, was used to produce thin, flexible sheets of bioactive glass (Bioglass® 45S5) particulate in an organic matrix. Tape casting offers the possibility of producing three-dimensional shapes, as the final material is built up layer by layer. Bioactive glass tapes were sintered together to form small discs for in vitro bioactivity testing in simulated

Daniel C. Clupper; John J. Mecholsky; Guy P. LaTorre; David C. Greenspan



Bioactive glass-coated silicone for percutaneous devices with improved tissue interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of bioactive glasses, in the early 1970s, has produced a material that develops a strong adherent bond with soft tissue. Many medical applications currently use silicone as an implant material, but are hindered by the formation of fibrous scar tissue surrounding the device. This fibrous scar tissue can lead to pain, infection, and/or extrusion of these devices. Bioactive ceramic materials are inherently brittle and can not be used in applications where a flexible material is needed. Therefore, the coating of existing flexible silicone medical devices, like catheters, with a bioactive glass material would give the advantages of both. The research presented here is of methods used to coat silicone with a bioactive glass powder (Bioglass°ler) and the in vitro testing of those coatings. The bioactivity of these coatings was measured using scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It was observed that hydroxyapatite, a bonelike apatite, was formed in vitro on both the bioactive glass particles and the silicone surface between these particles. From these results a new theory was developed that related the distance between particles on a surface with the formation of an apatite layer. A critical distance between particles for the formation of an apatite layer on the substrate exists. This critical distance is a function of both the particle size and composition. In addition, a method to coat silicone catheters with bioactive glass powder is also discussed. This coated catheter could ultimately be used for improved percutaneous access in peritoneal dialysis. The one barrier to greater peritoneal dialysis use and the reason many patients switch from peritoneal to hemodialysis is recurrent exit-site infections and subsequent peritonitis. These infections are caused by the lack of a tight seal and downgrowth of epidermal tissue around the catheter at the catheter-skin interface.

Marotta, James Scott


Bioactivity of electro-thermally poled bioactive silicate glass.  


A 45S5 bioactive glass (nominal composition: 46.1 mol.% SiO2, 2.6 mol.% P2O5, 26.9 mol.% CaO, 24.4 mol.% Na2O) was electrothermally poled by applying voltages up to 750 V for 45 min at 200 degrees C, and the thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDCs) were recorded. Changes in chemical composition and electrical properties after poling were investigated by TSDC measurements, impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). The poling led to the formation of interfacial layers underneath the surface in contact with the electrodes. Under the positive electrode, the layer was characterized by Na+ ion depletion and by a negative charge density, and the layer was more resistive than the bulk. The influence of poling on the bioactivity was studied by immersion of samples in simulated body fluid (SBF) with subsequent cross-sectional SEM/EDX and X-ray diffraction analysis. It was found that poling leads to morphological changes in the silica-rich layer and to changes in the growth rate of amorphous calcium phosphate and bone-like apatite on the glass surface. The bone-like apatite layer under the positive electrode was slightly thicker than that under the negative electrode. PMID:19097952

Mariappan, C R; Yunos, D M; Boccaccini, A R; Roling, B



Skin of Color  


... a dermatologist. Skin cancer Anyone, regardless of skin color or ethnicity, can develop skin cancer, so it is important to practice sun safety. Melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, can ...


Skin Allergy Quiz  


Share | Skin Allergy Quiz Skin irritations can be very frustrating. Identifying the cause of a skin ailment is essential in order ... can be caused by several things including an allergy, infection or skin problem like eczema or psoriasis. ...


Neuromodulators for Aging Skin  


... Choose the Best Skin Care Products Neuromodulators for Aging Skin Treatment Options Learn more about treatment options ... of the overlying skin. Why choose neuromodulators for aging skin Non-invasive — does not require surgery. Can ...


Allergy testing - skin  


Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test ... There are three common methods of allergy skin testing. The skin prick test involves: Placing a small amount of substances that may be causing your symptoms on the skin, ...


Skin Cancer Foundation  


... Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the only international organization devoted solely to ... Lamps Skin Cancer Prevention Guidelines The Skin Cancer Foundation’s Response to the EWG 2014 Sunscreen Report Study: ...


Bacterial Skin Infections  


... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals ... Lymphangitis Necrotizing Skin Infections Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Skin Disorders > Bacterial Skin Infections ...


Quinazoline derivatives: synthesis and bioactivities.  


Owing to the significant biological activities, quinazoline derivatives have drawn more and more attention in the synthesis and bioactivities research. This review summarizes the recent advances in the synthesis and biological activities investigations of quinazoline derivatives. According to the main method the authors adopted in their research design, those synthetic methods were divided into five main classifications, including Aza-reaction, Microwave-assisted reaction, Metal-mediated reaction, Ultrasound-promoted reaction and Phase-transfer catalysis reaction. The biological activities of the synthesized quinazoline derivatives also are discussed. PMID:23731671

Wang, Dan; Gao, Feng



Quinazoline derivatives: synthesis and bioactivities  

PubMed Central

Owing to the significant biological activities, quinazoline derivatives have drawn more and more attention in the synthesis and bioactivities research. This review summarizes the recent advances in the synthesis and biological activities investigations of quinazoline derivatives. According to the main method the authors adopted in their research design, those synthetic methods were divided into five main classifications, including Aza-reaction, Microwave-assisted reaction, Metal-mediated reaction, Ultrasound-promoted reaction and Phase-transfer catalysis reaction. The biological activities of the synthesized quinazoline derivatives also are discussed.



12-OH-nevirapine sulfate, formed in the skin, is responsible for nevirapine-induced skin rash.  


Nevirapine (NVP) treatment is associated with a significant incidence of skin rash in humans, and it also causes a similar immune-mediated skin rash in Brown Norway (BN) rats. We have shown that the sulfate of a major oxidative metabolite, 12-OH-NVP, covalently binds in the skin. The fact that the sulfate metabolite is responsible for covalent binding in the skin does not prove that it is responsible for the rash. We used various inhibitors of sulfation to test whether this reactive sulfate is responsible for the skin rash. Salicylamide (SA), which depletes 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) in the liver, significantly decreased 12-OH-NVP sulfate in the blood, but it did not prevent covalent binding in the skin or the rash. Topical application of 1-phenyl-1-hexanol, a sulfotransferase inhibitor, prevented covalent binding in the skin as well as the rash, but only where it was applied. In vitro incubations of 12-OH-NVP with PAPS and cytosolic fractions from the skin of rats or from human skin also led to covalent binding that was inhibited by 1-phenyl-1-hexanol. Incubation of 12-OH-NVP with PAPS and sulfotransferase 1A1*1, a human isoform that is present in the skin, also led to covalent binding, and this binding was also inhibited by 1-phenyl-1-hexanol. We conclude that salicylamide did not deplete PAPS in the skin and was unable to prevent covalent binding or the rash, while topical 1-phenyl-1-hexanol inhibited sulfation of 12-OH-NVP in the skin and did prevent covalent binding and the rash. These results provide definitive evidence that 12-OH-NVP sulfate formed in skin is responsible for NVP-induced skin rashes. Sulfotransferase is one of the few metabolic enzymes with significant activity in the skin, and it may be responsible for the bioactivation of other drugs that cause skin rashes. PMID:23590230

Sharma, Amy M; Novalen, Maria; Tanino, Tadatoshi; Uetrecht, Jack P



Phlorotannins as bioactive agents from brown algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of food bioactive compounds as functional ingredients has been well recognized due the effectiveness in promoting health and lead to the reduction of disease risk. Especially, nutraceuticals from seaweeds have been served as a rich source of health-promoting components. Among them, marine brown algae are a rich source of natural bioactive compounds, mainly phlorotannins and this fact implies

Yong-Xin Li; Isuru Wijesekara; Yong Li; Se-Kwon Kim



Bioactive vitroceramic utilized in modern reparatory medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The desire of reestablishing the human organism's normal functions imposes the utilization, in modern reparatory medicine, of bioactive materials such as tricalcic phosphate, hydroxyapatite, bioglasses and biovitroceramics. These kinds of materials are well accepted by the living organism (biocompatible), they can connect to the living tissue (bioactive) but they do not posses the adequate mechanical properties. If such materials are



Regulatory aspects of bioactive dairy ingredients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific research has identified potential health benefits of many food ingredients. These health-promoting (bioactive) food ingredients may be naturally present in a food, or may be added by manufacturers into foods that do not naturally contain such components. These bioactives have challenged traditional concepts of food fortification and consequently food regulations. Dairy foods and ingredients have significant potential as vehicles

P. Roupas; P. G. Williams



A Versatile Rocket Engine Hot Gas Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capabilities of a versatile rocket engine facility, located in the Rocket Laboratory at the NASA Lewis Research Center, are presented. The gaseous hydrogen/oxygen facility can be used for thermal shock and hot gas testing of materials and structures as well as rocket propulsion testing. Testing over a wide range of operating conditions in both fuel and oxygen rich regimes can be conducted, with cooled or uncooled test specimens. The size and location of the test cell provide the ability to conduct large amounts of testing in short time periods with rapid turnaround between programs.

Green, James M.



A Versatile Ion Injector at KACST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A versatile ion-beam injector is presently being constructed at the National Centre for Mathematics and Physics (NCMP) at the King Abdul-Aziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Saudi Arabia. This versatile injector will provide an electrostatic storage ring with high-quality ion beams of energies up to 30 keV per charge q. It will also allow for crossed-beams experiments in single-pass setups. The injector has been designed to include beams from two different ion sources, switched by a 90° deflection setup, and to allow for matching of the beam parameters to the Twiss parameters of the ring. The injector is equipped with two crossed beam-lines (inlets), with duplicated beam extraction and acceleration systems. As part of the initial setup, a simple electric discharge ion source has been developed for commissioning of the whole injector. In this paper, we report on the ion optics layout and the design parameters of the injector.

El Ghazaly, M. O. A.; Behery, S. A.; Almuqhim, A. A.; Papash, A. I.; Welsch, C. P.



Correlations between Chromatographic Parameters and Bioactivity Predictors of Potential Herbicides.  


Different liquid chromatography techniques, including reversed-phase liquid chromatography on Purosphere RP-18e, IAM.PC.DD2 and Cosmosil Cholester columns and micellar liqud chromatography with a Purosphere RP-8e column and using buffered sodium dodecyl sulfate-acetonitrile as the mobile phase, were applied to study the lipophilic properties of 15 newly synthesized phenoxyacetic and carbamic acid derivatives, which are potential herbicides. Chromatographic lipophilicity descriptors were used to extrapolate log k parameters (log kw and log km) and log k values. Partitioning lipophilicity descriptors, i.e., log P coefficients in an n-octanol-water system, were computed from the molecular structures of the tested compounds. Bioactivity descriptors, including partition coefficients in a water-plant cuticle system and water-human serum albumin and coefficients for human skin partition and permeation were calculated in silico by ACD/ADME software using the linear solvation energy relationship of Abraham. Principal component analysis was applied to describe similarities between various chromatographic and partitioning lipophilicities. Highly significant, predictive linear relationships were found between chromatographic parameters and bioactivity descriptors. PMID:23872809

Janicka, Ma?gorzata



Functional Significance of Bioactive Peptides Derived from Milk Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive peptides can be defined as protein fragments with potential biological activities. Milk proteins are precursors of many different biologically active peptides. Bioactive peptides from milk proteins are considered potential modulators of various regulatory processes in the body. They mediate physiological functions in cardiovascular, nervous, gastro intestinal and immune systems. The functional significance of bioactivities depends on peptide fragment. Bioactive

Samuel Mburu Kamau; Rong-Rong Lu; Wei Chen; Xiao-Ming Liu; Feng-Wei Tian; Yi Shen; Ting Gao



Sol-gel derived porous bioactive nanocomposites: Synthesis and in vitro bioactivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous bioactive composites consisting of SiO2-CaO-Na2O-P2O5 bioactive glass-ceramic and synthetic water soluble polymer Polyvinylpyrrolidone [PVP (C6H9NO)n, MW~40000 g/mol] have been synthesized by sol-gel route. As-prepared polymeric composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Two major bone mineral phases, viz., hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] and wollastonite [calcium silicate (CaSiO3)] have been identified in the XRD patterns of the composites. Presence of these bone minerals indicates the bioactive nature of the composites. In vitro bioactivity tests confirm bioactivity in the porous composites. The flexibility offered by these bioactive polymer composites is advantageous for its application as implant material.

Shankhwar, Nisha; Kothiyal, G. P.; Srinivasan, A.



PRALINE: a versatile multiple sequence alignment toolkit.  


Profile ALIgNmEnt (PRALINE) is a versatile multiple sequence alignment toolkit. In its main alignment protocol, PRALINE follows the global progressive alignment algorithm. It provides various alignment optimization strategies to address the different situations that call for protein multiple sequence alignment: global profile preprocessing, homology-extended alignment, secondary structure-guided alignment, and transmembrane aware alignment. A number of combinations of these strategies are enabled as well. PRALINE is accessible via the online server The server facilitates extensive visualization possibilities aiding the interpretation of alignments generated, which can be written out in pdf format for publication purposes. PRALINE also allows the sequences in the alignment to be represented in a dendrogram to show their mutual relationships according to the alignment. The chapter ends with a discussion of various issues occurring in multiple sequence alignment. PMID:24170407

Bawono, Punto; Heringa, Jaap



High Speed Rewritable Digital Versatile Disc Recording  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High speed rewritable digital versatile discs (DVD+RW) can be written well in a speed range from 3.3× to 8×. Special attention points for recording this type of discs are in the area of byte error rate (BER) and archival-overwrite. Archival-overwrite means that the disc is written with data, archived for some time and subsequently overwritten once. The cause of the high BER is unwanted nucleation near the trailing edge of the amorphous marks. This nucleation can be avoided by choosing proper cooling gap lengths in the write strategy. The raised jitter after archival-overwrite is caused by changes of the crystalline phase during aging. These changes might also endanger the reliability of the results of the optimum power control (OPC), which is performed prior to recording. By applying measures from both the drive side and the media side, a good archival-overwrite and a robust OPC-result is ensured.

van der Vleuten, M.; Spruit, H.; Elfrink, R.; Adelerhof, D. J.; van Dorst, P.; Wei, Gongming



Versatile repair vessel tested in deep water  

SciTech Connect

Testing of a new subsea pipeline repair system in up to 1640 ft of water has been completed. The versatile system, integrated into a catamaran-type vessel, was to be operational by the end of 1985. The main characteristic of the Submersible Underwater Pipeline Repair and Work Apparatus (Supra) is its stable floating capability on the sea surface. Supra can be towed by a supply tug or diving support vessel at five knots in 13-ft waves. The system can be operated without the assistance of heavy-lift cranes or large barges. The developers claim Supra is highly independent of bad weather and sea conditions and can work 90% of the year. Since Supra is pressure-proof similar to a submarine, it can be submerged at sea by means of an integrated propulsion and ballast system and then maneuvered to the desired working location and positioned on the seabed by means of an underwater tracking and navigation system.

Not Available



SCI: Skin Cancer Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Skin Care Investigations offers students the chance to learn more about skin and skin cancer before entering the virtual world of Glowell Clinic, where they will spend time at the helpdesk answering callers' questions about skin protection and in the laboratory assessing whether skin abnormalities are cancerous or not. An interactive assessment allows students and teachers to gauge understanding at this level.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)



Synthesis and in vitro bioactivity of novel mesoporous hollow bioactive glass microspheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

The remarkable tissue-repairing bioactivity and biocompatibility of bioactive glass make it suitable for a wide range of applications. Here, novel mesoporous hollow bioactive glass microspheres (MHBGMs) with a uniform diameter range of 2–5 µm were prepared by a sol–gel method. Structural characterization indicated that the shell of hollow sphere had a mesopore size range between 2 and 10 nm and a thickness

Bo Lei; Xiaofeng Chen; Yingjun Wang; Naru Zhao



Bioactive glasses as carriers for bioactive molecules and therapeutic drugs: a review.  


Bioactive glasses (BG) show great promise for bone tissue engineering based on their key properties, e.g., biocompatibility, biodegradability, osteoconductivity as well as osteogenic and angiogenic potential, which make them excellent candidates for bone tissue scaffolds and bone substitute materials. Recent work has shown that dissolution products of bioactive glasses have the potential to induce angiogenesis in addition to their known effect of influencing gene expression and promoting osteoblastic differentiation. One of the most interesting features of BG is their ability to bond both to soft and hard tissues, depending on their composition. To intensify the positive impact of BG for medical applications, there are considerable research efforts on using bioactive glass based platforms as carriers for the encapsulation, delivery and controlled release of bioactive molecules and therapeutic drugs. Different types of bioactive glasses have been considered in combination with different therapeutic drugs, hormones, growth factors and peptides. Using bioactive glasses as drug delivery system combines thus the effectiveness of therapeutic drugs (or bioactive/signaling molecules) with the intrinsic advantages of this inorganic biomaterial. Considering research carried out in the last 15 years, this review presents the different chemical compositions and morphologies of bioactive glasses used as carrier for bioactive molecules and therapeutic drugs and discusses the expanding potential of BG with drug delivery capability focusing in the field of bone tissue engineering. PMID:22361998

Hum, Jasmin; Boccaccini, Aldo R



The DLR MIRO: a versatile lightweight robot for surgical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Surgical robotics can be divided into two groups: specialized and versatile systems. Versatile systems can be used in different surgical applications, control architectures and operating room set-ups, but often still based on the adaptation of industrial robots. Space consumption, safety and adequacy of industrial robots in the unstructured and crowded environment of an operating room and in close

U. Hagn; M. Nickl; S. Jörg; G. Passig; T. Bahls; A. Nothhelfer; F. Hacker; L. Le-Tien; A. Albu-Schäffer; R. Konietschke; M. Grebenstein; R. Warpup; R. Haslinger; M. Frommberger; G. Hirzinger



Ceramic bioactivity and related biomimetic strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactivity a property displayed by ceramics such as Bioglass®, hydroxyapatite and glass-ceramic A–W is a surface property, which provides a chemical integration of synthetic materials with living tissue. A core mechanism of bioactivity is the biomineralization of calcium phosphate nano-crystals on ceramics with specific compositions and structures, inspiring acellular and protein-free biomimetic strategies for bio-interactive materials with new physical, chemical

H.-M. Kim



Skin graft - series (image)  


... barrier. Skin grafts may be recommended for: extensive wounds burns specific surgeries that may require skin grafts for healing to occur. The most common sites of harvest for skin grafts are the buttocks ...


Stages of Skin Cancer  


... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...


Coverage of skin defects without skin grafts using adipose-derived stem cells.  


A satisfying result is difficult to achieve in the repair of a full-thickness skin defect in the facial area, including the subunits of the nose. A full-thickness skin graft, nasolabial flap, or forehead flap as a major treatment still is used despite its relative potential for secondary contracture, unmatched skin color, hypertrophic scars, and donor-site morbidity. Another option, with good wound-healing power and soft tissue regeneration without skin grafts would be helpful for initiating treatment. Adult stem cells are a useful material in tissue engineering. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), an abundant population of pluripotent cells found in the stroma of adipose tissues, have been shown to differentiate in vitro into various cell lineages. As a robust source of bioactive growth factors, ADSCs contribute to recovery from ischemic damage, and they can promote the wound-healing process as well as soft tissue regeneration. The authors have experienced several cases of facial skin defect repair using ADSCs without skin grafts. In these cases, they observed rapid coverage of the wound with the patient's own regenerated tissue. During the treatment period, ADSC treatment showed an excellent wound-healing process in terms of quantity and quality. PMID:23877753

Jo, Dong In; Yang, Hyun Jin; Kim, Soon Heum; Kim, Cheol Keun; Park, Hyung Jun; Choi, Hyun Gon; Shin, Dong Hyeok; Uhm, Ki Il



Skin layers (image)  


... temperature. The skin contains secretions that can kill bacteria and the pigment melanin provides a chemical pigment defense against ultraviolet light that can damage skin cells. Another important ...


Bioactivity-guided study of antiproliferative activities of Salvia extracts.  


The cytotoxic activities of the n-hexane, chloroform and aqueous methanolic fractions prepared from the methanolic extract of the leaves of 23 Salvia taxa were studied for their cell growth-inhibitory activity against human cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), skin carcinoma (A431) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) cells using the MTT assay. The n-hexane fractions of six Salvia taxa (S. hispanica, S. nemorosa, S. nemorosa 1. albiflora, S. pratensis, S. recognita and S. ringens) and the chloroform fraction ofS. officinalis 1. albiflora produced over 50% growth inhibition of the skin carcinoma cell line. None of the tested extracts showed substantial (above 50%) antiproliferative effects against HeLa and MCF7 cells. S. ringens was the most powerful among the studied Salvia species with a 61.8% cell growth inhibitory activity on A431 cells. In the case of S. ringens, other plant parts were also tested for antiproliferative effect, and the highest activities were recorded for the root extract. This was subjected to bioactivity-guided fractionation, which yielded four abietane diterpenes (royleanone, horminone, 7-O-methyl-horminone and 7-acetyl-horminone), one triterpene (erythrodiol-3-acetate) and beta-sitosterol. Horminone, 7-acetyl-horminone and erythrodiol-3-acetate displayed marked concentration-dependent antiproliferative effects, while royleanone and 7-O-methyl-horminone produced weaker activities. PMID:21615011

Janicsák, Gábor; Zupkó, István; Nikolovac, Milena T; Forgo, Peter; Vasas, Andrea; Mathé, Imre; Blunden, Gerald; Hohmann, Judit



The Cilium Secretes Bioactive Ectosomes  

PubMed Central

Summary The release of membrane vesicles from the surface of cells into their surrounding environment is now recognized as an important pathway for the delivery of proteins to extracellular sites of biological function. Membrane vesicles of this kind, termed exosomes and ectosomes, are the result of active processes and have been shown to carry a wide array of biological effector molecules that can play roles in cell-to-cell communication and remodeling of the extracellular space [1–7]. Degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) through the regulated release of proteolytic enzymes is a key process for development, morphogenesis and cell migration in animal and plant cells. Here we show that the unicellular alga, Chlamydomonas, achieves the timely degradation of its mother cell wall, a type of ECM, through the budding of ectosomes directly from the membranes of their flagella. Using a combination of immunoelectron microscopy, immunofluorescence microscopy, and functional analysis, we demonstrate that these vesicles, which we term ciliary ectosomes, act as carriers of the proteolytic enzyme necessary for the liberation of daughter cells following mitosis [8, 9]. Chlamydomonas has proven to be the key unicellular model for the highly conserved mechanisms of mammalian cilia, and our results suggest that cilia may be an under-appreciated source of bioactive, extracellular membrane vesicles.

Wood, CR; Huang, K; Diener, DR; Rosenbaum, JL



Versatile fire barrier systems for telephone cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire barriers prevent smoke and fire spread along and between cables, through walls and floors, and protect critical conductors and equipment from heat. New flexible intrumescent materials expand up to 10 times when heated, are versatile and easy to install in sealing fire rated floor and wall penetrations. Telephone cables have large insulator/metal ratios and may have slack or oval jacketing, making older limited expansion materials ineffective. Strict design for specific cables and cable densities is obsoleted; reactive foaming chemicals are not needed for an effective seal. Fire expanding hydrated silicate particles are incorporated in a neoprene matrix yielding environmental protection for tough, flexible board, sheet, tape, caulk, putty, and foam rubber products. Penetration kits from these materials have been underwriter tested. Their UL ratings are compared with rubber blocks, foaming resins, and compressed washer devices. Traditional telecraft skills and tools install and adapt the new material to many cable types. Ease, simplicity, speed, and sureness of installation entry, and reentry/reseal are related to the fire hazard window of cable, fiber, or coax additions.

Keith, R. H.; Dahms, D. G.; Licht, R. R.


Versatile mobile lidar system for environmental monitoring.  


A mobile lidar (light detection and ranging) system for environmental monitoring is described. The optical and electronic systems are housed in a truck with a retractable rooftop transmission and receiving mirror, connected to a 40-cm-diameter vertically looking telescope. Two injection-seeded Nd:YAG lasers are employed in connection with an optical parametric oscillator-optical parametric amplification transmitter, allowing deep-UV to mid-IR wavelengths to be generated. Fast switching that employs piezoelectric drivers allows multiwavelength differential absorption lidar for simultaneous measurements of several spectrally overlapping atmospheric species. The system can also be used in an imaging multispectral laser-induced fluorescence mode on solid targets. Advanced LabVIEW computer control and multivariate data processing render the system versatile for a multitude of measuring tasks. We illustrate the monitoring of industrial atmospheric mercury and hydrocarbon emissions, volcanic sulfur dioxide plume mapping, fluorescence lidar probing of seawater, and multispectral fluorescence imaging of the facades of a historical monument. PMID:12833965

Weibring, Petter; Edner, Hans; Svanberg, Sune



Applications of a versatile new instrument module  

SciTech Connect

The authors have found a number of interesting applications for the Pulse Arrival Time Recording Module (PATRM). This CAMAC module is capable of recording the arrival time of up to 4 million pulses. The result is a list of 32-bit binary numbers in which each number represents the arrival time of a single pulse expressed in terms of the number of {open_quotes}ticks{close_quotes} of a 10MHz clock which have elapsed since the beginning of the count. The versatility arises from the fact that the data list can be analyzed by whatever algorithm the authors can put into software, and that they can {open_quotes}play it back{close_quotes} as many times as desired. The authors already have the following applications: (1) Neutron multiplicity counting in waste assay. (2) Study of dead-time recovery and double pulsing in individual channels. (3) Auto-correlation analysis for Rossi-{alpha} measurements in critical systems. (4) Variable channel width multichannel scaler for delayed neutron counting. (5) Cross-correlation analysis and conventional multi-scaling. (6) Time dependent multiplicity measurements during neutron interrogation. The authors expect in the coming year to test an updated version of the PATRM which will incorporate a 100MH clock and label each pulse with the channel from which it came. The device will be configured as a single PC card installable in any high performance IBM type computer.

Brunson, G.S.; Arnone, G.J.



On the Versatility of von Willebrand Factor  

PubMed Central

Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a large multimeric protein, the function of which has been demonstrated to be pivotal to the haemostatic system. Indeed, quantitative and/or qualitative abnormalities of VWF are associated with the bleeding disorder Von Willebrand disease (VWD). Moreover, increased plasma concentrations of VWF have been linked to an increased risk for thrombotic complications. In the previous decades, many studies have contributed to our understanding of how VWF is connected to the haemostatic system, particularly with regard to structure-function relationships. Interactive sites for important ligands of VWF (such as factor VIII, collagen, glycoprotein Ib?, integrin ?IIb?3 and protease ADAMTS13) have been identified, and mutagenesis studies have confirmed the physiological relevance of the interactions between VWF and these ligands. However, we have also become aware that VWF has a more versatile character than previously thought, given its potential role in various non-hemostatic processes, like intimal thickening, tumor cell apoptosis and inflammatory processes. In the presence review, a summary of our knowledge on VWF structure-function relationships is provided in the context of the “classical” haemostatic task of VWF and in perspective of pathological processes beyond haemostasis.

Rauch, Antoine; Wohner, Nikolett; Christophe, Olivier D.; Denis, Cecile V.; Susen, Sophie; Lenting, Peter J.



Buried nanoantenna arrays: versatile antireflection coating.  


Reflection is usually a detrimental phenomenon in many applications such as flat-panel-displays, solar cells, photodetectors, infrared sensors, and lenses. Thus far, to control and suppress the reflection from a substrate, numerous techniques including dielectric interference coatings, surface texturing, adiabatic index matching, and scattering from plasmonic nanoparticles have been investigated. A new technique is demonstrated to manage and suppress reflection from lossless and lossy substrates. It provides a wider flexibility in design versus previous methods. Reflection from a surface can be suppressed over a narrowband, wideband, or multiband frequency range. The antireflection can be dependent or independent of the incident wave polarization. Moreover, antireflection at a very wide incidence angle can be attained. The reflection from a substrate is controlled by a buried nanoantenna array, a structure composed of (1) a subwavelength metallic array and (2) a dielectric cover layer referred to as a superstrate. The material properties and thickness of the superstrate and nanoantennas' geometry and periodicity control the phase and intensity of the wave circulating inside the superstrate cavity. A minimum reflectance of 0.02% is achieved in various experiments in the mid-infrared from a silicon substrate. The design can be integrated in straightforward way in optical devices. The proposed structure is a versatile AR coating to optically impedance matches any substrate to free space in selected any narrow and broadband spectral response across the entire visible and infrared spectrum. PMID:24266700

Kabiri, Ali; Girgis, Emad; Capasso, Federico



Adaptive Skin Color Classificator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin color is an important feature of faces. Various ap- plications benefit from robust skin color detection. Skin color may look quite different, depending on camera set- tings, illumination, shadows, people's tans, ethnic groups. That variation is a challenging aspect of skin color classi- fication. In this paper, we present an approach that uses a high level vision module to

Matthias Wimmer; Bernd Radig; Informatik IX



Skin Cancer: Signs and Symptoms  


... and treatments Q - T Skin cancer Signs, symptoms Skin cancer: Signs and symptoms The most common warning sign ... melanoma appears in many ways. Learn more about skin cancer: Skin cancer Skin cancer: Who gets and causes ...


Effect of beta-carotene supplementation on African skin.  


The quantification of skin carotenoid levels has a range of applications in Caucasian populations, from serving as a versatile and noninvasive biomarker (e.g., of systemic carotenoid levels, carotenoid consumption, the antioxidative capacity of skin, and oxidative stress) to being used in appearance-based interventions. Yet, no study has investigated the quantitative effect of carotenoid supplementation on African skin. The aim of this study was to determine if beta-carotene supplementation produces a significant color change in three different regions of African skin. To do so we supplemented the diet of African participants with beta-carotene over an eight-week period. Reflectance spectrophotometry measurements were taken on a weekly basis for the duration of the supplementation study. Results show a significant increase in the carotenoid coloration of lightly pigmented skin (palm of the hand) and highly pigmented skin with low sun exposure (inner arm) after supplementation. The latter was no longer significant after Bonferroni correction. The carotenoid coloration of highly pigmented skin areas with high sun exposure did not increase significantly. Skin carotenoid measurements of the palm of the hand might, therefore, serve as a potential biomarker for systemic carotenoid concentrations in people of African descent. PMID:24525826

Coetzee, Vinet; Perrett, David Ian



Increased levels of palmitoylethanolamide and other bioactive lipid mediators and enhanced local mast cell proliferation in canine atopic dermatitis  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the precise pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) is unknown, an immune dysregulation that causes Th2-predominant inflammation and an intrinsic defect in skin barrier function are currently the two major hypotheses, according to the so-called outside-inside-outside model. Mast cells (MCs) are involved in AD both by releasing Th2 polarizing cytokines and generating pruritus symptoms through release of histamine and tryptase. A link between MCs and skin barrier defects was recently uncovered, with histamine being found to profoundly contribute to the skin barrier defects. Palmitoylethanolamide and related lipid mediators are endogenous bioactive compounds, considered to play a protective homeostatic role in many tissues: evidence collected so far shows that the anti-inflammatory effect of palmitoylethanolamide depends on the down-modulation of MC degranulation. Based on this background, the purpose of the present study was twofold: (a) to determine if the endogenous levels of palmitoylethanolamide and other bioactive lipid mediators are changed in the skin of AD dogs compared to healthy animals; (b) to examine if MC number is increased in the skin of AD dogs and, if so, whether it depends on MC in-situ proliferation. Results The amount of lipid extract expressed as percent of biopsy tissue weight was significantly reduced in AD skin while the levels of all analyzed bioactive lipid mediators were significantly elevated, with palmitoylethanolamide showing the highest increase. In dogs with AD, the number of MCs was significantly increased in both the subepidermal and the perifollicular compartments and their granule content was significantly decreased in the latter. Also, in situ proliferation of MCs was documented. Conclusions The levels of palmitoylethanolamide and other bioactive lipid mediators were shown to increase in AD skin compared to healthy samples, leading to the hypothesis that they may be part of the body’s innate mechanisms to maintain cellular homeostasis when faced with AD-related inflammation. In particular, the increase may be considered a temptative response to down-regulating the observed elevation in the number, functionality and proliferative state of MCs in the skin of AD dogs. Further studies are warranted to confirm the hypothesis.



Protein Radicals in Fungal Versatile Peroxidase  

PubMed Central

Lignin-degrading peroxidases, a group of biotechnologically interesting enzymes, oxidize high redox potential aromatics via an exposed protein radical. Low temperature EPR of Pleurotus eryngii versatile peroxidase (VP) revealed, for the first time in a fungal peroxidase, the presence of a tryptophanyl radical in both the two-electron (VPI) and the one-electron (VPII) activated forms of the enzyme. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to substitute this tryptophan (Trp-164) by tyrosine and histidine residues. No changes in the crystal structure were observed, indicating that the modified behavior was due exclusively to the mutations introduced. EPR revealed the formation of tyrosyl radicals in both VPI and VPII of the W164Y variant. However, no protein radical was detected in the W164H variant, whose VPI spectrum indicated a porphyrin radical identical to that of the inactive W164S variant. Stopped-flow spectrophotometry showed that the W164Y mutation reduced 10-fold the apparent second-order rate constant for VPI reduction (k2app) by veratryl alcohol (VA), when compared with over 50-fold reduction in W164S, revealing some catalytic activity of the tyrosine radical. Its first-order rate constant (k2) was more affected than the dissociation constant (KD2). Moreover, VPII reduction by VA was impaired by the above mutations, revealing that the Trp-164 radical was involved in catalysis by both VPI and VPII. The low first-order rate constant (k3) values were similar for the W164Y, W164H, and W164S variants, indicating that the tyrosyl radical in VPII was not able to oxidize VA (in contrast with that observed for VPI). VPII self-reduction was also suppressed, revealing that Trp-164 is involved in this autocatalytic process.

Ruiz-Duenas, Francisco J.; Pogni, Rebecca; Morales, Maria; Giansanti, Stefania; Mate, Maria J.; Romero, Antonio; Martinez, Maria Jesus; Basosi, Riccardo; Martinez, Angel T.



Versatile microflex-based interconnection technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new interconnection technique has been developed that allows versatile multiple strand connections between microsensors, sensor arrays, and chips designed for wire bonding. The new technique has been termed `microflex interconnects' (MFI). Conventional wire bonding technique is commonly restricted to planar interconnects with a limited degree of freedom for placing microsystem components. The MFI technique has overcome this limitation by interconnecting microsystem components through custom designed flexible foils with embedded metallized conductors. The MFI foils may also serve as circuit substrates. This basic foil material is polyimide (Du Pont PI 2611) or BCB which are patterned photolithographically. Platinum, gold or either conductive metals are sputtered or evaporated on the foil and patterned using lift-off technique. Several metallization layers can be embedded in the material. Pitch and shape of the MFI contact pads correspond to the one of the chips to be interconnected. A via hole is placed in the center of the MFI contact pads. MFI pads and chip pads are adjusted. Metal balls or wedges generate the electrical and mechanical contact through the vias between the chips and the MFI substrate. An commercial wire bonder is the only equipment needed to perform the MFI method. The MFI technique was applied to bond standard CMOS integrated circuit bond pads with a width of 30 micrometers and a pitch of 70 micrometers to a 10 micrometers thick MFI foil. The integration density of the of the MFI technique correspond to one of the flip- chip technology. Special advantages of the MFI technique are 3D interconnects, the flexibility in design and shape, and easy visual inspection of alignment qualities. The MFI method is also suited for biomedical applications because all materials used are biocompatible.

Beutel, Hansjoerg; Stieglitz, Thomas; Meyer, Joerg-Uwe



Versatile Membrane Deformation Potential of Activated Pacsin  

PubMed Central

Endocytosis is a fundamental process in signaling and membrane trafficking. The formation of vesicles at the plasma membrane is mediated by the G protein dynamin that catalyzes the final fission step, the actin cytoskeleton, and proteins that sense or induce membrane curvature. One such protein, the F-BAR domain-containing protein pacsin, contributes to this process and has been shown to induce a spectrum of membrane morphologies, including tubules and tube constrictions in vitro. Full-length pacsin isoform 1 (pacsin-1) has reduced activity compared to its isolated F-BAR domain, implicating an inhibitory role for its C-terminal Src homology 3 (SH3) domain. Here we show that the autoinhibitory, intramolecular interactions in pacsin-1 can be released upon binding to the entire proline-rich domain (PRD) of dynamin-1, resulting in potent membrane deformation activity that is distinct from the isolated F-BAR domain. Most strikingly, we observe the generation of small, homogenous vesicles with the activated protein complex under certain experimental conditions. In addition, liposomes prepared with different methods yield distinct membrane deformation morphologies of BAR domain proteins and apparent activation barriers to pacsin-1's activity. Theoretical free energy calculations suggest bimodality of the protein-membrane system as a possible source for the different outcomes, which could account for the coexistence of energetically equivalent membrane structures induced by BAR domain-containing proteins in vitro. Taken together, our results suggest a versatile role for pacsin-1 in sculpting cellular membranes that is likely dependent both on protein structure and membrane properties.

