Sample records for versicolor metabolitos secundarios

  1. COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA DE LOS METABOLITOS SECUNDARIOS VOLÁTILES DE Pelargonium graveolens, EN FUNCIÓN DEL MÉTODO DE EXTRACCIÓN Y ÉPOCA DE RECOLECCIÓN DEL MATERIAL VEGETAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DEYNY LETICIA; MENDIVELSO PÉREZ; MARTHA CECILIA OLIVARES; Estudiante de Química

    RESUMEN En la presente investigación se estudió la composición química de los metabolitos secundarios volátiles aislados del geranio, Pelargonium graveolens, en diferentes épocas de recolección del material vegetal mediante dos técnicas de extracción: hidrodestilación asistida por la radiación de microondas (MWHD) y destilación - extracción con solvente simultánea (SDE). Las fracciones volátiles se analizaron por cromatografía de gases acoplada a

  2. Onychomycosis caused by Aspergillus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Veraldi, Stefano; Chiaratti, Anna; Harak, Henry

    2010-07-01

    We report a case of onychomycosis caused by Aspergillus versicolor in a 66-year-old female patient. The infection was characterised clinically by yellowish pigmentation of the nail plate and mild nail bed hyperkeratosis of the first left toe. All other nails were normal. Three direct microscopical examinations of nail samples revealed the presence of hyaline hyphae as well as conidiophores. Pure colonies of A. versicolor were found in three cultures. The patient was successfully treated with oral itraconazole. PMID:19422523

  3. Aflatoxin control in maize by Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Scarpari, Marzia; Bello, Cristiano; Pietricola, Chiara; Zaccaria, Marco; Bertocchi, Luigi; Angelucci, Alessandra; Ricciardi, Maria Rosaria; Scala, Valeria; Parroni, Alessia; Fabbri, Anna A; Reverberi, Massimo; Zjalic, Slaven; Fanelli, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a well-known ubiquitous fungus able to contaminate both in pre- and postharvest period different feed and food commodities. During their growth, these fungi can synthesise aflatoxins, secondary metabolites highly hazardous for animal and human health. The requirement of products with low impact on the environment and on human health, able to control aflatoxin production, has increased. In this work the effect of the basidiomycete Trametes versicolor on the aflatoxin production by A. flavus both in vitro and in maize, was investigated. The goal was to propose an environmental loyal tool for a significant control of aflatoxin production, in order to obtain feedstuffs and feed with a high standard of quality and safety to enhance the wellbeing of dairy cows. The presence of T. versicolor, grown on sugar beet pulp, inhibited the production of aflatoxin B1 in maize by A. flavus. Furthermore, treatment of contaminated maize with culture filtrates of T. versicolor containing ligninolytic enzymes, showed a significant reduction of the content of aflatoxin B1. PMID:25525683

  4. Aflatoxin Control in Maize by Trametes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Scarpari, Marzia; Bello, Cristiano; Pietricola, Chiara; Zaccaria, Marco; Bertocchi, Luigi; Angelucci, Alessandra; Ricciardi, Maria Rosaria; Scala, Valeria; Parroni, Alessia; Fabbri, Anna A.; Reverberi, Massimo; Zjalic, Slaven; Fanelli, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a well-known ubiquitous fungus able to contaminate both in pre- and postharvest period different feed and food commodities. During their growth, these fungi can synthesise aflatoxins, secondary metabolites highly hazardous for animal and human health. The requirement of products with low impact on the environment and on human health, able to control aflatoxin production, has increased. In this work the effect of the basidiomycete Trametes versicolor on the aflatoxin production by A. flavus both in vitro and in maize, was investigated. The goal was to propose an environmental loyal tool for a significant control of aflatoxin production, in order to obtain feedstuffs and feed with a high standard of quality and safety to enhance the wellbeing of dairy cows. The presence of T. versicolor, grown on sugar beet pulp, inhibited the production of aflatoxin B1 in maize by A. flavus. Furthermore, treatment of contaminated maize with culture filtrates of T. versicolor containing ligninolytic enzymes, showed a significant reduction of the content of aflatoxin B1. PMID:25525683

  5. Quantification of the Aspergillus versicolor allergen in house dust.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chunhua; Belisle, Donald; Miller, J David

    2011-09-30

    Aspergillus versicolor, a fungus commonly found on damp building materials, produces the allergen, Asp v 13. Here we report a sensitive Asp v 13 capture ELISA for A. versicolor spores and spore- and mycelial fragments in house dust samples. The method is based on a double polyclonal capture ELSIA. The detection limits for Asp v 13 antigen and A. versicolor spores without dust were 2.44 pg and 12 ng (ca. 110 spores). Detection limits for Asp v 13 and A. versicolor spores in sieved house dust samples were 1.0 ng and 7.8 ?g per gram dry weight house dust, respectively. This detection limit is lower than for other house dust allergen immunoassays including for Stachybotrys chartarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, but much lower than that from Alternaria alternata. PMID:21763696

  6. Mechanism of textile metal dye biotransformation by Trametes versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Blánquez; N Casas; X Gabarrell; M Sarrà; G Caminal; T Vicent

    2004-01-01

    The biodegradation of Grey Lanaset G, which consists of a mixture of metal complexed dye, was studied. Experiments were carried out in a bioreactor with retained pellets of the fungus Trametes versicolor that was operated under conditions of laccase production. Although decolorization was highly efficient (90%), no direct relationship to extracellular enzyme was apparent. Moreover, the extracellular enzyme was found

  7. Kraft pulp bleaching and delignification by Trametes versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. S Archibald; R Bourbonnais; L Jurasek; M. G Paice; I. D Reid

    1997-01-01

    In 1989 we reported that the white-rot basidiomycete fungus Trametes versicolor could delignify and substantially brighten unbleached kraft pulps. Since that time, considerable effort has been dedicated to understanding the biological mechanisms of this efficient delignification system in the hope that part or all of the system can be applied industrially. Early work indicated that all components necessary for extensive

  8. Trametes versicolor extract modifies human fecal microbiota composition in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhuo-Teng; Liu, Bo; Mukherjee, Purna; Newburg, David S

    2013-06-01

    Trametes versicolor is a mushroom used as a traditional Chinese medicine (Yun-zhi) for a wide array of seemingly disparate conditions. We hypothesized that many of its multiple purported activities could be mediated through stimulation of beneficial mutualist components of the microbiota. Human fecal microbiota was cultured anaerobically to determine its ability to ferment a common extract of T. versicolor, designated polysaccharide peptide (PSP), and the ability of PSP to alter the composition of the microbial community. The presence of PSP and fructooligosaccharides (FOS, a common prebiotic) in the medium, but not cellulose, significantly increased levels of Bifidobacterium spp. PSP also elevated Lactobacillus spp., while reducing Clostridium spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. Levels of Streptococcus spp., Bacteroides spp. and Escherichia did not significantly change. Fermentation of PSP increased the concentration of organic acids (lactate and short-chain fatty acids), decreased the pH, and induced ?-galactosidase and ?-glucosidase activities. The genera of the human microbiota that are promoted by FOS and other prebiotics are also stimulated by the Trametes versicolor extract, PSP. Thus, Trametes versicolor, a common East Asian botanical, contains putative prebiotic agents that alter human gut microbiota and pH. This prebiotic-like activity may help explain some of the plethora of the health benefits attributed to this traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23435630

  9. Production of laccase by Trametes versicolor in an airlift fermentor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gonzalo Rancaño; Miriam Lorenzo; Norma Molares; Susana Rodr??guez Couto

    2003-01-01

    The production of laccase by Trametes versicolor in airlift bioreactors was studied. In order to enhance laccase production several inducers were tested, among which 2,5-xylidine led, by far, to the highest activities (around 1500 U\\/l). The bioreactor operated in two successive batches for 40 days with no operational problems and pellets of regular size were maintained throughout the fermentation. The

  10. Evaluation of support materials for the surface immobilization and decoloration of amaranth by Trametes versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Shin; T. Nguyen; J. Ramsay

    2002-01-01

    The ability of Trametes versicolor ATCC 20869 to colonize several natural and synthetic materials (wheat straw, jute, hemp, maple woodchips, and nylon and polyethylene teraphthalate fibers) and to subsequently decolorize amaranth was evaluated. Jute was found to be the best support material as T. versicolor grew well on it without color leaching from the support and without loss of the

  11. Biological bleaching of hardwood kraft pulp using Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor immobilized in polyurethane foam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil Kirkpatrick; Ian D. Reid; Edmund Ziomek; Michael G. Paice

    1990-01-01

    Incubation of hardwood kraft pulp (HWKP) in agitated aerated cultures of the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor increases pulp brightness and decreases its residual lignin content. A consequence of this biobleaching with whole cultures is that the resulting pulp also contains fungal biomass (up to ca. 10% (w\\/w)). In this report culture conditions for the immobilization of T. versicolor on polyurethane