Byrnes, Laura J.; Sondermann, Holger



Versatile Nuclear Demagnetization Cryostat for Ultralow Temperature Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new cascade nuclear demagnetization cryostat has been designed and constructed. Our aim was to build a versatile, modular cryostat with a large experimental space providing an excellent platform for various types of ultra-low temperature measurements. A...

W. Yao



Human Milk Composition: Nutrients and Bioactive Factors  

PubMed Central

Synopsis The composition of human milk is the biologic norm for infant nutrition. Human milk also contains many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization. Some of these molecules, e.g., lactoferrin, are being investigated as novel therapeutic agents. A dynamic, bioactive fluid, human milk changes in composition from colostrum to late lactation, and varies within feeds, diurnally, and between mothers. Feeding infants with expressed human milk is increasing. Pasteurized donor milk is now commonly provided to high risk infants and most mothers in the U.S. express and freeze their milk at some point in lactation for future infant feedings. Many milk proteins are degraded by heat treatment and freeze-thaw cycles may not have the same bioactivity after undergoing these treatments. This article provides an overview of the composition of human milk, sources of its variation, and its clinical relevance.

Ballard, Olivia; Morrow, Ardythe L.



Estrogens and aging skin  

PubMed Central

Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity. Its protective function becomes compromised and aging is associated with impaired wound healing, hair loss, pigmentary changes and skin cancer.   Skin aging can be significantly delayed by the administration of estrogen. This paper reviews estrogen effects on human skin and the mechanisms by which estrogens can alleviate the changes due to aging. The relevance of estrogen replacement, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and phytoestrogens as therapies for diminishing skin aging is highlighted. Understanding estrogen signaling in skin will provide a basis for interventions in aging pathologies.

Thornton, M. Julie



Polydopamine-based simple and versatile surface modification of polymeric nano drug carriers.  


The surface of a polymeric nanoparticle (NP) is often functionalized with cell-interactive ligands and/or additional polymeric layers to control NP interaction with cells and proteins. However, such modification is not always straightforward when the surface is not chemically reactive. For this reason, most NP functionalization processes employ reactive linkers or coupling agents or involve prefunctionalization of the polymer, which are complicated and inefficient. Moreover, prefunctionalized polymers can lose the ability to encapsulate and retain a drug if the added ligands change the chemical properties of the polymer. To overcome this challenge, we use dopamine polymerization as a way of functionalizing NP surfaces. This method includes brief incubation of the preformed NPs in a weak alkaline solution of dopamine, followed by secondary incubation with desired ligands. Using this method, we have functionalized poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs with three representative surface modifiers: a small molecule (folate), a peptide (Arg-Gly-Asp), and a polymer [poly(carboxybetaine methacrylate)]. We confirmed that the modified NPs showed the expected cellular interactions with no cytotoxicity or residual bioactivity of dopamine. The dopamine polymerization method is a simple and versatile surface modification method, applicable to a variety of NP drug carriers irrespective of their chemical reactivity and the types of ligands. PMID:24628245

Park, Joonyoung; Brust, Tarsis F; Lee, Hong Jae; Lee, Sang Cheon; Watts, Val J; Yeo, Yoon



A Versatile Medium for Cultivating Methanogenic Archaea  

PubMed Central

Background Methanobrevibacter smithii, Methanobrevibacter oralis, Methanosphaera stadtmanae, Methanomassilicoccus luminyensis and Methanobrevibacter arboriphilicus have been cultured from human digestive microbiota. Each one of these fastidious methanogenic archaea requires a specific medium for its growth, hampering their routine isolation and the culture. Methodology/Principal Findings A new culture medium here referred as SAB medium was optimized and tested to cultivate methanogens associated with human microbiota, as well as two mesophile methanogens Methanobacterium beijingense and Methanosaeta concilii. It was further tested for the isolation of archaea from 20 human stool specimens including 10 specimens testing positive for PCR detection of M. smithii. After inoculating 105 colony-forming-unit archaea/mL or 1 g stool specimen in parallel in SAB medium and reference DSMZ medium in the presence of negative controls, growth of archaea was determined by optical microscopy and the measurement of methane production by gas chromatography. While the negative controls remained sterile, all tested archaea grew significantly more rapidly in SAB medium than in reference medium in 1–3 days (P<0.05, Student test). Among PCR-positive stool specimens, 10/10 grew in the SAB medium, 6/10 in DSMZ 119 medium, 5/10 in DSMZ 322 medium and 3/10 in DSMZ 334 c medium. Four out of ten PCR-negative stool specimens grew after a 3-week incubation in the SAB-medium whereas no growth was detected in any of the reference media. 16S rRNA gene sequencing yielded 99–100% sequence similarity with reference M. smithii except for one specimen that yielded 99–100% sequence similarity with reference Methanobrevibacter millerae. Conclusions/Significance SAB medium allows for the versatile isolation and growth of methanogenic archaea associated with human gut microbiota including the archaea missed by inoculation of reference media. Implementation of the SAB medium in veterinary and medical microbiology laboratories will ease the routine culture-based detection of methanogenic archaea in clinical and environmental specimens.

Khelaifia, Saber; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel



Fabrication of porous bioactive glass particles by one step sintering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we reported a facile method to prepare porous bioactive glass microparticles. Porous particles were synthesized by sintering hollow bioactive glass microspheres obtained using a sol–gel co-template technology. The results showed that porous bioactive glass particles possessed a narrow particle size distribution, a relatively porous surface morphology and a hollow structure. It is worth to say that the

Bo Lei; Xiaofeng Chen; Yingjun Wang; Naru Zhao; Guohou Miao; Zhengmao Li; Cai Lin



TOPICAL REVIEW: Ceramic bioactivity: progresses, challenges and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactivity is a property of the ceramic surface which induces biological integration of living soft and hard tissues. The core mechanism of bioactivity is surface biomineralization of calcium phosphate nanocrystallites on ceramics with specific compositions and structures, inspiring acellular and cellular strategies for bio-interactive materials with new physical, chemical and biological functions. These include bioactive surface functionalizations on metallic, ceramic

K.-Y. Lee; H.-M. Kim; Y.-J. Lim; H.-J. Chun; S.-H. Moon



The Preparation and Properties of Bioactive Composites Based on Modification Bioactive Glass and Poly(Lactide-Co-Glycolide)  

Microsoft Academic Search

PLGA\\/bioactive glass composites were prepared as promising bone-repairing materials. The bioactive glass was fabricated by Sol-gel method. Surface Modification was done to improve the phase compatibility between polymer and the inorganic phase. PLGA\\/bioactive glass composites were successfully prepared via solution dispersion method. Composites films with different content of bioactive glass were obtained. The mechanical properties of composites were characterized by

Jian Chen; Xin Fan; Zhongcheng Zhou; Jianpeng Zou; Jianming Ruan



Photodermatoses in pigmented skin.  


Photodermatoses are a group of skin diseases primarily caused by, or exacerbated by exposure to ultraviolet and or visible radiation. The effect of sunlight on skin depends on a number of factors including skin colour, skin phototype and the content and type of melanin in the skin. There are only a few studies describing photodermatoses in populations with dark skin. A PubMed search was conducted to summarize currently available information on differences in biology of melanin in dark and light skin and photodermatoses in dark skin. Dark skin is characterised by higher content of melanin, higher eumelanin to pheomelanin ratio, lower tyrosinase activity, and more effective distribution of melanin for protection against ultraviolet light. Photodermatoses are common in dark skinned patients with some variation in the spectrum of photodermatoses. Polymorphous light eruption (PMLE) is the commonest, followed by chronic actinic dermatitis. Pin-point papular and lichenoid variants of PMLE and actinic lichen planus are more frequent in dark skin whereas actinic prurigo, solar urticaria and hydroa vacciniforme are uncommon. Photodermatoses are common in dark skinned patients despite better natural photoprotection. It is proposed that lichenoid photodermatoses may be added to the classification of photodermatoses in dark skin. PMID:23123922

Sharma, Vinod Kumar; Sahni, Kanika; Wadhwani, Ashok Roopchand



Bromophenols in Marine Algae and Their Bioactivities  

PubMed Central

Marine algae contain various bromophenols that have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-thrombotic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress of these marine algal biomaterials, with respect to structure, bioactivities, and their potential application as pharmaceuticals.

Liu, Ming; Hansen, Poul Erik; Lin, Xiukun



Marine bioactives and potential application in sports.  


An enriched diet with antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, ?-carotene and phenolic compounds, has always been suggested to improve oxidative stress, preventing related diseases. In this respect, marine natural product (MNP), such as COX inhibitors, marine steroids, molecules interfering with factors involved in the modulation of gene expression (such as NF-?B), macrolides, many antioxidant agents, thermogenic substances and even substances that could help the immune system and that result in the protection of cartilage, have been recently gaining attention. The marine world represents a reserve of bioactive ingredients, with considerable potential as functional food. Substances, such as chitin, chitosan, n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive peptides, can provide several health benefits, such as the reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. In addition, new marine bioactive substances with potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and thermogenic capacity may provide health benefits and performance improvement, especially in those who practice physical activity, because of their increased free radical and Reacting Oxygen Species (ROS) production during exercise, and, particularly, in athletes. The aim of this review is to examine the potential pharmacological properties and application of many marine bioactive substances in sports. PMID:24796298

Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Gemello, Eugenio; Riccioni, Graziano; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio



Bioactive constituents from Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Fabaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identity novel bioactive organic chemical constituents from the ethanolic extracts of the black locust tree, Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Fabaceae). Screening assays demonstrated that these extracts had significant activity in the brine shrimp lethality test (BST) and human tumor cytotoxicity assays (MTIF assays); in addition, the species has had many interesting folkloric medicinal uses.

Feifei Tian



Estimating error rates in bioactivity databases.  


Bioactivity databases are routinely used in drug discovery to look-up and, using prediction tools, to predict potential targets for small molecules. These databases are typically manually curated from patents and scientific articles. Apart from errors in the source document, the human factor can cause errors during the extraction process. These errors can lead to wrong decisions in the early drug discovery process. In the current work, we have compared bioactivity data from three large databases (ChEMBL, Liceptor, and WOMBAT) who have curated data from the same source documents. As a result, we are able to report error rate estimates for individual activity parameters and individual bioactivity databases. Small molecule structures have the greatest estimated error rate followed by target, activity value, and activity type. This order is also reflected in supplier-specific error rate estimates. The results are also useful in identifying data points for recuration. We hope the results will lead to a more widespread awareness among scientists on the frequencies and types of errors in bioactivity data. PMID:24160896

Tiikkainen, Pekka; Bellis, Louisa; Light, Yvonne; Franke, Lutz



Marine Bioactives and Potential Application in Sports  

PubMed Central

An enriched diet with antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, ?-carotene and phenolic compounds, has always been suggested to improve oxidative stress, preventing related diseases. In this respect, marine natural product (MNP), such as COX inhibitors, marine steroids, molecules interfering with factors involved in the modulation of gene expression (such as NF-?B), macrolides, many antioxidant agents, thermogenic substances and even substances that could help the immune system and that result in the protection of cartilage, have been recently gaining attention. The marine world represents a reserve of bioactive ingredients, with considerable potential as functional food. Substances, such as chitin, chitosan, n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive peptides, can provide several health benefits, such as the reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. In addition, new marine bioactive substances with potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and thermogenic capacity may provide health benefits and performance improvement, especially in those who practice physical activity, because of their increased free radical and Reacting Oxygen Species (ROS) production during exercise, and, particularly, in athletes. The aim of this review is to examine the potential pharmacological properties and application of many marine bioactive substances in sports.

Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Gemello, Eugenio; Riccioni, Graziano; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio



Electrophoretic deposition of carbon nanotubes and bioactive glass particles for bioactive composite coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of bioactive coatings consisting of 45S5 Bioglass® and mutli-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) was investigated. In addition to pure Bioglass® coatings, the co-deposition and sequential deposition of Bioglass® particles (size <5?m) and CNTs on stainless steel substrates were carried out in order to fabricate bioactive, nanostructured composite layers. The optimal experimental conditions were determined using

M. Charlotte Schausten; Decheng Meng; Rainer Telle; Aldo R. Boccaccini



Effect of nanoparticulate bioactive glass particles on bioactivity and cytocompatibility of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) composites.  


This work investigated the effect of adding nanoparticulate (29 nm) bioactive glass particles on the bioactivity, degradation and in vitro cytocompatibility of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB)) composites/nano-sized bioactive glass (n-BG). Two different concentrations (10 and 20 wt %) of nanoscale bioactive glass particles of 45S5 Bioglass composition were used to prepare composite films. Several techniques (Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray) were used to monitor their surface and bioreactivity over a 45-day period of immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). All results suggested the P(3HB)/n-BG composites to be highly bioactive, confirmed by the formation of hydroxyapatite on material surfaces upon immersion in SBF. The weight loss and water uptake were found to increase on increasing bioactive glass content. Cytocompatibility study (cell proliferation, cell attachment, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin production) using human MG-63 osteoblast-like cells in osteogenic and non-osteogenic medium showed that the composite substrates are suitable for cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation. PMID:19640877

Misra, Superb K; Ansari, Tahera; Mohn, Dirk; Valappil, Sabeel P; Brunner, Tobias J; Stark, Wendelin J; Roy, Ipsita; Knowles, Jonathan C; Sibbons, Paul D; Jones, Eugenia Valsami; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Salih, Vehid



Thermal analysis and in vitro bioactivity of bioactive glass-alumina composites  

SciTech Connect

Bioactive glass-alumina composite (BA) pellets were fabricated in the range 95/5-60/40 wt.% respectively and were heat-treated under a specific thermal treatment up to 950 {sup o}C. Control (unheated) and heat-treated pellets were immersed in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) for bioactivity testing. All pellets before and after immersion in SBF were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. All composite pellets presented bioactive response. On the surface of the heat-treated pellets the development of a rich biological hydroxyapatite (HAp) layer was delayed for one day, compared to the respective control pellets. Independent of the proportion of the two components, all composites of each group (control and heat-treated) presented the same bioactive response as a function of immersion time in SBF. It was found that by the applied methodology, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be successfully applied in bioactive glass composites without obstructing their bioactive response. - Research Highlights: {yields} Isostatically pressed glass-alumina composites presented apatite-forming ability. {yields} The interaction with SBF resulted in an aluminium phosphate phase formation. {yields} The formation of an aluminium phosphate phase enhanced the in vitro apatite growth.

Chatzistavrou, Xanthippi, E-mail: [Solid State Physics Section, Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kantiranis, Nikolaos, E-mail: [School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kontonasaki, Eleana, E-mail: [School of Dentistry, Department of Fixed Prosthesis and Implant Prosthodontics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Chrissafis, Konstantinos, E-mail: [Solid State Physics Section, Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Papadopoulou, Labrini, E-mail: [School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Koidis, Petros, E-mail: [School of Dentistry, Department of Fixed Prosthesis and Implant Prosthodontics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Boccaccini, Aldo R., E-mail: [Department of Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Imperial College, SW7 2AZ London (United Kingdom); Paraskevopoulos, Konstantinos M., E-mail: [Solid State Physics Section, Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)



Scalded skin syndrome  


Ritter disease; Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSS) ... Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (Ritter Disease). In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders ...


Components of skin  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... skin layers from the outside environment and contains cells that make keratin, a substance that waterproofs and strengthens the skin. The epidermis also has cells that contain melanin, the dark pigment that gives ...


Hormones and the Skin  


... Sunscreens Tattoos and body piercings Teenage skin Tropical travel Vitamin D Cosmetic treatments Gold Triangle Awards Home Media resources Stats and facts Prevention and care Hormones and the skin Hormones ...


Laser Skin Rejuvenation  


... Best for early signs of aging. Intense pulsed light (IPL) – Not a laser, this light therapy penetrates deeper into the skin than a ... solution that makes the skin more sensitive to light is applied and left on for 30 minutes ...


Skin, reactive oxygen species, and circadian clocks.  


Abstract Significance: Skin, a complex organ and the body's first line of defense against environmental insults, plays a critical role in maintaining homeostasis in an organism. This balance is maintained through a complex network of cellular machinery and signaling events, including those regulating oxidative stress and circadian rhythms. These regulatory mechanisms have developed integral systems to protect skin cells and to signal to the rest of the body in the event of internal and environmental stresses. Recent Advances: Interestingly, several signaling pathways and many bioactive molecules have been found to be involved and even important in the regulation of oxidative stress and circadian rhythms, especially in the skin. It is becoming increasingly evident that these two regulatory systems may, in fact, be interconnected in the regulation of homeostasis. Important examples of molecules that connect the two systems include serotonin, melatonin, vitamin D, and vitamin A. Critical Issues: Excessive reactive oxygen species and/or dysregulation of antioxidant system and circadian rhythms can cause critical errors in maintaining proper barrier function and skin health, as well as overall homeostasis. Unfortunately, the modern lifestyle seems to contribute to increasing alterations in redox balance and circadian rhythms, thereby posing a critical problem for normal functioning of the living system. Future Directions: Since the oxidative stress and circadian rhythm systems seem to have areas of overlap, future research needs to be focused on defining the interactions between these two important systems. This may be especially important in the skin where both systems play critical roles in protecting the whole body. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2982-2996. PMID:24111846

Ndiaye, Mary A; Nihal, Minakshi; Wood, Gary S; Ahmad, Nihal



Heparin-functionalized thermoresponsive surface: a versatile cell culture substrate for regulating multivalent affinity binding with heparin-binding proteins by temperature changes.  


Temperature-dependent regulation of affinity binding between bioactive ligands and their cell membrane receptors is an attractive approach for the dynamic control of cellular adhesion, proliferation, migration, differentiation, and signal transduction. Covalent conjugation of bioactive ligands onto thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PIPAAm)-grafted surfaces facilitates the modulation of one-on-one affinity binding between bioactive ligands and cellular receptors by changing temperature. For the dynamic control of the multivalent affinity binding between heparin and heparin-binding proteins, thermoresponsive cell culture surface modified with heparin, which interacts with heparin-binding proteins such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), has been proposed. Heparin-functionalized thermoresponsive cell culture surface induces (1) the multivalent affinity binding of bFGF in active form and (2) accelerating cell sheet formation in the state of shrunken PIPAAm chains at 37°C. By lowering temperature to 20°C, the affinity binding between bFGF and immobilized heparin is reduced with increasing the mobility of heparin and the swollen PIPAAm chains, leading to the detachment of cultured cells. Therefore, heparin-functionalized thermoresponsive cell culture surface was able to enhance cell proliferation and detach confluent cells as a contiguous cell sheet by changing temperature. A cell cultivation system using heparin-functionalized thermoresponsive cell culture surface is versatile for immobilizing other heparin-binding proteins such as vascular endothelial growth factor, fibronectin, antithrombin III, and hepatocyte growth factor, etc. for tuning the adhesion, growth, and differentiation of various cell species. PMID:23974171

Arisaka, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Jun; Yamato, Masayuki; Akiyama, Yoshikatsu; Okano, Teruo



Biology of Skin Color.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

Corcos, Alain



On skin expansion.  


This article discusses skin expansion without considering cellular growth of the skin. An in vivo analysis was carried out that involved expansion at three different sites on one patient, allowing for the observation of the relaxation process. Those measurements were used to characterize the human skin of the thorax during the surgical process of skin expansion. A comparison between the in vivo results and the numerical finite elements model of the expansion was used to identify the material elastic parameters of the skin of the thorax of that patient. Delfino's constitutive equation was chosen to model the in vivo results. The skin is considered to be an isotropic, homogeneous, hyperelastic, and incompressible membrane. When the skin is extended, such as with expanders, the collagen fibers are also extended and cause stiffening in the skin, which results in increasing resistance to expansion or further stretching. We observed this phenomenon as an increase in the parameters as subsequent expansions continued. The number and shape of the skin expanders used in expansions were also studied, both mathematically and experimentally. The choice of the site where the expansion should be performed is discussed to enlighten problems that can lead to frustrated skin expansions. These results are very encouraging and provide insight into our understanding of the behavior of stretched skin by expansion. To our knowledge, this study has provided results that considerably improve our understanding of the behavior of human skin under expansion. PMID:23651568

Pamplona, Djenane C; Velloso, Raquel Q; Radwanski, Henrique N



Skin disinfection and acupuncture  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThe need for skin disinfection before insertion of an acupuncture needle is controversial and there is no specific research on this topic. However research and observations on the effect of, and the need for, skin disinfection before injections forms a good analogy of acupuncture. Whilst micro-organisms present on the surface of the skin are accessible to disinfection, those located under

Peter Hoffman



Color based skin classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin detection is used in applications ranging from face detection, tracking body parts and hand gesture analysis, to retrieval and blocking objectionable content. In this paper, we investigate and evaluate (1) the effect of color space transformation on skin detection performance and finding the appropriate color space for skin detection, (2) the role of the illuminance component of a color

Rehanullah Khan; Allan Hanbury; Julian Stöttinger; Abdul Bais


Metabolically Competent Human Skin Models: Activation and Genotoxicity of Benzo[a]pyrene  

PubMed Central

The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo[a]pyrene (BP) is metabolized into a complex pattern of BP derivatives, among which the ultimate carcinogen (+)-anti-BP-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) is formed to certain extents. Skin is frequently in contact with PAHs and data on the metabolic capacity of skin tissue toward these compounds are inconclusive. We compared BP metabolism in excised human skin, commercially available in vitro 3D skin models and primary 2D skin cell cultures, and analyzed the metabolically catalyzed occurrence of seven different BP follow-up products by means of liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). All models investigated were competent to metabolize BP, and the metabolic profiles generated by ex vivo human skin and skin models were remarkably similar. Furthermore, the genotoxicity of BP and its derivatives was monitored in these models via comet assays. In a full-thickness skin, equivalent BP-mediated genotoxic stress was generated via keratinocytes. Cultured primary keratinocytes revealed a level of genotoxicity comparable with that of direct exposure to 50–100nM of BPDE. Our data demonstrate that the metabolic capacity of human skin ex vivo, as well as organotypic human 3D skin models toward BP, is sufficient to cause significant genotoxic stress and thus cutaneous bioactivation may potentially contribute to mutations that ultimately lead to skin cancer.

Henkler, Frank



Basic Information about Skin Cancer  


... Buttons and Badges Cancer Home Basic Information About Skin Cancer Cancer is a disease in which cells in ... cancer starts in the skin, it is called skin cancer. Skin cancer is the most common cancer in ...


Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

No matter if your skin is light, dark, or somewhere in between, everyone is at risk for skin cancer. Learn what skin cancer looks like, how to find it early, and how to lower the chance of skin cancer.


Skin Exposure and Asthma  

PubMed Central

Numerous occupational and environmental exposures that increase asthma risk have been identified. Research and prevention have focused primarily on the respiratory tract. However, recent studies suggest that the skin may also be an important route of exposure and site of sensitization that contributes to asthma development. Factors that impair skin barrier function, such as filaggrin gene mutations or skin trauma, may facilitate allergen entry and promote Th2-like sensitization and subsequent asthma. Animal studies demonstrate that skin exposure to chemical and protein allergens is highly effective at inducing sensitization, with subsequent inhalation challenge eliciting asthmatic responses. A similar role for human skin exposure to certain sensitizing agents, such as isocyanates, is likely. Skin exposure methodologies are being developed to incorporate skin exposure assessment into epidemiology studies investigating asthma risk factors.

Redlich, Carrie A.



Skin Bacteria and Skin Disinfection Reconsidered  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large discrepancies in the available data on skin microbiology stimulated investigations of the number, interactions, and location of commensals and the true efficiency of disinfection by using skin biopsy, culture of frozen sections, and other methods.Most current procedures were less than 0·5% as sensitive as the biopsy method described. This gave mean bacterial counts ranging from 4,400\\/cm2 on the breast

Sydney Selwyn; Harold Ellis



Engineering bioactive peptide-based therapeutic molecules.  


Peptides are increasingly emerging as human therapeutic drugs. By screening very large phage display libraries, novel bioactive peptides that bind to the target of interest with desired biological properties can be identified. Peptides that are obtained in this fashion become the basis for therapeutic molecule development. However, naked peptides are usually not sufficient to be therapeutic molecules by themselves. They need to be chemically modified or conjugated to other molecules to obtain desired physicochemical and in vivo properties. In this chapter, we describe a general methodology of identifying bioactive peptides by biopanning of peptide phage libraries. As an example of therapeutic peptide modifications, we also describe a method for fusing the peptides to the Fc portion of antibody molecule to increase in vivo stability and activity. PMID:24146395

Ryu, Jong Sang; Cho, A Yeon; Seo, Sang Won; Min, Hosung



A novel bioactive peptide from wasp venom  

PubMed Central

Wasp venoms contain a number of pharmacologically active biomolecules, undertaking a wide range of functions necessary for the wasp's survival. We purified and characterized a novel bioactive peptide (vespin) from the venoms of Vespa magnifica (Smith) wasps with unique primary structure. Its amino acid sequence was determined to be CYQRRVAITAGGLKHRLMSSLIIIIIIRINYLRDNSVIILESSY. It has 44 residues including 15 leucines or isoleucines (32%) in the sequence. Vespin showed contractile activity on isolated ileum smooth muscle. The cDNA encoding vespin precursor was cloned from the cDNA library of the venomous glands. The precursor consists of 67 amino acid residues including the predicted signal peptide and mature vespin. A di-basic enzymatic processing site (-KR-) is located between the signal peptide and the mature peptide. Vespin did not show similarity with any known proteins or peptides by BLAST search, suggesting it is a novel bioactive peptide from wasp venoms.

Chen, Lingling; Chen, Wenlin; Yang, Hailong; Lai, Ren



Designing Bioactive Delivery Systems for Tissue Regeneration  

PubMed Central

The direct infusion of macromolecules into defect sites generally does not impart adequate physiological responses. Without the protection of delivery systems, inductive molecules may likely redistribute away from their desired locale and are vulnerable to degradation. In order to achieve efficacy, large doses supplied at interval time periods are necessary, often at great expense and ensuing detrimental side effects. The selection of a delivery system plays an important role in the rate of re-growth and functionality of regenerating tissue: not only do the release kinetics of inductive molecules and their consequent bioactivities need to be considered, but also how the delivery system interacts and integrates with its surrounding host environment. In the current review, we describe the means of release of macromolecules from hydrogels, polymeric microspheres, and porous scaffolds along with the selection and utilization of bioactive delivery systems in a variety of tissue-engineering strategies.

Davis, Hillary E.



Microencapsulated Bioactive Agents and Method of Making  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention is directed to microcapsules encapsulating an aqueous solution of a protein, drug or other bioactive substance inside a semi-permeable membrane. The microcapsules are formed by interfacial coacervation where shear forces are limited to 0-100 dynes per square centimeter. The resulting uniform microcapsules can then be subjected to dewatering in order to cause the internal solution to become supersaturated with the dissolved substance. This dewatering allows controlled nucleation and crystallization of the dissolved substance. The crystal-filled microcapsules can be stored, keeping the encapsulated crystals in good condition for further direct use in x-ray crystallography or as injectable formulations of the dissolved drug, protein or other bioactive substance.

Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)



Diuretic bioactivity optimization of furosemide in rats.  


Furosemide is a loop diuretic widely used by patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) to rid excess body water, reducing blood pressure, and mobilizing edemas. However, due to the narrow window of furosemide absorption, occurring only in the proximal gastrointestinal tract, only immediate release oral formulations are clinically available. Comparisons of bolus and continuous administration of furosemide in intravenous settings demonstrate that continuous administration at lower concentrations produced greater diuretic efficiency and reduced subsequent hospitalization rates in patients experiencing severe CHF. We report a systematic investigation of the diuretic bioactivity profiles of phase inversion micronized furosemide and furosemide co-precipitated with Eudragit L100, as well as their blends with stock furosemide, targeted at reducing the rapid spike in diuresis associated with immediate release formulations while maintaining cumulative urine output. Of the formulations tested, an equal parts blend of micronized furosemide and stock furosemide demonstrated optimal diuretic bioactivity profiles in a rat model. PMID:21571067

Laulicht, Bryan; Tripathi, Anubhav; Mathiowitz, Edith



Bioactive foods and ingredients for health.  


Bioactive compounds in foods have been gaining interest, and processes to consider them for public health recommendations are being discussed. However, the evidence base is difficult to assemble. It is difficult to demonstrate causality, and there often is not a single compound-single effect relation. Furthermore, health benefits may be due to metabolites produced by the host or gut microbiome rather than the food constituent per se. Properties that can be measured in a food may not translate to in vivo health effects. Compounds that are being pursued may increase gut microbial diversity, improve endothelial function, improve cognitive function, reduce bone loss, and so forth. A new type of bioactive component is emerging from epigenetic modifications by our diet, including microRNA transfer from our diet, which can regulate expression of human genes. Policy processes are needed to establish the level of evidence needed to determine dietary advice and policy recommendations and to set research agendas. PMID:24829482

Weaver, Connie M



Bioactivation of inert alumina ceramics by hydroxylation.  


Alumina ceramics (Al(2)O(3)) are frequently used for medical implants and prostheses because of the excellent biocompatibility, and the high mechanical reliability of the material. Inauspiciously alumina is not suitable for implant components with bone contact, because the material is bioinert and thereby no bony ongrowth, and subsequently loosening of the implant occurs. Here, we present a new method to bioactivate the surface of the material. Specimens made of high purity alumina were treated in sodium hydroxide. Cell culture tests with osteoblast-like cells as well as spectroscopical and mechanical tests were performed. Aluminium hydroxide groups were detected on the surface of the treated specimens. Enhanced cell adhesion, proliferation and secretion of osteocalcin were determined after hydroxylation. The bioactivating treatment had no deteriorating effect on the short- and long-term strength behaviour. Our results indicate that the described surface technique could be used to develop a new class of osseointegrative high-strength ceramic implants. PMID:15927249

Fischer, Horst; Niedhart, Christopher; Kaltenborn, Nadine; Prange, Andreas; Marx, Rudolf; Niethard, Fritz Uwe; Telle, Rainer



Bioactivity of tape cast and sintered bioactive glass-ceramic in simulated body fluid.  


A common ceramic processing technique, tape casting, was used to produce thin, flexible sheets of bioactive glass (Bioglass 45S5) particulate in an organic matrix. Tape casting offers the possibility of producing three-dimensional shapes, as the final material is built up layer by layer. Bioactive glass tapes were sintered together to form small discs for in vitro bioactivity testing in simulated body fluid (SBF). Four different sintering schedules were investigated: 800, 900, and 1000 degrees C for 3 h; and 1000 degrees C for 6 h. Each schedule produced a crystalline material of major phase Na2Ca2Si3O9. Tape cast and sintered bioactive glass-ceramic processed at 1000 degrees C formed crystalline hydroxyapatite layers after 20-24 h in SBF as indicated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, and EDS data. FTIR revealed that the greatest amount of hydroxyapatite formation after 2 h was observed for samples sintered at 900 degrees C. The differences in bioactive response were likely caused by the variation in the extent of sintering and, consequently, the amount of surface area available for reaction with SBF. PMID:12033609

Clupper, Daniel C; Mecholsky, John J; LaTorre, Guy P; Greenspan, David C



Bio-active compounds from Psychotria camponutans.  


A new benzoquinone (1-hydroxybenzoisochromanquinone) and benz [g]isoquinoline-5, 10-dione have been isolated from the woody parts of Psychotria camponutans, as a result of bioactivity-guided fractionation. The compounds were characterized by UV, IR, EI-mass, 1H-, and 13C-NMR, and HETCOR NMR spectroscopy. Both compounds, together with acetylbenzoisochromanquinone, showed in vitro strong activity against brine shrimp, KB cells, and chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum. PMID:7700994

Solis, P N; Lang'at, C; Gupta, M P; Kirby, G C; Warhusrst, D C; Phillipson, J D



Bioactive constituents from gum guggul ( Commiphora wightii)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactivity-directed fractionation and purification afforded cytotoxic components of Commiphora wightii. The exudates of C. wightii were extracted with EtOAc and the extract was subjected to repeated column chromatography. A fraction showing cytotoxic activity was characterized as a mixture of two ferulates with an unusual skeleton by spectral and chemical methods, including by NMR, GC–MS and chemical derivatization. This fraction also

Nanqun Zhu; Mohamed M. Rafi; Robert S. DiPaola; Jingsong Xin; Chee-Kok Chin; Vladimir Badmaev; Geetha Ghai; Robert T. Rosen; Chi-Tang Ho



Major biological effects induced by the skin secretion of the tree frog Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis.  


Amphibian skin secretions contain several bioactive compounds such as biogenic amines, alkaloids, steroids, proteins and peptides; being peptides a continuously growing field of interest. This work aims to describe the main physiopathological properties of the tree frog Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis skin secretion, obtained by manual stimulation of the dorsal skin surface. Intravenous skin secretion administration provoked lethal effect in mice after 5min. Low doses induced significant systemic and local effects like edema and nociception in mice and topic administration induced myonecrosis in the endothelium of cremaster mice. The presence of phospholipase A(2) activity, proteolytic activity and creatine kinase activity (in the plasma of treated mice) are reported and are very likely to be related to the physiopathological (edematic and myotoxic) activities observed. These data provide in vivo evidence of the complex toxic effects of the P. hypochondrialis skin secretion as well as possible mechanisms of action for these effects. PMID:17306319

Conceição, Katia; Miriane Bruni, Fernanda; Antoniazzi, Marta M; Jared, Carlos; Camargo, Antonio Carlos M; Lopes-Ferreira, Mônica; Pimenta, Daniel C



Analysis of commercial and public bioactivity databases.  


Activity data for small molecules are invaluable in chemoinformatics. Various bioactivity databases exist containing detailed information of target proteins and quantitative binding data for small molecules extracted from journals and patents. In the current work, we have merged several public and commercial bioactivity databases into one bioactivity metabase. The molecular presentation, target information, and activity data of the vendor databases were standardized. The main motivation of the work was to create a single relational database which allows fast and simple data retrieval by in-house scientists. Second, we wanted to know the amount of overlap between databases by commercial and public vendors to see whether the former contain data complementing the latter. Third, we quantified the degree of inconsistency between data sources by comparing data points derived from the same scientific article cited by more than one vendor. We found that each data source contains unique data which is due to different scientific articles cited by the vendors. When comparing data derived from the same article we found that inconsistencies between the vendors are common. In conclusion, using databases of different vendors is still useful since the data overlap is not complete. It should be noted that this can be partially explained by the inconsistencies and errors in the source data. PMID:22145975

Tiikkainen, Pekka; Franke, Lutz



Development of a Versatile Laser Light Scattering Instrument.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A versatile laser light scattering (LLS) instrument is developed for use in microgravity to measure microscopic particles of 30 A to above 3 microns. Since it is an optical technique, LLS does not affect the sample being studied. A LLS instrument built fr...

W. V. Meyer R. R. Ansari



Versatile visual servoing without knowledge of true Jacobian  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposes a versatile visual servoing control scheme with a Jacobian matrix estimator. The Jacobian matrix estimator does not need a priori knowledge of the kinematic structure and parameters of the robot system, such as camera and link parameters. The proposed visual servoing control scheme ensures the convergence of the image-features to desired trajectories, by using the estimated Jacobian matrix, which




Versatile and portable DSP platform for learning embedded signal processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a versatile and portable digital signal processing (DSP) platform that is highly suitable for learning embedded signal processing anywhere and anytime. This DSP platform is based on the Texas Instruments VC5505 eZDSP USB Stick. We outline some of the important features in this development tool, such as the internal fast Fourier transform (FFT) hardware accelerator and the

Woon-Seng Gan; Abhishek Seth; Sen M. Kuo



Striving for versatility in publish\\/subscribe infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Publish\\/subscribe infrastructures are used as the basic communi- cation and integration framework in many application domains. The majority of those infrastructures, however, fall short of me- chanisms that allow their customization and configuration to comply with the requirements of those application domains. In other words, they are not versatile enough to support new and evolving requirements demanded by different applications.

Roberto Silveira Silva Filho; David F. Redmiles



Versatile Desktop Experiment Module (DEMo) on Heat Transfer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines a new Desktop Experiment Module (DEMo) engineered for a chemical engineering junior-level Heat Transfer course. This new DEMo learning tool is versatile, fairly inexpensive, and portable such that it can be positioned on student desks throughout a classroom. The DEMo system can illustrate conduction of various materials,…

Minerick, Adrienne R.



Electrochromic photonic crystal displays with versatile color tunability  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrochromic photonic crystal (EPC) display device that combines chemical (electrochromic) and physical (photonic) coloring mechanisms is reported for the first time. This EPC exhibits superior and versatile color tunability. The TiO2 inverse opals fabricated by atomic layer deposition are adopted as EPC material. Results show that the photonic band gaps selectively modified the optical properties of the EPC and

Lijun Liu; Siva Krishna Karuturi; Liap Tat Su; Qing Wang; Alfred Iing Yoong Tok



Criminal Careers and Cognitive Scripts: An Investigation into Criminal Versatility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Criminal careers" denotes ways in which offenders develop specialisms and versatility, but studies linking delinquency to social skills deficits have not attempted to explore cognitive, internalised processes by which such "careers" might be chosen. This study investigated criminal minds via script theory: "internal" scripts are used to guide…

Gavin, Helen; Hockey, David



A mesoporous bioactive glass/polycaprolactone composite scaffold and its bioactivity behavior.  


Composite scaffolds of mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG)/polycaprolactone (PCL) and conventional bioactive glass (BG)/PCL were fabricated by a solvent casting-particulate leaching method, and the structure and properties of the composite scaffolds were characterized. The measurements of the water contact angles suggest that the incorporation of either MBG or BG into PCL can improve the hydrophilicity of the composites, and the former is more effective than the later. The bioactivity of the composite scaffold is evaluated by soaking the scaffolds in a simulated body fluid (SBF) and the results show that the MBG/PCL composite scaffolds can induce a dense and continuous layer of apatite after soaking in SBF for 3 weeks, as compared with the scattered and discrete apatite particles on the BG/PCL composite scaffolds. Such improvements (improvements of the hydrophilicity and apatite forming ability) should be helpful for the extensive applications of PCL scaffold in tissue engineering. PMID:17600329

Li, Xia; Shi, Jianlin; Dong, Xiaoping; Zhang, Lingxia; Zeng, Hongyu



Modern skin cleansers.  


The course of development of skin cleansers has been one of continual improvement. Soap-based products, used since antiquity, offered improved cleansing over mechanical methods or water alone but could irritate and dry skin. Bars based on synthetic detergents that offer improved skin compatibility compared with soap have become available over the past several decades. Body washes have been growing in consumer popularity. Some of the first body washes introduced into the market offered a moisturization benefit in addition to mildness. Some second-generation body washes that are now on the market use even more sophisticated formulation schemes, such as coacervate technology, to deliver emulsified petrolatum to the skin during washing, providing mild cleansing and a significant dry skin improvement benefit. Consumer demand and the formulation possibilities provided by new product formats, new technologies, and new ingredients will undoubtedly lead to the delivery of even greater skin benefits in the future. PMID:11059364

Ertel, K



Plasma skin regeneration technology.  


Plasma skin regeneration is a novel type of skin rejuvenation technology developed over the last 3 years. Plasma is the fourth state of matter in which electrons are stripped from atoms to form an ionized gas. Although high temperature plasmas have been used in surgery for over a decade, plasma had previously been used as a conduction medium for electric current. Unlike lasers which rely on the principle of selective photothermolysis to deliver heat to specific targets in the skin, plasma technology delivers heat energy directly to tissue upon contact without reliance on skin chromophores. The plasma itself produces controlled thermal damage to the skin surface to elicit changes such as new collagen formation and improvement in photodamaged skin. The technology can be used at varying energies for different depths of effect, from superficial epidermal effects to deeper dermal heating. PMID:18038498

Bogle, Melissa A; Arndt, Kenneth A; Dover, Jeffrey S



The skin microbiome  

PubMed Central

The skin is the human body’s largest organ, colonized by a diverse milieu of microorganisms, most of which are harmless or even beneficial to their host. Colonization is driven by the ecology of the skin surface, which is highly variable depending on topographical location, endogenous host factors and exogenous environmental factors. The cutaneous innate and adaptive immune responses can modulate the skin microbiota, but the microbiota also functions in educating the immune system. The development of molecular methods to identify microorganisms has led to an emerging view of the resident skin bacteria as highly diverse and variable. An enhanced understanding of the skin microbiome is necessary to gain insight into microbial involvement in human skin disorders and to enable novel promicrobial and antimicrobial therapeutic approaches for their treatment.

Grice, Elizabeth A.; Segre, Julia A.



Alimentary 'green' proteins as electrospun scaffolds for skin regenerative engineering.  


As a potential alternative to currently available skin substitutes and wound dressings, we explored the use of bioactive scaffolds made of plant-derived proteins. We hypothesized that 'green' materials, derived from renewable and biodegradable natural sources, may confer bioactive properties to enhance wound healing and tissue regeneration. We optimized and characterized fibrous scaffolds electrospun from soy protein isolate (SPI) with addition of 0.05% poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) dissolved in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol, and from corn zein dissolved in glacial acetic acid. Fibrous mats electrospun from either of these plant proteins remained intact without further cross-linking, possessing a skin-like pliability. Soy-derived scaffolds supported the adhesion and proliferation of cultured primary human dermal fibroblasts. Using targeted PCR arrays and qPCR validation, we found similar gene expression profiles of fibroblasts cultured for 2 and 24?h on SPI substrates and on collagen type I at both time points. On both substrates there was a pronounced time-dependent upregulation of several genes related to ECM deposition remodelling, including MMP-10, MMP-1, collagen VII, integrin-?2 and laminin-?3, indicating that both plant- and animal-derived materials induce similar responses from the cells after initial adhesion, degrading substrate proteins and depositing extracellular matrix in a 'normal' remodelling process. These results suggest that 'green' proteins, such as soy and zein, are promising as a platform for organotypic skin equivalent culture, as well as implantable scaffolds for skin regeneration. Future studies will determine specific mechanisms of their interaction with skin cells and their efficacy in wound-healing applications. PMID:22499248

Lin, Leko; Perets, Anat; Har-el, Yah-el; Varma, Devika; Li, Mengyan; Lazarovici, Philip; Woerdeman, Dara L; Lelkes, Peter I



Reverse dorsolateral proximal phalangeal island flap: a new versatile technique for coverage of finger defects.  


All flaps described for the reconstruction of finger defects have limited indications and many disadvantages. In this study, I successfully developed a reverse digital artery flap raised from the overall side and dorsal aspects of the proximal phalanx, excluding the digital nerve, for closure of fingertip and middle phalangeal defects, and called this the 'reverse dorsolateral proximal phalangeal island flap'. The donor site defect was covered by another flap called the 'dorsal metacarpal V-Y island flap'. The method was used for 12 complicated phalangeal defects in 11 patients. Flap sizes ranged from 2 x 1.5 cm to 3 x 2.5cm. The flap was applied with versatile designs including distal interphalangeal (DIP) (9) or proximal interphalangeal (PIP) anastomoses-based flaps (3); homodigital (10) or heterodigital flaps (2) from the injuries or adjacent finger, respectively; multiple flaps from the two distinct fingers in the same hand (1); and a sensate flap (1). The average follow-up time was 11.5 months. All reverse flaps and V-Y donor site flaps survived completely. Finger lengths and motions were satisfactory with favourable aesthetic results in all cases. The mean value of static two-point discrimination was 9.3mm. I strongly advocate this new flap, as a single versatile flap, for repair of different-sized or complex phalangeal defects. By means of this 'dual-flap manoeuvre', any defect distal to the PIP joint in various dimensions can safely be covered without using a skin graft in the donor area. I also suggest the dorsal metacarpal V-Y island flap alone for dorsal phalangeal defects proximal to this point. PMID:18614410

Tan, Onder



Proangiogenic Potential of a Collagen\\/Bioactive Glass Substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Previous attempts to stimulate angiogenesis have focused on the delivery of growth factors and cytokines, genes encoding for\\u000a specific angiogenic inductive proteins or transcription factors, or participating cells. While high concentrations of bioactive\\u000a glasses have exhibited osteogenic potential, recent studies have demonstrated that low concentrations of particular bioactive\\u000a glasses are angiogenic. We hypothesized that a well known bioactive glass (Bioglass®

Ann Leu; J. Kent Leach



Miniaturized Bioaffinity Assessment Coupled to Mass Spectrometry for Guided Purification of Bioactives from Toad and Cone Snail  

PubMed Central

A nano-flow high-resolution screening platform, featuring a parallel chip-based microfluidic bioassay and mass spectrometry coupled to nano-liquid chromatography, was applied to screen animal venoms for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor like (nAChR) affinity by using the acetylcholine binding protein, a mimic of the nAChR. The potential of this microfluidic platform is demonstrated by profiling the Conus textile venom proteome, consisting of over 1,000 peptides. Within one analysis (<90 min, 500 ng venom injected), ligands are detected and identified. To show applicability for non-peptides, small molecular ligands such as steroidal ligands were identified in skin secretions from two toad species (Bufo alvarius and Bufo marinus). Bioactives from the toad samples were subsequently isolated by MS-guided fractionation. The fractions analyzed by NMR and a radioligand binding assay with ?7-nAChR confirmed the identity and bioactivity of several new ligands.

Heus, Ferry; Otvos, Reka A.; Aspers, Ruud L. E. G.; van Elk, Rene; Halff, Jenny I.; Ehlers, Andreas W.; Dutertre, Sebastien; Lewis, Richard J.; Wijmenga, Sybren; Smit, August B.; Niessen, Wilfried M. A.; Kool, Jeroen



Miniaturized bioaffinity assessment coupled to mass spectrometry for guided purification of bioactives from toad and cone snail.  


A nano-flow high-resolution screening platform, featuring a parallel chip-based microfluidic bioassay and mass spectrometry coupled to nano-liquid chromatography, was applied to screen animal venoms for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor like (nAChR) affinity by using the acetylcholine binding protein, a mimic of the nAChR. The potential of this microfluidic platform is demonstrated by profiling the Conus textile venom proteome, consisting of over 1,000 peptides. Within one analysis (<90 min, 500 ng venom injected), ligands are detected and identified. To show applicability for non-peptides, small molecular ligands such as steroidal ligands were identified in skin secretions from two toad species (Bufo alvarius and Bufo marinus). Bioactives from the toad samples were subsequently isolated by MS-guided fractionation. The fractions analyzed by NMR and a radioligand binding assay with ?7-nAChR confirmed the identity and bioactivity of several new ligands. PMID:24833338

Heus, Ferry; Otvos, Reka A; Aspers, Ruud L E G; van Elk, Rene; Halff, Jenny I; Ehlers, Andreas W; Dutertre, Sébastien; Lewis, Richard J; Wijmenga, Sybren; Smit, August B; Niessen, Wilfried M A; Kool, Jeroen



Skin as an Organ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is part of the Skin Deep Project, which examines the science behind skin. Skin Deep is developed by AAAS and funded by NeutrogenaIn this lesson, students will examine the skin and how it functions as an organ and as part of a larger body system. By taking a closer look at the anatomy and function of the integumentary system, students will further their general knowledge of organ systems in general. Further, they will benefit from realizing that any part of a system may itself be considered as a systema subsystemwith its own internal parts and interactions. Additional links are given for further inquiry.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)



Bioactive Peptides from Muscle Sources: Meat and Fish  

PubMed Central

Bioactive peptides have been identified in a range of foods, including plant, milk and muscle, e.g., beef, chicken, pork and fish muscle proteins. Bioactive peptides from food proteins offer major potential for incorporation into functional foods and nutraceuticals. The aim of this paper is to present an outline of the bioactive peptides identified in the muscle protein of meat to date, with a focus on muscle protein from domestic animals and fish. The majority of research on bioactives from meat sources has focused on angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antioxidant peptides.

Ryan, Joseph Thomas; Ross, Reynolds Paul; Bolton, Declan; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Stanton, Catherine



Soluble starch and composite starch Bioactive Glass 45S5 particles: Synthesis, bioactivity, and interaction with rat bone marrow cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many biomedical applications, biodegradable and simultaneously bioactive materials are desired. These materials should at the same time be able to support cell function and co-exist with the organism without triggering a relevant immune response.In this work, the synthesis as well as the bioactivity evaluation of newly developed polymer soluble potato starch and composite (with Bioactive Glass 45S5) micron-size particles

G. A. Silva; A. Pedro; F. J. Costa; N. M. Neves; O. P. Coutinho; R. L. Reis



Environmental versatility promotes modularity in genome-scale metabolic networks  

PubMed Central

Background The ubiquity of modules in biological networks may result from an evolutionary benefit of a modular organization. For instance, modularity may increase the rate of adaptive evolution, because modules can be easily combined into new arrangements that may benefit their carrier. Conversely, modularity may emerge as a by-product of some trait. We here ask whether this last scenario may play a role in genome-scale metabolic networks that need to sustain life in one or more chemical environments. For such networks, we define a network module as a maximal set of reactions that are fully coupled, i.e., whose fluxes can only vary in fixed proportions. This definition overcomes limitations of purely graph based analyses of metabolism by exploiting the functional links between reactions. We call a metabolic network viable in a given chemical environment if it can synthesize all of an organism's biomass compounds from nutrients in this environment. An organism's metabolism is highly versatile if it can sustain life in many different chemical environments. We here ask whether versatility affects the modularity of metabolic networks. Results Using recently developed techniques to randomly sample large numbers of viable metabolic networks from a vast space of metabolic networks, we use flux balance analysis to study in silico metabolic networks that differ in their versatility. We find that highly versatile networks are also highly modular. They contain more modules and more reactions that are organized into modules. Most or all reactions in a module are associated with the same biochemical pathways. Modules that arise in highly versatile networks generally involve reactions that process nutrients or closely related chemicals. We also observe that the metabolism of E. coli is significantly more modular than even our most versatile networks. Conclusions Our work shows that modularity in metabolic networks can be a by-product of functional constraints, e.g., the need to sustain life in multiple environments. This organizational principle is insensitive to the environments we consider and to the number of reactions in a metabolic network. Because we observe this principle not just in one or few biological networks, but in large random samples of networks, we propose that it may be a generic principle of metabolic network organization.



Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix  


... Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is something as simple as ...


Ballistic skin simulant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogels prepared from water solutions containing 10–20 mass% gelatine are generally accepted muscle tissue simulants in terminal ballistic research. They, however, do not have a surface layer which simulates the effect of human skin. The purpose of this research was to find a suitable skin simulant for enhancing the testing fidelity and the credibility of the results with gelatine-based materials

Jorma Jussila; Ari Leppäniemi; Mikael Paronen; Erkki Kulomäki



Sun on Skin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes sessions in two schools that focused on recent work with 2,857 children in Europe researching the children's perceptions of sun on skin. Investigates children's ideas about skin on different parts of the body, which was most vulnerable to the sun, and different types and colors. (Author/CCM)

Collins, Margaret



Occupational skin infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of skin infections may complicate different occupations depending on the working environment and level of exposure to a particular agent. These in turn may affect the productivity of an individual worker and ultimately the company as a whole. This review aims to highlight some common and important skin infections that may be acquired at work. Epidemiology, clinical features,

M. J. Harries; J. T. Lear



Bleeding into the skin  


Bleeding under the skin can occur from broken blood vessels that form tiny pinpoint red dots (called ... Aside from the common bruise, bleeding into the skin or mucous membranes is a very significant sign and should always be checked out by a health care ...


Measuring and Protecting Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners compare and contrast their own skin (including the area covered) with that of an orange. This activity helps learners understand that skin is a vital part of the body and must be protected from sun damage. This lesson guide includes background information, resources, variation ideas and a bilingual (English and Spanish) handout.

Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Dresden, Judith




Microsoft Academic Search

Micro-organisms that are known or suspected to cause skin diseases in cetaceans are briefly reviewed. Viruses belonging to four families i.e. Caliciviridae, Herpesviridae, Papillomaviridae and Poxviridae were detected by electron microscopy, histology and molecular techniques in vesicular skin lesions, black dots perceptible by the touch, warts and tattoos in several species of odontocetes and mysticetes. Herpesviruses, poxviruses and likely a

Marie-Françoise Van Bressem; Koen Van Waerebeek; Leonardo Flach; Julio César Reyes; Marcos César de Oliveira; Salvatore Siciliano; Monica Echegaray; Francisco Viddi; Fernando Felix; Enrique Crespo; Gian Paolo Sanino; Isabel Cristina Avila; Natalia Fraijia; Cristina Castro


Allergic Skin Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on the two allergic skin diseases which are most common in the world, but the least familiar to surgeons – atopic dermatitis and contact dermatitis.The skin is the largest immunologic organ in humans, accounting for approximately 15% of our body weight, with a surface area of 1 to 2 square meters in an adult. Immune dysfunction can

Andrew J. Heller


Preparation and Characterization of Bioactive Composites of Pcl/bioactive Fillers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of bioactive composites have been invested over the last two decades as substitute materials for diseased or damaged tissues in the human body. In this paper, bioactive composites were prepared using polycaprolactone (PCL) and hydroxyapatite (HA). The influence of micro-sized and nano-sized HA on composite properties was investigated. The nano-HA was prepared by wet chemical co-precipitation reaction method. Studies of biocomposite specimen morphology were performed by Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) and DSC (Differential scanning calorimetry) were used to assess the crystal structure of HA and thermal properties of the composites, respectively. The synthesized nano-HA is found to be of high purity HA structure. The relationship between composition, structure and properties was studied. Different methods to prepare uniform composites were tried, and the outcome of this work suggests that by proper manipulation of biodegradable polymers and bioactive ceramics through material design, bioactive composites with controlled properties might be achievable.

Li, Ying; Cheah, Chi Mun; Chang, Hengky; Loh, Leonard; Kum, Adeline


Bioactivity modulation of bioactive materials in view of their application in osteoporotic patients.  


The application of bioactive ceramic coatings to prostheses confers strength to a material (ceramic or biological glass) that exerts beneficial effects on bone-tissue growth but that itself lacks the toughness and stability required of an implant device. The rate of bioactivity is related to the chemical reactivity of the material and causes interface dissolution, precipitation and ion-exchange reactions. Ceramics may differ in sintering temperature and thus exhibit differences in their in vitro dissolution features and in vivo performance. To test these effects, in vitro and in vivo studies were carried out on two biocompatible biological glasses and a ceramic of proven bioactivity in view of their potential utilization as covering materials. In addition, a modified chitosan was adsorbed on the surface of a series of hydroxyapatite (HA) samples. Human fibroblasts and/or osteoblasts were used for the in vitro tests, and normal (INT) and osteoporotic (OVX) rats, normal rabbits and sheep for the in vivo studies. Similar chemical changes were observed in both glasses, suggesting that these materials underwent modifications directly dependent on their biological environment. The in vivo tests point to the possibility of improving the bioactivity of ceramic substrates with chitosan. However, the different behaviour of the materials in vitro and in vivo suggests that these tests should be conducted in parallel. PMID:15348844

Belmonte, M M; De Benedittis, A; Muzzarelli, R A; Mengucci, P; Biagini, G; Gandolfi, M G; Zucchini, C; Krajewski, A; Ravaglioli, A; Roncari, E; Fini, M; Giardino, R



Skin biopsy and psoriasis.  


A total of 33 skin biopsies were sent to Bangladesh institute of health Science (BIHS) hospital at Mirpur, Dhaka by Consultant skin for histopathological diagnosis between a period of one year and three months. Out of these 33 skin biopsies histopathological diagnosis of psoriasis was made for 13(39.39%), chronic non specific dermatitis (eczema) in 4(12.12%), lichenoid lesion 4(12.12%). Ashy dermatosis 3(9.09%), Nevus 2(6.06%) and corn, hemangioma, prurigo simplex, pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP), dermatofibroma, 1(3.03%) each. The main presenting feature of these patients were erythematous, prurituc, silvery, scale, plaques or papules for a period between 2 months to 15 years. It is evident from the present study that among different skin lesions sent for histological diagnosis, Psoriasis is common skin pathology in dermatological practice. PMID:20639826

Rahman, M T; Monami, N S; Ferdousi, S; Tahmin, T



Bioactive ``self-sensing'' optical systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Free-standing silk films are useful materials to manufacture nanopatterned optical elements and to immobilize bio-dopants such as enzymes while maintaining their biological activity. These traits were combined by incorporating hemoglobin into free-standing silk diffraction gratings to fabricate chemically responsive optofluidic devices responsive to ambient gas conditions, constituting a simple oxygen sensor. This type of self-analyzing optical system is enabled by the unique ability to reproduce high-fidelity optical structures in silk while maintaining the activity of entrapped proteins such as hemoglobin. These bioactive optical devices offer a direct readout capability, adding utility into the bioresponsive material arena.

Domachuk, Peter; Perry, Hannah; Amsden, Jason J.; Kaplan, David L.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.



Ta-doped multifunctional bioactive nanostructured films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ta-doped multifunctional bioactive nanostructured films (MuBiNaFs) were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering or ion implantation assisted magnetron sputtering of composite (Ti,Ta)C+Ca3(PO4)2 and (Ti,Ta)C+CaO targets produced by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis method. The films were characterized in terms of their structure, elemental and phase composition using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron, Raman, and IR spectroscopy. The films deposited in an

D. V. Shtansky; N. A. Gloushankova; I. A. Bashkova; M. A. Kharitonova; T. G. Moizhess; A. N. Sheveiko; Ph. V. Kiryukhantsev-Korneev; A. Osaka; B. N. Mavrin; E. A. Levashov



Bioactive borate glass coatings for titanium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive borate glass coatings have been developed for titanium and titanium alloys. Glasses from the Na2O–CaO–B2O3 system, modified by additions of SiO2, Al2O3, and P2O5, were characterized and compositions with thermal expansion matches to titanium were identified. Infrared and X-ray diffraction\\u000a analyses indicate that a hydroxyapatite surface layer forms on the borate glasses after exposure to a simulated body fluid

Laxmikanth Peddi; Richard K. Brow; Roger F. Brown



Versatility of reverse sural fasciocutaneous flap for reconstruction of distal lower limb soft tissue defects.  


In this study we present our experiences with the reverse sural fasciocutaneous flap to reconstruct the distal lower limb soft tissue defects caused by traumatic injuries. These flap graftings were carried out from Oct. 2010 to Dec. 2012 in our department. The series consisted of 36 patients, including 21 men and 15 women with an average age of 46.2 years (14-83 years) and with a medium follow-up period of 18 months (12-24 months). Of all the cases of acute trauma, there were 10 cases of trauma of distal tibia, 9 cases of trauma of perimalleolus, and 17 cases of trauma of midfoot and forefoot. Related risk factors in the patients were diabetes (2 cases), advanced age (>65 years, 3 cases) and cigarette smoking (6 cases). The reverse flow sural island flap irrigation depended on lower perforators of the peroneal artery. The fasciocutaneous pedicle was 3-4 cm in width and the anatomical structures consisted of the superficial and deep fascia, the sural nerve, short saphenous vein, superficial sural artery together with an islet of subcutaneous cellular tissue and skin. The most proximal border of the flap was only 1.5 cm away from the popliteal skin crease and the pivot point was 5-7 cm above the tip of the lateral malleolus. All the flaps survived. No arterial crisis occurred in any case. The venous congestion occurred in 2 cases and got better after raising the limbs and bloodletting. Only in an old man, 1.5 cm necrosis of distal margin of his flap occurred and finally healed after continuous dressing change. One-stage skin grafting was performed, and all the donor sites were sutured and successfully healed. It was concluded that the reverse sural fasciocutaneous flap is safe and reliable to extend to the proximal third even near the popliteal skin crease. We also concluded this flap can be safely and efficiently used to treat patients with large and far soft-tissue defects from the distal leg to the forefoot with more versatility and it is easier to reach the recipient sites. PMID:24939303

Pan, Hai-Tao; Zheng, Qi-Xin; Yang, Shu-Hua; Wu, Bin; Liu, Jian-Xiang



Research and development of a versatile portable speech prosthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Versatile Portable Speech Prosthesis (VPSP), a synthetic speech output communication aid for non-speaking people is described. It was intended initially for severely physically limited people with cerebral palsy who are in electric wheelchairs. Hence, it was designed to be placed on a wheelchair and powered from a wheelchair battery. It can easily be separated from the wheelchair. The VPSP is versatile because it is designed to accept any means of single switch, multiple switch, or keyboard control which physically limited people have the ability to use. It is portable because it is mounted on and can go with the electric wheelchair. It is a speech prosthesis, obviously, because it speaks with a synthetic voice for people unable to speak with their own voices. Both hardware and software are described.



New Laser Labeling Technology for Recordable Digital Versatile Disc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new labeling technology, i.e., “LabelflashTM”, is reported. This technology uses the digital versatile disc (DVD) drive data recording head to burn high-quality images directly into a specialized dye layer on the label side of DVD discs. The basic structure of the disc is similar to a conventional double-sided recordable digital versatile disc (DVD-R). Consequently, a Labelflash disc shows various features as follows: non consumable, no special optical path or drive control system, the same working distance as that for data recording, manufactured using conventional equipment for double-sided DVD-R, fast drawing speed, high durability, and professional appearance. Moreover, four color variation types and mat-type discs were developped. The graphic quality performance index for Labelflash was newly proposed. The values were closely matched by the subjective evaluations of contrast.

Kubo, Hiroshi; Shibata, Michihiro; Yamada, Seiya; Itoga, Hisanori; Fushiki, Tatsuo



Robust and versatile ionic liquid microarrays achieved by microcontact printing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lab-on-a-chip and miniaturized systems have gained significant popularity motivated by marked differences in material performance at the micro-to-nano-scale realm. However, to fully exploit micro-to-nano-scale chemistry, solvent volatility and lack of reproducibility need to be overcome. Here, we combine the non-volatile and versatile nature of ionic liquids with microcontact printing in an attempt to establish a facile protocol for high throughput fabrication of open microreactors and microfluidics. The micropatterned ionic liquid droplets have been demonstrated as electrochemical cells and reactors for microfabrication of metals and charge transfer complexes, substrates for immobilization of proteins and as membrane-free high-performance amperometric gas sensor arrays. The results suggest that miniaturized ionic liquid systems can be used to solve the problems of solvent volatility and slow mass transport in viscous ionic liquids in lab-on-a-chip devices, thus providing a versatile platform for a diverse number of applications.

Gunawan, Christian A.; Ge, Mengchen; Zhao, Chuan



General Information about Skin Cancer  


... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...


What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?  


... statistics about melanoma skin cancer? What is melanoma skin cancer? Melanoma is a cancer that starts in a ... tumors, but most are not very common. Melanoma skin cancers Melanoma is a cancer that begins in the ...


Skin Substitutes and Uses Thereof.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to in vitro cultured skin substitutes, and in particular to improved methods for organotypic culture of skin substitutes. In some embodiments, the dermal equivalent of the skin substitute is lifted to air interface of the cul...

C. A. R. Ivarie L. A. Hoffman P. Barth



Versatile composite resins simplifying the practice of restorative dentistry.  


After decades of technical development and refinement, composite resins continue to simplify the practice of restorative dentistry, offering clinicians versatility, predictability, and enhanced physical properties. With a wide range of products available today, composite resins are a reliable, conservative, multi-functional restorative material option. As manufacturers strive to improve such properties as compression strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion, water sorption, and wear resistance, several classification systems of composite resins have been developed. PMID:24571527

Margeas, Robert



The Versatile Array of Neutron Detectors at Low Energy (VANDLE)  

SciTech Connect

The Versatile Array of Neutron Detectors at Low Energy (VANDLE) is a new array of plastic scintillator bars under development for measurements at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The array is highly modular allowing the configuration of the individual elements to be optimized for particular experimental requirements. Proposed experiments include (d,n) reactions and beta-delayed neutron emission studies relevant to nuclear astrophysics.

Matei, Catalin [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Bardayan, Daniel W [ORNL; Blackmon, Jeff C [ORNL; Cizewski, J. A. [Rutgers University; Grzywacz, R. K. [University of Tennessee; Liddick, Sean [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Peters, W. A. [Rutgers University; Sarazin, F. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden



Versatility and application of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the unique cell compartmentalization and the ability to simultaneously oxidize ammonium and reduce nitrite into nitrogen\\u000a gas, anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria have challenged our recognitions of microorganism. The research conducted\\u000a on these bacteria has been extended from bench-scale tryouts to full-scale reactor systems. This review addresses the recently\\u000a discovered versatile properties of anammox bacteria and the applications and obstacles

Da-Wen Gao; Yu Tao



A New Highly Versatile Multimodality Small Animal Imaging Platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, highly versatile multi-modality small animal imaging platform, the Siemens Inveon Multimodality (MM) scanner, has been developed. This platform supports any combination of X-ray micro-CT, single-photon computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) modalities on a single gantry. Each modality within the system is designed to be configured with a different level of imaging performance based on the

Shaun S. Gleason; Derek W. Austin; Robert S. Beach; Robert Nutt; Michael J. Paulus; Shikui Yan



Versatile vacuum packaging for experimental study of resonant MEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a versatile sub-mTorr vacuum packaging approach ideally suited for R&D of high performance dynamic MEMS. The procedure takes advantage of processing steps and materials used throughout the MEMS industry while providing maximum flexibility for changes in die size and layout. Prototypes of a new tuning fork gyroscope concept optimized to minimize substrate energy dissipation were packaged using

Adam R. Schofield; Alexander A. Trusov; Andrei M. Shkel



PackBot: A Versatile Platform for Military Robotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The iRobot PackBot is a combat-tested, man-portable UGV that has been deployed in Afghanistan and Iraq. The PackBot is also a versatile platform for mobile robotics research and development that supports a wide range of payloads suitable for many different mission types. In this paper, we describe four R&D projects that developed experimental payloads and software using the PackBot platform.

Brian Yamauchi


PackBot: a versatile platform for military robotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The iRobot PackBot is a combat-tested, man-portable UGV that has been deployed in Afghanistan and Iraq. The PackBot is also a versatile platform for mobile robotics research and development that supports a wide range of payloads suitable for many different mission types. In this paper, we describe four R&D projects that developed experimental payloads and software using the PackBot platform.

Brian M. Yamauchi



p-Toluenesulfonylmethyl Isocyanide: A Versatile Synthon in Organic Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

TosMIC, a versatile synthon in organic chemistry, has been extensively used for the synthesis of a wide variety of small, medium and large ring heterocycles. It has immense implications in the synthesis of nitriles, aldehydes, ketones, alkanes, cyclophanes and large number of natural products. Several drug intermediates and pharmacologically active compounds have been synthesized from TosMIC. In addition, chiral TosMIC

Vishnu K. Tandon; Sanjay Rai



Bioactive potential and possible health effects of edible brown seaweeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in bioactive compounds that could potentially be exploited as functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Despite the intensive efforts that are being made to isolate and identify new compounds with potential medicinal, health or pharmaceutical activities, very few compounds with real potency are available. Bioactive compounds that are most extensively researched include

Shilpi Gupta; Nissreen Abu-Ghannam



Bioavailability of bioactive food compounds: a challenging journey to bioefficacy.  


Bioavailability is a key step in ensuring bioefficacy of bioactive food compounds or oral drugs. Bioavailability is a complex process involving several different stages: liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination phases (LADME). Bioactive food compounds, whether derived from various plant or animal sources, need to be bioavailable in order to exert any beneficial effects. Through a better understanding of the digestive fate of bioactive food compounds we can impact the promotion of health and improvement of performance. Many varying factors affect bioavailability, such as bioaccessibility, food matrix effect, transporters, molecular structures and metabolizing enzymes. Bioefficacy may be improved through enhanced bioavailability. Therefore, several technologies have been developed to improve the bioavailability of xenobiotics, including structural modifications, nanotechnology and colloidal systems. Due to the complex nature of food bioactive compounds and also to the different mechanisms of absorption of hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactive compounds, unravelling the bioavailability of food constituents is challenging. Among the food sources discussed during this review, coffee, tea, citrus fruit and fish oil were included as sources of food bioactive compounds (e.g. (poly)phenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)) since they are examples of important ingredients for the food industry. Although there are many studies reporting on bioavailability and bioefficacy of these bioactive food components, understanding their interactions, metabolism and mechanism of action still requires extensive work. This review focuses on some of the major factors affecting the bioavailability of the aforementioned bioactive food compounds. PMID:22897361

Rein, Maarit J; Renouf, Mathieu; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Actis-Goretta, Lucas; Thakkar, Sagar K; da Silva Pinto, Marcia



Plasma processing for inducing bioactivity in stainless steel orthopaedic screws  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work presented in this paper is centred on applying plasma processing for inducing bioactivity (ability of a material to bond with bone) in otherwise bioinert stainless steel screws commonly used in orthopaedic surgery. As-received cortical stainless steel screws were hydroxylated using a patented two-step plasma process developed by the authors. The bioactivity of the screws thus processed was investigated

Sunil Kumar; Darren Simpson; Roger St. C. Smart



Bioactive natural products from blue-green algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1981 we have cultured and prepared lipophilic and hydrophilic extracts from more than 1500 strains representing some 400 species of blue-green algae. Screening for a wide variety of potentially useful bioactivities, including cytotoxic, multi-drug-resistance reversal, antifungal, and antiviral effects, has led to the discovery and identification of numerous novel bioactive metabolites including peptides, macrolides and glycosides.

Gregory M. L. Patterson; Linda K. Larsen; Richard E. Moore



Mechanical properties of biodegradable polymer sutures coated with bioactive glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combining commercially available Polyglactin 910 (Vicryl®) sutures with bioactive glass powder offers new possibilities for application of composite materials in tissue engineering. Commercial bioactive glass (45S5 Bioglass®) powder was used to coat Vicryl® sutures and the tensile strength of the sutures was tested before and after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) as a means to assess the effect of

A. Stamboulis; L. L. Hench; A. R. Boccaccini



Time-Controlled Pulsatile Delivery Systems for Bioactive Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the body under physiological conditions, many vital functions are regulated by pulsed or transient release of bioactive substances at a specific time and site. Thus, to mimic the function of living systems, it is important to develop new drug delivery devices to achieve pulsed delivery of a certain amount of a bioactive compound at predetermined time intervals. The ability

Anil K. Anal



Delivery of bioactive molecules to mitochondria in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to many human degenerative diseases but specific treatments are hampered by the difficulty of delivering bioactive molecules to mitochondria in vivo. To overcome this problem we developed a strategy to target bioactive molecules to mitochondria by attachment to the lipophilic triphenylphosphonium cation through an alkyl linker. These molecules rapidly permeate lipid bilayers and, because of the large

Robin A. J. Smith; Carolyn M. Porteous; Alison M. Gane; Michael P. Murphy



A Combinatorial Auction among Versatile Experts and Amateurs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Auctions have become an integral part of electronic commerce and a promising field for applying multi-agent technologies. Correctly judging the quality of auctioned goods is often difficult for amateurs, in particular, in Internet auctions. However, experts can correctly judge the quality of goods. In this situation, it is difficult to make experts tell the truth and attain an efficient allocation, since experts have a clear advantage over amateurs and they would not reveal their valuable information without some reward. In our previous work, we have succeeded in developing such auction protocols under the following two cases: (1) the case of a single-unit auction among experts and amateurs, and (2) the case of a combinatorial auction among single-skilled experts and amateurs. In this paper, we focus on versatile experts. Versatile experts have an interest in, and expert knowledge on the qualities of several goods. In the case of versatile experts, there would be several problems, e.g., free riding problems, if we simply extended the previous VCG-style auction protocol. Thus, in this paper, we employ PORF (price-oriented, rationing-free) protocol for designing our new protocol to realize a strategy-proof auction protocol for experts. In the protocol, the dominant strategy for experts is truth-telling. Also, for amateurs, truth-telling is the best response when two or more experts select the dominant strategy. Furthermore, the protocol is false-name-proof.