  12. Protein–polysaccharides of Trametes versicolor : production and biological activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José M. Santos Arteiro; M. Rosário Martins; Cátia Salvador; M. Fátima Candeias; Amin Karmali; A. Teresa Caldeira

    Extracellular- (E-PPS) and intracellular-protein–polysaccharides (I-PPS) complexes were produced by Trametes versicolor in submerged cultures with different carbon sources. The highest extracellular-(EPS) and intracellular-polysaccharide (IPS)\\u000a concentration in the complexes was obtained with tomato pomace culture. DPPH radical scavenging for E-PPS and I-PPS produced\\u000a by liter of culture was equivallent to 2.115 ± 0.227 and 1.374 ± 0.364 g of ascorbic acid, respectively. These complexes showed\\u000a a

  13. Biochemical and molecular characterization of a cellobiohydrolase from Trametes versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karim Lahjouji; Reginald Storms; Zhizhuang Xiao; Kwang-Bo Joung; Yun Zheng; Justin Powlowski; Adrian Tsang; Luc Varin

    2007-01-01

    A cellobiohydrolase-encoding cDNA, Tvcel7a, from Trametes versicolor has been cloned and expressed in Aspergillus niger. The deduced amino acid sequence shows that Tvcel7a encodes a 456-amino acid polypeptide belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 7. TvCel7a possesses a 19-amino acid secretion\\u000a signal but does not possess a linker region nor a carbohydrate-binding domain. Two peaks of activity were obtained after TvCel7a

  14. Geographic host use variabiliy and host range evolutionary dynamics in the phytophagous insect Apagomerella versicolor (Cerambycidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high diversity of phytophagous insects has been explained by the tendency of the group towards specialization; however, generalism may be advantageous in some environments. The cerambycid Apagomerella versicolor exhibits intraspecific geographical variation in host use. In northern Argentina it ...

  15. Secondary Metabolites from an Algicolous Aspergillus versicolor Strain

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Feng-Ping; Li, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Xiang-Hong; Cichewicz, Robert H.; Ji, Nai-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Two new compounds, asperversin A (1) and 9?-O-2(2,3-dimethylbut-3-enyl)brevianamide Q (2), and nine known compounds, brevianamide K (3), brevianamide M (4), aversin (5), 6,8-di-O-methylnidurufin (6), 6,8-di-O-methylaverufin (7), 6-O-methylaverufin (8), 5?,8?-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3?-ol (9), ergosta-7,22-diene-3?,5?,6?-triol (10), and 6?-methoxyergosta-7,22-diene-3?,5?-diol (11), were obtained from the culture of Aspergillus versicolor, an endophytic fungus isolated from the marine brown alga Sargassum thunbergii. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic techniques. Compounds 4, 7 and 8 exhibited antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphyloccocus aureus, and 7 also showed lethality against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) with an LC50 value of 0.5 ?g/mL. PMID:22363226

  16. Cellobiose dehydrogenase is essential for wood invasion and nonessential for kraft pulp delignification by Trametes versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim Dumonceaux; Kirk Bartholomew; Loredana Valeanu; Trevor Charles; Fred Archibald

    2001-01-01

    Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH)-deficient strains of the basidiomycete Trametes versicolor were produced by transforming protoplasts of strain 52J with a plasmid carrying the T. versicolor cdh gene disrupted with a phleomycin resistance cassette. Of 143 phleomycin-resistant colonies analyzed, 3 did not produce measurable CDH during two successive two-week culture periods. Two of these mutants were shown to lack functional CDH when

  17. Factors influencing offspring traits in the oviparous multi-clutched lizard, Calotes versicolor (Agamidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajkumar S. Radder; Bhagyashri A. Shanbhag

    2004-01-01

    The determinants of offspring size and number in the tropical oviparous multi-clutched lizard,Calotes versicolor, were examined using both univariate and multivariate (path) analyses. InC. versicolor maternal snout-vent length (SVL) and body condition influence clutch mass and clutch size but have no significant influence\\u000a on offspring size. The positive effect of maternal SVL and body condition on offspring number is counterbalanced

  18. Molecular Identification and Prevalence of Malassezia Species in Pityriasis Versicolor Patients From Kashan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Talaee, Rezvan; Katiraee, Farzad; Ghaderi, Maryam; Erami, Mahzad; Kazemi Alavi, Azam; Nazeri, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Malassezia species are lipophilic yeasts found on the skin surface of humans and other warm-blooded vertebrates. It is associated with various human diseases, especially pityriasis versicolor, which is a chronic superficial skin disorder. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify Malassezia species isolated from patients’ samples affected by pityriasis versicolor, using molecular methods in Kashan, Iran. Patients and Methods: A total of 140 subjects, suspected of having pityriasis versicolor from Kashan, were clinically diagnosed and then confirmed by direct microscopic examination. The scraped skin specimens were inoculated in modified Dixon’s medium. DNA was extracted from the colonies and PCR amplification was carried out for the 26s rDNA region. PCR products were used to further restriction fragment length polymorphism by CfoI enzyme. Results: Direct examination was positive in 93.3% of suspected pityriasis versicolor lesions. No statistically significant difference was observed in the frequency of Malassezia species between women and men. The highest prevalence of tinea versicolor was seen in patients 21–30 years-of-age. No difference could be seen in the frequency of Malassezia species depending on the age of the patients. In total, 65% of patients with pityriasis versicolor had hyperhidrosis. The most commonly isolated Malassezia species in the pityriasis versicolor lesions were; Malassezia globosa (66%), M. furfur (26%), M. restricta (3%), M. sympodialis (3%), and M. slooffiae (2%). Malassezia species were mainly isolated from the neck and chest. Conclusions: This study showed M. globosa to be the most common Malassezia species isolated from Malassezia skin disorders in Kashan, Iran. The PCR-RFLP method was useful in the rapid identification of the Malassezia species. By using these methods, the detection and identification of individual Malassezia species from clinical samples was substantially easier. PMID:25485051

  19. Occurrence of Toxigenic Aspergillus versicolor Isolates and Sterigmatocystin in Carpet Dust from Damp Indoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Engelhart, Steffen; Loock, Annette; Skutlarek, Dirk; Sagunski, Helmut; Lommel, Annette; Färber, Harald; Exner, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been growing concern regarding the role of toxigenic fungi in damp indoor environments; however, there is still a lack of field investigations on exposure to mycotoxins. The goal of our pilot study was to quantify the proportion of toxigenic Aspergillus versicolor isolates in native carpet dust from damp dwellings with mold problems and to determine whether sterigmatocystin can be detected in this matrix. Carpet dust samples (n = 11) contained from <2.5 × 101 to 3.6 × 105 (median, 3.1 × 104) A. versicolor CFU/g of dust, and the median proportion of A. versicolor from total culturable fungi was 18%. Based on thin-layer chromatography detection of sterigmatocystin, 49 of 50 A. versicolor isolates (98%) were found to be toxigenic in vitro. By using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, sterigmatocystin could be detected in low concentrations (2 to 4 ng/g of dust) in 2 of 11 native carpet dust samples. From this preliminary study, we conclude that most strains of A. versicolor isolated from carpet dust are able to produce sterigmatocystin in vitro and that sterigmatocystin may occasionally occur in carpet dust from damp indoor environments. Further research and systematic field investigation are needed to confirm our results and to provide an understanding of the health implications of mycotoxins in indoor environments. PMID:12147486

  20. Ultrasound-intensified laccase production from Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Ma, An-Zhou; Guo, Chen; Zhuang, Guo-Qiang; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2013-01-01

    An efficient intermittent ultrasonic treatment strategy was developed to improve laccase production from Trametes versicolor mycelia cultures. The optimized strategy consisted of exposing 2-day-old mycelia cultures to 5-min ultrasonic treatments for two times with a 12-h interval at the fixed ultrasonic power and frequency (120 W, 40 kHz). After 5 days of culture, this strategy produced the highest extracellular laccase activity of 588.9 U/L among all treatments tested which was 1.8-fold greater than the control without ultrasound treatment. The ultrasonic treatment resulted in a higher pellet porosity that facilitated the mass transfer of nutrients and metabolites from the pellets to the surrounding liquid. Furthermore, the ultrasonic treatment induced the expression of the laccase gene (lcc), which correlated with a sharp increase in both extracellular and intracellular laccase activity. This is the first study to find positive effects of ultrasound on gene expression in fungal cells. These results provide a basis for understanding the stimulation of metabolite production and process intensification by ultrasonic treatment in filamentous fungal culture. PMID:22682477

  1. Fungal biodegradation and biotransformation of soluble lignocarbohydrate complexes from straw. [Aspergillus japonicus, Polyporus versicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Milstein, O.A.; Vared, Y.; Sharma, A.; Gressel, J.; Flowers, H.M.

    1983-08-01

    Aspergillus japonicus is an efficient degrader of phenolics and carbohydrates present in a mixture of soluble lignocarbohydrate complexes extracted from wheat straw. Trichoderma species attacked part of the carbohydrate but hardly affected the aromatic portion of this solution. Polyporus versicolor had a complex effect; polymerization of low-molecular-size phenolics accompanied the degradation of aromatic and carbohydrate polymers. The addition of xylose to the medium facilitated depolymerization of lignin by the fungi tested and prevented the polymerization of low-molecular-size fractions of lignocarbohydrate complexes by P. versicolor. P. versicolor, in contrast to A. japonicus and Trichoderma species, also excreted into the medium considerable amounts of laccase, but only in the absence of endogenous or exogenous carbohydrates. Apparently, laccase is involved in polymerization rather than degradation of lignin in this organism. A number of extracellular glycanases were also secreted by these fungi. 19 references

  2. Vasotocin Maintains Multiple Call Types in the Gray Treefrog, Hyla versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle B. Tito; Maureen A. Hoover; Alicea M. Mingo; Sunny K. Boyd

    1999-01-01

    The neuropeptide arginine vasotocin (AVT) influences vocalizations in some anuran amphibians but it is unknown whether AVT alters all vocal behaviors of a species similarly. We first characterized the vocal repertoire of male gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor). Three different call types were distinguished by unique sets of temporal and spectral features. Second, we examined the effects of AVT on each

  3. Diet of the Gray Treefrog (Hyla versicolor) in Relation to Foraging Site Location

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Jarrett

    what role terrestrial habitat plays in their life history. We examined the stomach contents of the Gray Treefrog (Hyla versicolor) in central Missouri using a stomach-flushing technique. Treefrogs were stomach-flushed; stomach contents were dried and weighed; and prey items were counted and identified for frogs caught

  4. Aspergillus section Versicolores: nine new species and multilocus DNA sequence based phylogeny

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ß-tubulin, calmodulin, internal transcribed spacer and partial lsu-rDNA, RNA polymerase, DNA replication licensing factor Mcm7, and pre-rRNA processing protein Tsr1 were amplified and sequenced from 62 A. versicolor clade isolates and analyzed phylogenetically using the concordance model to establis...

  5. Aspergillus section Versicolores, nine new species and multilocus DNA sequence based phylogeny

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ß-tubulin, calmodulin, internal transcribed spacer and partial lsu-rDNA, RNA polymerase, DNA replication licensing factor Mcm7, and pre-rRNA processing protein Tsr1 were amplified and sequenced from 62 A. versicolor clade isolates and analyzed phylogenetically using the concordance model to establis...

  6. Female preference functions based on call duration in the gray tree frog (Hyla versicolor)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Carl Gerhardt; Steven D. Tanner; Candice M. Corrigan; Hilary C. Walton

    2000-01-01

    Preference functions, which quantify preference strength relative to variation in male traits or signals, are central to understand- ing mechanisms and consequences of female choice. Female tree frogs (Hyla versicolor) choose mates on the basis of advertise- ment calls and prefer long calls to short calls. Here we show, in two experimental designs, that preference strength increased significantly as the

  7. Impact assessment of bisphenol A on lignin-modifying enzymes by basidiomycete Trametes versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minako Takamiya; Naresh Magan; Philip J. Warner

    2008-01-01

    The impact of different concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) was evaluated on growth of the white-rot basidiomycete, Trametes versicolor, and on the expression of genes encoding lignin-modifying enzyme (LME) activities. Effective doses (EDs) were obtained from fungal growth rate to monitor LME activities and the expression levels of their encoding genes. The fungus showed mycelial growth at concentrations of up

  8. Systematics of the Garden Lizards, Calotes versicolor Group (Reptilia, Squamata, Agamidae), in Myanmar

    E-print Network

    Schulte, Jim

    Systematics of the Garden Lizards, Calotes versicolor Group (Reptilia, Squamata, Agamidae of Biology, MRC 5805, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5805. The Burmese garden lizards represent commonly seen diurnal lizards in Myanmar. Both appear to be forest-edge species, hence readily adapted

  9. Studies on decolorization of effluent from a small pulp mill utilizing agriresidues with Trametes versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashish Mehna; Pratima Bajpai; Pramod K. Bajpai

    1995-01-01

    Different effluent streams of a small pulp mill utilizing agriresidues were characterized for their pollution load and were decolorized with the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor strain B7. The fungus was used in the form of pellets, allowing its use in large amounts and eliminating the problem of recycling the biomass. The mycelial pellets could decolorize the effluent in the

  10. Production of ligninolytic activities when treating paper pulp effluents by Trametes versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Manzanares; S. Fajardo; C. Martin

    1995-01-01

    In this work, the ability of Trametes versicolor to decolorize the effluents from the alkaline cooking of cereal straw produced at a paper and paper pulp making plant is studied. Enzymatic activities related to the metabolism of lignin during fungal treatment have also been evaluated. The results that have been attained show the necessity of a carbon source for the

  11. Oxidation of acenaphthene and acenaphthylene by laccase of Trametes versicolor in a laccase-mediator system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Johannes; Andrzej Majcherczyk; Aloys Hüttermann

    1998-01-01

    Laccase of Trametes versicolor in combination with 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT) was able to oxidise two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, acenaphthene and acenaphthylene; both compounds were metabolised completely after 70-h incubation. Laccase alone oxidised about 35% of the acenaphthylene and only 3% of the acenaphthene. Single compounds found in a complex mixture of oxidation products were identified. Main products detected after the incubation

  12. Decolorization of wastewater from an alcoholic fermentation process with Trametes versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. González Benito; M. Peña Miranda; D. Rodríguez de los Santos

    1997-01-01

    Decoloration by Trametes versicolor of molasses wastewater from an alcoholic fermentation factory was studied. Tests varying the concentrations of carbon source, nutrients, initial pH and mycelia were carried out in order to analyze their influence on the percentage decolorization, COD removal and decrease of ammonium content of the wastewater. Satisfactory results were obtained working with a low sucrose concentration and

  13. Potential of extracellular enzymes from Trametes versicolor F21a in Microcystis spp. degradation.

    PubMed

    Du, Jingjing; Pu, Gaozhong; Shao, Chen; Cheng, Shujun; Cai, Ji; Zhou, Liang; Jia, Yong; Tian, Xingjun

    2015-03-01

    Studies have shown that microorganisms may be used to eliminate cyanobacteria in aquatic environments. The present study showed that the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor F21a could degrade Microcystis aeruginosa. After T. versicolor F21a and Microcystis spp. were co-incubated for 60h, >96% of Microcystis spp. cells were degraded by T. versicolor F21a. The activities of extracellular enzymes showed that cellulase, ?-glucosidase, protease, and laccase were vital to Microcystis spp. degradation in the early stage (0h to 24h), while ?-glucosidase, protease, laccase, and manganese peroxidase in the late stage (24h to 60h). The positive and significant correlation of the degradation rate with these enzyme activities indicated that these enzymes were involved in the degradation rate of Microcystis spp. cells at different phases. It suggested that the extracellular enzymes released by T. versicolor F21a might be vital to Microcystis spp. degradation. The results of this study may be used to develop alternative microbial control agents for cyanobacterial control. PMID:25579906

  14. DESTRUCTION OF ASPERGILLUS VERSICOLOR, PENICILLIUM CRYSOGENUM, STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM, AND CLADOSPORIUM CLADOSPORIDES SPORES USING CHEMICAL OXIDATION TREATMENT PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The survival of aqueous suspensions of Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Cladosporium cladosporioides spores was evaluated using various combinations of hydrogen peroxide and iron (II) as catalyst. Spores were suspended in water and trea...

  15. Degradation of chlorinated lignin compounds in a bleach plant effluent by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Bergbauer; Claudia Eggert; Gunda Kraepelin

    1991-01-01

    Chlorinated lignin derivatives in a combined bleach plant effluent from sulphite pulping were degraded by several white-rot fungi among which Trametes versicolor (Coriolus versicolor) strains were the most efficient. With glucose as co-substrate, about 90% colour reduction was achieved within 3 days. Simultaneously, the concentration of chloro-organic compounds measured as adsorbable organic halogens decreased by about 45%. As shown by

  16. A randomized controlled trial of combination treatment with ketoconazole 2% cream and adapalene 0.1% gel in pityriasis versicolor.