Ito, Takayuki; Yokoo, Makoto; Matsubara, Shigeo


Discovering new bioactive molecules from microbial sources  

PubMed Central

There is an increased need for new drug leads to treat diseases in humans, animals and plants. A dramatic example is represented by the need for novel and more effective antibiotics to combat multidrug-resistant microbial pathogens. Natural products represent a major source of approved drugs and still play an important role in supplying chemical diversity, despite a decreased interest by large pharmaceutical companies. Novel approaches must be implemented to decrease the chances of rediscovering the tens of thousands of known natural products. In this review, we present an overview of natural product screening, focusing particularly on microbial products. Different approaches can be implemented to increase the probability of finding new bioactive molecules. We thus present the rationale and selected examples of the use of hypersensitive assays; of accessing unexplored microorganisms, including the metagenome; and of genome mining. We then focus our attention on the technology platform that we are currently using, consisting of approximately 70?000 microbial strains, mostly actinomycetes and filamentous fungi, and discuss about high-quality screening in the search for bioactive molecules. Finally, two case studies are discussed, including the spark that arose interest in the compound: in the case of orthoformimycin, the novel mechanism of action predicted a novel structural class; in the case of NAI-112, structural similarity pointed out to a possible in vivo activity. Both predictions were then experimentally confirmed.

Monciardini, Paolo; Iorio, Marianna; Maffioli, Sonia; Sosio, Margherita; Donadio, Stefano



Discovering new bioactive molecules from microbial sources.  


There is an increased need for new drug leads to treat diseases in humans, animals and plants. A dramatic example is represented by the need for novel and more effective antibiotics to combat multidrug-resistant microbial pathogens. Natural products represent a major source of approved drugs and still play an important role in supplying chemical diversity, despite a decreased interest by large pharmaceutical companies. Novel approaches must be implemented to decrease the chances of rediscovering the tens of thousands of known natural products. In this review, we present an overview of natural product screening, focusing particularly on microbial products. Different approaches can be implemented to increase the probability of finding new bioactive molecules. We thus present the rationale and selected examples of the use of hypersensitive assays; of accessing unexplored microorganisms, including the metagenome; and of genome mining. We then focus our attention on the technology platform that we are currently using, consisting of approximately 70,000 microbial strains, mostly actinomycetes and filamentous fungi, and discuss about high-quality screening in the search for bioactive molecules. Finally, two case studies are discussed, including the spark that arose interest in the compound: in the case of orthoformimycin, the novel mechanism of action predicted a novel structural class; in the case of NAI-112, structural similarity pointed out to a possible in vivo activity. Both predictions were then experimentally confirmed. PMID:24661414

Monciardini, Paolo; Iorio, Marianna; Maffioli, Sonia; Sosio, Margherita; Donadio, Stefano



Cyanobacterial bioactive molecules - Biosynthesis and genetic regulation.  


Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) represent a group of Gram negative photosynthetic prokaryotes, which constitute a rich source of novel bioactive compounds and enzymes, that are important from both biotechnology and industrial point of view. Toxic blooms of Microcystis, Anabaena and Nostoc are known to produce a diverse array of bioactive compounds exhibiting a broad spectrum of activity, including anti-cancer, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory activity, besides cytotoxic activities. In this context, the functional role of the majority of these compounds/enzymes, particularly in terms of the mechanism(s) of genetic and environmental regulation has remained elusive. A limited number of studies have suggested that some of the novel compound(s)/enzyme(s) may have ecological roles as allelochemicals. This compilation attempts to synthesize the available information on gene(s) responsible for the biosynthesis of these toxic compounds/enzymes in cyanobacteria and molecular basis of regulation. Emphasis has also been given from an agricultural perspective, regarding their potential as biocontrol agents. A critical evaluation of the research needs for the future and its significance is also discussed. PMID:23031424

Gupta, Vishal; Prasanna, Radha



Germinated grains--sources of bioactive compounds.  


Germination of seven selected commercially important grains was studied to establish its effects on the nutritional and chemical composition. The changes in the concentration of the nutrients, bioactive compounds and the inhibitory effect of extracts on ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase activities were investigated. These were measured through proximate analysis, inhibition assays and HPLC. Germinated sorghum and rye extracts inhibited (p<0.05) ?-glucosidase activity, whereas barley and sorghum extracts exhibited higher inhibitory activities against ?-amylase. Germinated grains contained substantial amounts of total phenolics with rye having significantly higher content compared with the non-germinated grains. Radical scavenging activities of the phenolic extracts were between 13% and 73% for non-germinated and 14% and 53% for germinated. Inositol phosphate (InsP) 4, 5 and 6 were noted in all the grains, but InsP 6 was significantly lower in concentration. This study indicates the potential of germinated barley, sorghum and rye for the development of effective physiologically bioactive compounds for the reduction of the risk of diabetic agents and colon cancer. PMID:22953810

Donkor, O N; Stojanovska, L; Ginn, P; Ashton, J; Vasiljevic, T



Dietary bioactive compounds and their health implications.  


There is strong scientific evidence suggesting that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is negatively associated with risk of developing chronic diseases. The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend at least 9 servings of fruits and vegetables a day based on a 2000 kcal diet. However, the average person in the United States consumes 3.6 servings of fruits and vegetables per day. In order to achieve the goal of at least 9 servings, we should continue educating Americans about the health benefits of fruits and vegetables and recommend consumers to eat a wide variety of fruits and vegetables. The key is to increase the amount up to 9 to 13 servings of fruits and vegetables a day in all forms. Fresh, cooked, and processed fruits and vegetables including frozen and canned, 100% fruit juices, 100% vegetable juices, and dried fruits are all considered as servings of fruits and vegetables. A wide variety of fruits and vegetables provide a range of nutrients and different bioactive compounds including phytochemicals (phenolics, flavonoids, and carotenoids), vitamins (vitamin C, folate, and provitamin A), minerals (potassium, calcium, and magnesium), and fibers. More and more evidence suggests that the health benefits of fruits and vegetables are attributed to the additive and synergistic interactions of the phytochemicals present in whole foods by targeting multiple signal transduction pathways. Therefore, consumers should obtain nutrients and bioactive compounds from a wide variety of whole foods for optimal nutrition and health well-being, not from expensive dietary supplements. PMID:23789932

Liu, Rui Hai



Bioactive borate glass coatings for titanium alloys.  


Bioactive borate glass coatings have been developed for titanium and titanium alloys. Glasses from the Na(2)O-CaO-B(2)O(3) system, modified by additions of SiO(2), Al(2)O(3), and P(2)O(5), were characterized and compositions with thermal expansion matches to titanium were identified. Infrared and X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that a hydroxyapatite surface layer forms on the borate glasses after exposure to a simulated body fluid for 2 weeks at 37 degrees C; similar layers form on 45S5 Bioglass((R)) exposed to the same conditions. Assays with MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cells show the borate glasses exhibit in vitro biocompatibility similar to that of the 45S5 Bioglass((R)). An enameling technique was developed to form adherent borate glass coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy, with adhesive strengths of 36 +/- 2 MPa on polished substrates. The results show these new borate glasses to be promising candidates for forming bioactive coatings on titanium substrates. PMID:18415004

Peddi, Laxmikanth; Brow, Richard K; Brown, Roger F



Micropatterning of bioactive self-assembling gels†  

PubMed Central

Microscale topographical features have been known to affect cell behavior. An important target in this area is to integrate top down techniques with bottom up self-assembly to create three-dimensional (3D) patterned bioactive mimics of extracellular matrices. We report a novel approach toward this goal and demonstrate its use to study the behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). By incorporating polymerizable acetylene groups in the hydrophobic segment of peptide amphiphiles (PAs), we were able to micro-pattern nanofiber gels of these bioactive materials. PAs containing the cell adhesive epitope arginine–glycine–aspartic acid–serine (RGDS) were allowed to self-assemble within microfabricated molds to create networks of either randomly oriented or aligned ~30 nm diameter nanofiber bundles that were shaped into topographical patterns containing holes, posts, or channels up to 8 ?m in height and down to 5 ?m in lateral dimensions. When topographical patterns contained nanofibers aligned through flow prior to gelation, the majority of hMSCs aligned in the direction of the nanofibers even in the presence of hole microtextures and more than a third of them maintained this alignment when encountering perpendicular channel microtextures. Interestingly, in topographical patterns with randomly oriented nanofibers, osteoblastic differentiation was enhanced on hole microtextures compared to all other surfaces.

Mata, Alvaro; Hsu, Lorraine; Capito, Ramille; Aparicio, Conrado; Henrikson, Karl



Sensitive skin: an overview.  


Sensitive skin is a condition of subjective cutaneous hyper-reactivity to environmental factors. Subjects experiencing this condition report exaggerated reactions when their skin is in contact with cosmetics, soaps and sun screens, and they often report worsening after exposure to dry and cold climate. Although no sign of irritation is commonly detected, itching, burning, stinging and a tight sensation are constantly present. Generally substances that are not commonly considered irritants are involved in this abnormal response.Sensitive skin and subjective irritation are widespread but still far from being completely defined and understood. A correlation between sensitive skin and constitutional anomalies and/or other triggering factors such as occupational skin diseases or chronic exposure to irritants has been hypothesized. Recent findings suggest that higher sensitivity can be due to different mechanisms. Hyper-reactors may have a thinner stratum corneum with a reduced corneocyte area causing a higher transcutaneous penetration of water-soluble chemicals. Alterations in vanilloid receptors and changes in neuronal transmission have been described. Monitoring skin parameters such as barrier function, proclivity to irritation, corneocyte size and sensorial transmission can also be useful to identify regional differences in skin sensitivity. PMID:22928591

Berardesca, E; Farage, M; Maibach, H



[Progress in the study of some important natural bioactive cyclopeptides].  


Natural cyclopeptides are hot spots in chemical and pharmaceutical fields because of the wide spreading bio-resources, complex molecular structures and various bioactivities. Bio-producers of cyclopeptides distribute over almost every kingdom from bacteria to plants and animals. Many cyclopeptides contain non-coded amino acids and non-pepditic bonds. Most exciting characteristic of cyclopeptides is a range of interesting bioactivities such as antibiotics gramicidin-S (2), vancomycin (3) and daptomycin (4), immunosuppressive cyclosporin-A (1) and astin-C (8), and anti-tumor aplidine (5), RA-V (6) and RA-VII (7). Compounds 1-4 are being used in clinics; compounds 5-8 are in the stages of clinical trial or as a candidate for drug research. In this review, the progress in chemical and bioactive studies on these important natural bioactive cyclopeptides 1-8 are introduced, mainly including discovery, bioactivity, mechanism, QSAR and synthesis. PMID:22645749

Xu, Wen-Yan; Zhao, Si-Meng; Zeng, Guang-Zhi; He, Wen-Jun; Xu, Hui-Min; Tan, Ning-Hu



Thermal Skin fabrication technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced fabrication techniques applicable to Thermal Skin structures were investigated, including: (1) chemical machining; (2) braze bonding; (3) diffusion bonding; and (4) electron beam welding. Materials investigated were nickel and nickel alloys. Sample Thermal Skin panels were manufactured using the advanced fabrication techniques studied and were structurally tested. Results of the program included: (1) development of improved chemical machining processes for nickel and several nickel alloys; (2) identification of design geometry limits; (3) identification of diffusion bonding requirements; (4) development of a unique diffusion bonding tool; (5) identification of electron beam welding limits; and (6) identification of structural properties of Thermal Skin material.

Milam, T. B.



The Skin Punch Biopsy  

PubMed Central

The skin punch biopsy is a simple and safe office procedure which is a valuable aid in diagnosing many skin diseases. It can be performed in a few minutes and offers in most situations a very suitable histological specimen with a minimum amount of scarring and little or no pain or discomfort to the patient. The indications for skin biopsy, selection of a proper site and the technique are described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7

Blakeman, J. M.



P450 2C18 catalyzes the metabolic bioactivation of phenytoin.  


The safe clinical use of phenytoin (PHT) is compromised by a drug hypersensitivity reaction, hypothesized to be due to bioactivation of the drug to a protein-reactive metabolite. Previous studies have shown PHT is metabolized to the primary phenol metabolite, HPPH, then converted to a catechol which then autoxidizes to produce reactive quinone. PHT is known to be metabolized to HPPH by cytochromes P450 (P450s) 2C9 and 2C19 and then to the catechol by P450s 2C9, 2C19, 3A4, 3A5, and 3A7. However, the role of many poorly expressed or extrahepatic P450s in the metabolism and/or bioactivation of PHT is not known. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of other human P450s to catalyze PHT metabolism. P450 2C18 catalyzed the primary hydroxylation of PHT with a kcat (2.46 +/- 0.09 min-1) more than an order of magnitude higher than that of P450 2C9 (0.051 +/- 0.004 min-1) and P450 2C19 (0.054 +/- 0.002 min-1) and Km (45 +/- 5 microM) slightly greater than those of P450 2C9 (12 +/- 4 microM) and P450 2C19 (29 +/- 4 microM). P450 2C18 also efficiently catalyzed the secondary hydroxylation of PHT as well as covalent drug-protein adduct formation from both PHT and HPPH in vitro. While P450 2C18 is expressed poorly in the liver, significant expression has been reported in the skin. Thus, P450 2C18 may be important for the extrahepatic tissue-specific bioactivation of PHT in vivo. PMID:16359177

Kinobe, Robert T; Parkinson, Oliver T; Mitchell, Deanne J; Gillam, Elizabeth M J



Murine Graft-Versus-Host Skin Disease: A Chronologic and Quantitative Analysis of Two Histologic Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) has several cutaneous manifestations, including a lichenoid and a sclerotic injury pattern. A versatile animal model of graft-versus-host skin disease (GVHSD) would facilitate study of the pathophysiology of these two cutaneous injury patterns. We have examined two murine chimeras histologically and have found two distinct patterns. Allogeneically transplanted B1\\/6 mice show a prolonged lichenoid-interface dermatitis that

Michael R. Charley; Jerry L. Bangert; Brian L. Hamilton; James N. Gilliam; Richard D. Sontheimer



Enhancing growth of cultured human skin cells using low-energy CO2 laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the versatility and usage of the CO2 laser as a too. in surgery and dermatology, we have studied its effect on enhancing proliferation of cultured skin cells using an attenuated CO2 laser. Exposure of cultured keratinocytes or fibroblasts to continuous wave or pulse mode irradiation enhanced thymidine incorporation by 1.4 to 1.7 folds, and cell number by

Nili Grossman; Haim Reuveni; Sima Halevy; Rachel Lubart



Elastin fibers display a versatile microfibril network in articular cartilage depending on the mechanical microenvironments.  


Elastin fibers are major extracellular matrix macromolecules that are critical in maintaining the elasticity and resilience of tissues such as blood vessels, lungs and skins. However, the role of elastin in articular cartilage is poorly defined. The present study investigated the organization of elastin fiber in articular cartilage, its relationship to collagen fibers and the architecture of elastin fibers from different mechanical environments by using a kangaroo model. Five morphologies of elastin fibers were identified: Straight fiber, straight fiber with branches, branching fibers directly associated with chondrocyte, wave fiber and fine elastin. The architecture of the elastin network varied significantly with cartilage depth. In the most superficial layer of tibial plateau articular cartilage, dense elastin fibers formed a distinctive cobweb-like meshwork which was parallel to the cartilage surface. In the superficial zone, elastin fibers were well organized in a preferred orientation which was parallel to collagen fibers. In the deep zone, no detectable elastin fiber was found. Moreover, differences in the organization of elastin fibers were also observed between articular cartilage from the tibial plateau, femoral condyle, and distal humerus. This study unravels the detailed microarchitecture of elastin fibers which display a well-organized three-dimensional versatile network in articular cartilage. Our findings imply that elastin fibers may play a crucial role in maintaining the integrity, elasticity, and the mechanical properties of articular cartilage, and that the local mechanical environment affects the architectural development of elastin fibers. PMID:23649803

He, Bo; Wu, Jian Ping; Chen, Hong Hui; Kirk, Thomas Brett; Xu, Jiake



The versatility of perforator-based propeller flap for reconstruction of distal leg and ankle defects.  


Introduction. Soft tissue coverage of distal leg and ankle region represents a challenge and such defect usually requires a free flap. However, this may lead to considerable donor site morbidity, is time consuming, and needs facility of microsurgery. With the introduction of perforator flap, management of small- and medium-size defects of distal leg and ankle region is convenient, less time consuming, and with minimal donor site morbidity. When local perforator flap is designed as propeller and rotated to 180 degree, donor site is closed primarily and increases reach of flap, thus increasing versatility. Material and Methods. From June 2008 to May 2011, 20 patients were treated with perforator-based propeller flap for distal leg and ankle defects. Flap was based on single perforator of posterior tibial and peroneal artery rotated to 180 degrees. Defect size was from 4?cm × 3.5?cm to 7?cm × 5?cm. Results. One patient developed partial flap necrosis, which was managed with skin grafting. Two patients developed venous congestion, which subsided spontaneously without complications. Small wound dehiscence was present in one patient. Donor site was closed primarily in all patients. Rest of the flaps survived well with good aesthetic results. Conclusion. The perforator-based propeller flap for distal leg and ankle defects is a good option. This flap design is safe and reliable in achieving goals of reconstruction. The technique is convenient, less time consuming, and with minimal donor site morbidity. It provides aesthetically good result. PMID:22567253

Karki, Durga; Narayan, R P



Skin Bacteria and Skin Disinfection Reconsidered  

PubMed Central

Large discrepancies in the available data on skin microbiology stimulated investigations of the number, interactions, and location of commensals and the true efficiency of disinfection by using skin biopsy, culture of frozen sections, and other methods. Most current procedures were less than 0·5% as sensitive as the biopsy method described. This gave mean bacterial counts ranging from 4,400/cm2 on the breast to 400,000/cm2 in the axillae. An iodine preparation removed 95% of accessible organisms, but about 20% of bacteria were protected by follicles, crevices, and lipids. Commensals in over 20% of people produced antibiotics against a wide range of pathogens. Conversely, “satellitism” was demonstrable in 12% of people. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5

Selwyn, Sydney; Ellis, Harold



Assessment of biomechanical skin properties: Is cellulitic skin different?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: An objective in vivo measurement of viscoelastic skin properties is difficult. Consequently, the clinician's ability to evaluate the effectiveness of therapies that may affect skin pliability and skin surface characteristics is limited. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the Biomechanical Tissue Characterization BTC-2000 System for objective, noninvasive assessment of viscoelastic skin properties, specifically

Marek K. Dobke; Barry DiBernardo; R. Carl Thompson; Hakan Usal



Flavonoids from Almond Skins Are Bioavailable and Act Synergistically with Vitamins C and E to Enhance Hamster and Human LDL Resistance to Oxidation1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumption of tree nuts such as almonds has been associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. Flavonoids, found predominantly in the skin of almonds, may contribute to their putative health benefit, but their bioactivity and bioavailability have not previously been studied. Almond skin flavonoids (ASF) were extracted with HCl:H2O:methanol (1:19:80) and their content of catechins and flavonols identified

Chung-Yen Chen; Paul E. Milbury; Karen Lapsley; Jeffrey B. Blumberg


Chromophores in human skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human skin, especially the epidermis, contains several major solar ultraviolet-radiation- (UVR-) absorbing endogenous chromophores including DNA, urocanic acid, amino acids, melanins and their precursors and metabolites. The lack of solubility of melanins prevents their absorption spectra being defined by routine techniques. Indirect spectroscopic methods show that their spectral properties depend on the stimulus for melanogenesis. The photochemical consequences of UVR absorption by some epidermal chromophores are relatively well understood whereas we lack a detailed understanding of the consequent photobiological and clinical responses. Skin action spectroscopy is not a reliable way of relating a photobiological outcome to a specific chromophore but is important for UVR hazard assessment. Exogenous chromophores may be administered to the skin in combination with UVR exposure for therapeutic benefit, or as sunscreens for the prevention of sunburn and possibly skin cancer.

Young, Antony R.



Skin Cancer Trends  


... Tanning Choose Your Cover Campaign Buttons and Badges Trends for Other Types of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Lung Ovarian Prostate Cancer Home Skin Cancer Trends Note: The word "significantly" below refers to statistical ...


Skin Cancer Screening  


... the body's largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control body ... cancer risk factors include: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...


Skin Cancer Prevention  


... the body’s largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control body ... it is most common in areas exposed to sunlight, such as the face, neck, hands, and arms. ...


Melanoma of the Skin  


... who have been exposed to natural or artificial sunlight (such as tanning beds) over long periods of ... common in skin that is often exposed to sunlight, such as the face, neck, hands, and arms. ...


Healthy Skin Matters  


... don’t offer a safe alternative to natural sunlight. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV ) (uhl-truh-VYE-uh- ... the exposure comes from tanning beds or natural sunlight. This damage increases the risk of skin cancer ...


Skin or nail culture  


Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... to three weeks to get results for a nail culture. Further tests can be done to identify ...


Skin graft (image)  


... stretch it into a larger patch. If the defect involves a great loss of tissue, a full thickness graft, a flap of skin with underlying muscle and blood vessels, may be required. Taking the graft from the ...


Skin Conditions during Pregnancy  


... not clear what causes PUPPP. It usually goes away after you give birth. What is prurigo of pregnancy? With prurigo of pregnancy, tiny, itchy bumps that look like insect bites can appear almost anywhere on the skin. This ...


Necrotizing Skin Infections  


... incisions or even healthy skin. Sometimes people with diverticulitis, intestinal perforation, or tumors of the intestine develop ... Versions VIEW STUDENT STORIES Pronunciations bullae cellulitis coccal diverticulitis fasciitis immune globulin necrosis necrotizing fasciitis Back to ...


Men's Skin Care  


... used on people who have darker skin tones. Athlete's foot, jock itch and nail fungus Tinea fungus can cause three common fungal infections: athlete's foot, jock itch, and nail fungus. Tinea fungus can ...


Rosacea Treatment: Thickening Skin  


... describes each of these treatments: Lasers and other light therapies. While earlier laser treatments removed the top ... a significant portion of skin. Other lasers and light therapies also may be used. To see best ...


Micropatterning of bioactive glass nanoparticles on chitosan membranes for spatial controlled biomineralization.  


Bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG-NPs) capable of inducing apatite precipitation upon immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) were patterned on free-standing chitosan membranes by microcontact printing using a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamp inked in a BG-NPs pad. Formation of the patterns was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mineralization of the bioactive glass patterns was induced in vitro by soaking the samples in SBF over different time points up to 7 days. The confined apatite deposition in the patterned regions with diameters of 50 ?m was confirmed by Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, and SEM. In vitro tests confirmed the preferential attachment and proliferation of L929 cells to the areas printed with BG-NPs of the membranes. This approach permits one to spatially control the properties of biomaterials at the microlevel and could be potentially used in guided tissue regeneration for skin, vascular, articular, and bone tissue engineering and in cellular cocultures or to develop substrates able to confine cells in regions with controlled geometry at the cell's length scale. PMID:22480212

Luz, Gisela M; Boesel, Luciano; del Campo, Aránzazu; Mano, João F



Lipid polymorphism in lyotropic liquid crystals for triggered release of bioactives.  


In this review we present recent progress on lyotropic liquid crystals (LLC) as delivery vehicles for cosmetoceuticals, nutraceuticals, and drugs. LLC have been known for decades and their potential as delivery vehicles is well recognized. Yet, the two major mesophases, reverse hexagonal (H(II)) and bicontinuous cubic (primitive, gyroid, and diamond), are relatively hard gels with very slow release kinetics of the bioactives. In recent years a discontinuous cubic micellar mesophase (Q(L)) was characterized and studied, showing significant potential as a delivery vehicle. In addition, the H(II) mesophase formed could be much more fluid and produced at room temperature. Recent studies concentrated on establishing methods to evaluate solubilization capacity and relationship between the diameter and length of the cylinders and the nature of the solubilizates. Special attention was given to finding methods to target the vehicles to the lumen and to trigger the release of the bioactives. This review summarizes the efforts of our group along with work by numerous other scientists in this area. All these efforts suggest that the lyotropic mesophases and the corresponding dispersed soft particles (cubosomes, hexosomes, micellosomes) are now more than ever ready to become drug delivery vehicles for transport across the skin and the gut. PMID:22592749

Garti, Nissim; Libster, Dima; Aserin, Abraham



Chymase Cleavage of Stem Cell Factor Yields a Bioactive, Soluble Product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stem cell factor (SCF) is produced by stromal cells as a membrane-bound molecule, which may be proteolytically cleaved at a site close to the membrane to produce a soluble bioactive form. The proteases producing this cleavage are unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that human mast cell chymase, a chymotrypsin-like protease, cleaves SCF at a novel site. Cleavage is at the peptide bond between Phe-158 and Met-159, which are encoded by exon 6 of the SCF gene. This cleavage results in a soluble bioactive product that is 7 amino acids shorter at the C terminus than previously identified soluble SCF. This research shows the identification of a physiologically relevant enzyme that specifically cleaves SCF. Because mast cells express the KIT protein, the receptor for SCF, and respond to SCF by proliferation and degranulation, this observation identifies a possible feedback loop in which chymase released from mast cell secretory granules may solubilize SCF bound to the membrane of surrounding stromal cells. The liberated soluble SCF may in turn stimulate mast cell proliferation and differentiated functions; this loop could contribute to abnormal accumulations of mast cells in the skin and hyperpigmentation at sites of chronic cutaneous inflammation.

Longley, B. Jack; Tyrrell, Lynda; Ma, Yongsheng; Williams, David A.; Halaban, Ruth; Langley, Keith; Lu, Hsieng S.; Schechter, Norman M.



Common Skin Cancers  

PubMed Central

Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma are the three most common forms of skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer is increasing at an alarming rate. Early detection is the key to successful management. In this article, the salient clinical features and diagnostic clues for these tumors and their precursor lesions are presented. Current management guidelines are also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figures 2-3Figures 4-6Figures 7-9

Ho, Vincent C.



Processing and storage effect on berry polyphenols: challenges and implications for bioactive properties.  


Anthocyanins and tannins in blueberries, blackberries and black raspberries are susceptible to degradation during processing, with juices showing the greatest losses due to physical removal of skins and seeds. Anthocyanins and procyanidins are also degraded in processed products stored at ambient temperature with losses accompanied by increased polymeric pigments (PPs). Using chokeberry as a model, formation of PPs occurred in both pasteurized and aged juices and pasteurized juice contained a greater proportion of low molecular weight PPs than aged juice, while aged juice contained a greater proportion of higher molecular PPs. Formation of PP accounts for some of the losses of anthocyanins and procyanidins during processing and storage, but the complete fate of anthocyanins remains unclear. In this review we highlight the steps in processing where significant losses of polyphenols occur, and discuss potential mechanisms responsible for losses, methods to mitigate losses, and implications on bioactive properties. PMID:22243517

Howard, Luke R; Prior, Ronald L; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jackson O



Tunable supramolecular hydrogel for in situ encapsulation and sustained release of bioactive lysozyme.  


To develop new matrices for the entrapment and sustained release of bioactive lysozyme, a series of supramolecular hydrogels based on ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and water-soluble poly(?-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) block copolymer (PCL-b-PEG) were prepared in the presence of chicken egg lysozyme. Different from commonly used polymeric microspheres and chemically crosslinked hydrogels for lysozyme encapsulation, such hydrogel matrices could be formed under mild conditions without high temperature and the use of chemical emulsifiers or crosslinkers. Their gelation rate, mechanical strength and shear viscosity as well as the release behavior for the encapsulated lysozyme could be tuned easily by the change of ?-CD or PCL-b-PEG amount. For the encapsulated lysozyme, its conformation and biological activity could be well maintained when compared to native lysozyme. For the resultant supramolecular hydrogels, they were also confirmed to have a good biocompatibility by MTT assay using mice skin fibroblast (L929). PMID:21536304

Ma, Dong; Zhang, Li-Ming; Xie, Xi; Liu, Tao; Xie, Min-Qiang



Effect of certain indigenous processing methods on the bioactive compounds of ten different wild type legume grains.  


In recent years, research efforts are under-way on the possibilities of utilization of natural source of bioactive compounds for the dietary management of certain chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, cancer etc. In this connection, seed materials of promising wild type under-utilized food legume grains such as Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. Ex Delile, Bauhinia purpurea L., Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC., Cassia hirsuta L., Caesalpinia bonducella F., Erythrina indica L., Mucuna gigantea (Willd.) DC., Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre, Sebania sesban (L.) Merr. and Xylia xylocarpa Roxb. Taub., collected from South India, were investigated for certain bioactive compounds. All the samples were found to constitute a viable source of total free phenolics (3.12-6.69 g/100 g DM), tannins (1.10-4.41 g/100 g DM), L-Dopa (1.34-5.45 g/100 g DM) and phytic acid (0.98-3.14 g/100 g DM). In general, the seed materials of X. xylocarpa recorded high levels of total free phenolics and tannins, whereas the maximum levels of L-Dopa and phytic acid were noticed in M. gigantea and S. sesban, respectively. Further, presently investigated all the bioactive compounds were drastically reduced during soaking in tamarind solution + cooking as well as soaking in alkaline solution + cooking, and thus these treatments were considered to be more aggressive practices. Open-pan roasting also demonstrated a significant reduction of total free phenolics, tannins and moderate loss of L-Dopa and phytic acid. Alternatively, sprouting + oil-frying showed significant level of increase of total free phenolics (9-27%) and tannins (12-28%), but diminishing effect on phytic acid and L-Dopa. Hence, among the presently employed treatments, sprouting + oil-frying could be recommended as a suitable treatment for the versatile utilization of these wild under-utilized legume grains for the dietary management of certain chronic diseases. PMID:24293686

Vadivel, Vellingiri; Biesalski, Hans K



Nitrogen-Based Diazeniumdiolates: Versatile Nitric Oxide-Releasing Compounds for Biomedical Research and Potential Clinical Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitric oxide-generating ions of the nitrogen-diazeniumdiolate class with the general structure R1R2N-[N(O)NO]1 have been prepared by exposing primary, secondary, and polyamines to nitric oxide (NO). The resulting complexes regenerate bioactive NO at physiological pH with half-lives ranging from 2 seconds to 20 hours. An important goal in our research is to deliver NO to a specific organ or cell type where it is needed without affecting other NO-sensitive parts of the anatomy. By taking advantage of the remarkable chemical versatility of diazeniumdiolates, we have developed general strategies to prepare either tissue-selective NO donor drugs or materials containing NO delivery agents that can be physically placed near the target sites. Inhibition of blood coagulation, induction of penile erection, relief of pulmonary hypertension, and reversal of cerebral vasospasm are a few examples of their potential clinical applications.

See Featured Molecules.

Saavedra, Joseph E.; Keefer, Larry K.



Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Fluoridated and Unfluoridated Bioactive Glass Composites: Structural Analysis and Bioactivity Evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biphasic bioceramic composites containing nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP) and nanosized bioactive glasses have been prepared in the form of pellets and have been examined for the effects of bioglass concentrations and sintering temperature on the structural transformations and bioactivity behavior. Pure stoichiometric nano-HAP was synthesized using sol-gel technique. Two bioglasses synthesized in this work--fluoridated bioglass (Cao-P2O5-Na2O3-CaF2) and unfluoridated bioglass (Cao-P2O5-Na2O3) designated as FBG and UFBG respectively, were added to nano-HAP with concentrations of 5, 10, 12 and 15%. The average particle sizes of synthesized HAP and bioglasses were 23 nm and 35 nm, respectively. The pellets were sintered at four different temperatures i.e. 1000 °C, 1150 °C, 1250 °C and 1350 °C. The investigations involved study of structural and bioactivity behavior of green and sintered pellets and their deviations from original materials i.e. HAP, FBG and UFBG, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The phase composition of the sintered pellets was found to be non-stoichiometric HAP with ?-TCP (tricalcium phosphate) and ?-TCP. It was revealed from SEM images that bonding mechanism was mainly solid state sintering for all pellets sintered at 1000 °C and 1150 °C and also for pellets with lower concentrations of bioglass i.e. 5% and 10% sintered at 1250 °C. Partly liquid phase sintering was observed for pellets with higher bioglass concentrations of 12% and 15% sintered at 1250 °C and same behaviour was noted for pellets at all concentrations of bioglasses at 1350 °C. The sintered density, hardness and compression strength of pellets have been influenced both by the concentration of the bioglasses and sintering temperature. It was observed that the biological HAP layer formation was faster on the green pellets surface than on pure HAP and sintered pellets, showing higher bioactivity in the green pellets.

Batra, Uma; Kapoor, Seema; Sharma, J. D.



Synthesis and evaluation of novel bioactive composite starch/bioactive glass microparticles.  


The aim of the development of composite materials is to combine the most desired properties of two or more materials. In this work, the biodegradable character, good controlled-release properties, and natural origin of starch-based biomaterials are combined with the bioactive and bone-bonding properties of bioactive glass (BG). Novel, bioactive composite starch-BG microparticles were synthesized starting from a blend of starch and polylactic acid (50%/50% wt) with BG 45S5 powder using a simple emulsion method. Morphological and chemical characterization showed that these particles exhibited a spherical morphology with sizes up to 350 microm and that BG 45S5 was incorporated successfully into the composite particles. Upon immersion in a solution simulating body fluids, for periods up to 3 weeks, their bioactive nature was confirmed, as a calcium-phosphate layer resembling biological apatite was formed onto their surface. The short-term cytotoxicity of these materials was also tested by placing 24-h leachables of the materials extracted in culture medium in contact with a fibroblastic cell line (L929) up to 72 h. At this time period, two biochemical tests--MTT and total protein quantification--were performed. The results showed that these materials are not cytotoxic. These results constitute the basis of future encapsulation studies using bone-acting therapeutic agents such as bone morphogenetic proteins or other bone-relevant factors. The particles developed here may be very useful for applications in which controlled release, degradability, and bone-bonding ability are the main requirements. PMID:15293318

Silva, G A; Costa, F J; Coutinho, O P; Radin, S; Ducheyne, P; Reis, R L



Brain-Skin Connection: Stress, Inflammation and Skin Aging  

PubMed Central

The intricate relationship between stress and skin conditions has been documented since ancient times. Recent clinical observations also link psychological stress to the onset or aggravation of multiple skin diseases. However, the exact underlying mechanisms have only been studied and partially revealed in the past 20 years or so. In this review, the authors will discuss the recent discoveries in the field of “Brain-Skin Connection”, summarizing findings from the overlapping fields of psychology, endocrinology, skin neurobiology, skin inflammation, immunology, and pharmacology.

Chen, Ying; Lyga, John



Thyroid hormone action on skin  

PubMed Central

The skin characteristics associated with thyroid hormone are classic. The name “myxedema” refers to the associated skin condition caused by increased glycosaminoglycan deposition in the skin. Generalized myxedema is still the classic cutaneous sign of hypothyroidism. It is caused by deposition of dermal acid mucopolysaccharides, notably hyaluronic acid. Despite its appearance, the skin does not pit with pressure.



Electrospinning bioactive supramolecular polymers from water.  


Electrospinning is a high-throughput, low-cost technique for manufacturing long fibers from solution. Conventionally, this technique is used with covalent polymers with large molecular weights. We report here the electrospinning of functional peptide-based supramolecular polymers from water at very low concentrations (<4 wt %). Molecules with low molecular weights (<1 kDa) could be electrospun because they self-assembled into one-dimensional supramolecular polymers upon solvation and the critical parameters of viscosity, solution conductivity, and surface tension were optimized for this technique. The supramolecular structure of the electrospun fibers could ensure that certain residues, like bioepitopes, are displayed on the surface even after processing. This system provides an opportunity to electrospin bioactive supramolecular materials from water for biomedical applications. PMID:24697625

Tayi, Alok S; Pashuck, E Thomas; Newcomb, Christina J; McClendon, Mark T; Stupp, Samuel I



Thermal stability of bioactive enzymatic papers.  