    PubMed

    Shi, Tian-Wei; Zhang, Jiang-An; Tang, Yong-Bo; Yu, Hong-Xing; Li, Zhan-Guo; Yu, Jian-Bin

    2014-06-01

    Abstract Background: Ketoconazole cream and adapalene gel are effective drugs against pityriasis versicolor. However, there are no reports on combination treatment with both compounds in pityriasis versicolor. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of combination therapy with adapalene 0.1% gel and ketoconazole 2% cream against pityriasis versicolor. Methods: Participants with pityriasis versicolor were randomly assigned to two groups: the combination group was treated with adapalene 0.1% gel and ketoconazole 2% cream once daily, and the monotherapy group received ketoconazole 2% cream twice daily. The treatment lasted 2?weeks in both groups. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and 1, 2 and 4?weeks after the initiation of treatment. Results: We noted clinically significant differences in total improvement rates between groups Weeks 1 and 2. A statistically significant difference was obtained Week 4. The treatment was well tolerated by all participants. Conclusions: The combination of adapalene 0.1% gel and ketoconazole 2% cream is effective and safe in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor. This therapeutic regimen was rapid, providing a valuable option for patients with pityriasis versicolor. PMID:24802530

  17. Biodegradation of pesticide triclosan by A.?versicolor in simulated wastewater and semi-synthetic media.

    PubMed

    Ertit Ta?tan, Burcu; Dönmez, Gönül

    2015-02-01

    Triclosan is known as an antimicrobial agent, a powerful bacteriostat and an important pesticide. In this paper biodegradation of triclosan by Aspergillus versicolor was investigated. Effects of simulated wastewater and semi-synthetic media on fungal triclosan degradation process were detected. HPLC analysis showed that fungal triclosan biodegradation yield was 71.91% at about 7.5?mg/L concentration in semi-synthetic medium and was 37.47% in simulated wastewater. Fungus could be able to tolerate the highest triclosan concentration (15.69?mg/L). The biodegradation yield was 29.81% and qm was 2.22?mg/g at this concentration. Some of the parameters, such as pH, culture media, increasing triclosan and biomass concentrations were optimized in order to achieve the effective triclosan biodegradation process. The highest triclosan biodegradation yields of all microorganisms were achieved by A.?versicolor. PMID:25752427

  18. Role of Laccase and Low Molecular Weight Metabolites from Trametes versicolor in Dye Decolorization

    PubMed Central

    Moldes, Diego; Fernández-Fernández, María; Sanromán, M. Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    The studies regarding decolorization of dyes by laccase may not only inform about the possible application of this enzyme for environmental purposes, but also may provide important information about its reaction mechanism and the influence of several factors that could be involved. In this paper, decolorization of crystal violet and phenol red was carried out with different fractions of extracellular liquids from Trametes versicolor cultures, in order to describe the role of laccase in this reaction. Moreover, the possible role of the low molecular weight metabolites (LMWMs) also produced by the fungus was evaluated. The results confirm the existence of a nonenzymatic decolorization factor, since the nonprotein fraction of the extracellular liquids from cultures of T. versicolor has shown decolorization capability. Several experiments were performed in order to identify the main compounds related to this ability, which are probably low molecular weight peroxide compounds. PMID:22566767

  19. Role of laccase and low molecular weight metabolites from Trametes versicolor in dye decolorization.

    PubMed

    Moldes, Diego; Fernández-Fernández, María; Sanromán, M Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    The studies regarding decolorization of dyes by laccase may not only inform about the possible application of this enzyme for environmental purposes, but also may provide important information about its reaction mechanism and the influence of several factors that could be involved. In this paper, decolorization of crystal violet and phenol red was carried out with different fractions of extracellular liquids from Trametes versicolor cultures, in order to describe the role of laccase in this reaction. Moreover, the possible role of the low molecular weight metabolites (LMWMs) also produced by the fungus was evaluated. The results confirm the existence of a nonenzymatic decolorization factor, since the nonprotein fraction of the extracellular liquids from cultures of T. versicolor has shown decolorization capability. Several experiments were performed in order to identify the main compounds related to this ability, which are probably low molecular weight peroxide compounds. PMID:22566767

  20. Manganese peroxidase, produced by Trametes versicolor during pulp bleaching, demethylates and delignifies kraft pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Paice, M.G.; Reid, I.D.; Bourbonnais, R.; Archibald, F.S.; Jurasek, L. (Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada, Pointe Claire, Quebec (Canada))

    1993-01-01

    The white rot fungus Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor delignifies and bleaches kraft pulp. However, the process is slow compared with chemical bleaching and the cellulose is also attacked. This study attempts to determine the enzymology of fungal delignification and then applies the relevant enzymes directly to the pulp. Lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) have both been implicated in lignin biodegradations. However, the researchers show that MnP is the critical enzyme. It is produced by bleaching cultures of T. versicolor; its peak production occurs at the same time as the maximum rate of fungal culture bleaching, and the manganese-and peroxide-dependent demethylation and delignification of kraft pulp occurs in vitro. 50 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Immobilization of Trametes versicolor cultures for improving laccase production in bubble column reactor intensified by sonication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Guo, Chen; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2013-01-01

    The mycelia of Trametes versicolor immobilized in alginate beads provided higher laccase production than that in pelleted form. An efficient ultrasonic treatment enhanced laccase production from the immobilized T. versicolor cultures. The optimized treatment process consisted of exposing 36-h-old bead cultures to 7-min ultrasonic treatments twice with a 12-h interval using a fixed ultrasonic power and frequency (120 W, 40 kHz). Using the intensification strategy with sonication, laccase production increased by more than 2.1-fold greater than the untreated control in both flasks and bubble column reactors. The enhancement of laccase production by ultrasonic treatment is related to the improved mass transfer of nutrients and product between the liquid medium and the gel matrix. These results provide a basis for the large-scale and highly-efficient production of laccase using sonobioreactors. PMID:23188414

  2. Over production of lignocellulosic enzymes of Coriolus versicolor by genetic engineering methodology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.L.

    1998-07-01

    The project seeks to understand the biological and chemical processes involved in the secretion of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) by the hyphae, the basic unit of the filamentous fungus Coriolus versicolor. These studies are made to determine rational strategies for enhanced secretion of PPO, both with the use of recombinant DNA techniques and without. This effort focuses on recombinant DNA techniques to enhance enzyme production. The major thrust of this project was two-fold: to mass produce C. versicolor tyrosinase (polyphenol oxidase) by genetic engineering as well as cultural manipulations; and to utilize PPO as a biocatalyst in the processing of lignocellulose as a renewable energy resource. In this study, the assessment of genomic and cDNA recombinant clones with regards to the overproduction of PPO continued. Further, immunocytochemical techniques were employed to assess the mechanism(s) involved in the secretion of PPO by the hyphae. Also, factors influencing PPO secretion were examined.

  3. Effect of environmental conditions on biological decolorization of textile dyestuff by C. versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilgi Karapinar Kapdan; Fikret Kargia; Geoffrey McMullan; Roger Marchant

    2000-01-01

    Effects of environmental conditions such as pH, media composition, carbon and nitrogen sources, TOC\\/N ratio, and dyestuff concentrations on decolorization of reactive phytalocyanin type textile dyestuff Everzol Turquoise Blue G by white rot fungi, Coriolus versicolor MUCL were investigated. pH = 4.5 and the media III were found to be the most suitable ones among the others tested. Compared to

  4. Degradation of extractive-free lignocelluloses by Coriolus versicolor and Poria placenta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvester P. Antai; Don L. Crawford

    1982-01-01

    The wood-decay fungi Coriolus versicolor, a white-rot fungus, and Poria placenta, a brown-rot fungus, were grown on an extractive-free lignocellulose prepared from quackgrass (Agropyron repens). Their abilities to decompose this lignocellulose were compared to their abilities to decompose softwood (Picea pungens) and hardwood (Acer rubrum) lignocelluloses. The two fungi were grown on malt-extract dampened lignocelluloses at 28°C for up to

  5. Oxidation of anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene by laccases from Trametes versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PATRICK J. COLLINS; MICHIEL J. J. KOTTERMAN; JIM A. FIELD; ANDALAN D. W. DOBSON

    1996-01-01

    The in vitro oxidation of the two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene, which have ionization potentials of <7.45 eV, is catalyzed by laccases from Trametes versicolor. Crude laccase preparations were able to oxidize both anthracene and the potent carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene. Oxidation of benzo(a)pyrenewasenhancedbytheadditionofthecooxidant2,2*-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), while an increased anthracene oxidizing ability was observed in the presence of the low-molecular- weight

  6. Effects of glucose and NH 4 + concentrations on sequential dye decoloration by Trametes versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Swamy; J. A. Ramsay

    1999-01-01

    Mycelial pellets of Trametes versicolor, grown at initial glucose and ammonium tartrate concentrations of 10 g\\/l (56 mM) and 0.442 g\\/l (2.4 mM) respectively, decolorized successive additions of the same dye (Amaranth) and of different dyes and dye mixtures. Decoloration commenced by Day 3 and all dyes were decolorized at high rates during the next 12 days. Glucose was consumed

  7. Enhanced production of laccase in the fungus Trametes versicolor by the addition of xenobiotics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Mougin; Albert Kollmann; Claude Jolivalt

    2002-01-01

    Agrochemicals, industrial compounds and their transformation products have been assayed for their ability to enhance laccase production in liquid cultures of Trametes versicolor, when added at 0.5 mM. After 3 days of treatment, enzymatic activity in the culture medium was increased 14-fold by 4-n-nonylphenol and 24-fold by aniline. Laccase activity was enhanced 10-fold by oxidised derivatives of the herbicide diquat, 17-fold by

  8. Contribution of manganese peroxidase and laccase to dye decoloration by Trametes versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul-Philippe Champagne; Juliana Akit Ramsay

    2005-01-01

    During dye decoloration by Trametes versicolor ATCC 20869 in modified Kirk’s medium, manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase were produced, but not lignin peroxidase, cellobiose dehydrogenase or manganese-independent peroxidase. Purified MnP decolorized azo dyes [amaranth, reactive black 5 (RB5) and Cibacron brilliant yellow] in Mn2+-dependent reactions but did not decolorize an anthraquinone dye [Remazol brilliant blue R (RBBR)]. However, the purified

  9. Improving laccase production by employing different lignocellulosic wastes in submerged cultures of Trametes versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Lorenzo; D Moldes; S Rodr??guez Couto; A Sanromán

    2002-01-01

    Laccase production by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor (CBS100.29) grown in submerged cultures was studied. Addition of different insoluble lignocellulosic materials into the culture medium in order to enhance laccase production was investigated.The lignocellulosic materials were grape seeds, grape stalks and barley bran, selected because of their availability and low cost, since they are agro-industrial wastes abundant in most countries.

  10. Cloning and sequence analysis of two laccase complementary DNAs from the ligninolytic basidiomycete Trametes versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edgar Ong; W. Brent R Pollock; Michael Smith

    1997-01-01

    Laccases are oxidoreductase enzymes involved in the oxidation of various phenolic compounds. They may play a role in the biodegradation of lignin and in the dechlorination of chlorophenols. The cDNAs encoding laccase LccI and a putative laccase LccIV and the gene for LccI from the white-rot basidiomycete Trametes versicolor were cloned, sequenced and characterized. The genomic DNA of lccI consists

  11. Oxidation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) by Laccase of Trametes Versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrzej Majcherczyk; Christian Johannes; Aloys Hüttermann

    1998-01-01

    Laccase of Trametes versicolor was able to oxidize in vitro most of the 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) tested. Acenaphthylene was removed by 37% followed by anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene which were oxidized by 18 and 19%, respectively. Lower but significant oxidation of about 10% was found for eight additional PAH: acenaphthene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, and perylene. Naphthalene,

  12. Biosorption of heavy metal ions on immobilized white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gülay Bayramo?lu; Sema Bekta?; M. Yakup Ar?ca

    2003-01-01

    Trametes versicolor mycelia were immobilized in carboxymethylcellulose, CMC, beads via entrapment, and the bead containing immobilized fungus spores were incubated at 30°C for 3 days to attain uniform growth on the bead surface. After incubation, the live and heat inactivated immobilized fungus on the CMC beads were used for the biosorption of Cu2+, Pb2+ and Zn2+ ions.Plain CMC beads were

  13. Oxidation of aromatic compounds in organic solvents with laccase from Trametes versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Milstein; B. Nicklas; A. Hiittermann

    1989-01-01

    Laccase purified from Trametes versicolor oxidizes 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2,6-DMP) and syringaldazine in hydrophobic solvents presaturated with water, and in hydrophilic organic solvents provided that a sufficient amount of water is added. Ease of performance of the laccase test in organic solvents is improved after immobilization of the enzyme by entrapping in Sepharose CL-6B during enzyme filtration through the gel beads. The

  14. Decoloration of textile dyes by Trametes versicolor and its effect on dye toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juliana A. Ramsay; Thuy Nguyen

    2002-01-01

    Amaranth, Tropaeolin O, Reactive Blue 15, Congo Red, and Reactive Black 5 were completely decolorized with no dye sorption by Trametes versicolor. Cibacron Brilliant Red 3G-P, Cibacron Brilliant Yellow 3B-A, and Remazol Brilliant Blue R were partially decolorized with some dye sorbed to the biomass. The Microtox assay before decol- oration showed that Amaranth and Tropaeolin O were not toxic

  15. Different proportions of laccase isoenzymes produced by submerged cultures of Trametes versicolor grown on lignocellulosic wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Moldes; M. Lorenzo

    2004-01-01

    The white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor grown in submerged culture produced two laccase isoenzymes, LacI and LacII. Addition of insoluble lignocellulosic materials into the culture medium increased the total laccase activity. The proportion of laccase isoenzymes also changed depending on the lignocellulosic material employed, with ratios of activity LacII\\/LacI from 0.9 (barley straw) to 4.4 (grape stalks). Besides, this proportion played

  16. New cytotoxic sesquiterpenoid nitrobenzoyl esters from a marine isolate of the fungus Aspergillus versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilbert N. Belofsky; Paul R. Jensen; Matthew K. Renner; William Fenical

    1998-01-01

    Four new sesquiterpenoid nitrobenzoyl esters (1–4) have been isolated from organic extracts of the culture broth and mycelia of Aspergillus versicolor, a fungus isolated from the surface of the Caribbean green alga Penicillus capitatus. The structures of the four compounds were determined through extensive analysis of 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HMQC, and HMBC data. 9?, 14-Dihydroxy-6?-p-nitrobenzoylcinnamolide (1) displayed significant cytotoxicity

  17. Profiles of extracellular proteins produced by Coriolus versicolor under ligninolytic and nonligninolytic growth conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Palmer; C. S. Evans

    1984-01-01

    The wood-rotting basidiomyceteCoriolus versicolor has been grown under a variety of conditions ranging from stationary cultures on spruce wood chips or milled-wood lignin,\\u000a known to be actively ligninolytic, to agitated submerged cultures, with glucose or carboxymethylcellulose as the main carbon\\u000a source, that had no ligninolytic activity. Extracellular proteins have been recovered from the growth medium by ammonium sulfate\\u000a precipitation and

  18. Transformation of halogen-, alkyl-, and alkoxy-substituted anilines by a lactase of Trametes versicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, T.; Liu, S.Y.; Bollag, J.M.

    1985-05-01

    The lactase of the fungus Trametes versicolor was able to polymerize various halogen-, alkyl-, and alkoxy-substituted anilines, showing substrate specificity similar to that of horseradish peroxidase, whereas the lactase of Rhizoctonia praticola was active only with p-methoxyaniline. The substrate specificities of the enzymes were determined by using gas chromatography to measure the decrease in substrate concentration during incubation. With p-chloroaniline as the substrate, the peroxidase and the Trametes lactase showed maximum activity near pH 4.2. The transformation of this substrate gave rise to a number of oligomers, ranging from dimers to pentamers, as determined by mass spectrometry. The product profiles obtained by high-pressure liquid chromatography were similar for the two enzymes. A chemical reaction was observed between p-chloroaniline and an enzymatically formed dimer, resulting in the formation of a trimer. All three enzymes oxidized p-methoxyaniline to 2-amino-5-p-anisidinobenzoquinone di-p-methoxyphenylimine, but only the T. versicolor lactase and the peroxidase caused the formation of a pentamer (2,5-di-p-anisidinobenzoquinone di-p-methoxyphenylimine). These results demonstrate that in addition to horseradish peroxidase, a T. versicolor lactase can also polymerize aniline derivatives.

  19. Geographic host use variability and host range evolutionary dynamics in the phytophagous insect Apagomerella versicolor (Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Logarzo, Guillermo A; Casalinuovo, Miguel A; Piccinali, Romina V; Braun, Karen; Hasson, Esteban

    2011-02-01

    The high diversity of phytophagous insects has been explained by the tendency of the group towards specialization; however, generalism may be advantageous in some environments. The cerambycid Apagomerella versicolor exhibits intraspecific geographical variation in host use. In northern Argentina it is highly specialized on the herb Pluchea sagittalis (Asteraceae), while in central and southern areas it uses seven Asteraceae species. To study host species geographical variation from ecological and evolutionary perspectives, we investigated field host availability and use across a wide latitudinal range, and performed laboratory studies on insect oviposition preference and larval performance and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in a phylogeographical framework. Geographic variation in host use was unrelated to host availability but was highly associated with laboratory oviposition preference, larval performance, and mtDNA variation. Genetic studies revealed three geographic races of A. versicolor with gene flow restriction and recent geographic expansion. Trophic generalism and oligophagy within A. versicolor seem to have evolved as adaptations to seasonal and spatial unavailability of the preferred host P. sagittalis in cooler areas of the species' geographic range. No single genotype is successful in all environments; specialization may be advantageous in environments with uniform temporal and spatial host availability, while being a trophic generalist may provide an adaptive advantage in host-constrained environments. PMID:20931235

  20. Geratology and decomposition of Spartina versicolor in a brackish Mediterranean marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, Margarita; Sanmartí, Neus

    2007-08-01

    Most studies on plant decomposition in salt marshes have been carried out in Spartina-dominated marshes in North America. In contrast, few have focused on marshes in Mediterranean systems. Moreover, research into litter decay in estuarine systems has been conducted with plant material collected before natural senescence and death. Here we followed the growth, senescence, leaf fall, and nutrient dynamics of Spartina versicolor to examine litter decay in a Mediterranean coastal system. We studied the dynamics of fungi, meiofauna and algae associated with detached S. versicolor litter, and the effect of the microenvironment (above and underneath wracks of dead Spartina) on decomposition. The exponential decay coefficient rate ( k, day -1) was higher for leaves attached to standing plants (0.0019) than after leaf abscission (0.0002-0.001). The decomposition rate of detached leaves was highly variable and depended on the position of the litter. The large differences in decomposition rates between the two experimental conditions indicate that the microenvironment affected the associated litter community during the initial phase of decay. Water availability and high temperatures over the sediment surface increased the density of meiofauna and epiphyton and decreased fungal biomass during the first 20 days of the experiment. Fungal biomass was at the lower end of reported values, probably as a result of the drier conditions and high salinity in the Mediterranean marsh. Spartina versicolor detritus acted as a nutrient sink by immobilizing large amounts of N and P for at least one year.