The thermal stability of two enzymes adsorbed on paper, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), was measured using a colorimetric technique quantifying the intensity of the product complex. The enzymes adsorbed on paper retained their functionality and selectivity. Adsorption on paper increased the enzyme thermal stability by 2-3 orders of magnitude compared to the same enzyme in solution. ALP and HRP enzymatic papers had half-lives of 533 h and 239 h at 23 degrees C, respectively. The thermal degradation of adsorbed enzyme was found to follow two sequential first-order reactions, indication of a reaction system. A complex pattern of enzyme was printed on paper using a thermal inkjet printer. Paper and inkjet printing are ideal material and process to manufacture low-cost-high volume bioactive surfaces. PMID:19775873

Khan, Mohidus Samad; Li, Xu; Shen, Wei; Garnier, Gil



A compilation of Bioactive Compounds from Ayurveda  

PubMed Central

This review deals with the key bioactive compounds and the role of medicinal plants in Ayurvedic systems of medicine in India and their earlier investigation. There has been an increase in demand for the Phytopharmaceutical products of Ayurv?da in Western countries, because of the fact that the allopathic drugs have more side effects. Many pharmaceutical companies are now concentrating on manufacturing of Ayurv?dic Phytopharmaceutical products. Ayurv?da is the Indian traditional system of medicine, which also deals about pharmaceutical science. Different type of plant parts used for the Ayurvedic formulation; overall out line of those herbal scenario and its future prospects for the scientific evaluation of medicinal plants used by traditional healers are also discussed. In India most of them, where Ayurvedic treatment is frequently used, for their ailments and provides instructions to local people how to prepare medicine from the herbs. As much as possible importance is also given for the taxonomic literature.

Samy, Ramar Perumal; Pushparaj, Peter Natesan; Gopalakrishnakone, Ponnampalam



Bioactive glass coatings for orthopedic metallic implants  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work is to develop bioactive glass coatings for metallic orthopedic implants. A new family of glasses in the SiO2-Na2O-K2O-CaO-MgO-P2O5 system has been synthesized and characterized. The glass properties (thermal expansion, softening and transformation temperatures, density and hardness) are in line with the predictions of established empirical models. The optimized firing conditions to fabricate coatings on Ti-based and Co-Cr alloys have been determined and related to the glass properties and the interfacial reactions. Excellent adhesion to alloys has been achieved through the formation of 100-200 nm thick interfacial layers (Ti5Si3 on Ti-based alloys and CrOx on Co-Cr). Finally, glass coatings, approximately 100 mu m thick, have been fabricated onto commercial Ti alloy-based dental implants.

Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Saiz, Eduardo; Fujino, Sigheru; Oku, Takeo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Tomsia, Antoni P.



Bioactive endophytic streptomycetes from the Malay Peninsula.  


Three novel endophytic streptomycetes have been isolated and characterized from plants with ethnobotanical uses on the Malay Peninsula including: Thottea grandiflora (family -Aristolochiaceae), Polyalthia spp. (family -Annonaceae), and Mapania sp. (family -Cyperaceae). Each isolate, as studied by scanning electron microscopy, has small hyphae, and produces typical barrel-shaped spores arising by hyphal fragmentation. Interestingly, although none has any detectable antibacterial killing properties, each has demonstrable killing activity against one or more pathogenic fungi including organisms such as Phytophthora erythroseptica, Pythium ultimum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Mycosphaerella fijiensis and Rhizoctonia solani. Molecular biological studies on the rRNA gene sequence of each isolate revealed that it is distinct from all other genetic accessions of streptomyectes in GenBank, and each bears some genetic similarity to other streptomycetes. The bioactivity of each microbe was extractable in various organic solvents. PMID:17608698

Zin, Noraziah M; Sarmin, Nurul I M; Ghadin, Norazli; Basri, Dayang F; Sidik, Nik M; Hess, W M; Strobel, Gary A



Bioactive metabolites from Spilanthes acmella Murr.  


Spilanthes acmella Murr. (Compositae) has been used as a traditional medicine for toothache, rheumatism and fever. Its extracts had been shown to exhibit vasorelaxant and antioxidant activities. Herein, its antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were evaluated. Agar dilution method assays against 27 strains of microorganisms were performed. Results showed that fractions from the chloroform and methanol extracts inhibited the growth of many tested organisms, e.g. Corynebacterium diphtheriae NCTC 10356 with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 64-256 mg/mL and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 with MIC of 128-256 mg/mL. The tested fractions all exhibited antioxidant properties in both DPPH and SOD assays. Potent radical scavenging activity was observed in the DPPH assay. No cytotoxic effects of the extracts against KB and HuCCA-1 cell lines were evident. Bioassay-guided isolation resulted in a diverse group of bioactive compounds such as phenolics [vanillic acid (2), trans-ferulic acid (5) and trans-isoferulic acid (6)], coumarin (scopoletin, 4) and triterpenoids like 3-acetylaleuritolic acid (1), b-sitostenone (3), stigmasterol and stigmasteryl-3-O-b-D-glucopyranosides, in addition to a mixture of stigmasteryl-and b-sitosteryl-3-O-b-D-glucopyranosides. The compounds 1-6 represent bioactive metabolites of S. acmella Murr. that were never previously reported. Our findings demonstrate for the first time the potential benefits of this medicinal plant as a rich source of high therapeutic value compounds for medicines, cosmetics, supplements and as a health food. PMID:19255544

Prachayasittikul, Supaluk; Suphapong, Saowapa; Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Lawung, Ratana; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Prachayasittikul, Virapong



Bioactive scaffolds mimicking natural dentin structure.  


Organic scaffolds of poly(ethyl methacrylate-co-hydroxyethyl acrylate) [P(EMA-co-HEA)] 70/30 wt % ratio, with varying proportions of silica SiO(2) from 0 to 20 wt % and aligned tubular pores, were prepared using a fiber-templating fabrication method, with the aim of mimicking structure and properties of the mineralized tissue of natural dentin. Precursors of the copolymer and silica were simultaneously polymerized in a sol-gel process within the fiber template, which was eventually eliminated to generate homogeneously distributed parallel micrometer-sized pores in the material. Scaffolds of PEMA and PHEA were obtained by the same approach. The scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The specific volume was determined by Archimedes' method and the porosity calculated from the geometry. The mechanical properties were analyzed in tensile and compressive modes. The bioactivity of the scaffolds with 15 wt % SiO(2) was tested by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 days followed by immersion in 2x SBF for 7 days. These scaffolds were afterwards characterized by SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and compression assays. Percentages of silica above 10 wt % reinforced mechanically the copolymer, evidenced by the hindrance of the long range motions of the organic chains, altered shrinkage and swelling, and meanwhile conferred bioactivity to its surface. These tubular porous structures, which resemble natural dentin with regard to its structure and properties and induce the precipitation of apatite on their surfaces in vitro, are expected to facilitate the integration in the host mineralized tissue, to stimulate cell growth and to be useful as guiding scaffolds for in vivo dentin regeneration. PMID:19072987

Lluch, A Vallés; Fernández, A Campillo; Ferrer, G Gallego; Pradas, M Monleón



Bioactivity of herb-enriched beef patties.  


Interest exists in the manufacture of meat products with added functional ingredients to enhance consumer health. Because experimental evidence suggests that many herbs and spices, particularly those of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis L. (sage) and Origanum vulgare L. (oregano), possess a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities, they represent promising functional ingredients for incorporation into meat and meat products. The present study aimed to determine the bioactivity of cooked beef patties that were enriched with or without sage or oregano extracts (1,200 microg/g). Cooked beef patties were subjected to an in vitro digestion procedure, and the resulting micelles isolated from the digested meats were added to human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The antioxidant potential (ferric reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] value) of enriched beef patties was significantly higher than the FRAP value of non-enriched beef patties, both before and after in vitro digestion. Cell viability significantly increased following treatment with certain concentrations of the micelle fractions from digested sage- or oregano-enriched beef patties. Pretreatment with micelles derived from sage- or oregano-enriched beef patties did not significantly protect against cell injury or DNA damage induced by H(2)O(2). However, micelles derived from digested sage-enriched beef patties (10% vol/vol) significantly increased cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) content. In addition, micelles derived from both sage- and oregano-enriched beef patties (10% vol/vol) significantly protected against H(2)O(2)-induced GSH depletion. Thus, it appears that sage and oregano exhibit some bioactivity within a meat system. Our findings suggest that herbal extracts have potential as possible functional ingredients in meat products. PMID:19735192

Ryan, Eileen; Aherne, S Aisling; O'Grady, Michael N; McGovern, Laura; Kerry, Joseph P; O'Brien, Nora M



Asymmetric vinylogous Mannich reactions: a versatile approach to functionalized heterocycles.  


Asymmetric vinylogous Mannich reaction (VMR) of 2-(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)furan (TBSOF, 1) with (R(S))- or (S(S))-t-BS-imines (3) furnished 5-aminoalkylbutenolides 7a-k in 75-87% yields with anti/syn ratios ranging from 75:25 to 97:3. Butenolides 7a-f,k were readily converted into substituted lactones 8 and 5 and 6-substituted 5-hydroxypiperidin-2-ones 11a-g, which are, in turn, key intermediates for the synthesis of many bioactive compounds. PMID:21854016

Ruan, Shu-Tang; Luo, Jie-Min; Du, Yu; Huang, Pei-Qiang



A review of bioactive materials and chronic wounds.  


An increasing number of bioactive materials are indicated for the treatment of chronic lower extremity ulcers. They are promising adjuncts to standard therapy. When used in conjunction with standard therapy for venous leg ulcers and diabetic foot ulcers, bioactive materials may increase the likelihood and rate of healing. This review compares commonly available bioactive materials indicated for chronic wound healing and provides an overview of the relevant Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) and Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) codes for these products. PMID:20540417

Plotner, Alisha N; Mostow, Eliot N



Cyclodextrins as encapsulation agents for plant bioactive compounds.  


Plants possess a wide range of molecules capable of improve healing: fibre, vitamins, phytosterols, and further sulphur-containing compounds, carotenoids, organic acid anions and polyphenolics. However, they require an adequate level of protection from the environmental conditions to prevent losing their structural integrity and bioactivity. Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides arising from the degradation of starch, which can be a viable option as encapsulation technique. Cyclodextrins are inexpensive, friendly to humans, and also capable of improving the biological, chemical and physical properties of bioactive molecules. Therefore, the aim of this review is to highlight the use of cyclodextrins as encapsulating agents for bioactive plant molecules in the pharmaceutical field. PMID:24299757

Pinho, Eva; Grootveld, Martin; Soares, Graça; Henriques, Mariana



Effects of bioactive lipids and lipoproteins on bone.  


Although epidemiological studies from the past two decades show a link between atherosclerotic vascular disease and bone loss, that is independent of age, the mechanism is still unclear. This review focuses on evidence that suggests a role for atherogenic lipids and lipoproteins in the pathogenesis of bone loss, including direct effects of these bioactive lipids/lipoproteins on bone cells, inhibiting osteoblastic differentiation and promoting osteoclastic differentiation. It also addresses recent evidence that suggests that bioactive lipids blunt the effects of bone anabolic agents such as teriparatide and bone morphogenetic proteins. Systemic and intracellular oxidant stress and inflammation are implicated in mediating the effects of bioactive lipids/lipoproteins. PMID:24183940

Tintut, Yin; Demer, Linda L



Versatile nanostructured materials via direct reaction of functionalized catechols.  


A facile one-step polymerization strategy is explored to achieve novel catechol-based materials. Depending on the functionality of the catechol, the as-prepared product can be used to modify at will the surface tension of nano and bulk structures, from oleo-/hydrophobic to highly hydrophilic. A hydrophobic catechol prepared thus polymerized shows the ability to self-assemble as solid nanoparticles with sticky properties in polar solvent media. Such a versatile concept is ideal for the development of catechol-based multifunctional materials. PMID:23418006

Saiz-Poseu, Javier; Sedó, Josep; García, Beatriz; Benaiges, Cristina; Parella, Teo; Alibés, Ramon; Hernando, Jordi; Busqué, Felix; Ruiz-Molina, Daniel



Versatility and application of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria.  


With the unique cell compartmentalization and the ability to simultaneously oxidize ammonium and reduce nitrite into nitrogen gas, anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria have challenged our recognitions of microorganism. The research conducted on these bacteria has been extended from bench-scale tryouts to full-scale reactor systems. This review addresses the recently discovered versatile properties of anammox bacteria and the applications and obstacles of implementing the anammox process in ammonia-rich wastewater treatment. We also discuss the merits and drawbacks of traditional and anammox-based processes for nitrogen removal and suggest areas for improvement. PMID:21701984

Gao, Da-Wen; Tao, Yu



Versatile Supramolecular Organogel with Outstanding Stability toward Aqueous Interfaces.  


In this communication, we report on a novel and versatile low-molecular-weight organogelator. The methanolic gel exhibits an exceptional water-enhanced stability as evidenced by a 30 °C increase in Tg with up to 10%v/v of water. This atypical property not observed with other solvents makes of this supramolecular gel a highly stable matrix compatible with aqueous interfaces. As a proof of principle we present the sensing performance of a symmetric tricarbocyanine fluorophore bearing a Zn(II)chelator unit. The system retained its remarkable physical integrity for a long period of time opening new possibilities for other organic-aqueous interface applications. PMID:24912100

Bonifazi, Evelyn L; Edelsztein, Valeria C; Menéndez, Guillermo O; Samaniego López, Cecilia; Spagnuolo, Carla C; Di Chenna, Pablo H



ICAN: A versatile code for predicting composite properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Integrated Composites ANalyzer (ICAN), a stand-alone computer code, incorporates micromechanics equations and laminate theory to analyze/design multilayered fiber composite structures. Procedures for both the implementation of new data in ICAN and the selection of appropriate measured data are summarized for: (1) composite systems subject to severe thermal environments; (2) woven fabric/cloth composites; and (3) the selection of new composite systems including those made from high strain-to-fracture fibers. The comparisons demonstrate the versatility of ICAN as a reliable method for determining composite properties suitable for preliminary design.

Ginty, C. A.; Chamis, C. C.



A new versatile underground gamma-ray spectrometry system.  


The newest development in IRMM's underground analytical facility is a large lead shield lined with copper that is versatile and can host several detectors of different types. The characteristics and the background performance of the shield are described for four different detector configurations involving HPGe-detectors and NaI-detectors. The shield has been designed to swap detectors, while still maintaining a low background. This enables testing of detectors for other experiments and optimisation of detection limits for specific radionuclides in different projects. PMID:23743483

Lutter, Guillaume; Hult, Mikael; Marissens, Gerd; Andreotti, Erica; Rosengård, Ulf; Misiaszek, Marcin; Yüksel, Ayhan; Sahin, Namik



A versatile detector for total fluorescence and electron yield experiments  

SciTech Connect

The combination of a non-coated silicon photodiode with electron repelling meshes makes a versatile detector for total fluorescence yield and electron yield techniques highly suitable for x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In particular, a copper mesh with a bias voltage allows to suppress or transmit the electron yield signal. The performance of this detection scheme has been characterized by near edge x-ray absorption fine structure studies of thermal oxidized silicon and sapphire. The results show that the new detector probes both electron yield and for a bias voltage exceeding the maximum photon energy the total fluorescence yield.

Thielemann, N. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hoffmann, P. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Foehlisch, A. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Physik und Astronomie, Universitaet Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)



Parallel optics technology assessment for the versatile link project  

SciTech Connect

This poster describes the assessment of commercially available and prototype parallel optics modules for possible use as back end components for the Versatile Link common project. The assessment covers SNAP12 transmitter and receiver modules as well as optical engine technologies in dense packaging options. Tests were performed using vendor evaluation boards (SNAP12) as well as custom evaluation boards (optical engines). The measurements obtained were used to compare the performance of these components with single channel SFP+ components operating at a transmission wavelength of 850 nm over multimode fibers.

Chramowicz, J.; Kwan, S.; Rivera, R.; Prosser, A.; /Fermilab



Structural characterization and thermal and chemical stability of bioactive molecule-hydrotalcite (LDH) nanocomposites.  


Layered double hydroxides (LDH) are versatile materials used for intercalating bioactive molecules, both in pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields, with the purpose of protecting them from degradation, enhancing their water solubility to increase bioavailability, and/or obtaining modified release properties. The properties of the intercalation compounds of Mg/Al_LDH and Zn/Al_LDH with different drugs and sunscreens, namely diclofenac, ketoprofen, gliclazide, retinoic acid, furosemide, para-aminobenzoic acid and 2-phenylbenzimidazolsulfonic (Eusolex) acid, have been studied by crystallographic, spectroscopic and thermogravimetric techniques and by solid state NMR, to shed light on their structure, their molecular interactions and their stability from the thermal and chemical viewpoint. The structural features were described with particular attention to the interaction between the organic and inorganic components and to the stability of the intercalation products. For the first time two synchrotron radiation powder diffraction patterns of organic-containing LDH were solved and refined by Rietveld methods to obtain an experimental crystal structure. PMID:23873340

Conterosito, Eleonora; Croce, Gianluca; Palin, Luca; Pagano, Cinzia; Perioli, Luana; Viterbo, Davide; Boccaleri, Enrico; Paul, Geo; Milanesio, Marco



Factors protecting skin from injury: relationships between age, skin colour and skin elasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimsOur work demonstrates that after both rape and consensual sexual intercourse, women with light skin have higher ano-genital injury prevalence than women with dark skin. These findings suggest that the mechanical properties of dark skin may be more protective than those of light skin. If these findings are generalisable, they may have an impact on criminal justice proceedings, where injury

J S Everett; J D Fargo; M S Sommers



Skin erythema meter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The skin erythema meter is a fibre-optic, dual wavelength reflectance meter which measures the reflectance of the skin on two wavelengths, one the blood/haemoglobin absorption band (555 nm) and another a reference (660 nm). The instrument consists of a fibre-optic sensor head, a microprocessor-based control and analysis unit and a plotter, and it presents the relation between the measured reflectance results in terms of a reflectance index (R(555nm):R(660nm)). The measurement cycle, including printing, takes 5 seconds. Stability tests on the erythema meter (constant distance, reference object) showed the standard deviation of the reflectance index to be +/- 0.1%, while that in repeatability tests was <+1- 0.5% for skin and <+1- 0.2% for paper with hand-held positioning and repetition. The dynamic change in the reflectance index was about 30% with strong irritation. Results of various irritation test series on human skin are also presented. Finally, the performance and applicability of the skin erythema meter with respect to allergy test procedures, irritancy testing and measurement of UV-induced erythema are discussed.

Kopola, Harri K.; Lahti, Arto; Myllylae, Risto A.; Hannuksela, Matti



Preparation of bioactive microspheres of organic modified calcium silicates through sol–gel processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive ceramics show specific biological activity, a bone-bonding ability, and are used as bone-repairing materials. Particles\\u000a of bioactive ceramics may be used as fillers for fabricating bioactive composites where bioactive fillers are dispersed in\\u000a a polymer matrix. Chemical bonding between the filler and the organic matrix requires an effective organic modification of\\u000a the bioactive filler. Previous studies have reported that

Ill Yong Kim; Chikara Ohtsuki; Giichiro Kawachi; Masanobu Kamitakahara; Sung-Baek Cho



Versatile optical coherence tomography for imaging the human eye  

PubMed Central

We demonstrated the feasibility of a CMOS-based spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) for versatile ophthalmic applications of imaging the corneal epithelium, limbus, ocular surface, contact lens, crystalline lens, retina, and full eye in vivo. The system was based on a single spectrometer and an alternating reference arm with four mirrors. A galvanometer scanner was used to switch the reference beam among the four mirrors, depending on the imaging application. An axial resolution of 7.7 ?m in air, a scan depth of up to 37.7 mm in air, and a scan speed of up to 70,000 A-lines per second were achieved. The approach has the capability to provide high-resolution imaging of the corneal epithelium, contact lens, ocular surface, and tear meniscus. Using two reference mirrors, the zero delay lines were alternatively placed on the front cornea or on the back lens. The entire ocular anterior segment was imaged by registering and overlapping the two images. The full eye through the pupil was measured when the reference arm was switched among the four reference mirrors. After mounting a 60 D lens in the sample arm, this SD-OCT was used to image the retina, including the macula and optical nerve head. This system demonstrates versatility and simplicity for multi-purpose ophthalmic applications.

Tao, Aizhu; Shao, Yilei; Zhong, Jianguang; Jiang, Hong; Shen, Meixiao; Wang, Jianhua



Molecular characterisation of a versatile peroxidase from a Bjerkandera strain.  


The cloning and sequencing of the rbpa gene coding for a versatile peroxidase from a novel Bjerkandera strain is hereby reported. The 1777 bp isolated fragment contained a 1698 bp peroxidase-encoding gene, interrupted by 11 introns. The 367 amino acid-deduced sequence includes a 27 amino acid-signal peptide. The molecular model, built via homology modelling with crystal structures of four fungal peroxidases, highlighted the amino acid residues putatively involved in manganese binding and aromatic substrate oxidation. The potential heme pocket residues (R44, F47, H48, E79, N85, H177, F194 and D239) include both distal and proximal histidines (H48 and H177). RBP possesses potential calcium-binding residues (D49, G67, D69, S71, S178, D195, T197, I200 and D202) and eight cysteine residues (C3, C15, C16, C35, C121, C250, C286, C316). In addition, RBP includes residues involved in substrate oxidation: three acidic residues (E37, E41 and D183)--putatively involved in manganese binding and H83 and W172--potentially involved in oxidation of aromatic substrates. Characterisation of nucleotide and amino acid sequences include RBP in versatile peroxidase group sharing catalytic properties of both LiP and MnP. In addition, the RBP enzyme appears to be closely related with the ligninolytic peroxidases from the Trametes versicolor strain. PMID:16026883

Moreira, Patrícia R; Duez, C; Dehareng, D; Antunes, A; Almeida-Vara, E; Frère, J M; Malcata, F Xavier; Duarte, J C



Versatile peroxidase of Bjerkandera fumosa: substrate and inhibitor specificity.  


The inhibitor and substrate specificities of versatile peroxidase from Bjerkandera fumosa (VPBF) were studied. Two different effects were found: NaN(3), Tween-80, anthracene, and fluorene decreased the activity of VPBF, but p-aminobenzoic acid increased it. A mixed mechanism of effector influence on the activity of this enzyme was shown. The catalytic properties of VPBF in the oxidation of mono- and polycyclic aromatic compounds were studied also. 2,7-Diaminofluorene, ABTS, veratryl alcohol, and syringaldazine can be oxidized by VPBF in two ways: either directly by the enzyme or by diffusible chelated Mn(3+) as an oxidizing agent. During VPBF oxidation of 2,7-diaminofluorene, both with and without Mn(2+), biphasic kinetics with apparent saturation in both micromolar and millimolar ranges were obtained. In the case of ABTS, inhibition of VPBF activity by an excess of substrate was observed. Direct oxidation of p-aminobenzoic acid by versatile peroxidase was found for the first time. The oxidation of three- and four-ring PAHs by VPBF was investigated, and the oxidation of anthracene, phenanthrene, fluorene, pyrene, chrysene, and fluoranthene was shown. The products of PAH oxidation (9,10-anthraquinone, 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, and 9-fluorenone) catalyzed by VPBF were identified. PMID:23199738

Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Makarov, Oleg; Chernyshova, Marina; Turkovskaya, Olga; Jarosz-Wilkolazka, Anna



Robust and versatile ionic liquid microarrays achieved by microcontact printing.  


Lab-on-a-chip and miniaturized systems have gained significant popularity motivated by marked differences in material performance at the micro-to-nano-scale realm. However, to fully exploit micro-to-nano-scale chemistry, solvent volatility and lack of reproducibility need to be overcome. Here, we combine the non-volatile and versatile nature of ionic liquids with microcontact printing in an attempt to establish a facile protocol for high throughput fabrication of open microreactors and microfluidics. The micropatterned ionic liquid droplets have been demonstrated as electrochemical cells and reactors for microfabrication of metals and charge transfer complexes, substrates for immobilization of proteins and as membrane-free high-performance amperometric gas sensor arrays. The results suggest that miniaturized ionic liquid systems can be used to solve the problems of solvent volatility and slow mass transport in viscous ionic liquids in lab-on-a-chip devices, thus providing a versatile platform for a diverse number of applications. PMID:24781644

Gunawan, Christian A; Ge, Mengchen; Zhao, Chuan



Versatile Low Level RF System For Linear Accelerators  

SciTech Connect

The Low Level RF (LLRF) system is the source of all of the rf signals required for an rf linear accelerator. These signals are amplified to drive accelerator and buncher cavities. It can even provide the synchronizing signal for the rf power for a synchrotron. The use of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) techniques results in a versatile system that can provide multiple coherent signals at the same or different frequencies with adjustable amplitudes and phase relations. Pulsing the DDS allows rf switching with an essentially infinite on/off ratio. The LLRF system includes a versatile phase detector that allows phase-locking the rf frequency to a cavity at any phase angle over the full 360 deg. range. With the use of stepper motor driven slug tuners multiple cavity resonant frequencies can be phase locked to the rf source frequency. No external phase shifters are required and there is no feedback loop phase setup required. All that is needed is to turn the frequency feedback on. The use of Digital Signal Processing (DSP) allows amplitude and phase control over the entire rf pulse. This paper describes the basic principles of a LLRF system that has been used for both proton accelerators and electron accelerators, including multiple tank accelerators, sub-harmonic and fundamental bunchers, and synchrotrons.

Potter, James M. [JP Accelerator Works, Inc., 2245 47th Street, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States)



Versatile Low Level RF System For Linear Accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Low Level RF (LLRF) system is the source of all of the rf signals required for an rf linear accelerator. These signals are amplified to drive accelerator and buncher cavities. It can even provide the synchronizing signal for the rf power for a synchrotron. The use of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) techniques results in a versatile system that can provide multiple coherent signals at the same or different frequencies with adjustable amplitudes and phase relations. Pulsing the DDS allows rf switching with an essentially infinite on/off ratio. The LLRF system includes a versatile phase detector that allows phase-locking the rf frequency to a cavity at any phase angle over the full 360° range. With the use of stepper motor driven slug tuners multiple cavity resonant frequencies can be phase locked to the rf source frequency. No external phase shifters are required and there is no feedback loop phase setup required. All that is needed is to turn the frequency feedback on. The use of Digital Signal Processing (DSP) allows amplitude and phase control over the entire rf pulse. This paper describes the basic principles of a LLRF system that has been used for both proton accelerators and electron accelerators, including multiple tank accelerators, sub-harmonic and fundamental bunchers, and synchrotrons.

Potter, James M.



Versatility and Invariance in the Evolution of Homologous Heteromeric Interfaces  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary pressures act on protein complex interfaces so that they preserve their complementarity. Nonetheless, the elementary interactions which compose the interface are highly versatile throughout evolution. Understanding and characterizing interface plasticity across evolution is a fundamental issue which could provide new insights into protein-protein interaction prediction. Using a database of 1,024 couples of close and remote heteromeric structural interologs, we studied protein-protein interactions from a structural and evolutionary point of view. We systematically and quantitatively analyzed the conservation of different types of interface contacts. Our study highlights astonishing plasticity regarding polar contacts at complex interfaces. It also reveals that up to a quarter of the residues switch out of the interface when comparing two homologous complexes. Despite such versatility, we identify two important interface descriptors which correlate with an increased conservation in the evolution of interfaces: apolar patches and contacts surrounding anchor residues. These observations hold true even when restricting the dataset to transiently formed complexes. We show that a combination of six features related either to sequence or to geometric properties of interfaces can be used to rank positions likely to share similar contacts between two interologs. Altogether, our analysis provides important tracks for extracting meaningful information from multiple sequence alignments of conserved binding partners and for discriminating near-native interfaces using evolutionary information.

Andreani, Jessica; Faure, Guilhem; Guerois, Raphael



Bioactive composites consisting of PEEK and calcium silicate powders.  


Bioactive bone-repairing materials with mechanical properties analogous to those of natural bone can be obtained through the combination of bioactive ceramic fillers with organic polymers. Previously, we developed novel bioactive microspheres in a binary CaO-SiO2 system produced through a sol-gel process as filler for the fabrication of composites. In this study, we fabricate bioactive composites in which polyetheretherketone is reinforced with 0-50 vol% 30CaO x 70SiO2 (CS) microspheres. The prepared composites reinforced with CS particles form hydroxyapatite on their surfaces in simulated body fluid. The induction periods of hydroxyapatite formation on the composites decrease with increasing amount of CS particles. The mechanical properties of the composites are evaluated by three-point bending test. The composites reinforced with 20 vol% CS particles show 123.5 MPa and 6.43 GPa in bending strength and Young's modulus, respectively. PMID:18757493

Kim, Ill Yong; Sugino, Atsushi; Kikuta, Koichi; Ohtsuki, Chikara; Cho, Sung Baek



Advancement into the Arctic Region for Bioactive Sponge Secondary Metabolites  

PubMed Central

Porifera have long been a reservoir for the discovery of bioactive compounds and drug discovery. Most research in the area has focused on sponges from tropical and temperate waters, but more recently the focus has shifted to the less accessible colder waters of the Antarctic and, to a lesser extent, the Arctic. The Antarctic region in particular has been a more popular location for natural products discovery and has provided promising candidates for drug development. This article reviews groups of bioactive compounds that have been isolated and reported from the southern reaches of the Arctic Circle, surveys the known sponge diversity present in the Arctic waters, and details a recent sponge collection by our group in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. The collection has yielded previously undescribed sponge species along with primary activity against opportunistic infectious diseases, malaria, and HCV. The discovery of new sponge species and bioactive crude extracts gives optimism for the isolation of new bioactive compounds from a relatively unexplored source.

Abbas, Samuel; Kelly, Michelle; Bowling, John; Sims, James; Waters, Amanda; Hamann, Mark



Bioactive ceramic-reinforced composites for bone augmentation  

PubMed Central

Biomaterials have been used to repair the human body for millennia, but it is only since the 1970s that man-made composites have been used. Hydroxyapatite (HA)-reinforced polyethylene (PE) is the first of the ‘second-generation’ biomaterials that have been developed to be bioactive rather than bioinert. The mechanical properties have been characterized using quasi-static, fatigue, creep and fracture toughness testing, and these studies have allowed optimization of the production method. The in vitro and in vivo biological properties have been investigated with a range of filler content and have shown that the presence of sufficient bioactive filler leads to a bioactive composite. Finally, the material has been applied clinically, initially in the orbital floor and later in the middle ear. From this initial combination of HA in PE other bioactive ceramic polymer composites have been developed.

Tanner, K. E.



Bioactive glass-based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.  


Originally developed to fill and restore bone defects, bioactive glasses are currently also being intensively investigated for bone tissue engineering applications. In this chapter, we review and discuss current knowledge on porous bone tissue engineering scaffolds made from bioactive silicate glasses. A brief historical review and the fundamental requirements in the field of bone tissue engineering scaffolds will be presented, followed by a detailed overview of recent developments in bioactive glass-based scaffolds. In addition, the effects of ionic dissolution products of bioactive glasses on osteogenesis and angiogenic properties of scaffolds are briefly addressed. Finally, promising areas of future research and requirements for the advancement of the field are highlighted and discussed. PMID:22085919

Will, Julia; Gerhardt, Lutz-Christian; Boccaccini, Aldo R



Bioactive and Biodegradable Nanocomposites and Hybrid Biomaterials for Bone Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Strategies for bone tissue engineering and regeneration rely on bioactive scaffolds to mimic the natural extracellular matrix and act as templates onto which cells attach, multiply, migrate and function. Of particular interest are nanocomposites and organic-inorganic (O/I) hybrid biomaterials based on selective combinations of biodegradable polymers and bioactive inorganic materials. In this paper, we review the current state of bioactive and biodegradable nanocomposite and O/I hybrid biomaterials and their applications in bone regeneration. We focus specifically on nanocomposites based on nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HA) and bioactive glass (BG) fillers in combination with biodegradable polyesters and their hybrid counterparts. Topics include 3D scaffold design, materials that are widely used in bone regeneration, and recent trends in next generation biomaterials. We conclude with a perspective on the future application of nanocomposites and O/I hybrid biomaterials for regeneration of bone.

Allo, Bedilu A.; Costa, Daniel O.; Dixon, S. Jeffrey; Mequanint, Kibret; Rizkalla, Amin S.



Current Strategies to Improve the Bioactivity of PEEK  

PubMed Central

The synthetic thermoplastic polymer polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is becoming a popular component of clinical orthopedic and spinal applications, but its practical use suffers from several limitations. Although PEEK is biocompatible, chemically stable, radiolucent and has an elastic modulus similar to that of normal human bone, it is biologically inert, preventing good integration with adjacent bone tissues upon implantation. Recent efforts have focused on increasing the bioactivity of PEEK to improve the bone-implant interface. Two main strategies have been used to overcome the inert character of PEEK. One approach is surface modification to activate PEEK through surface treatment alone or in combination with a surface coating. Another strategy is to prepare bioactive PEEK composites by impregnating bioactive materials into PEEK substrate. Researchers believe that modified bioactive PEEK will have a wide range of orthopedic applications.

Ma, Rui; Tang, Tingting



Laser skin resurfacing.  


There has always been interest in looking younger, but recently there seems to have been an explosion of public interest in facial rejuvenation. Physicians have been treating photodamaged skin for many years by removing the epidermis and a variable thickness of dermis with dermabrasion or chemical peels, with the expectation that reepithialization and collagen remodeling will result in a more youthful appearance. With the recent development of short-pulsed high-peak power and rapidly scanned carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers, the ability to remove photodamaged skin in a precise and reproducible manner while leaving behind a narrow zone of thermal damage has been achieved. This development has generated tremendous interest in laser skin resurfacing as a technique to reverse photoaging. PMID:8948536

Dover, J S; Hruza, G J



Sprayed skin turbine component  


Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

Allen, David B



Skin friction balance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A skin friction balance uses a parallel linkage mechanism to avoid inaccuracies in skin friction measurement attributable to off-center normal forces. The parallel linkage mechanism includes a stationary plate mounted in a cage, and an upper and lower movable plate which are linked to each other and to the stationary plate throught three vertical links. Flexure pivots are provided for pivotally connecting the links and the plates. A sensing element connected to the upper plate moves in response to skin friction, and the lower plate moves in the opposite direction of the upper plate. A force motor maintains a null position of the sensing element by exerting a restoring force in response to a signal generated by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).

Ping, Tcheng; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.



Skin friction balance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A skin friction balance uses a parallel linkage mechanism to avoid inaccuracies in skin friction measurement attributable to off-center normal forces. The parallel linkage mechanism includes a stationary plate mounted in a cage, and an upper and lower movable plate which are linked to each other and to the stationary plate throught three vertical links. Flexure pivots are provided for pivotally connecting the links and the plates. A sensing element connected to the upper plate moves in response to skin friction, and the lower plate moves in the opposite direction of the upper plate. A force motor maintains a null position of the sensing element by exerting a restoring force in response to a signal generated by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).

Ping, Tcheng (inventor); Supplee, Frank H., Jr. (inventor)



Complement in skin diseases.  


Complement is one of the most important mechanisms of natural resistance preventing infections in humans and animals. It is actively involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including skin diseases, characterized by the presence of autoantibodies, foreign microorganisms, altered tissue cells, and the presence of mannan. Complement is intended to kill invading microorganisms but it can also destroy the organism's own damaged or altered cells. It is characterized by vigorous activity and is also potentially harmful for the host if triggered in its own body. This review discusses the significance of complement activation for emerging skin diseases and highlights the importance of serological laboratory tests for the detection of complement system activity alterations in skin diseases such as pemphigus vulgaris, bullous pemphigoid, herpes gestationis, dermatitis herpetiformis, porphyria, urticaria, angioedema, cutaneous vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, partial lipodystrophy, lichen planus, xeroderma pigmentosum, psoriasis, and recurrent cutaneous infections. Finally, we draw attention to the current potential for treating these diseases with complement inhibitors. PMID:21879199

Kotnik, V



Limitations of skin protection.  