  1. Lignin Peroxidase Activity Is Not Important in Biological Bleaching and Delignification of Unbleached Kraft Pulp by Trametes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Archibald, Frederick S.

    1992-01-01

    The discovery in 1983 of fungal lignin peroxidases able to catalyze the oxidation of nonphenolic aromatic lignin model compounds and release some CO2 from lignin has been seen as a major advance in understanding how fungi degrade lignin. Recently, the fungus Trametes versicolor was shown to be capable of substantial decolorization and delignification of unbleached industrial kraft pulps over 2 to 5 days. The role, if any, of lignin peroxidase in this biobleaching was therefore examined. Several different assays indicated that T. versicolor can produce and secrete peroxidase proteins, but only under certain culture conditions. However, work employing a new lignin peroxidase inhibitor (metavanadate ions) and a new lignin peroxidase assay using the dye azure B indicated that secreted lignin peroxidases do not play a role in the T. versicolor pulp-bleaching system. Oxidative activity capable of degrading 2-keto-4-methiolbutyric acid (KMB) appeared unique to ligninolytic fungi and always accompanied pulp biobleaching. PMID:16348775

  2. Carbon and nitrogen balance of leaf-eating sesarmid crabs ( Neoepisesarma versicolor) offered different food sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thongtham, Nalinee; Kristensen, Erik

    2005-10-01

    Carbon and nitrogen budgets for the leaf-eating crab, Neoepisesarma versicolor, were established for individuals living on pure leaf diets. Crabs were fed fresh (green), senescent (yellow) and partly degraded (brown) leaves of the mangrove tree Rhizophora apiculata. Ingestion, egestion and metabolic loss of carbon and nitrogen were determined from laboratory experiments. In addition, bacterial abundance in various compartments of the crabs' digestive tract was enumerated after dissection of live individuals. Ingestion and egestion rates (in terms of dry weight) were highest, while the assimilation efficiency was poorest for crabs fed on brown leaves. The low assimilation efficiency was more than counteracted by the high ingestion rate providing more carbon for growth than for crabs fed green and yellow leaves. In any case, the results show that all types of leaves can provide adequate carbon while nitrogen was insufficient to support both maintenance (yellow leaves) and growth (green, yellow and brown leaves). Leaf-eating crabs must therefore obtain supplementary nitrogen by other means in order to meet their nitrogen requirement. Three hypotheses were evaluated: (1) crabs supplement their diet with bacteria and benthic microalgae by ingesting own faeces and/or selective grazing at the sediment surface; (2) assimilation of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the crabs' own intestinal system; and (3) nitrogen storage following occasional feeding on animal tissues (e.g. meiofauna and carcasses). It appears that hypothesis 1 is of limited importance for N. versicolor since faeces and sediment can only supply a minor fraction of the missing nitrogen due to physical constraints on the amount of material the crabs can consume. Hypothesis 2 can be ruled out because tests showed no nitrogen fixation activity in the intestinal system of N. versicolor. It is therefore likely that leaf-eating crabs provide most of their nitrogen requirement from intracellular deposits following occasionally ingestion of animal tissue (hypothesis 3).

  3. Degradation of pharmaceuticals from membrane biological reactor sludge with Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Llorens-Blanch, Guillem; Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Lucas, Daniel; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià; Pennanen, Taina; Caminal, Gloria; Blánquez, Paqui

    2015-02-11

    Emerging contaminants are a wide group of chemical products that are found at low concentrations in the environment. These contaminants can be either natural, e.g., estrogens, or synthetics, such as pesticides and pharmaceuticals, which can enter the environment through the water and sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). The growth of Trametes versicolor on membrane biological reactor (MBR) sludge in bioslurry systems at the Erlenmeyer scale was assessed and its capacity for removing pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) was evaluated. The ability of the fungus to remove hydrochlorothiazide (HZT) from liquid media cultures was initially assessed. Consequently, different bioslurry media (complete nutrient, glucose and no-nutrient addition) and conditions (sterile and non-sterile) were tested, and the removal of spiked HZT was monitored under each condition. The highest spiked HZT removal was assessed under non-sterile conditions without nutrient addition (93.2%). Finally, the removal assessment of a broad set of pharmaceuticals was performed in non-spiked bioslurry. Under non-sterile conditions, the fungus was able to completely degrade 12 out of the 28 drugs initially detected in the MBR sludge, achieving an overall degradation of 66.9%. Subsequent microbial analysis showed that the microbial diversity increased after 15 days of treatment, but there was still some T. versicolor in the bioslurry. Results showed that T. versicolor can be used to remove PPCPs in bioslurry systems under non-sterile conditions, without extra nutrients in the media, and in matrices as complex as an MBR sludge. PMID:25563204

  4. Degradation of anthracene by laccase of Trametes versicolor in the presence of different mediator compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Johannes; A. Majcherczyk; A. Hüttermann

    1996-01-01

    Laccase of Trametes versicolor was generally able to oxidize anthracene in vitro. After 72?h incubation about 35% of the anthracene was transformed stoichiometrically\\u000a to 9,10-anthraquinone. Transformation of anthracene increased rapidly in the presence of different mediators that readily\\u000a generate stable radicals: 2,2?-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. For the\\u000a reaction, the presence of both the laccase and the mediator was necessary.

  5. Gravimetric screening method for fungal decay of paper: inoculation with Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Råberg, Ulrika; Hafrén, Jonas

    2009-10-01

    The European standard test EN 113 for fungal degradation of solid wood has been adapted for degradation of paper by white rot fungus (Trametes versicolor). Fungal degradation of paper sheets may potentially be used for screening different wood preservatives on paper instead of solid wood. The paper samples showed higher relative mass losses compared to wood, and samples pretreated with boric acid, copper sulfate and polymerized linseed oil were successfully tested for biodegradation using the paper sheet method. The results on paper degradation were compared with wood, both as wood blocks (according to standard test) and wood cut in sections forming layered structures mimicking paper layers. PMID:19495565

  6. Molecular analysis of the biological bleaching of kraft pulps by Trametes versicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Dumonceaux, T.J.; Archibald, F.S. [Pulp and Paper Research Institute, Quebec (Canada)

    1996-10-01

    Biological bleaching of kraft pulps by the fungus Trametes versicolor, based on the biodegradation of the recalcitrant polymer, lignin, could replace chlorine-based bleaching in Canadian pulp and paper mills. Enzymes that may be involved in lignin degradation include manganese peroxidase (MnP), laccase, and cellobiose-quinone oxidoreductase (CBQase). All three of these enzymatic activities are thought to interact extensively in cyclic oxidation/reduction reactions which ultimately bring about the degradation of lignin. We have constructed a cDNA library from T versicolor with the aim of isolating clones encoding factors that are relevant to biobleaching. We first determined the optimum growth conditions for expression of bleaching-related mRNA. A clear induction of bleaching ability was observed when the fungus was preincubated with 0.25% acid-washed pulp; the augmentation of bleaching was not explained by differences in MnP or laccase levels, suggesting that the expression of either CBQase or unidentified biobleaching factors was responsible for the increased pulp brightness. mRNA isolated from induced cultures was used to construct a cDNA library in a XZAP vector. This library has been probed with a degenerate oligonucleotide probe based upon a peptide sequence derived from purified CBQase, resulting in the identification of several hybridizing cDNA molecules. The CBQase clone will be used to examine in further detail the potential role of this enzyme in pulp biobleaching and lignin degradation.