Skin protection products and gloves are essential constituents of personal protective equipment at workplaces, which can be used in a complementary way, each offering particular benefits and disadvantages. In many workplace situations, both measures are being used either in an alternating or in a combined manner, typically in professions with exposures to mild irritants and a high wet-work load, such as hairdressers, healthcare workers or employees in the food-processing industry. Skin protection creams can be used to reduce unnecessarily long glove usage in order to reduce occlusion-related effects on the skin barrier. Whenever rotating machines are used, these products are the only option due to safety regulations. However, some particular requirements can be postulated for skin-protective products claimed especially to be used in combination with gloves. Reduction of glove-induced perspiration, of stratum corneum swelling, and postocclusive barrier impairment are intended attributes of such products, which have been already successfully implemented in some commercially available products. On the other hand it has to be proven that the ingredients do not interfere with the glove material, neither in the way of degrading the material, thus making it permeable for harmful substances, nor by enhancing the potential release of rubber allergens. Examples out of the literature are reviewed showing that skin products can exhibit unpredictable effects on the allergen release of rubber materials, if not thoroughly tested for this purpose beforehand. Some raw materials should be avoided in protection products, though they are of established value when used in afterwork emollients to accelerate barrier recovery. Usage of moisturizers, in contrast to special barrier products, at the workplace together or even under gloves is therefore judged critically, although selected products showed beneficial effects in particular experimental settings. Another future option is the implementation of 'active gloves' that are intended to gradually release ingredients that help to strengthen and preserve skin barrier integrity. PMID:17312367

Schliemann, Sibylle



Ageing of pulsed-laser-deposited bioactive glass films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive glasses are osteoinductive biomaterials of great interest for medical applications as filler material in bone defects and as coating of implants.Bioactive glass thin films have been deposited on silicon plates by ArF laser ablation of silica-based glass targets (53% SiO2, 23% Na2O, 20% CaO, 4% P2O5). Ablation experiments have been carried out in vacuum (10?4mbar) and in a reactive

P González; J Serra; S Liste; S Chiussi; B León; M Pérez-Amor



Meliavolkenin, a new bioactive triterpenoid from Melia volkensii (Meliaceae).  


Meliavolkenin, a new triterpene with an apotirucallane skeleton, has been isolated from the root bark of Melia volkensii (Meliaceae) by bioactivity-directed fractionation using the brine shrimp lethality test. The structure has been elucidated using spectral and chemical data. The relative stereochemistries were determined by reduction and acetonide derivations, and the ring conformations were analyzed using the results of NOESY experiments. Meliavolkenin was bioactive in the brine shrimp lethality test and gave moderate cytotoxicities against three human solid tumor lines. PMID:8581421

Zeng, L; Gu, Z M; Chang, C J; Wood, K V; McLaughlin, J L



Creation of microrough surface on sintered bioactive glass microspheres.  


Bioactive glasses are surface-active, generally silica-based, synthetic materials that form a firm chemical bond to bone. The aim of this study was to further enhance the bioactivity of glasses by creating a microroughness on their surface. Microroughness increases potential surface area for cell attachment and biomaterial-cell interactions. Three bioactive glasses of different composition were studied. Each material was flame-sprayed into microspheres, and a selected fraction of the spheres (250-300 microm) was sintered to form porous bioactive glass specimens. To create microrough surfaces, different acid etching techniques were tested. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and back-scattered electron imaging of scanning electron microscopy (BEI-SEM) were used to characterize surface roughness. The degree of roughness was measured by AFM. A novel chemical-etching method, developed through intensive screening of different options, was found consistently to create the desired microroughness, with an average roughness value (R(a)) of 0.35-0.52 microm and a root mean-square roughness value (R(rms)) of 0.42-0.64 microm. Microroughening of the glass surface was obtained even in the internal parts of the porous glass matrices. Measured by BEI-SEM, the etching of a bioactive glass surface did not interfere with the formation of the characteristic surface reactions of bioactive glasses. This was confirmed by immersing the etched and control glass bodies in a simulated body fluid and tris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane/HCl. The etching process did not significantly affect the mechanical strength of the sintered bioactive glass structures. Based on these experiments, it seems possible to create a reproducible microroughness of appropriate size on the surface of porous bioactive glass. The biologic benefits of such a surface treatment need to be validated with in vivo experiments. PMID:11340600

Itälä, A; Nordström, E G; Ylänen, H; Aro, H T; Hupa, M



Skin and Sports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about the importance of proper protection from common skin conditions when they engage in sports-related activities. This lesson draws attention to fact that the body's own first line of defense against infectious agents is to keep them from entering or settling in the body. The students break into groups to provide a list of risk factors for each sports-related activity. They come together and compare notes. This sparks the lesson and instruction on how one should protect the skin when participating in sports. Links to other resources for further inquiry are given.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)



Neck skin rejuvenation.  


The author of this article uses the pulsed ablative CO2 laser for resurfacing of the neck and face, based on the gold standard status of the CO2 laser and a novel post-treatment plan that greatly reduces adverse effects traditionally associated with fully ablative resurfacing. The croton oil peel is an inexpensive and effective modality for rejuvenating neck skin. The use of either technique as an adjunct to neck lift surgery, with or without facelift surgery, permits surgeons to fulfill the expectations of patients who want the skin of their face and neck to be homogeneous and more attractive. PMID:24745383

Duplechain, J Kevin



Measuring skin conductance over clothes.  


We propose a new method that measures skin conductance over clothes to nonintrusively monitor the changes in physiological conditions affecting skin conductance during daily activities. We selected the thigh-to-thigh current path and used an indirectly coupled 5-kHz AC current for the measurement. While varying the skin conductance by the Valsalva maneuver method, the results were compared with the traditional galvanic skin response (GSR) measured directly from the fingers. Skin conductance measured using a 5-kHz current displayed a highly negative correlation with the traditional GSR and the current measured over clothes reflected the rate of change of the conductance of the skin beneath. PMID:22814995

Hong, Ki Hwan; Lee, Seung Min; Lim, Yong Gyu; Park, Kwang Suk



Three-dimensional chemical imaging of skin using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.  


Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy is used to generate structural and chemical three-dimensional images of native skin. We employed SRS microscopy to investigate the microanatomical features of skin and penetration of topically applied materials. Image depth stacks are collected at distinct wavelengths corresponding to vibrational modes of proteins, lipids, and water in the skin. We observed that corneocytes in stratum corneum are grouped together in clusters, 100 to 250 ?m in diameter, separated by 10- to 25-?m-wide microanatomical skin-folds called canyons. These canyons occasionally extend down to depths comparable to that of the dermal-epidermal junction below the flat surface regions in porcine and human skin. SRS imaging shows the distribution of chemical species within cell clusters and canyons. Water is predominately located within the cell clusters, and its concentration rapidly increases at the transition from stratum corneum to viable epidermis. Canyons do not contain detectable levels of water and are rich in lipid material. Oleic acid-d34 applied to the skin surface lines the canyons down to a depth of 50 ?m below the surface of the skin. This observation could have implications on the evaluation of penetration profiles of bioactive materials measured using traditional methods, such as tape-stripping. PMID:24858033

Drutis, Dane M; Hancewicz, Thomas M; Pashkovski, Eugene; Feng, Lin; Mihalov, Dawn; Holtom, Gary; Ananthapadmanabhan, Kavssery P; Xie, X Sunney; Misra, Manoj



About Skin-to-Skin Care (Kangaroo Care)  


... Care Ages & Stages Listen About Skin-to-Skin Care Article Body You may be able to hold ... care, also called kangaroo care. What is Kangaroo Care? Kangaroo care was developed in South America as ...


Skin Absorption Pharmacology of Topical Skin Protectant ICD Number 2289.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) Fourier Transform-Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to determine the effectiveness of washing Topical Skin Protectant (TSP) ICD Number 2289 from the skin of male euthymic hairless guinea pigs 24 hours after TSP appli...

E. M. Kurt E. H. Braue



Laser microporation of the skin: prospects for painless application of protective and therapeutic vaccines  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In contrast to muscle and subcutaneous tissue, the skin is easily accessible and provides unique immunological properties. Increasing knowledge about the complex interplay of skin-associated cell types in the development of cutaneous immune responses has fueled efforts to target the skin for vaccination as well as for immunotherapy. Areas covered: This review provides an overview on skin layers and their resident immunocompetent cell types. Advantages and shortcomings of standard methods and innovative technologies to circumvent the outermost skin barrier are addressed. Studies employing fractional skin ablation by infrared lasers for cutaneous delivery of drugs, as well as high molecular weight molecules such as protein antigens or antibodies, are reviewed, and laserporation is introduced as a versatile transcutaneous vaccination platform. Specific targeting of the epidermis or the dermis by different laser settings, the resulting kinetics of uptake and transport and the immune response types elicited are discussed, and the potential of this transcutaneous delivery platform for allergen-specific immunotherapy is demonstrated. Expert opinion: Needle-free and painless vaccination approaches have the potential to replace standard methods due to their improved safety and optimal patient compliance. The use of fractional laser devices for stepwise ablation of skin layers might be advantageous for both vaccination against microbial pathogens, as well as immunotherapeutic approaches, such as allergen-specific immunotherapy. Thorough investigation of the underlying immunological mechanisms will help to provide the knowledge for a rational design of transcutaneous protective/therapeutic vaccines.

Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Thalhamer, Josef; Weiss, Richard



Biofunctionalized electrospun silk mats as a topical bioactive dressing for accelerated wound healing.  


Materials able to deliver topically bioactive molecules represent a new generation of biomaterials. In this article, we describe the use of silk mats, made of electrospun nanoscale silk fibers containing epidermal growth factor (EGF), for the promotion of wound healing processes. In our experiments, we demonstrated that EGF is incorporated into the silk mats and slowly released in a time-dependent manner (25% EGF release in 170h). We tested these materials using a new model of wounded human skin-equivalents displaying the same structure as human skin and able to heal using the same molecular and cellular mechanisms found in vivo. This human three-dimensional model allows us to demonstrate that the biofunctionalized silk mats, when placed on the wounds as a dressing, aid the healing by increasing the time of wound closure by the epidermal tongue by 90%. The preservation of the structure of the mats during the healing period as demonstrated by electronic microscopy, the biological action of the dressing, as well as the biocompatibility of the silk demonstrate that this biomaterial is a new and very promising material for medical applications, especially for patients suffering from chronic wounds. PMID:19162575

Schneider, A; Wang, X Y; Kaplan, D L; Garlick, J A; Egles, C



Cytokines and the Skin Barrier  

PubMed Central

The skin is the largest organ of the human body and builds a barrier to protect us from the harmful environment and also from unregulated loss of water. Keratinocytes form the skin barrier by undergoing a highly complex differentiation process that involves changing their morphology and structural integrity, a process referred to as cornification. Alterations in the epidermal cornification process affect the formation of the skin barrier. Typically, this results in a disturbed barrier, which allows the entry of substances into the skin that are immunologically reactive. This contributes to and promotes inflammatory processes in the skin but also affects other organs. In many common skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, a defect in the formation of the skin barrier is observed. In these diseases the cytokine composition within the skin is different compared to normal human skin. This is the result of resident skin cells that produce cytokines, but also because additional immune cells are recruited. Many of the cytokines found in defective skin are able to influence various processes of differentiation and cornification. Here we summarize the current knowledge on cytokines and their functions in healthy skin and their contributions to inflammatory skin diseases.

Hanel, Kai H.; Cornelissen, Christian; Luscher, Bernhard; Baron, Jens Malte



Cytokines and the skin barrier.  


The skin is the largest organ of the human body and builds a barrier to protect us from the harmful environment and also from unregulated loss of water. Keratinocytes form the skin barrier by undergoing a highly complex differentiation process that involves changing their morphology and structural integrity, a process referred to as cornification. Alterations in the epidermal cornification process affect the formation of the skin barrier. Typically, this results in a disturbed barrier, which allows the entry of substances into the skin that are immunologically reactive. This contributes to and promotes inflammatory processes in the skin but also affects other organs. In many common skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, a defect in the formation of the skin barrier is observed. In these diseases the cytokine composition within the skin is different compared to normal human skin. This is the result of resident skin cells that produce cytokines, but also because additional immune cells are recruited. Many of the cytokines found in defective skin are able to influence various processes of differentiation and cornification. Here we summarize the current knowledge on cytokines and their functions in healthy skin and their contributions to inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:23531535

Hänel, Kai H; Cornelissen, Christian; Lüscher, Bernhard; Baron, Jens Malte



Skin Surgery Codes

Skin C440–C449 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor destruction, NOS 11 Photodynamic therapy (PDT) 12 Electrocautery;


Skin Cancer Curriculum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This high school curriculumâÂÂa part of Emory University's CancerQuest website, which focuses on the biology, detection and treatment of cancerâÂÂoffers resources for teaching about skin cancer, the most frequently diagnosed cancer in the United States.

Patricia Ann Marsteller (Emory University;)



Causes of Aging Skin  


... applied 20 minutes before going outdoors to all skin that will be exposed. It should be reapplied after sweating or being in water. Treatment . If you are bothered by visible signs of aging, a number of treatments are available. Injectable fillers and botulinum toxin are suitable for people with ...


Skin Cancer Prevention Study

Actinic keratoses (AKs) are precancerous skin growths that are usually caused by sun exposure. This study seeks to determine if the drug celecoxib prevents new AKs from developing, causes existing AKs to go away, and prevents AKs from progressing to squamous cell cancer.


Skin manifestations of sarcoidosis.  


The skin manifestations of sarcoidosis are classified as specific, where biopsy reveals non-caseating granulomas, and non-specific, typically erythema nodosum. The most frequent specific (granulomatous) skin lesions are maculopapules, subcutaneous nodules, scar sarcoidosis, plaques and lupus pernio. Skin biopsy allows early diagnosis of sarcoidosis through a non-aggressive procedure. In sarcoidosis, erythema nodosum is usually associated with bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy on the chest radiograph, this being known as Löfgren's syndrome. Cutaneous lesions have prognostic significance. Löfgren's syndrome is usually associated with good prognosis and spontaneous resolution. Maculopapular lesions and subcutaneous nodules are more often associated with remission of the systemic disease at two years, while plaques and, mainly, lupus pernio are hallmarks of chronic disease. Most cutaneous lesions of sarcoidosis are only mildly symptomatic and do not require treatment. However, chronic skin lesions, particularly lupus pernio, are disfiguring and can have a strong psychological and social impact. Treatment of these lesions is a challenge since they do not respond well to conventional treatments. The introduction of biological agents has been an important although not definitive advance in the treatment of cutaneous sarcoidosis. PMID:22579238

Mañá, Juan; Marcoval, Joaquim



Microencapsulated Bioactive Agents and Method of Making  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microcapsules prepared by encapsulating an aqueous solution of a protein, drug or other bioactive substance inside a semi-permeable membrane by are disclosed. The microcapsules are formed by interfacial coacervation under conditions where the shear forces are limited to 0- 100 dynes per sq cm at the interface. By placing the microcapsules in a high osmotic watering solution, the protein solution is gradually made saturated and then supersaturated, and the controlled nucleation and crystallization of the protein is achieved. The crystal-filled microcapsules prepared by this method can be conveniently harvested and stored while keeping the encapsulated crystals in essentially pristine condition due to the rugged, protective membrane. Because the membrane components themselves are x-ray transparent, large crystal-containing microcapsules can be individually selected. mounted in x-ray capillary tubes and subjected to high energy x-ray diffraction studies to determine the 3-D structure of the protein molecules. Certain embodiments of the microcapsules of the invention have composite polymeric outer membranes which are somewhat elastic, water insoluble, permeable only to water, salts, and low molecular weight molecules and are structurally stable in fluid shear forces typically encountered in the human vascular system.

Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)



Metabolomics for bioactivity assessment of natural products.  


Natural products historically have been a rich source of lead molecules in drug discovery, based on their capability to create unique and diverse chemical structures. However, it is also true that the vast number of metabolites typically present in natural products and their huge dynamic range results in the loss of many possibly bioactive natural compounds, becoming an inextricable obstacle for drug development. Recently, new strategies which favour a holistic approach as opposed to the traditional reductionist methods used previously, have been introduced with the purpose of overcoming the bottlenecks in natural product research. This approach is based on the application of new technologies, including metabolomics, for example. Metabolomics allows a systematic study of a complex mixture such as a phytochemical preparation, which can be linked to observations obtained through biological testing systems without the need for isolating active principles. This may put drug discovery from natural products back in the limelight again. In this review paper, the description of some examples of successful metabolomics applications in several important fields related to drug discovery from natural sources aims at raising the potential of metabolomics in reducing the gap between natural products (NP) and modern drug discovery demand. PMID:20658470

Yuliana, Nancy Dewi; Khatib, Alfi; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Robert



Burchellin: study of bioactivity against Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Background The dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 is a widespread insect pest of serious medical importance. Since no effective vaccine is available for treating dengue, the eradication or control of the main mosquito vector is regarded as essential. Since conventional insecticides have limited success, plants may be an alternative source of larvicidal agents, since they contain a rich source of bioactive chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of the neolignan burchellin isolated from Ocotea cymbarum (Lauraceae), a plant from the Amazon region, against third instar larvae of A. aegypti. Methods Burchellin obtained from O. cymbarum was analyzed. The inhibitory activity against A. aegypti eggs and larvae and histological changes in the digestive system of treated L3 larvae were evaluated. In addition, nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide levels were determined, and cytotoxicity bioassays performed. Results The data showed that burchellin interfered with the development cycle of the mosquito, where its strongest toxic effect was 100% mortality in larvae (L3) at concentrations???30 ppm. This compound did not show target cell toxicity in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice, and proved to have molecular stability when dissolved in water. The L3 and L4 larvae treated with the compound showed cellular destruction and disorganization, cell spacing, and vacuolization of epithelial cells in small regions of the midgut. Conclusion The neolignan burchellin proved to be a strong candidate for a natural, safe and stable phytolarvicidal to be used in population control of A. aegypti.



Skin Penetration Mechanisms of Helminths.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The structure and physiology of human skin are described and related to the following penetration mechanisms of the Schistosoma mansoni cercaria: Brief exploration of the sebum-covered skin surface for entry sites. Attempted entry at irregularities associ...

M. A. Stirwalt



Candida infection of the skin  


... may also be helpful to those with diabetes. Antifungal skin creams or ointments may be used to ... yeast infection of the skin, mouth, or vagina. Antifungal medications taken by mouth may be necessary for ...


Tissue Engineered Human Skin Equivalents  

PubMed Central

Human skin not only serves as an important barrier against the penetration of exogenous substances into the body, but also provides a potential avenue for the transport of functional active drugs/reagents/ingredients into the skin (topical delivery) and/or the body (transdermal delivery). In the past three decades, research and development in human skin equivalents have advanced in parallel with those in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The human skin equivalents are used commercially as clinical skin substitutes and as models for permeation and toxicity screening. Several academic laboratories have developed their own human skin equivalent models and applied these models for studying skin permeation, corrosivity and irritation, compound toxicity, biochemistry, metabolism and cellular pharmacology. Various aspects of the state of the art of human skin equivalents are reviewed and discussed.

Zhang, Zheng; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B.



Improved electrodes for skin contacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design is described of thick, flexible electrodes with appropriate metal surfaces which prevent unnecessary skin motion. Electrodes provide sufficient radial pressure directed toward body surface to depress skin a noticeable portion of its normal resilient thickness.

Castle, J. G.; Lattanzi, R. R.



Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained by a facile protocol and thoroughly characterized. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized using a modified forced hydrolysis method were functionalized with polyethylene glycol silane (PEG silane), precipitated and dried. These functionalized particles are dispersable in a range of solvents and concentrations depending on the desired properties. Examples of tunable properties are magnetic behavior, optical and magneto-optical response, thermal features and rheological behavior. As such, PEG silane functionalized particles represent a platform for the development of new materials that have broad applicability in e.g. biomedical, industrial or photonic environments. Magnetic, optical, magneto-optical, thermal and rheological properties of several ferrofluids based on PEG coated particles with different concentrations of particles dispersed in low molecular mass polyethylene glycol were investigated, establishing the applicability of such materials.

Brullot, W.; Reddy, N. K.; Wouters, J.; Valev, V. K.; Goderis, B.; Vermant, J.; Verbiest, T.



Layered zeolitic materials: an approach to designing versatile functional solids.  


Relevant layered zeolites have been considered in this perspective article from the point of view of the synthesis methodologies, materials characterization and catalytic implications, considering the unique physico-chemical characteristics of lamellar materials. The potential of layered zeolitic precursors to generate novel lamellar accessible zeolites through swelling, intercalation, pillarization, delamination and/or exfoliation treatments is studied, showing the chemical, functional and structural versatility exhibited by layered zeolites. Recent approaches based on the assembly of zeolitic nanosheets which act as inorganic structural units through the use of dual structural directing agents, the selective modification of germanosilicates and the direct generation of lamellar hybrid organic-inorganic aluminosilicates are also considered to obtain layered solids with well-defined functionalities. The catalytic applications of the layered zeolites are also highlighted, pointing out the high accessibility and reactivity of active sites present in the lamellar framework. PMID:24457617

Díaz, Urbano; Corma, Avelino



Parallel optics technology assessment for the Versatile Link project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This poster describes the assessment of commercially available and prototype parallel optics modules for possible use as back end components for the Versatile Link common project. The assessment covers SNAP12 transmitter and receiver modules as well as optical engine technologies in dense packaging options. Tests were performed using vendor evaluation boards (SNAP12) as well as custom evaluation boards (optical engines). The measurements obtained were used to compare the performance of these components with single channel SFP+ components operating at a transmission wavelength of 850 nm over multimode fibers. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, operated by Fermi Research Alliance, LLC under contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11359 with the United States Department of Energy.

Chramowicz, J.; Kwan, S.; Rivera, R.; Prosser, A.



CSPAD-140k: A versatile detector for LCLS experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CSPAD-140k is a 140 kilopixel detector based on the Cornell-SLAC hybrid Pixel Array Detector (CSPAD) platform, developed around the CSPAD ASIC. Room temperature operation, 14 bit on chip digitization with a purely digital data interface, and scaling modularity are some important characteristics that make this platform an effective choice for designing detector variants optimized for a range of experiments and applications. The CSPAD-140k has an active area of approximately 4×4 cm2 and four ASICs, bundled in a small, inexpensive and easy-to-deploy package. Due to its versatility it has already been used successfully in several experiments at the CXI, XPP and XCS instruments at LCLS. This work also describes problems faced by scaling from a prototype system to a full size X-ray camera and presents the current status on the improvements achieved.

Herrmann, Sven; Boutet, Sébastien; Duda, Brian; Fritz, David; Haller, Gunther; Hart, Philip; Herbst, Ryan; Kenney, Christopher; Lemke, Henrik; Messerschmidt, Marc; Pines, Jack; Robert, Aymeric; Sikorski, Marcin; Williams, Garth



Development of a versatile laser light scattering instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A versatile laser light scattering (LLS) instrument is developed for use in microgravity to measure microscopic particles of 30 A to above 3 microns. Since it is an optical technique, LLS does not affect the sample being studied. A LLS instrument built from modules allows several configurations, each optimized for a particular experiment. The multiangle LLS instrument can be mounted in the rack in the Space Shuttle and on Space Station Freedom. It is possible that a Space Shuttle glove-box and a lap-top computer containing a correlator card can be used to perform a number of experiments and to demonstrate the technology needed for more elaborate investigations. This offers simple means of flying a great number of experiments without the additional requirements of full-scale flight hardware experiments.

Meyer, William V.; Ansari, Rafat R.



Limestone - A Crucial and Versatile Industrial Mineral Commodity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Limestone, as used by the minerals industry, is any rock composed mostly of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Although limestone is common in many parts of the United States, it is critically absent from some. Limestone is used to produce Portland cement, as aggregate in concrete and asphalt, and in an enormous array of other products, making it a truly versatile commodity. Portland cement is essential to the building industry, but despite our Nation's abundance of limestone, there have been cement shortages in recent years. These have been caused in part by a need to find new areas suitable for quarrying operations. To help manage our Nation's resources of such essential mineral commodities, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides crucial data and scientific information to industry, policymakers, and the public.

Bliss, James D.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Orris, Greta J.



Grinder: a versatile amplicon and shotgun sequence simulator.  


We introduce Grinder (, an open-source bioinformatic tool to simulate amplicon and shotgun (genomic, metagenomic, transcriptomic and metatranscriptomic) datasets from reference sequences. This is the first tool to simulate amplicon datasets (e.g. 16S rRNA) widely used by microbial ecologists. Grinder can create sequence libraries with a specific community structure, ? and ? diversities and experimental biases (e.g. chimeras, gene copy number variation) for commonly used sequencing platforms. This versatility allows the creation of simple to complex read datasets necessary for hypothesis testing when developing bioinformatic software, benchmarking existing tools or designing sequence-based experiments. Grinder is particularly useful for simulating clinical or environmental microbial communities and complements the use of in vitro mock communities. PMID:22434876

Angly, Florent E; Willner, Dana; Rohwer, Forest; Hugenholtz, Philip; Tyson, Gene W



Graphyne: Hexagonal network of carbon with versatile Dirac cones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study ?, ?, and ? graphyne, a class of graphene allotropes with carbon triple bonds, using a first-principles density-functional method and tight-binding calculation. We find that graphyne has versatile Dirac cones and it is due to remarkable roles of the carbon triple bonds in electronic and atomic structures. The carbon triple bonds modulate effective hopping matrix elements and reverse their signs, resulting in Dirac cones with reversed chirality in ? graphyne, momentum shift of the Dirac point in ? graphyne, and switch of the energy gap in ? graphyne. Furthermore, the triple bonds provide chemisorption sites of adatoms which can break sublattice symmetry while preserving planar sp2-bonding networks. These features of graphyne open new possibilities for electronic applications of carbon-based two-dimensional materials and derived nanostructures.

Kim, Bog G.; Choi, Hyoung Joon



PIPE: A versatile photon-ion spectrometer at PETRAIII  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A German research collaboration is currently setting up a versatile photon-ion spectrometer at PE-TRA III (PIPE) the new synchrotron radiation source at the DESY site in Hamburg, Germany. PIPE will be operated as a user facility at the Variable Polarization XUV beamline which will deliver some 1012 photons per second per 0.01% bandwidth in the photon energy range 250-3000 eV. The PIPE setup will allow users to study photon interactions with ionized matter in the gas phase, such as multiply charged atomic ions, small and large (bio-)molecular ions, solvate ions, and cluster ions with mass/charge ratios of up to 30 000.

Ricsóka, T.; Ricz, S.; Schippers, S.; Müller, A.; Klumpp, S.; Martins, M.; Flesch, R.; Mondes, V.; Rühl, E.; Schmidt, L.; Dörner, R.; Ullrich, J.; Wolf, A.



The versatility and adaptation of bacteria from the genus Stenotrophomonas  

SciTech Connect

The genus Stenotrophomonas comprises at least eight species. These bacteria are found throughout the environment, particularly in close association with plants. Strains of the most predominant species, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, have an extraordinary range of activities that include beneficial effects for plant growth and health, the breakdown of natural and man-made pollutants that are central to bioremediation and phytoremediation strategies and the production of biomolecules of economic value, as well as detrimental effects, such as multidrug resistance, in human pathogenic strains. Here, we discuss the versatility of the bacteria in the genus Stenotrophomonas and the insight that comparative genomic analysis of clinical and endophytic isolates of S. maltophilia has brought to our understanding of the adaptation of this genus to various niches.

Ryan, R.P.; van der Lelie, D.; Monchy, S.; Cardinale, M.; Taghavi, S.; Crossman, L.; Avison, M. B.; Berg, G.; Dow, J. M.



Ca(2+) signals: the versatile decoders of environmental cues.  


Plants are often subjected to various environmental stresses that lead to deleterious effects on growth, production, sustainability, etc. The information of the incoming stress is read by the plants through the mechanism of signal transduction. The plant Ca(2+) serves as secondary messenger during adaptations to stressful conditions and developmental processes. A plethora of Ca(2+) sensors and decoders functions to bring about these changes. The cellular concentrations of Ca(2+), their subcellular localization, and the specific interaction affinities of Ca(2+) decoder proteins all work together to make this process a complex but synchronized signaling network. In this review, we focus on the versatility of these sensors and decoders in the model plant Arabidopsis as well as plants of economical importance. Here, we have also thrown light on the possible mechanism of action of these important components. PMID:22568501

Sarwat, Maryam; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Nabi, Gowher; Hu, Xiangyang



FLUTE: A versatile linac-based THz source  

SciTech Connect

A new compact versatile linear accelerator named FLUTE is currently being designed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. This paper presents the status of this 42 MeV machine. It will be used to generate strong (several 100 MV/m) ultra-short ({approx}1 ps) THz pulses (up to {approx}4-25 THz) for photon science experiments, as well as to conduct a variety of accelerator studies. The latter range from comparing different coherent THz radiation generation schemes to compressing electron bunches and studying the electron beam stability. The bunch charge will cover a wide range ({approx}100 pC-3 nC). Later we plan to also produce ultra-short x-ray pulses from the electron bunches, which, for example, could then be combined for THz pump-x-ray probe experiments.

Nasse, M. J.; Schuh, M.; Schwarz, M. [Laboratory for Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (LAS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Naknaimueang, S.; Mathis, Y.-L.; Rossmanith, R.; Wesolowski, P.; Huttel, E. [ANKA Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Plech, A. [Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Schmelling, M. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (MPIK), 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Mueller, A.-S. [Laboratory for Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (LAS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); ANKA Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)



BacMam: versatile gene delivery technology for GPCR assays.  


BacMam viruses are modified baculoviruses that contain mammalian expression cassettes for viral gene delivery and transient expression in mammalian cells. They are easily, inexpensively, and rapidly generated and provide a versatile solution for G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) cell-based assay development. Using BacMam technology, target gene expression levels are easily controlled and simultaneous delivery of multiple genes is possible, for example, coexpression of a receptor and a G protein or a reporter gene. BacMam viruses are compatible with the GPCR cell-based assay formats typically used in high-throughput screening and provide an unparalleled level of experimental flexibility that is simply not possible when using stable recombinant cell lines. PMID:19513651

Davenport, Elizabeth A; Nuthulaganti, Parvathi; Ames, Robert S



Write Strategy for Dual-Layer Digital Versatile Discs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel write strategy for rewritable dual-layer digital versatile discs (DVDs) was studied. This new strategy involves the erase top pulse which is included in the conventional write strategy for single-layer DVDs in present market. By thermal calculations, it was confirmed that this erase top pulse has an affect on the rapid heating of recording films. We observed that this new strategy enabled the improvement in data qualities on the layer near the laser incident (L0) effectively in 2 × and 4 ×-speed recordings even if L0 had a high optical transparency. Furthermore we also demonstrated a combination of what with the 2T-period strategy on the layer far from the laser incident (L1) realized a well-balanced signal performance for dual-layer DVD media.

Tabata, Hiroshi; Tokui, Kenji; Higuchi, Shinji; Moriizumi, Hirokazu; Matsumoto, Ikuo



NIFTY: A versatile Python library for signal inference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NIFTY (Numerical Information Field TheorY) is a versatile library enables the development of signal inference algorithms that operate regardless of the underlying spatial grid and its resolution. Its object-oriented framework is written in Python, although it accesses libraries written in Cython, C++, and C for efficiency. NIFTY offers a toolkit that abstracts discretized representations of continuous spaces, fields in these spaces, and operators acting on fields into classes. Thereby, the correct normalization of operations on fields is taken care of automatically. This allows for an abstract formulation and programming of inference algorithms, including those derived within information field theory. Thus, NIFTY permits rapid prototyping of algorithms in 1D and then the application of the developed code in higher-dimensional settings of real world problems. NIFTY operates on point sets, n-dimensional regular grids, spherical spaces, their harmonic counterparts, and product spaces constructed as combinations of those.

Selig, Marco; Bell, Michael R.; Junklewitz, Henrik; Oppermann, Niels; Reinecke, Martin; Greiner, Maksim; Pachajoa, Carlos; Enßlin, Torsten A.



Oriented mesoporous nanopyramids as versatile plasmon-enhanced interfaces.  


We developed a facile interfacial oriented growth and self-assembly process to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) aligned mesoporous iron oxide nanopyramid arrays (NPAs). The unique NPAs possess a 3D mesostructure with multiple features, including high surface area (?175 m(2)/g), large pore size (?20 nm), excellent flexibility (bent over 150 times), and scalability at the foot scale for practical applications. More importantly, these NPAs structures enable versatile enhancement of localized surface plasmon resonance and photoelectrochemical conversion. The integration of plasmonic gold with 3D NPAs remarkably improves the performance of photoelectrochemical conversion, leading to ?6- and 83-fold increases of the photocurrent under simulated solar and visible-light illumination, respectively. The fabrication and investigation of NPAs provide a new paradigm for preparing unconventional mesoporous oriented thin films and further suggest a new strategy for designing plasmonic metal/semiconductor systems for effective solar energy harvesting. PMID:24786963

Kong, Biao; Tang, Jing; Selomulya, Cordelia; Li, Wei; Wei, Jing; Fang, Yin; Wang, Yongcheng; Zheng, Gengfeng; Zhao, Dongyuan



Preparation of a Versatile Bifunctional Zeolite for Targeted Imaging Applications  

PubMed Central

Bifunctional zeolite Y was prepared for use in targeted in vivo molecular imaging applications. The strategy involved functionalization of the external surface of zeolite Y with chloropropyltriethoxysilane followed by reaction with sodium azide to form azide-functionalized NaY, which is amenable to copper(1) catalyzed click chemistry. In this study, a model alkyne (4-pentyn-1-ol) was attached to the azide-terminated surface via click chemistry to demonstrate feasibility for attachment of molecular targeting vectors (e.g., peptides, aptamers) to the zeolite surface. The modified particle efficiently incorporates the imaging radioisotope gallium-68 (68Ga) into the pores of the azide-functionalized NaY zeolite to form a stable bifunctional molecular targeting vector. The result is a versatile “clickable” zeolite platform that can be tailored for future in vivo molecular targeting and imaging modalities.

Ndiege, Nicholas; Raidoo, Renugan; Schultz, Michael K.; Larsen, Sarah



Advanced Sorbents as a Versatile Platform for Gas Separation  

SciTech Connect

The program objective was to develop materials and processes for industrial gas separations to reduce energy use and enable waste reduction. The approach chosen combined novel oxygen selective adsorbents and pressure swing adsorption (PSA) processes. Preliminary materials development and process simulation results indicated that oxygen selective adsorbents could provide a versatile platform for industrial gas separations. If fully successful, this new technology offered the potential for reducing the cost of producing nitrogen/oxygen co-products, high purity nitrogen, argon, and possibly oxygen. The potential energy savings for the gas separations are appreciable, but the end users are the main beneficiaries. Lowering the cost of industrial gases expands their use in applications that can employ them for reducing energy consumption and emissions.

Neil Stephenson



Mechanism of versatile peroxidase inactivation by Ca(2+) depletion.  


Versatile peroxidase (VP) from Bjerkandera adusta, as other class II peroxidases, is inactivated by Ca(2+) depletion. In this work, the spectroscopic characterizations of Ca(2+)-depleted VP at pH 4.5 (optimum for activity) and pH 7.5 are presented. Previous works on other ligninolytic peroxidases, such as lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase, have been performed at pH 7.5; nevertheless, at this pH these enzymes are inactive independently of their Ca(2+) content. At pH 7.5, UV-Vis spectra indicate a heme-Fe(3+) transition from 5-coordinated high-spin configuration in native peroxidase to 6-coordinated low-spin state in the inactive Ca(2+)-depleted form. This Fe(3+) hexa-coordination has been proposed as the origin of inactivation. However, our results at pH 4.5 show that Ca(2+)-depleted enzyme has a high spin Fe(3+). EPR measurements on VP confirm the differences in the Fe(3+) spin states at pH 4.5 and at 7.5 for both, native and Ca(2+)-depleted enzymes. In addition, EPR spectra recorded after the addition of H(2)O(2) to Ca(2+)-depleted VP show the formation of compound I with the radical species delocalized on the porphyrin ring. The lack of radical delocalization on an amino acid residue exposed to solvent, W170, as determined in native enzyme at pH 4.5, explains the inability of Ca(2+)-depleted VP to oxidize veratryl alcohol. These observations, in addition to a notorious redox potential decrease, suggest that Ca(2+)-depleted versatile peroxidase is able to form the active intermediate compound I but its long range electron transfer has been disrupted. PMID:16488071

Verdín, Jorge; Pogni, Rebecca; Baeza, Alejandro; Baratto, M Camilla; Basosi, Riccardo; Vázquez-Duhalt, Rafael



Versatile RNA Interference Nanoplatform for Systemic Delivery of RNAs.  


Development of nontoxic, tumor-targetable, and potent in vivo RNA delivery systems remains an arduous challenge for clinical application of RNAi therapeutics. Herein, we report a versatile RNAi nanoplatform based on tumor-targeted and pH-responsive nanoformulas (NFs). The NF was engineered by combination of an artificial RNA receptor, Zn(II)-DPA, with a tumor-targetable and drug-loadable hyaluronic acid nanoparticle, which was further modified with a calcium phosphate (CaP) coating by in situ mineralization. The NF can encapsulate small-molecule drugs within its hydrophobic inner core and strongly secure various RNA molecules (siRNAs, miRNAs, and oligonucleotides) by utilizing Zn(II)-DPA and a robust CaP coating. We substantiated the versatility of the RNAi nanoplatform by demonstrating effective delivery of siRNA and miRNA for gene silencing or miRNA replacement into different human types of cancer cells in vitro and into tumor-bearing mice in vivo by intravenous administration. The therapeutic potential of NFs coloaded with an anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) and multidrug resistance 1 gene target siRNA (siMDR) was also demonstrated in this study. NFs loaded with Dox and siMDR could successfully sensitize drug-resistant OVCAR8/ADR cells to Dox and suppress OVCAR8/ADR tumor cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. This gene/drug delivery system appears to be a highly effective nonviral method to deliver chemo- and RNAi therapeutics into host cells. PMID:24779637

Choi, Ki Young; Silvestre, Oscar F; Huang, Xinglu; Min, Kyung Hyun; Howard, Gregory P; Hida, Naoki; Jin, Albert J; Carvajal, Nicole; Lee, Sang Wook; Hong, Jong-In; Chen, Xiaoyuan



Porous Surface Modified Bioactive Bone Cement for Enhanced Bone Bonding  

PubMed Central

Background Polymethylmethacrylate bone cement cannot provide an adhesive chemical bonding to form a stable cement-bone interface. Bioactive bone cements show bone bonding ability, but their clinical application is limited because bone resorption is observed after implantation. Porous polymethylmethacrylate can be achieved with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose, alginate and gelatin microparticles to promote bone ingrowth, but the mechanical properties are too low to be used in orthopedic applications. Bone ingrowth into cement could decrease the possibility of bone resorption and promote the formation of a stable interface. However, scarce literature is reported on bioactive bone cements that allow bone ingrowth. In this paper, we reported a porous surface modified bioactive bone cement with desired mechanical properties, which could allow for bone ingrowth. Materials and Methods The porous surface modified bioactive bone cement was evaluated to determine its handling characteristics, mechanical properties and behavior in a simulated body fluid. The in vitro cellular responses of the samples were also investigated in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, bone ingrowth was examined in a rabbit femoral condyle defect model by using micro-CT imaging and histological analysis. The strength of the implant–bone interface was also investigated by push-out tests. Results The modified bone cement with a low content of bioactive fillers resulted in proper handling characteristics and adequate mechanical properties, but slightly affected its bioactivity. Moreover, the degree of attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblast cells was also increased. The results of the push-out test revealed that higher interfacial bonding strength was achieved with the modified bone cement because of the formation of the apatite layer and the osseointegration after implantation in the bony defect. Conclusions Our findings suggested a new bioactive bone cement for prosthetic fixation in total joint replacement.

Huang, Li; Dong, Jingjing; Guo, Dagang; Mao, Mengmeng; Kong, Liang; Li, Yang; Wu, Zixiang; Lei, Wei



Determination of skin repigmentation progression.  


In this paper, we describe an image processing scheme to analyze and determine areas of skin that have undergone repigmentation in particular, during the treatment of vitiligo. In vitiligo cases, areas of skin become pale or white due to the lack of skin pigment called melanin. Vitiligo treatment causes skin repigmentation resulting in a normal skin color. However, it is difficult to determine and quantify the amount of repigmentation visually during treatment because the repigmentation progress is slow and moreover changes in skin color can only be discerned over a longer time frame typically 6 months. Here, we develop a digital image analysis scheme that can identify and determine vitiligo skin areas and repigmentation progression on a shorter time period. The technique is based on principal component analysis and independent component analysis which converts the RGB skin image into a skin image that represent skin areas due to melanin and haemoglobin only, followed by segmentation process. Vitiligo skin lesions are identified as skin areas that lack melanin (non-melanin areas). In the initial studies of 4 patients, the method has been able to quantify repigmentation in vitiligo lesion. Hence it is now possible to determine repigmentation progression objectively and treatment efficacy on a shorter time cycle. PMID:18002737

Nugroho, Hermawan; Fadzil, M H Ahmad; Yap, V V; Norashikin, S; Suraiya, H H



Melanocyte biology and skin pigmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melanocytes are phenotypically prominent but histologically inconspicuous skin cells. They are responsible for the pigmentation of skin and hair, and thereby contribute to the appearance of skin and provide protection from damage by ultraviolet radiation. Pigmentation mutants in various species are highly informative about basic genetic and developmental pathways, and provide important clues to the processes of photoprotection, cancer predisposition

Jennifer Y. Lin; David E. Fisher



Polyamines and nonmelanoma skin cancer  

SciTech Connect

Elevated levels of polyamines have long been associated with skin tumorigenesis. Tightly regulated metabolism of polyamines is critical for cell survival and normal skin homeostasis, and these controls are dysregulated in skin tumorigenesis. A key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is upregulated in skin tumors compared to normal skin. Use of transgenic mouse models has demonstrated that polyamines play an essential role in the early promotional phase of skin tumorigenesis. The formation of skin tumors in these transgenic mice is dependent upon polyamine biosynthesis, especially putrescine, since treatment with inhibitors of ODC activity blocks the formation of skin tumors and causes the rapid regression of existing tumors. Although the mechanism by which polyamines promote skin tumorigenesis are not well understood, elevated levels of polyamines have been shown to stimulate epidermal proliferation, alter keratinocyte differentiation status, increase neovascularization, and increase synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins in a manner similar to that seen in wound healing. It is becoming increasingly apparent that elevated polyamine levels activate not only epidermal cells but also underlying stromal cells in the skin to promote the development and progression of skin tumors. The inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis has potential to be an effective chemoprevention strategy for nonmelanoma skin cancer.

Gilmour, Susan K. [Lankenau Institute for Medical Research, 100 Lancaster Avenue, Wynnewood, PA 19096 (United States)], E-mail:



Wound Healing and Skin Substitutes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of insults can result in injury to the skin including mechanical, thermal, chemical, nuclear, and infectious. In all cases, the injury to the skin triggers a response aimed at restoring the integrity and function of the skin. Wound healing is a dynamic process that involves a complex and closely orchestrated interaction between blood cells, cutaneous parenchymal cells, soluble

Adam J. Singer; Marcia Simon


Utility of High-Frequency Ultrasound: Moving Beyond the Surface to Detect Changes in Skin Integrity  

PubMed Central

Ultrasound imaging is a versatile modality frequently used in clinical medicine, most likely due to its low cost, low risk to patients, and the ability to provide images in real time. Ultrasound used typically in clinical settings has frequencies between 2 and 12 MHz. Lower frequencies produce greater resolution but are limited in depth penetration; higher frequencies produce greater resolution, but depth of penetration is limited. High-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) shows promise for detection of certain changes in the skin and this has implications for early detection of changes associated with pressure ulcer formation and wound healing. The purpose of this article was to provide an overview of where HFUS has been used with the skin and provide some discussion on its utility with detecting skin changes related to pressure.

Lucas, Valentina S.; Burk, Ruth S.; Creehan, Sue; Grap, Mary Jo



Utility of high-frequency ultrasound: moving beyond the surface to detect changes in skin integrity.  


Ultrasound imaging is a versatile modality frequently used in clinical medicine, most likely due to its low cost, low risk to patients, and the ability to provide images in real time. Ultrasound used typically in clinical settings has frequencies between 2 and 12 MHz. Lower frequencies produce greater resolution but are limited in depth penetration; higher frequencies produce greater resolution, but depth of penetration is limited. High-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) shows promise for detection of certain changes in the skin and this has implications for early detection of changes associated with pressure ulcer formation and wound healing. The purpose of this article was to provide an overview of where HFUS has been used with the skin and provide some discussion on its utility with detecting skin changes related to pressure. PMID:24583666

Lucas, Valentina S; Burk, Ruth S; Creehan, Sue; Grap, Mary Jo



The effect of bioactive glass content on synthesis and bioactivity of composite poly (lactic- co-glycolic acid)\\/bioactive glass substrate for tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue engineering offers a promising new approach to bone tissue grafting. One material that has received attention in this regard is the polymer poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). It has the advantage of controllable bioresorption and ease of processing. Another material of interest is bioactive glass (BG), which shows the ability to stimulate osteoblastic differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells. In this study,

Jun Yao; Shula Radin; Phoebe S. Leboy; Paul Ducheyne



Genetics Home Reference: Acral peeling skin syndrome  


... skin syndrome? Acral peeling skin syndrome is a skin disorder characterized by painless peeling of the top layer ... be mild and similar to those of other skin disorders, the condition is likely underdiagnosed. What genes are ...


Bioactive steroids from Oryza sativa L.  


Rice is one of the most interesting crops in the world from both the social and the economic point of views. The monoculture practices along with the heavy use of herbicides are characteristic of modern agriculture and are inducing the appearance of tolerant and/or herbicide resistant weed biotypes. This is the case the world's main weed of rice barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli). Alternative strategies for weed suppression consist of the use of chemicals from rice due to necessity of obtaining new herbicides with new modes of action that could prevent resistance phenomena. In order to carry out a study that guides to the isolation of the most active compounds from rice, different extracts were achieved, and their activities evaluated. So, all the plant material was divided into three parts: fresh plant, dried plant, and fresh plant from Pluviotron. The aerial part was separated from roots in all cases and extracted in water, in organic solvents as well as with the Pluviotron device. The activity of the 12 extracts obtained was evaluated using a generalist bioassay, wheat etiolated coleoptiles bioassay, and a phytotoxic bioassay on barnyardgrass as target species. The bioactive extracts were fractionated and 15 compounds were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods. Eight of these compounds were isolated for the first time in Oryza sativa. The most phytotoxic compounds on E. crus-galli were ergosterol peroxide and 7-oxo-stigmasterol. In the case of ergosterol peroxide the activity was higher than the commercial herbicide Logran. This is the first report of potential allelopathic activity of steroids on weeds based on their phytotoxicity. PMID:16620896

Macías, Francisco A; Chinchilla, Nuria; Varela, Rosa M; Molinillo, José M G



Bioactivity studies on Musa seminifera Lour  

PubMed Central

Background: Musa seminifera Lour is a tree-like perennial herb that has been used in folk medicine in Bangladesh to heal a number of ailments. Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant, analgesic, antidiarrheal, anthelmintic activities, and general toxicity of the ethanol extract of the roots. Materials and Methods: The extract was assessed for free-radical-scavenging activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, total phenolic content (TPC) by the Folin Ciocalteu reagent, antioxidant activity by the ferric reducing power assay, analgesic activity by the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests, antidiarrheal activity by the castor oil-induced diarrhea model in mice, anthelmintic activity on Paramphistomum cervi and Haemonchus contortus, and general toxicity by the brine shrimp lethality assay. Results: The extract showed free-radical-scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 44.86 ?g/mL. TPC was 537.89 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g of dried plant material. It showed concentration-dependent reducing power, and displayed 42.11 and 69.32% writhing inhibition at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The extract also significantly raised the pain threshold at the above-mentioned dose levels. In vivo antidiarrheal property was substantiated by significant prolongation of latent period and decrease in total number of stools compared with the control. The LC50 against brine shrimp nauplii was 36.21 ?g/mL. The extract exhibited dose-dependent decrease in paralysis and death time of the helminths. Conclusion: The above results demonstrated that the plant possesses notable bioactivities and somewhat supports its use in folk medicine.

Saha, Sanjib; Shilpi, Jamil A.; Mondal, Himangsu; Gofur, Royhan; Billah, Morsaline; Nahar, Lutfun; Sarker, Satyajit D.



From human skin to Nano-Skin: an experimental study on human skin temperature measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human state in human–machine systems should be monitored to improve system performance. In monitoring it is preferable to use physiological cues such as skin temperature. The sensing capabilities of human skin were analyzed. The sensing system of human skin was modeled, and inspired the design of a Nano-Skin for physiological measurement in dynamic human–machine contact for human state recognition.

Hongjie Leng; Yingzi Lin



Does the sailfish skin reduce the skin friction like the shark skin?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shape of shark skin - riblet - reduces the skin friction up to 8% in a turbulent boundary layer, as compared to a smooth surface. The sailfish is the fastest sea animal, reaching its maximum speed of 110km\\/h. On the sailfish skin, we observe a number of V-shaped protrusions pointing downstream. So, we investigate the possibility of skin-friction reduction

Woong Sagong; Sangho Choi; Chulkyu Kim; Woo-Pyung Jeon; Haecheon Choi



Skin contamination dosimeter  


A technique and device provides absolute skin dosimetry in real time at multiple tissue depths simultaneously. The device uses a phoswich detector which has multiple scintillators embedded at different depths within a non-scintillating material. A digital pulse processor connected to the phoswich detector measures a differential distribution (dN/dH) of count rate N as function of pulse height H for signals from each of the multiple scintillators. A digital processor computes in real time from the differential count-rate distribution for each of multiple scintillators an estimate of an ionizing radiation dose delivered to each of multiple depths of skin tissue corresponding to the multiple scintillators embedded at multiple corresponding depths within the non-scintillating material.

Hamby, David M. (Corvallis, OR) [Corvallis, OR; Farsoni, Abdollah T. (Corvallis, OR) [Corvallis, OR; Cazalas, Edward (Corvallis, OR) [Corvallis, OR



Journey to the skin  

PubMed Central

The peripheral axons of vertebrate tactile somatosensory neurons travel long distances from ganglia just outside the central nervous system to the skin. Once in the skin these axons form elaborate terminals whose organization must be regionally patterned to detect and accurately localize different kinds of touch stimuli. This review describes key studies that identified choice points for somatosensory axon growth cones and the extrinsic molecular cues that function at each of those steps. While much has been learned in the past 20 years about the guidance of these axons, there is still much to be learned about how the peripheral axons of different kinds of somatosensory neurons adopt different trajectories and form specific terminal structures.

Wang, Fang; Julien, Donald P.; Sagasti, Alvaro



Protective effect of detoxified Rhus verniciflua stokes on human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts against oxidative stress and identification of the bioactive phenolics.  


Oxidative stress due to the over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is associated with human skin aging. This study was designed to identify the bioactive phenolics in detoxified Rhus verniciflua Stokes (DRVS) that may protect human skin against oxidative stress. Under oxidative stress caused by H?O?, the 40% (v/v) aqueous methanol extract of DRVS protected human keratinocytes in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) was also inhibited by the DRVS extract in human dermal fibroblasts-neonatal cells exposed to ultraviolet A. The major bioactive phenolics of DRVS were tentatively identified by LC/Q-TOF-ESI-MS/MS, and included gallic acid, 2-(ethoxymethoxy)-3-hydroxyphenol, fustin, a fustin isomer, tetragalloyl glucose, pentagalloyl glucose, fisetin, sulfuretin, a sulfuretin isomer, and butein. The results suggest that a DRVS extract may be effective in slowing skin aging through its antioxidative properties and by down-regulating MMP-1 expression. Further studies are needed to examine whether this effect would be mediated by the phenolics identified in this study. PMID:23924730

Liu, Chun-Shan; Nam, Tae-Gyu; Han, Min-Woo; Ahn, Soo-mi; Choi, Han Seok; Kim, Tae Young; Chun, Ock K; Koo, Sung I; Kim, Dae-Ok



Bioactive glass fiber/polymeric composites bond to bone tissue.  


Bioactive glass fibers were investigated for use as a fixation vehicle between a low modulus, polymeric composite and bone tissue. In an initial pilot study, bioactive glass fiber/polysulfone composites and all-polysulfone control rods were implanted into the rabbit tibia; the study was subsequently expanded with implantation into the rabbit femur. Bone tissue exhibited direct contact with the glass fibers and adjacent polymer matrix and displayed a mechanical bond between the composite and bone tissue after six weeks implantation. Interfacial bond strengths after six weeks implantation averaged 12.4 MPa, significantly higher than those of the all-polymer controls. Failure sites for the composite at six weeks generally occurred in the bone tissue or composite, whereas the failure site for the polymer implants occurred exclusively at the implant/tissue interface. The bioactive glass fiber/polysulfone composite achieved fixation to bone tissue through a triple mechanism: a bond to the bioactive glass fiber, mechanical interlocking between the tissue and glass fibers, and close apposition and possible chemical bond between the portions of the polymer and bone tissue. This last mechanism resulted from an overspill of bioactivity reactions from the fibers onto the surface of the surrounding polymer which we call the "halo" effect. PMID:9429107

Marcolongo, M; Ducheyne, P; Garino, J; Schepers, E



Immense Essence of Excellence: Marine Microbial Bioactive Compounds  

PubMed Central

Oceans have borne most of the biological activities on our planet. A number of biologically active compounds with varying degrees of action, such as anti-tumor, anti-cancer, anti-microtubule, anti-proliferative, cytotoxic, photo protective, as well as antibiotic and antifouling properties, have been isolated to date from marine sources. The marine environment also represents a largely unexplored source for isolation of new microbes (bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, microalgae-cyanobacteria and diatoms) that are potent producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Extensive research has been done to unveil the bioactive potential of marine microbes (free living and symbiotic) and the results are amazingly diverse and productive. Some of these bioactive secondary metabolites of microbial origin with strong antibacterial and antifungal activities are being intensely used as antibiotics and may be effective against infectious diseases such as HIV, conditions of multiple bacterial infections (penicillin, cephalosporines, streptomycin, and vancomycin) or neuropsychiatric sequelae. Research is also being conducted on the general aspects of biophysical and biochemical properties, chemical structures and biotechnological applications of the bioactive substances derived from marine microorganisms, and their potential use as cosmeceuticals and nutraceuticals. This review is an attempt to consolidate the latest studies and critical research in this field, and to showcase the immense competence of marine microbial flora as bioactive metabolite producers. In addition, the present review addresses some effective and novel approaches of procuring marine microbial compounds utilizing the latest screening strategies of drug discovery.

Bhatnagar, Ira; Kim, Se-Kwon



Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer  

PubMed Central

Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) represents the most common form of cancer in Caucasians, with continuing increase in incidence worldwide. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) accounts for 75% of cases of NMSC, and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) accounts for the remaining majority of NMSC cases. Whilst metastasis from BCC is extremely rare, metastasis from high-risk SCC may be fatal. In this article, we review the aetiology, diagnosis and management of NMSC.

Samarasinghe, Venura; Madan, Vishal



Soil as Living Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two-minute radio program, a soil scientist introduces listeners to reasons why soil is crucial to the planet. The scientist lists functions of soil that include nutrient cycling and water filtration, and he also uses living skin as an analogy for soil. The program, part of the Pulse of the Planet radio show, is available here in text and audio formats. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Planet, Pulse O.



Improved skin friction interferometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved system for measuring aerodynamic skin friction which uses a dual-laser-beam oil-film interferometer was developed. Improvements in the optical hardware provided equal signal characteristics for each beam and reduced the cost and complexity of the system by replacing polarization rotation by a mirrored prism for separation of the two signals. An automated, objective, data-reduction procedure was implemented to eliminate

R. V. Westphal; W. D. Bachalo; M. H. Houser



[Basophils in skin inflammation].  


Basophils represent less than 1% of peripheral blood leukocytes. Under physiological conditions, basophils principally circulate in peripheral blood, while mast cells reside in peripheral tissues. Like mast cells, they express the high-affinity IgE receptor on their cell surface and release chemical mediators. Because of morphological and functional similarities, basophils have long been considered to be redundant "circulating mast cells" and minor (probably negligible) players in inflammation. Mouse and human basophils cannot be stained in routinely processed histological specimens, and thus, our understanding of tissue basophils in allergic inflammation had been limited. However, recent studies in mice have revealed that basopihls play non-redundant roles from mast cells. Basophils function as a source of IL-4, IL-13, and CCL22, thereby contributing Th2 immunity. They are also capable of presenting antigens. Basophils are essential for the development of IgE-mediated chronic allergic skin inflammation in mice. Recent immunohistochemical studies with an basophil-specific antibody revealed that, in humans, varying numbers of basophils infiltrate skin lesions of inflammatory diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, urticaria, prurigo, and eosinophilic pustular folliculitis. Basophils may play important roles in a variety of inflammatory skin diseases than previously thought. PMID:21628847

Satoh, Takahiro



Characteristics of the Aging Skin  

PubMed Central

Significance Although most researches into the changes in skin with age focus on the unwelcome aesthetic aspects of the aging skin, skin deterioration with age is more than a merely cosmetic problem. Although mortality from skin disease is primarily restricted to melanoma, dermatological disorders are ubiquitous in older people with a significant impact on quality of life. The structural and functional deterioration of the skin that occurs with age has numerous clinical presentations, ranging from benign but potentially excruciating disorders like pruritus to the more threatening carcinomas and melanomas. Recent Advances The degenerative changes that occur in the aging skin are increasingly understood at both the molecular and cellular level, facilitating a deeper understanding of the structural and functional deterioration that these changes produce. Critical Issues A loss of both function and structural stability in skin proceeds unavoidably as individuals age, which is the result of both intrinsic and extrinsic processes, which contribute simultaneously to a progressive loss of skin integrity. Intrinsic aging proceeds at a genetically determined pace, primarily caused by the buildup of damaging products of cellular metabolism as well as an increasing biological aging of the cells. Estrogen levels strongly influence skin integrity in women as well; falling levels in midlife, therefore, produce premature aging as compared with similarly aged men. Extrinsic insults from the environment add to the dermatological signs of aging. Future Directions A deeper understanding of the physiological basis of skin aging will facilitate progress in the treatment of the unwelcome sequelae of aging skin, both cosmetic and pathogenic.

Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Elsner, Peter; Maibach, Howard I.



In vitro bioactivity, cytocompatibility, and antibiotic release profile of gentamicin sulfate-loaded borate bioactive glass/chitosan composites.  


Borate bioactive glass-based composites have been attracting interest recently as an osteoconductive carrier material for local antibiotic delivery. In the present study, composites composed of borate bioactive glass particles bonded with a chitosan matrix were prepared and evaluated in vitro as a carrier for gentamicin sulfate. The bioactivity, degradation, drug release profile, and compressive strength of the composite carrier system were studied as a function of immersion time in phosphate-buffered saline at 37 °C. The cytocompatibility of the gentamicin sulfate-loaded composite carrier was evaluated using assays of cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of osteogenic MC3T3-E1 cells. Sustained release of gentamicin sulfate occurred over ~28 days in PBS, while the bioactive glass converted continuously to hydroxyapatite. The compressive strength of the composite loaded with gentamicin sulfate decreased from the as-fabricated value of 24 ± 3 MPa to ~8 MPa after immersion for 14 days in PBS. Extracts of the soluble ionic products of the borate glass/chitosan composites enhanced the proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3-E1 cells. These results indicate that the gentamicin sulfate-loaded composite composed of chitosan-bonded borate bioactive glass particles could be useful clinically as an osteoconductive carrier material for treating bone infection. PMID:23820937

Cui, Xu; Gu, Yifei; Li, Le; Wang, Hui; Xie, Zhongping; Luo, Shihua; Zhou, Nai; Huang, Wenhai; Rahaman, Mohamed N



Synthesis of nano-bioactive glass-ceramic powders and its in vitro bioactivity study in bovine serum albumin protein  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioactive glasses and ceramics have proved to be able to chemically bond to living bone due to the formation of an apatite-like layer on its surface. The aim of this work was preparation and characterization of bioactive glass-ceramic by sol-gel method. Nano-bioglass-ceramic material was crushed into powder and its bioactivity was examined in vitro with respect to the ability of hydroxyapatite layer to form on the surface as a result of contact with bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein. The obtained nano-bioactive glass-ceramic was analyzed before and after contact with BSA solution. This study used scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis to examine its morphology, crystallinity and composition. The TEM images showed that the NBG particles size were 10-40 nm. Bioactivity of nanopowder was confirmed by SEM and XRD due to the presence of a rich bone-like apatite layer. Therefore, this nano-BSA-bioglass-ceramic composite material is promising for medical applications such as bone substitutes and drug carriers.

Nabian, Nima; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Rabiee, Sayed Mahmood



Application of novel extraction technologies for bioactives from marine algae.  


Marine algae are a rich source of bioactive compounds. This paper outlines the main bioactive compounds in marine algae and recent advances in novel technologies for extracting them. Novel extraction technologies reviewed include enzyme-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, and pressurized liquid extraction. These technologies are reviewed with respect to principles, benefits, and potential applications for marine algal bioactives. Advantages of novel technologies include higher yield, reduced treatment time, and lower cost compared to traditional solvent extraction techniques. Moreover, different combinations of novel techniques used for extraction and technologies suitable for thermolabile compounds are identified. The limitations of and challenges to employing these novel extraction technologies in industry are also highlighted. PMID:23634989

Kadam, Shekhar U; Tiwari, Brijesh K; O'Donnell, Colm P



Functional significance of bioactive peptides derived from soybean.  


Biologically active peptides play an important role in metabolic regulation and modulation. Several studies have shown that during gastrointestinal digestion, food processing and microbial proteolysis of various animals and plant proteins, small peptides can be released which possess biofunctional properties. These peptides are to prove potential health-enhancing nutraceutical for food and pharmaceutical applications. The beneficial health effects of bioactive peptides may be several like antihypertensive, antioxidative, antiobesity, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, hypocholesterolemic and anticancer. Soybeans, one of the most abundant plant sources of dietary protein, contain 36-56% of protein. Recent studies showed that soy milk, an aqueous extract of soybean, and its fermented product have great biological properties and are a good source of bioactive peptides. This review focuses on bioactive peptides derived from soybean; we illustrate their production and biofunctional attributes. PMID:24508378

Singh, Brij Pal; Vij, Shilpa; Hati, Subrota



Edible berries: bioactive components and their effect on human health.  


The importance of food consumption in relation to human health has increased consumer attention in nutraceutical components and foods, especially fruits and vegetables. Berries are a rich source of a wide variety of non-nutritive, nutritive, and bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, phenolics, anthocyanins, phenolic acids, stilbenes, and tannins, as well as nutritive compounds such as sugars, essential oils, carotenoids, vitamins, and minerals. Bioactive compounds from berries have potent antioxidant, anticancer, antimutagenic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineurodegenerative properties, both in vitro and in vivo. The following is a comprehensive and critical review on nutritional and non-nutritional bioactive compounds of berries including their absorption, metabolism, and biological activity in relation to their potential effect on human health. PMID:24012283

Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won



Potential of Fruit Wastes as Natural Resources of Bioactive Compounds  

PubMed Central

Fruit wastes are one of the main sources of municipal waste. In order to explore the potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant potency and total phenolic contents (TPC) of lipophilic and hydrophilic components in wastes (peel and seed) of 50 fruits were systematically evaluated. The results showed that different fruit residues had diverse antioxidant potency and the variation was very large. Furthermore, the main bioactive compounds were identified and quantified, and catechin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, epicatechin, galangin, gallic acid, homogentisic acid, kaempferol, and chlorogenic acid were widely found in these residues. Especially, the values of ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and TPC in the residues were higher than in pulps. The results showed that fruit residues could be inexpensive and readily available resources of bioactive compounds for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

Deng, Gui-Fang; Shen, Chen; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Kuang, Ru-Dan; Guo, Ya-Jun; Zeng, Li-Shan; Gao, Li-Li; Lin, Xi; Xie, Jie-Feng; Xia, En-Qin; Li, Sha; Wu, Shan; Chen, Feng; Ling, Wen-Hua; Li, Hua-Bin



Bioactive secondary metabolites from marine microbes for drug discovery.  


The isolation and extraction of novel bioactive secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms have a biomedical potential for future drug discovery as the oceans cover 70% of the planet's surface and life on earth originates from sea. Wide range of novel bioactive secondary metabolites exhibiting pharmacodynamic properties has been isolated from marine microorganisms and many to be discovered. The compounds isolated from marine organisms (macro and micro) are important in their natural form and also as templates for synthetic modifications for the treatments for variety of deadly to minor diseases. Many technical issues are yet to overcome before wide-scale bioprospecting of marine microorganisms becomes a reality. This chapter focuses on some novel secondary metabolites having antitumor, antivirus, enzyme inhibitor, and other bioactive properties identified and isolated from marine microorganisms including bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, and cyanobacteria, which could serve as potentials for drug discovery after their clinical trials. PMID:22361200

Nikapitiya, Chamilani



Bioactive Molecules in Soil Ecosystems: Masters of the Underground  

PubMed Central

Complex biological and ecological processes occur in the rhizosphere through ecosystem-level interactions between roots, microorganisms and soil fauna. Over the past decade, studies of the rhizosphere have revealed that when roots, microorganisms and soil fauna physically contact one another, bioactive molecular exchanges often mediate these interactions as intercellular signal, which prepare the partners for successful interactions. Despite the importance of bioactive molecules in sustainable agriculture, little is known of their numerous functions, and improving plant health and productivity by altering ecological processes remains difficult. In this review, we describe the major bioactive molecules present in below-ground ecosystems (i.e., flavonoids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics and quorum-sensing signals), and we discuss how these molecules affect microbial communities, nutrient availability and plant defense responses.

Zhuang, Xuliang; Gao, Jie; Ma, Anzhou; Fu, Shenglei; Zhuang, Guoqiang



Quantitative studies on roast kinetics for bioactives in coffee.  


Quantitative analysis of the bioactives trigonelline (1), N-methylpyridinium (2), caffeine (3), and caffeoylquinic acids (4) in a large set of roasted Arabica (total sample size n = 113) and Robusta coffees (total sample size n = 38) revealed that the concentrations of 1 and 4 significantly correlated with the roasting color (P < 0.001, two tailed), whereas that of 2 significantly correlated inversely with the color (P < 0.001, two tailed). As dark-roasted coffees were rich in N-methylpyridinium whereas light-roasted coffees were rich in trigonelline and caffeoylquinic acids, manufacturing of roast coffees rich in all four bioactives would therefore necessitate blending of two or even more coffees of different roasting colors. Additional experiments on the migration rates during coffee brewing showed that all four bioactives were nearly quantitatively extracted in the brew (>90%) when a water volume/coffee powder ratio of >16 was used. PMID:24274681

Lang, Roman; Yagar, Erkan Firat; Wahl, Anika; Beusch, Anja; Dunkel, Andreas; Dieminger, Natalie; Eggers, Rudolf; Bytof, Gerhard; Stiebitz, Herbert; Lantz, Ingo; Hofmann, Thomas



Megalanthine, a bioactive sesquiterpenoid from Heliotropium megalanthum, its degradation products and their bioactivities.  


The new bioactive sesquiterpenoid (3R,6E)-2,6,10-trimethyl-3-(3-p-hydroxyphenylpropanoyloxy)-dodeca-6,11-diene-2,10-diol, named megalanthine, was isolated from the resinous exudates of Heliotropium megalanthum. The degradation products of this compound were identified. Several plant-defensive properties (insecticidal, antifungal, and phytotoxic) were evaluated after obtaining positive results in a preliminary etiolated wheat coleoptile bioassay. This bioassay showed the need to have both the phenolic and sesquiterpene moieties of the natural product present to achieve a biological effect. This result was confirmed in phytotoxicity bioassays. Megalanthine was ruled out as a significant plant-plant defense agent because of its lack of stability. The positive results recorded in the antifungal and antifeedant tests suggest, however, that this chemical is relevant in several ecological interactions involving H. megalanthum. PMID:19151929

Macías, Francisco A; Simonet, Ana M; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Maya, Claudia C; Reina, Matías; González-Coloma, Azucena; Cabrera, Raimundo; Giménez, Cristina; Villarroel, Luis



Enhanced bioactivity and osteoconductivity of hydroxyapatite through chloride substitution.  


The effect of chloride-substitution on bioactivity and osteoconductivity of hydroxyapatite (OHAp) was newly investigated. Chloride-substituted hydroxyapatites (ClAp) with low and high chloride concentrations were synthesized by reacting Ca(OH)2 and H3 PO4 with NH4 Cl of low and high concentrations, with subsequent sintering. As a control, pure OHAp was prepared under the same conditions but without addition of NH4 Cl. The ClAp showed markedly enhanced bioactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF) as the chloride substitution was increased. In contrast, OHAp did not show any bioactivity at all within the testing period. The solubility tests in deionized water also showed that the higher the chloride-substituting amount, the higher the dissolution amounts of the constituent elements of apatite, which directly affect bioactivity by increasing the degree of supersaturation of apatite in SBF. In addition, ClAp also showed noticeably higher osteoconductivity within the 4 weeks of implantation in calvarial defects of New Zealand white rabbits, compared with that of OHAp. The total system energy of the apatite calculated by the ab initio method showed that the higher the chloride-substituting amount, the higher the total system energy, which suggests that the ClAp was energetically less stable compared with OHAp. This result demonstrates the higher solubility of ClAp over that of OHAp in SBF and deionized water. The improved solubility of the OHAp enhances its bioactivity and consequent osteoconductivity. Taken together, it can be concluded that ClAp has encouraging potential for use as a bone grafting material due to its highly enhanced bioactivity and osteoconductivity compared with pure OHAp. PMID:23533198

Cho, Jung Sang; Yoo, Dong Su; Chung, Yong-Chae; Rhee, Sang-Hoon



Bioactive polymers for cardiac tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prevalent in the US and worldwide, acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) can cause ischemic injuries to the heart that persist and lead to progressive degradation of the organ. Tissue engineering techniques exploiting biomaterials present a hopeful means of treating these injuries, either by mechanically stabilizing the injured ventricle, or by fostering cell growth to replace myocytes lost to damage. This thesis describes the development and testing of a synthetic extracellular matrix for cardiac tissue engineering applications. The first stage of this process was using an advanced finite element model of an injured ovine left ventricle to evaluate the potential benefits of injecting synthetic materials into the heart. These simulations indicated that addition of small amounts non-contractile material (on the order of 1--5% total wall volume) to infarct border zone regions reduced pathological systolic fiber stress to levels near those found in normal remote regions. Simulations also determined that direct addition to the infarct itself caused increases in ventricle ejection fraction while the underlying performance of the pump, ascertained by the Starling relation, was not improved. From these theoretical results, biomaterials were developed specifically for injection into the injured myocardium, and were characterized and tested for their mechanical properties and ability to sustain the proliferation of a stem cell population suitable for transplantation. Thermoresponsive synthetic copolymer hydrogels consisting of N-isopropylacrylamide and acrylic acid, p(NIPAAm-co-AAc), crosslinked with protease degradable amino acid sequences and modified with integrin binding ligands were synthesized, characterized in vitro, and used for myocardial implantation. These injectable materials could maintain a population of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in both two dimensional and three dimensional culture, and when tested in vivo in a murine infarct model they stabilized injured ventricles, reducing functional loss over 6 weeks, and promoted the survival of transplanted stem cells. In addition, modifications to the hydrogel to impart novel bioactivity through a developed tethered form of the protein sonic hedgehog were synthesized and characterized. This tethered form increased protein potency, induced angiogenesis, and could be incorporated into the hydrogel material for future implantation studies in the injured ventricle.

Wall, Samuel Thomas


Quantum-chemical study on the bioactive conformation of epothilones.  


Herein, I report a DFT study on the bioactive conformation of epothilone A based on the analysis of 92 stable conformations of free and bound epothilone to a reduced model of tubulin receptor. The equilibrium structures and relative energies were studied using B3LYP and X3LYP functionals and the 6-31G(d) standard basis set, which was considered appropriate for the size of the systems under study. Calculated relative energies of free and bound epothilones led me to propose a new model for the bioactive conformation of epothilone A, which accounts for several structure-activity data. PMID:21077585

Jiménez, Verónica A



Konishiol, a new sesquiterpene, and bioactive components from Cunninghamia konishii.  


Three sesquiterpenes, konishiol (1), cadalenol (2), 3-cedranol (3), one diterpene, manool (4), and one lignan, (+)-tsugacetal (5), have been isolated, for the first time, from the whole plant of Cunninghamia konishii by using bioactivity-directed fractionation. Compound 1 is new to the literature, and its chemical structure was determined by various spectroscopic analyses including EIMS, HREIMS, NOE, NOESY, and by preparing its di-acetyl derivative (1a). Compounds 2-5 showed moderate to weak bioactivities in brine shrimp (BST) and mosquito larvae (YFM) bioassays as well as cytotoxicities against three human solid tumor cell lines. PMID:9140232

He, K; Shi, G; Zeng, L; Ye, Q; McLaughlin, J L



Corrosion protection of mesoporous bioactive glass coating on biodegradable magnesium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) coating was synthesized and coated on pure Mg substrate using a sol-gel dip-coating method. The MBG coating uniformly covered the Mg substrate with a thickness of ?1.5 ?m. Electrochemical and immersion tests were performed in order to investigate the biodegradation performance of Mg with and without different surface coatings in simulated body fluids (SBF) at 37 °C. Results revealed that the MBG coated Mg displayed a significantly lower biodegradation rate, in comparison with normal bioactive glass (BG) coated and uncoated Mg samples.