  7. Proteomics Investigation Reveals Cell Death-Associated Proteins of Basidiomycete Fungus Trametes versicolor Treated with Ferruginol.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Han; Yeh, Ting-Feng; Chu, Fang-Hua; Hsu, Fu-Lan; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2014-12-01

    Ferruginol has antifungal activity against wood-rot fungi (basidiomycetes). However, specific research on the antifungal mechanisms of ferruginol is scarce. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and fluorescent image analysis were employed to evaluate the differential protein expression of wood-rot fungus Trametes versicolor treated with or without ferruginol. Results from protein identification of tryptic peptides via liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) analyses revealed 17 protein assignments with differential expression. Downregulation of cytoskeleton ?-tubulin 3 indicates that ferruginol has potential to be used as a microtubule-disrupting agent. Downregulation of major facilitator superfamily (MFS)-multiple drug resistance (MDR) transporter and peroxiredoxin TSA1 were observed, suggesting reduction in self-defensive capabilities of T. versicolor. In addition, the proteins involved in polypeptide sorting and DNA repair were also downregulated, while heat shock proteins and autophagy-related protein 7 were upregulated. These observations reveal that such cellular dysfunction and damage caused by ferruginol lead to growth inhibition and autophagic cell death of fungi. PMID:25485628

  8. Screening and comparison of antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Coriolus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaowen; Sun, Yanping; Zhang, Qingbo; Zhang, Hongwei; Yang, Bingyou; Wang, Zhibin; Zhu, Weiguo; Li, Bin; Wang, Qiuhong; Kuang, Haixue

    2014-08-01

    Six polysaccharide fractions (Coriolus versicolor polysaccharides: CVPS-1, CVPS-2, CVPS-3, CVPS-4, CVPS-5 and CVPS-6) were isolated and purified from the fruiting bodies of C. versicolor by ion exchange chromatography and gel chromatography. Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined by chemical methods, high performance liquid chromatography, and high-performance gel-permeation chromatography. Finally, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay, superoxide radical assay, and hydroxyl radical assay were carried out to test the antioxidant activities of CVPS in vitro. The results indicated that the six CVPS fractions were acidic heteropolysaccharides, composed of mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, glucose and fructose with different ratios. The molecular weights of CVPS-1, CVPS-2, CVPS-3, CVPS-4, CVPS-5 and CVPS-6 were 1740, 1480, 568, 880, 1260 and 1840kDa and the protein contents were 4.2%, 6.4%, 8.5%, 7.8%, 6.5% and 3.9%, respectively. Among the six fractions, CVPS with lower molecular weight, higher protein content and larger uronic acid amount, basically exhibited higher radical scavenging effects at the same concentration. Compared with other fractions, CVPS-3 exhibited the highest antioxidant activities. The effects of the molecular weight, protein content and uronic acid amount of the polysaccharides appeared to be significant on the improvement of the bioactivities. PMID:24857871

  9. Utilization of horticultural waste for laccase production by Trametes versicolor under solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Xin, Fengxue; Geng, Anli

    2011-01-01

    Horticultural waste collected from a landscape company in Singapore was utilized as the substrate for the production of laccase under solid-state fermentation by Trametes versicolor. The effects of substrate particle size, types of inducers, incubation temperature and time, initial medium pH value, and moisture content on laccase production were investigated. The optimum productivity of laccase (8.6 U/g substrate) was achieved by employing horticultural waste of particle size greater than 500 ?m and using veratryl alcohol as the inducer. The culture was at 30 °C for 7 days at moisture content of solid substrate of 85% and initial pH 7.0. The decolorization was also investigated in order to assess the degrading capability of the ligninolytic laccase obtained in the above-mentioned cultures. The decolorization degree of a model dye, phenol red, was around 41.79% in 72 h of incubation. By far, this is the first report on the optimization of laccase production by T. versicolor under solid-state fermentation using horticultural waste as the substrate. PMID:20640894

  10. Advanced oxidation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers (BTEX) by Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Elisabet; Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Caminal, Gloria; Arias, María E; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Guillén, Francisco

    2010-09-15

    Advanced oxidation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-, m-, and p-xylene (BTEX) by the extracellular hydroxyl radicals (*OH) generated by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor is for the first time demonstrated. The production of *OH was induced by incubating the fungus with 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (DBQ) and Fe3+-EDTA. Under these conditions, *OH were generated through DBQ redox cycling catalyzed by quinone reductase and laccase. The capability of T. versicolor growing in malt extract medium to produce *OH by this mechanism was shown during primary and secondary metabolism, and was quantitatively modulated by the replacement of EDTA by oxalate and Mn2+ addition to DBQ incubations. Oxidation of BTEX was observed only under *OH induction conditions. *OH involvement was inferred from the high correlation observed between the rates at which they were produced under different DBQ redox cycling conditions and those of benzene removal, and the production of phenol as a typical hydroxylation product of *OH attack on benzene. All the BTEX compounds (500 microM) were oxidized at a similar rate, reaching an average of 71% degradation in 6 h samples. After this time oxidation stopped due to O2 depletion in the closed vials used in the incubations. PMID:20627409

  11. Characterization and decolorization applicability of xerogel matrix immobilized manganese peroxidase produced from Trametes versicolor IBL-04.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir; Asgher, Muhammad

    2013-05-01

    A novel manganese peroxidase (MnP) isolated from solid state culture of Trametes versicolor IBL-04 was immobilized using xerogel matrix composed of trimethoxysilane (TMOS) and propyltetramethoxysilane (PTMS). FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the successful entrapment of MnP into the xerogel matrix. An immobilization efficiency of 92.2% was achieved with a purified active fraction containing 2 mg/mL MnP. After 24 h incubation at varying pH and temperatures, the immobilized MnP retained 82 and 75% activity at pH 4 and 80°C, respectively. Xerogel matrix immobilization enhanced the catalytic efficiency of entrapped MnP. Metal ions including Cu2+, Mn2+ and Fe2+ stimulated enzyme activity while cysteine, EDTA and Ag+ inhibited the activity. MnP preserved 82% of its initial activity during oxidation of MnSO4 in 10 consecutive cycles, demonstrating the reusability of xerogel entrapped MnP. The immobilized MnP could be stored for up to 75 days at 4°C without significant activity loss. To explore the industrial applicability of MnP, the immobilized MnP was tested for decolorization of textile industry effluent in a Packed Bed Reactor System (PBRS). After five consecutive cycles, 98.8% decolorization of effluent was achieved within 5 h. The kinetic properties, storage stability and reusability of entrapped MnP from T. versicolor IBL-04 reflect its prospects as biocatalyst for bioremediation and other industrial applications. PMID:23016633

  12. Inflammatory cytokine gene expression in THP-1 cells exposed to Stachybotrys chartarum and Aspergillus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Pei, Ruoting; Gunsch, Claudia K

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the mechanisms that occur in human cells upon exposure to fungi as well as their mycotoxins. A better understanding of toxin-regulated gene expression would be helpful to identify safe levels of exposure and could eventually be the basis for establishing guidelines for remediation scenarios following a water intrusion event. In this research, cytokine mRNA expression patterns were investigated in the human monocytic THP-1 cell line exposed to fungal extracts of various fragment sizes obtained from Stachybotrys chartarum RTI 5802 and/or Aspergillus versicolor RTI 3843, two common and well-studied mycotoxin producing fungi. Cytokine mRNA expression was generally upregulated 2-10 times following a 24 h exposure to fungal extracts. Expression of the proinflammatory interleukin-1?, interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor-? genes increased while the anti-inflammatory gene interleukin-10 also increased albeit at very low level, suggesting that negative feedback regulation mechanism of production of proinflammatory cytokines initiated upon 24 h of incubation. In addition, submicron size extracts of A. versicolor caused significant death of THP-1 cells, whereas extracts of S. chartarum caused no cell death while the mixture of the two fungi had an intermediate effect. There was no general correlation between gene expression and fragment sizes, which suggests that all submicron fragments may contribute to inflammatory response. PMID:21384497

  13. Arginine Vasotocin Interacts with the Social Environment to Regulate Advertisement Calling in the Gray Treefrog (Hyla versicolor)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian C. Trainor; Kathryn L. Rouse; Catherine A. Marler

    2003-01-01

    Arginine vasotocin (AVT) has different effects on social behaviors across species with different social systems. However, less attention has been directed towards the way environmental stimuli interact with AVT to affect social behaviors. Previous work found that AVT affects the production of advertisement calls and the outcome of competitive interactions between male gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor). We conducted a field

  14. Favouring the bioavailability of Zn and Cu to enhance the production of lignin-modifying enzymes in Trametes versicolor cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jérémie D. Lebrun; Isabelle Lamy; Christian Mougin

    2011-01-01

    Metal effect on the enzyme secretion in fungi is usually related to total concentrations but not to bioavailable metal species. In this work, we aimed at enhancing the secretion of lignin-modifying oxidoreductases in Trametes versicolor by favouring the bioavailability of essential metals. For this purpose, the fungus was exposed to Cu or Zn in liquid culture media exhibiting different complexation

  15. On the use of Trametes versicolor laccase for the conversion of 4-methyl-3-hydroxyanthranilic acid to actinocin chromophore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaroslaw Osiadacz; Abdulkareem J. H Al-Adhami; Dorota Bajraszewska; Peter Fischer; Wanda Peczyñska-Czoch

    1999-01-01

    Laccase isolated from Trametes versicolor was immobilized in polyacrylamide gel and used for the conversion of 4-methyl-3-hydroxyanthranilic acid to 2-amino-4,6-dimethyl-3-phenoxazinone-1,9-carboxylic acid (actinocin) which is a phenoxazinone chromophore occuring in actinomycins. The reaction proceeded successfully in aqueous media and in 60% acetonitrile.