Wang, Xiaojian; Wen, Cuie



Glyproline peptide family: review on bioactivity and possible origins.  


Glyproline peptide family includes the simplest proline-containing linear peptides PG, GP, PGP, respective peptides with hydroxylated proline residues and (with some restriction) cyclic PG. Having close structural resemblance they display many similar bioactivities. The suppression of some reactions of blood coagulation and platelet aggregation and protection of gastric mucosa against various ulcerogenic factors are the most important glyproline effects. Glyprolines have two common putative sources: (1) collagen and elastin synthesis and catabolism, and (2) penetration of proline-containing di- and tripeptides from food protein hydrolysate from the intestine into bloodstream. Possible physiological and biochemical mechanisms of glyproline bioactivities are under discussion. PMID:12100966

Samonina, G; Ashmarin, I; Lyapina, L



Bioactive components of velvet antlers and their pharmacological properties.  


Velvet antler is one of the most important animal medicines, and has been used with a variety of functions, such as anti-fatigue, tissue repair and health promotion. In the past few years, the investigation on chemical compositions, bioactive components, and pharmacological effects has been performed, which demonstrates that velvet antlers could be used as an important health-promoting tonic with great nutritional and medicinal values. This review focuses on the recent advance in studying the bioactive components of velvet antlers. PMID:24029381

Sui, Zhigang; Zhang, Lihua; Huo, Yushu; Zhang, Yukui



The CARLSBAD database: a confederated database of chemical bioactivities.  


Many bioactivity databases offer information regarding the biological activity of small molecules on protein targets. Information in these databases is often hard to resolve with certainty because of subsetting different data in a variety of formats; use of different bioactivity metrics; use of different identifiers for chemicals and proteins; and having to access different query interfaces, respectively. Given the multitude of data sources, interfaces and standards, it is challenging to gather relevant facts and make appropriate connections and decisions regarding chemical-protein associations. The CARLSBAD database has been developed as an integrated resource, focused on high-quality subsets from several bioactivity databases, which are aggregated and presented in a uniform manner, suitable for the study of the relationships between small molecules and targets. In contrast to data collection resources, CARLSBAD provides a single normalized activity value of a given type for each unique chemical-protein target pair. Two types of scaffold perception methods have been implemented and are available for datamining: HierS (hierarchical scaffolds) and MCES (maximum common edge subgraph). The 2012 release of CARLSBAD contains 439 985 unique chemical structures, mapped onto 1,420 889 unique bioactivities, and annotated with 277 140 HierS scaffolds and 54 135 MCES chemical patterns, respectively. Of the 890 323 unique structure-target pairs curated in CARLSBAD, 13.95% are aggregated from multiple structure-target values: 94 975 are aggregated from two bioactivities, 14 544 from three, 7 930 from four and 2214 have five bioactivities, respectively. CARLSBAD captures bioactivities and tags for 1435 unique chemical structures of active pharmaceutical ingredients (i.e. 'drugs'). CARLSBAD processing resulted in a net 17.3% data reduction for chemicals, 34.3% reduction for bioactivities, 23% reduction for HierS and 25% reduction for MCES, respectively. The CARLSBAD database supports a knowledge mining system that provides non-specialists with novel integrative ways of exploring chemical biology space to facilitate knowledge mining in drug discovery and repurposing. Database URL: PMID:23794735

Mathias, Stephen L; Hines-Kay, Jarrett; Yang, Jeremy J; Zahoransky-Kohalmi, Gergely; Bologa, Cristian G; Ursu, Oleg; Oprea, Tudor I



Chemical and bioactive diversities of the genus Chaetomium secondary metabolites.  


The genus Chaetomium fungi are considered to be a rich source of novel and bioactive secondary metabolites of great importance. Up till now, a variety of more than 200 secondary metabolites belonging to diverse structural types of chaetoglobosins, epipolythiodioxopiperazines, azaphilones, xanthones, anthraquinones, chromones, depsidones, terpenoids, and steroids have been discovered. Most of these fungal metabolites exhibited antitumor, cytotoxic, antimalarial, enzyme inhibitory, antibiotic, and other activities. This review covers the extraction, structure elucidation, structural diversity, and biological activities of natural products isolated from about 30 fungi associated with marine- and terrestrial- origins, and highlights some bioactive compounds as well as their mechanisms of action and structure-activity relationships. PMID:22372603

Zhang, Q; Li, H-Q; Zong, S-C; Gao, J-M; Zhang, A-L



Compensation for occupational skin diseases.  


The Korean list of occupational skin diseases was amended in July 2013. The past list was constructed according to the causative agent and the target organ, and the items of that list had not been reviewed for a long period. The revised list was reconstructed to include diseases classified by the International Classification of Diseases (10th version). Therefore, the items of compensable occupational skin diseases in the amended list in Korea comprise contact dermatitis; chemical burns; Stevens-Johnson syndrome; tar-related skin diseases; infectious skin diseases; skin injury-induced cellulitis; and skin conditions resulting from physical factors such as heat, cold, sun exposure, and ionized radiation. This list will be more practical and convenient for physicians and workers because it follows a disease-based approach. The revised list is in accordance with the International Labor Organization list and is refined according to Korean worker's compensation and the actual occurrence of occupational skin diseases. However, this revised list does not perfectly reflect the actual status of skin diseases because of the few cases of occupational skin diseases, incomplete statistics of skin diseases, and insufficient scientific evidence. Thus, the list of occupational diseases should be modified periodically on the basis of recent evidence and statistics. PMID:25006325

Song, Han-Soo; Ryou, Hyun-Chul



A study of the electrophoretic deposition of bioactive glass–chitosan composite coating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive glass is coated on implant's surface to improve corrosion resistance and osseointegration, when placed in the body. Bioactive glass particles were synthesized through a sol–gel process and deposited along with chitosan to form a composite coating on a stainless steel substrate using electrophoretic deposition technique. Stable suspensions of chitosan–bioactive glass were prepared using bioactive glass particles (<1?m) and 0.5g\\/l

Mehrad Mehdipour; Abdollah Afshar


Strength and toughness of tape cast bioactive glass 45S5 following heat treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tape cast and sintered (TCS) bioactive glass 45S5 has been shown to exhibit in vitro bioactivity in SBF and Tris, despite the formation of a crystalline phase (Na2Ca2Si3O9) during heat treatment. In this work, the effective porosity, hardness and flexural strength of TCS bioactive ceramic (composed of bioactive glass 45S5 prior to heat treatment) was determined as a function of

D. C Clupper; L. L Hench; J. J Mecholsky



Ellagic Acid: An Unusually Versatile Protector against Oxidative Stress.  


Several aspects related to the antioxidant activity of ellagic acid were investigated using the density functional theory. It was found that this compound is unusually versatile for protecting against the toxic effects caused by oxidative stress. Ellagic acid, in aqueous solution at physiological pH, is able of deactivating a wide variety of free radicals, which is a desirable capability since in biological systems, these species are diverse. Under such conditions, the ellagic acid anion is proposed as the key species for its protective effects. It is predicted to be efficiently and continuously regenerated after scavenging two free radicals per cycle. This is an advantageous and unusual behavior that contributes to increase its antioxidant activity at low concentrations. In addition, the ellagic acid metabolites are also capable of efficiently scavenging a wide variety of free radicals. Accordingly, it is proposed that the ellagic acid efficiency for that purpose is not reduced after being metabolized. On the contrary, it provides continuous protection against oxidative stress through a free radical scavenging cascade. This is an uncommon and beneficial behavior, which makes ellagic acid particularly valuable to that purpose. After deprotonation, ellagic acid is also capable of chelating copper, in a concentration dependent way, decreasing the free radical production. In summary, ellagic acid is proposed to be an efficient multiple-function protector against oxidative stress. PMID:24697747

Galano, Annia; Francisco Marquez, Misaela; Pérez-González, Adriana



Versatile multi-functionalization of protein nanofibrils for biosensor applications.  


Protein nanofibrils offer advantages over other nanostructures due to the ease in their self-assembly and the versatility of surface chemistry available. Yet, an efficient and general methodology for their post-assembly functionalization remains a significant challenge. We introduce a generic approach, based on biotinylation and thiolation, for the multi-functionalization of protein nanofibrils self-assembled from whey proteins. Biochemical characterization shows the effects of the functionalization onto the nanofibrils' surface, giving insights into the changes in surface chemistry of the nanostructures. We show how these methods can be used to decorate whey protein nanofibrils with several components such as fluorescent quantum dots, enzymes, and metal nanoparticles. A multi-functionalization approach is used, as a proof of principle, for the development of a glucose biosensor platform, where the protein nanofibrils act as nanoscaffolds for glucose oxidase. Biotinylation is used for enzyme attachment and thiolation for nanoscaffold anchoring onto a gold electrode surface. Characterization via cyclic voltammetry shows an increase in glucose-oxidase mediated current response due to thiol-metal interactions with the gold electrode. The presented approach for protein nanofibril multi-functionalization is novel and has the potential of being applied to other protein nanostructures with similar surface chemistry. PMID:24337159

Sasso, L; Suei, S; Domigan, L; Healy, J; Nock, V; Williams, M A K; Gerrard, J A



A versatile sample holder for single plane illumination microscopy.  


Single Plane Illumination Microscopy is an emerging and powerful technology for live imaging of whole living organisms. However, sample handling that relies on specimen embedding in agarose or gel is often a key limitation, especially for time-lapse monitoring. To address this issue, we developed a new concept for a holder device allowing us to prepare a sample container made of hydrogel. The production process of this holder is based on 3D printing of both a frame and casting devices. The simplicity of production and the advantages of this versatile new sample holder are shown with time-lapse recording of multicellular tumour spheroid growth. More importantly, we also show that cell division is not impaired in contrast to what is observed with gel embedding. The benefit of this new holder for other sample types, applications and experiments remains to be evaluated, but this innovative concept of fully customizable sample holder preparation potentially represents a major step forward to facilitate the large diffusion of single plane illumination microscopy technology. PMID:23691992

Desmaison, Annaïck; Lorenzo, Corinne; Rouquette, Jacques; Ducommun, Bernard; Lobjois, Valérie



Protic ionic liquids and salts as versatile carbon precursors.  


Instead of traditional polymer precursors and complex procedures, easily prepared and widely obtainable nitrogen-containing protic ionic liquids and salts were explored as novel, small-molecule precursors to prepare carbon materials (CMs) via direct carbonization without other treatments. Depending on the precursor structure, the resultant CMs can be readily obtained with a relative yield of up to 95.3%, a high specific surface area of up to 1380 m(2)/g, or a high N content of up to 11.1 wt%, as well as a high degree of graphitization and high conductivity (even higher than that of graphite). One of the carbons, which possesses a high surface area and a high content of pyridinic N, exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity toward the oxygen reduction reaction in an alkaline medium, as revealed by an onset potential, half-wave potential, and kinetic current density comparable to those of commercial 20 wt% Pt/C. These low-cost and versatile precursors are expected to be important building blocks for CMs. PMID:24450770

Zhang, Shiguo; Miran, Muhammed Shah; Ikoma, Ai; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi



miR-9: a versatile regulator of neurogenesis  

PubMed Central

Soon after its discovery, microRNA-9 (miR-9) attracted the attention of neurobiologists, since it is one of the most highly expressed microRNAs in the developing and adult vertebrate brain. Functional analyses in different vertebrate species have revealed a prominent role of this microRNA in balancing proliferation in embryonic neural progenitor populations. Key transcriptional regulators such as FoxG1, Hes1 or Tlx, were identified as direct targets of miR-9, placing it at the core of the gene network controlling the progenitor state. Recent data also suggest that this function could extend to adult neural stem cells. Other studies point to a role of miR-9 in differentiated neurons. Moreover miR-9 has been implicated in human brain pathologies, either displaying a protective role, such as in Progeria, or participating in disease progression in brain cancers. Altogether functional studies highlight a prominent feature of this highly conserved microRNA, its functional versatility, both along its evolutionary history and across cellular contexts.

Coolen, Marion; Katz, Shauna; Bally-Cuif, Laure



miR-9: a versatile regulator of neurogenesis.  


Soon after its discovery, microRNA-9 (miR-9) attracted the attention of neurobiologists, since it is one of the most highly expressed microRNAs in the developing and adult vertebrate brain. Functional analyses in different vertebrate species have revealed a prominent role of this microRNA in balancing proliferation in embryonic neural progenitor populations. Key transcriptional regulators such as FoxG1, Hes1 or Tlx, were identified as direct targets of miR-9, placing it at the core of the gene network controlling the progenitor state. Recent data also suggest that this function could extend to adult neural stem cells. Other studies point to a role of miR-9 in differentiated neurons. Moreover miR-9 has been implicated in human brain pathologies, either displaying a protective role, such as in Progeria, or participating in disease progression in brain cancers. Altogether functional studies highlight a prominent feature of this highly conserved microRNA, its functional versatility, both along its evolutionary history and across cellular contexts. PMID:24312010

Coolen, Marion; Katz, Shauna; Bally-Cuif, Laure



The genus Pseudovibrio contains metabolically versatile bacteria adapted for symbiosis  

PubMed Central

The majority of strains belonging to the genus Pseudovibrio have been isolated from marine invertebrates such as tunicates, corals and particularly sponges, but the physiology of these bacteria is poorly understood. In this study, we analyse for the first time the genomes of two Pseudovibrio strains – FO-BEG1 and JE062. The strain FO-BEG1 is a required symbiont of a cultivated Beggiatoa strain, a sulfide-oxidizing, autotrophic bacterium, which was initially isolated from a coral. Strain JE062 was isolated from a sponge. The presented data show that both strains are generalistic bacteria capable of importing and oxidizing a wide range of organic and inorganic compounds to meet their carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous and energy requirements under both, oxic and anoxic conditions. Several physiological traits encoded in the analysed genomes were verified in laboratory experiments with both isolates. Besides the versatile metabolic abilities of both Pseudovibrio strains, our study reveals a number of open reading frames and gene clusters in the genomes that seem to be involved in symbiont–host interactions. Both Pseudovibrio strains have the genomic potential to attach to host cells, interact with the eukaryotic cell machinery, produce secondary metabolites and supply the host with cofactors.

Bondarev, Vladimir; Richter, Michael; Romano, Stefano; Piel, Jorn; Schwedt, Anne; Schulz-Vogt, Heide N



A new versatile method for modelling geomagnetic induction in pipelines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomagnetic induction drives telluric currents in pipelines and creates fluctuations in pipe-to-soil potentials (PSP) that interfere with pipeline surveys and create conditions where corrosion is more likely to occur. To understand the process of geomagnetic induction and determine the severity and location of troublesome effects requires the ability to model geomagnetic induction in realistic pipeline networks. Previous modelling work, based on transmission line theory, has provided some insights into the process but has to be customized for each situation. This paper presents a new versatile modelling technique that can be easily applied to any pipeline network. The essential part of the new method is the development of an equivalent-pi circuit for geomagnetic induction in a pipeline section. A complex pipeline network can then be represented as a set of equivalent-pi circuits that are combined to form a nodal admittance network comprising connections between nodes and to ground from each node. The nodal admittance matrix method is then used to determine the voltages everywhere in the pipeline system. Sample results are presented for geomagnetic induction in an example pipeline. It is shown how the modelling results can be combined with electric fields calculated from geomagnetic observatory data to determine the PSP variations that occur during geomagnetic disturbances.

Boteler, D. H.



A versatile tool for conditional gene expression and knockdown.  


Drug-inducible systems allowing the control of gene expression in mammalian cells are invaluable tools for genetic research, and could also fulfill essential roles in gene- and cell-based therapy. Currently available systems, however, often have limited in vivo functionality because of leakiness, insufficient levels of induction, lack of tissue specificity or prohibitively complicated designs. Here we describe a lentiviral vector-based, conditional gene expression system for drug-controllable expression of polymerase (Pol) II promoter-driven transgenes or Pol III promoter-controlled sequences encoding small inhibitory hairpin RNAs (shRNAs). This system has great robustness and versatility, governing tightly controlled gene expression in cell lines, in embryonic or hematopoietic stem cells, in human tumors xenotransplanted into nude mice, in the brain of rats injected intraparenchymally with the vector, and in transgenic mice generated by infection of fertilized oocytes. These results open up promising perspectives for basic or translational research and for the development of gene-based therapeutics. PMID:16432520

Szulc, Jolanta; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Sauvain, Marc-Olivier; Trono, Didier; Aebischer, Patrick



A versatile bifunctional dendritic cell targeting vaccine vector.  


We have developed an efficient versatile in vivo dendritic cell (DC) targeting vector for delivering different classes of antigens such as proteins, peptide, glycolipids and naked DNA for vaccine applications. A single chain antibody (scFv) that recognizes DEC-205 receptor of DC was fused with a core-streptavidin domain and expressed in Escherichia coli using the T7 expression system. The bifunctional fusion protein (bfFp) was expressed as a periplasmic soluble protein and affinity-purified in its monomeric form. The bifunctional activity against DEC-205 and biotin was characterized by ELISA and Western blot. In vivo DC targeting of a diverse group of biotinylated antigens such as viral and bacterial proteins, a cancer peptide, gangliosides and DNA of certain infectious diseases was conducted in mice. Results show that in the presence of bfFp and costimulatory anti-CD40 mAb, both humoral and cell-mediated responses were augmented in either the single antigen or multiple antigen targeting strategy. Lastly, bfFp based DC targeting of antigens in low doses may be a useful strategy for the design of monovalent or polyvalent vaccines for the masses. PMID:19053535

Wang, Welson W; Das, Dipankar; Suresh, Mavanur R



Surface immobilized hydrogels as versatile reagent reservoirs for microarrays.  


The accuracy of antibody-based microarrays depends on eliminating or at least minimizing the effect of cross-reactive components. In this work, a method to create a versatile, compartmentalized storage system for antibodies and soluble microarray reagents is described. These containers are made of hydrogel plugs immobilized on a slide facing the corresponding sub-array on a printed surface. The hydrogels were polymerized using a 4% w/v N,N-dimethylacrylamide and 3% w/v bisacrylamide solution, thus generating large pore sizes to allow the facile transfer of intact, functional biomolecules. The hydrogel microenvironments can be desiccated and rehydrated with a desired solution, and they can store reagents in a dry form. These hydrogels were shown to provide limits of detection similar to those obtained by conventional incubation conditions in an assay for HIV p24 antigen. Moreover, they prevent cross-reactivity issues in the detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins A and B and promote the accurate quantification of interleukin 10 by a microarray-integrated calibration curve. PMID:23454034

Sola, Laura; Gagni, Paola; Cretich, Marina; Chiari, Marcella



Ultrafast and versatile spectroscopy by temporal Fourier transform  

PubMed Central

One of the most remarkable and useful properties of a spatially converging lens system is its inherent ability to perform the Fourier transform; the same applies for the time-lens system. At the back focal plane of the time-lens, the spectral information can be instantaneously obtained in the time axis. By implementing temporal Fourier transform for spectroscopy applications, this time-lens-based architecture can provide orders of magnitude improvement over the state-of-art spatial-dispersion-based spectroscopy in terms of the frame rate. On the other hand, in addition to the single-lens structure, the multi-lens structures (e.g. telescope or wide-angle scope) will provide very versatile operating conditions. Leveraging the merit of instantaneous response, as well as the flexible lens structure, here we present a 100-MHz frame rate spectroscopy system – the parametric spectro-temporal analyzer (PASTA), which achieves 17 times zoom in/out ratio for different observation ranges.

Zhang, Chi; Wei, Xiaoming; Marhic, Michel E.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.



A versatile model of open-fracture infection  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to refine an accepted contaminated rat femur defect model to result in an infection rate of approximately 50%. This threshold will allow examination of treatments aimed at reducing infection in open fractures with less risk of type II error. Methods Defects were created in the stablised femurs of anaethetised rats, contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus and then debrided and irrigated six hours later. After 14 days, the bone and implants were harvested for separate microbiological analysis. This basic model was developed in several studies by varying the quantity of bacterial inoculation, introducing various doses of systemic antibiotics with and without local antibiotics. Results The bacterial inoculation associated with a 50% infection rate was established as 1 × 102 colony forming units (CFU). With an initial bacterial inoculum of 1 × 105 CFU, the dose of systemic antibiotics associated with 50% infection was 5 mg/Kg of cafazolin injected sub-cutaneously every 12 hours, starting at the time of the first debridment and continuing for 72 hours (seven doses). The systemic dose of cafazolin was lowered to 2 mg/Kg when antibiotic polymethyl methacrylate beads were used concurrently with the same amount of bacterial inoculation. Conclusion This model of open fracture infection has been further refined with potential for local and systemic antibiotics. This is a versatile model and with the concepts presented herein, it can be modified to evaluate various emerging therapies and concepts for open fractures. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:187–92.

Penn-Barwell, J. G.; Rand, B. C. C.; Brown, K. V.; Wenke, J. C.



PackBot: a versatile platform for military robotics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The iRobot PackBot is a combat-tested, man-portable UGV that has been deployed in Afghanistan and Iraq. The PackBot is also a versatile platform for mobile robotics research and development that supports a wide range of payloads suitable for many different mission types. In this paper, we describe four R&D projects that developed experimental payloads and software using the PackBot platform. CHARS was a rapid development project to develop a chemical/radiation sensor for the PackBot. We developed the CHARS payload in six weeks and deployed it to Iraq to search for chemical and nuclear weapons. Griffon was a research project to develop a flying PackBot that combined the capabilities of a UGV and a UAV. We developed a Griffon prototype equipped with a steerable parafoil and gasoline-powered motor, and we completed successful flight tests including remote-controlled launch, ascent, cruising, descent, and landing. Valkyrie is an ongoing research and development project to develop a PackBot payload that will assist medics in retrieving casualties from the battlefield. Wayfarer is an applied research project to develop autonomous urban navigation capabilities for the PackBot using laser, stereo vision, GPS, and INS sensors.

Yamauchi, Brian M.



Versatile Apoferritin Nanoparticle Labels for Assay of Protein  

SciTech Connect

A versatile bioassay label based on marker-loaded-apoferritin nanoparticles (MLAN) have been developed for sensitive protein detection. Dissociation and reconstitution characteristics at different pH as well as the special cavity structure of apoferritin provide a facile route to prepare nanoparticle labels, and avoid complicated and tedious synthesis process of conventional nanoparticle labels. The optical and electrochemical characteristics of the prepared nanoparticle labels are easily controlled by loading different optical or electrochemical markers. A fluorescence marker (fluorescein anion) and a redox marker [hexacyanoferrate (III)] were used as model markers to load into the cavity of apoferritin nanoparticle and developed for microscopic fluorescence immunoassay and electrochemical immunoassay, respectively. Detection limits of 0.06 ng mL-1 (0.39 pM) and 0.08 ng mL-1 (0.51 pM) of IgG were obtained with fluorescein MLAP and hexacyanoferrate MLAN, respectively. The new nanoparticle labels hold great promise for multiplex protein detection (in connection to nanoparticles loaded with different markers) and for enhancing the sensitivity of other bioassay.

Liu, Guodong; Wang, Jun; Wu, Hong; Lin, Yuehe



The versatile size analyzing nuclei counter-vSANC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a newly developed expansion chamber condensation particle counter-the versatile Size Analyzing Nuclei Counter (vSANC)-applicable for both laboratory as well as field measurements. The vSANC was optimized to achieve high flexibility in investigating aerosol particles from diameters of 1-2nm upwards at temperatures ranging from -20°C to +40°C and gas pressures ranging from 0.2 bar to 1.2 bar. The operation is based on heterogeneous nucleation of well-defined uniform supersaturated vapor on particles and subsequent droplet growth. Thereby particles, which are initially too small to be detected, grow to visible sizes. Starting from diameters of about 120nm they can be observed with an optical detection method-the multiple Constant Angle Mie Scattering method. This enables automated determination of droplet growth rates for precision verification of vapor supersaturation ranging from 5% up to the limit of homogeneous nucleation as well as absolute number concentrations ranging from 50/cc to 107/cc, independent from the aerosol flow.

Pinterich, Tamara; Winkler, Paul M.; Wagner, Paul E.; Kulmala, Markku; Vrtala, Aron



?-Glucuronidase as a Sensitive and Versatile Reporter in Actinomycetes ?  

PubMed Central

Here we describe a versatile and sensitive reporter system for actinomycetes that is based on gusA, which encodes the ?-glucuronidase enzyme. A series of gusA-containing transcriptional and translational fusion vectors were constructed and utilized to study the regulatory cascade of the phenalinolactone biosynthetic gene cluster. Furthermore, these vectors were used to study the efficiency of translation initiation at the ATG, GTG, TTG, and CTG start codons. Surprisingly, constructs using a TTG start codon showed the best activity, whereas those using ATG or GTG were approximately one-half or one-third as active, respectively. The CTG fusion showed only 5% of the activity of the TTG fusion. A suicide vector, pKGLP2, carrying gusA in its backbone was used to visually detect merodiploid formation and resolution, making gene targeting in actinomycetes much faster and easier. Three regulatory genes, plaR1, plaR2, and plaR3, involved in phenalinolactone biosynthesis were efficiently replaced with an apramycin resistance marker using this system. Finally, we expanded the genetic code of actinomycetes by introducing the nonproteinogenic amino acid N-epsilon-cyclopentyloxycarbonyl-l-lysine with the GusA protein as a reporter.

Myronovskyi, Maksym; Welle, Elisabeth; Fedorenko, Viktor; Luzhetskyy, Andriy



Skin color enhancement based on favorite skin color in HSV color space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin color enhancement based on favorite skin color is proposed to make skin color displayed on large screen flat panel TVs agree with human favorite skin color. A robust skin detection method in different intensity is obtained after analyzing the distribution of skin color in HSV color space. The favorite skin color region is found via a psychological experiment too.

Xiao-Ning Zhang; Jue Jiang; Zhi-Hu Liang; Chun-Liang Liu



Climate change and skin.  


Global climate appears to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Climate change can be caused by several factors that include variations in solar radiation received by earth, oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions, as well as human-induced alterations of the natural world. Many human activities, such as the use of fossil fuel and the consequent accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, land consumption, deforestation, industrial processes, as well as some agriculture practices are contributing to global climate change. Indeed, many authors have reported on the current trend towards global warming (average surface temperature has augmented by 0.6 °C over the past 100 years), decreased precipitation, atmospheric humidity changes, and global rise in extreme climatic events. The magnitude and cause of these changes and their impact on human activity have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing climate change as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Although many articles have been written based on observations and various predictive models of how climate change could affect social, economic and health systems, only few studies exist about the effects of this change on skin physiology and diseases. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to climate. For example, global warming, deforestation and changes in precipitation have been linked to variations in the geographical distribution of vectors of some infectious diseases (leishmaniasis, lyme disease, etc) by changing their spread, whereas warm and humid environment can also encourage the colonization of the skin by bacteria and fungi. The present review focuses on the wide and complex relationship between climate change and dermatology, showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence and the clinical pattern of many dermatoses. PMID:23407083

Balato, N; Ayala, F; Megna, M; Balato, A; Patruno, C



Feasibility of skin surface elastography by tracking skin surface topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances have led to a multitude of image modalities being used for visualization of tissue stiffness. High-resolution images of tissue stiffness are desirable, as they have the potential to provide useful diagnostic information. A noncontact optical imaging method has the attractions of low cost, simplicity, and utility when skin contact is undesirable. However, previous optical techniques have required the application of paint or ink to the surface of the skin and so have required contact. Therefore, the present study assessed the feasibility of tracking skin surface topography to produce elastograms. The study showed, by analyzing a variety of silicone skin surface replicas from various body sites of subjects of different ages, that skin surface elastography by tracking surface topography would be feasible. The study further showed that the quality of the strain images can be optimized by measuring skin line pattern frequency. Skin samples with high skin line frequency will achieve best spatial resolution, in the order of 1 mm, comparable to contact techniques reported previously. A mechanically inhomogeneous silicone replica was then imaged, illustrating the technique's ability to detect strain contrast. Finally, the feasibility of implementing the technique in vivo was illustrated using a single pigmented skin lesion.

Coutts, Louise V.; Miller, Naomi R.; Harland, Christopher C.; Bamber, Jeffrey C.



Microencapsulation of Bioactive Principles with an Airless Spray-Gun Suitable for Processing High Viscous Solutions  

PubMed Central

Purpose: to design, assemble and test a prototype of a novel production plant, suitable for producing microparticles (MPs) by processing highly viscous feed solutions (FSs). Methods: the prototype has been built using a commercial air compressor, a piston pump, an airless spray-gun, a customized air-treatment section, a timer, a rotating base, and a filtration section. Preliminary prototype parameter setting was carried out to individuate the best performing nozzle’s dimension, the nebulization timing, and the CaCl2 concentration in the gelation fluid. In addition, prototype throughput (1 L to 5 L) and the range of practicable feed solution (FS) viscosities were assayed. A set of four batches was prepared in order to characterize the MPs, in terms of mean particle size and distribution, flow properties, swelling, encapsulation efficiency and release. Results: according to a qualitative scoring, the large nozzle was suitable to nebulize FSs at a higher alginate concentration. Conversely, the small nozzle performed better in the processing of FSs with an alginate concentration up to 2% w/v. Only at the highest degree of viscosity, corresponding to 5% w/v of alginate, the FS processing was not technically possible. Among the CaCl2 concentrations considered, 15% w/v was recognized as the most versatile. The prototype appears to be convenient and suitable to grant a high yield starting from 2 L of FS. The flow behavior of the FSs assayed can be satisfactorily described with the Carreau-Yasuda equation and the throughput begins to slightly decrease for FSs at alginate concentrations exceeding 3% w/v. MP morphology was irregular with crumpled shape. The angle of repose indicates a good flowability and the release studies showed gastro-resistance and potential prolonged release applications. Conclusions: the novel prototype of production plant is suitable to process large amounts (2 L or more) of FSs, characterized by a high viscosity, to produce MPs suitable for bioactive principle delivery.

Cocchietto, Moreno; Blasi, Paolo; Lapasin, Romano; Moro, Chiara; Gallo, Davide; Sava, Gianni



Cooperative Macromolecular Self-Assembly toward Polymeric Assemblies with Multiple and Bioactive Functions.  


Conspectus In the past decades, polymer based nanoscale polymeric assemblies have attracted continuous interest due to their potential applications in many fields, such as nanomedicine. Many efforts have been dedicated to tailoring the three-dimensional architecture and the placement of functional groups at well-defined positions within the polymeric assemblies, aiming to augment their function. To achieve such goals, in one way, novel polymeric building blocks can be designed by controlled living polymerization methodology and advanced chemical modifications. In contrast, by focusing on the end function, others and we have been practicing strategies of cooperative self-assembly of multiple polymeric building blocks chosen from the vast library of conventional block polymers which are easily available. The advantages of such strategies lie in the simplicity of the preparation process and versatile choice of the constituent polymers in terms of their chemical structure and functionality as well as the fact that cooperative self-assembly based on supramolecular interactions offers elegant and energy-efficient bottom-up strategies. Combination of these principles has been exploited to optimize the architecture of polymeric assemblies with improved function, to impart new functionality into micelles and to realize polymeric nanocomplexes exhibiting functional integration, similar to some natural systems like artificial viruses, molecular chaperones, multiple enzyme systems, and so forth. In this Account, we shall first summarize several straightforward designing principles with which cooperative assembly of multiple polymeric building blocks can be implemented, aiming to construct polymeric nanoassemblies with hierarchal structure and enhanced functionalities. Next, examples will be discussed to demonstrate the possibility to create multifunctional nanoparticles by combination of the designing principles and judiciously choosing of the building blocks. We focus on multifunctional nanoparticles which can partially address challenges widely existing in nanomedicine such as long blood circulation, efficient cellular uptake, and controllable release of payloads. Finally, bioactive polymeric assemblies, which have certain functions closely mimicking those of some natural systems, will be used to conceive the concept of functional integration. PMID:24694280

Zhang, Zhenkun; Ma, Rujiang; Shi, Linqi



Bioactive glass nanopowder and bioglass coating for biocompatibility improvement of metallic implant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparation and characterization of bioactive glass nanopowder and development of bioglass coating for biocompatibility improvement of 316L stainless steel (SS) implant was the aim of this work. Bioactive glass nanopowder was made by sol–gel technique and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique was utilized to evaluate the powders shape and size. The prepared bioactive glass nanopowder was immersed in the simulated

M. H. Fathi; A. Doostmohammadi



Low temperature skin treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although freezing has been a successful method of curing various kinds of skin lesions for at least 80 years, little progress has been made regarding the techniques and instruments available to the dermatoligist for applying cold. The attempts to improve this technique are reviewed, and the requirements is for successful cryotreatment are discussed taking warts as an example. With these requirements in mind, a simple and effective cryoprobe has been developed by the authors. Its design is described, and the experiences from a year's routine application of the probe to the treatment of warts are discussed.

Klipping, G.; Krishna, A.; Ruppert, U.; Srinivasan, R.; Walter, H.


Simulated human skin scales  

PubMed Central

Human skin scales which have been shed naturally bear a flora of microorganisms which is unknown until tested. To replace these scales in a study of the micro-environment of both the human body and of models a method has been devised of making synthetic scales which behave both physically and aerodynamically in a similar way to the natural material. The synthetic materials carry no natural flora and it is possible to include in them test markers of several kinds to assist in identification after dispersion. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2

Lees, Julienne; Brighton, W. D.



Skin cancer after transplantation.  


Advances in transplantation technique and posttransplantation immunosuppression have resulted in continual improvements in survival and quality of life of transplant recipients. The improved quality of life afforded in the posttransplantation period allows patients to lead more active lifestyles, which often includes increased exposure to solar radiation. This growing population of active, immunosuppressed individuals is at marked risk, up to 65 times that of the general population, for the development of cutaneous neoplasms with associated morbidity and mortality. Prevention, prompt recognition, and effective treatment of skin cancer in this immunosuppressed population are vital. PMID:19345080

Kovach, Bradley T; Stasko, Thomas



Improved Skin Friction Interferometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved system for measuring aerodynamic skin friction which uses a dual-laser-beam oil-film interferometer was developed. Improvements in the optical hardware provided equal signal characteristics for each beam and reduced the cost and complexity of the system by replacing polarization rotation by a mirrored prism for separation of the two signals. An automated, objective, data-reduction procedure was implemented to eliminate tedious manual manipulation of the interferometry data records. The present system was intended for use in two-dimensional, incompressible flows over a smooth, level surface without pressure gradient, but the improvements discussed are not limited to this application.

Westphal, R. V.; Bachalo, W. D.; Houser, M. H.



Wnt signaling in skin organogenesis  

PubMed Central

While serving as the interface between an organism and its environment, the skin also can elaborate a wide range of skin appendages to service specific purposes in a region-specific fashion. As in other organs, Wnt signaling plays a key role in regulating the proliferation, differentiation and motility of skin cells during their morphogenesis. Here I will review some of the recent work that has been done on skin organogenesis. I will cover dermis formation, the development of skin appendages, cycling of appendages in the adult, stem cell regulation, patterning, orientation, regional specificity and modulation by sex hormone nuclear receptors. I will also cover their roles in wound healing, hair regeneration and skin related diseases. It appears that Wnt signaling plays essential but distinct roles in different hierarchical levels of morphogenesis and organogenesis. Many of these areas have not yet been fully explored but are certainly promising areas of future research.



Molecular tumorigenesis of the skin.  


Skin tumors are supposed to develop through accumulations of genetic and/or epigenetic events in normal cells of the skin. Among them, we focus on common skin tumors, including benign, seborrheic keratosis, and malignant, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma. Many important molecules have been detected on the molecular tumorigenesis of each of them to date, and some drugs targeted for their molecules have been already developed. We review updates on the molecular tumorigenesis of these tumors with our current works. PMID:24705742

Kubo, Yoshiaki; Matsudate, Yoshihiro; Fukui, Nozomi; Nakasuka, Ayaka; Sogawa, Maiko; Oshima, Mika; Mizutani, Tomoya; Otsu, Masanobu; Murao, Kazutoshi; Hashimoto, Ichiro