  16. Starch degradation and nutrition value improvement in corn grits by solid state fermentation technique with Coriolus versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Mian; Zhang, Song

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate effect of Coriolus versicolor mycelia on degrading starch and improving nutrition value in corn grits through solid state fermentation technique. The results showed that using soybean meal as a nitrogen source, ?-amylase secreted from C. versicolor expressed 407.25U/g of activity, leading to 45.15% of starch degraded. The activity grew with fermentation time until the 15th day, after that the amylase was deactivated rapidly. An orthogonal experiment designed for the study illustrated that degradation rate of starch in corn grits attained to maximum, 50.51%, when 100g of corn grits, added 16g of soybean meal, were fermented by C. versicolor for 12 days, in an initial pH 5.5. After fermenting, compared to the nonfermented control, contents of amino acids, total sugar, crude fat and crude protein were increased by 21.00%, 38.45%, 55.56%, 69.15% respectively. The significant improvement of nutrition value in corn grits is probably attributed to the intense metabolism of C. versicolor. PMID:24031762

  17. Differential RNA expression of alpha-expansin gene family members in the parasitic angiosperm Triphysaria versicolor (Scrophulariaceae).

    PubMed

    Wrobel, R L; Yoder, J I

    2001-03-21

    Haustoria are parasitic plant specific organs that locate, attach to, and invade host plant tissues. Parasitic species of the Scrophulariaceae develop haustoria on their roots in response to chemical signals released by host plant roots. Haustorium development was induced in vitro in roots of the parasitic Scrophulariaceae Triphysaria versicolor by treating them with exudates obtained from maize roots, the chemical 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone (DMBQ) or the cytokinin 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Morphological responses of T. versicolor roots to these haustoria inducing factors (HIFs) included localized swelling and epidermal hair proliferation near the root tips. These responses were not observed when roots of the non-parasitic Scrophulariaceae Lindenbergia muraria were similarly treated. Because expansin proteins are closely associated with plant cell wall expansion and growth, we examined the expression of expansin genes in response to HIFs. We isolated cDNAs homologous to transcripts encoding three distinct alpha-expansin proteins in T. versicolor. Northern-blot analyses indicated that these transcripts were differentially abundant in different tissues. Steady-state levels of two expansin transcripts increased in T. versicolor roots exposed to BAP, but not DMBQ or maize root exudates. Expansin transcript abundance also increased in L. muraria in response to BAP treatment. These results suggest that the expansins examined fulfill functions distinct from haustorium development. PMID:11290422

  18. Studies of laccase from Trametes versicolor in aqueous solutions of several methylimidazolium ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Alberto; Rodríguez, Oscar; Tavares, Ana Paula M; Macedo, Eugenia A; Longo, María Asunción; Sanromán, María Angeles

    2011-08-01

    Stability and kinetic behavior of laccase from Trametes versicolor in the presence of several ionic liquids from the methylimidazolium family have been investigated. In general laccase stability diminished as the size of the alkylic substitute in the methylimidazolium ring increased. Higher concentrations of ionic liquids caused more destabilization than lower ones. Thus, low concentrations of [C(2)mim(+)][EtSO(4)(-)] allowed maintaining enzymatic stability. [C(4)mim(+)][Cl(-)] appeared to have a stabilizing effect on laccase, as little activity decay was observed within three weeks. Kinetic studies indicated that both [C(2)mim(+)][EtSO(4)(-)] and [C(4)mim(+)][Cl(-)] inhibited laccase activity, although 10-fold more [C(2)mim(+)][EtSO(4)(-)] than [C(4)mim(+)][Cl(-)] was required to cause the same degree of inhibition. A kinetic model was developed to represent the experimental data. PMID:21669518

  19. [The effect of low radiation doses on the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and Paecilomyces lilacinus].

    PubMed

    Tuga?, T I; Tuga?, A V; Zheltonozhskaia, M V; Sadovnikov, L V

    2013-01-01

    Peculiarities of growth of the strains of two species of microscopic fungi Aspergillus versicolor and Paecilomyces lilacinus were analyzed under exposure to chronic irradiation. It was shown that the rate of radial growth increased nonuniformly in the range of doses from 0 to 250 mGy but with maximums at a certain dose of radiation. It was shown that the absorbed dose of radiation to 2 Gy did not influence the survival of investigated strains in comparison with the control ones without irradiation. It was shown that the doses of irradiation to 2 Gy (at capacity exposure dose 0.955 microC/kg) are small for these species of microscopic fungi. PMID:24006782

  20. Synergistic effects of a combined exposure to herbicides and an insecticide in Hyla versicolor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazanti, L.; Sparling, D.W.; Rice, C.; Bialek, K.; Stevenson, C.; Teels, B.

    2003-01-01

    Combinations of the herbicides atrazine and metolachlor and the insecticide chlorpyrifos were tested under both laboratory and field conditions to determine their individual and combined effects on amphibian populations. In the lab Hyla versicolor tadpoles experienced 100% mortality when exposed to a high combination of the pesticides (2.0 mg/L atrazine, 2.54 mg/L metolachlor, 1.0 mg/L chlorpyrifos) whereas low concentrations of the pesticides (0.2 mg/L atrazine, 0.25 mg/L metolachlor, 0.1 mg/L chlorpyrifos) or high concentrations of either herbicides or insecticide alone caused lethargy, reduced growth and delayed metamorphosis but no significant mortality. In the field high herbicide, low insecticide and low herbicide, low insecticide mixtures significantly reduced amphibian populations compared to controls but in the low herbicide, low insecticide wetlands amphibian populations were able to recover through recruitment by the end of the season.

  1. Enhanced laccase production by Trametes versicolor using corn steep liquor as both nitrogen source and inducer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Hu, Jian-Hua; Guo, Chen; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2014-08-01

    A highly efficient strategy for laccase production by Trametes versicolor was developed using corn steep liquor (CSL) as both a nitrogen source and a laccase inducer. At the optimal CSL concentration of 20 gL(-1), an extracellular laccase activity of 633.3 UL(-1) was produced after a culture period of only 5 days. This represented a 1.96-fold increase relative to control medium lacking CSL. The addition of crude phenolic extracts from CSL improved laccase production to 91.8% greater than the control. Sinapinic acid, present in CSL, caused a reduction in laccase production, vanillic acid and ferulic acid (also present in CSL) synergistically induced laccase production by more than 100% greater than the control medium. Vanillic acid and ferulic acid provided the main contribution to the enhancement of laccase production. This study provides a basis for understanding the induction mechanism of CSL for laccase production. PMID:24951276

  2. Biological decolourisation of pulp mill effluent using white rot fungus Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, S V; Murthy, D V S; Swaminathan, T

    2012-07-01

    The conventional biological treatment methods employed in the pulp and paper industries are not effective in reducing the colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The white-rot fungi are reported to have the ability to biodegrade the lignin and its derivatives. This paper is focused on the biological treatment of pulp mill effluent from a bagasse-based pulp and paper industry using fungal treatment. Experiments were conducted using the white rot fungus, Trametes versicolor in shake flasks operated in batch mode with different carbon sources. The decolourisation efficiencies of 82.5% and 80.3% were obtained in the presence of 15 g/L and 5 g/L of glucose and sucrose concentrations respectively with a considerable COD reduction. The possibility of reusing the grown fungus was examined for repeated treatment studies. PMID:24749195

  3. Construction and comparison of Trametes versicolor laccase biosensors capable of detecting xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal; Odaci, Dilek; Pazarlio?lu, Nurdan; Pilloton, Roberto; Dinçkaya, Erhan; Telefoncu, Azmi; Timur, Suna

    2010-08-01

    Amperometric biosensors using laccase from Trametes versicolor as a bioelement were developed for 2,4-dichloro phenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D). Laccase enzyme was immobilized by gelatin and glutaraldehyde onto a Clark oxygen probe and screen printed electrodes (SPEs). Amperometric and chronoamperometric measurements were carried out with the biosensors. First, the effect of laccase activity on the biosensor performances was investigated for both biosensors, and then optimum pH and temperature and also thermal stability of the biosensors were tested. In addition, the detection ranges of some phenolic compounds were obtained by the help of calibration graphs of them. In repeatability studies, variation coefficients and standard deviations for both biosensors were also calculated by the studies done for this purposes. Finally, the biosensors were applied to the determination of 2,4-D in a real herbicide sample. PMID:20380615

  4. Degradation of Coal by the Fungi Polyporus versicolor and Poria monticola

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Martin S.; Gabriele, Peter D.

    1982-01-01

    We report that two species of basidiomycete fungi (Polyporus versicolor and Poria monticola) grow in minimal liquid or solid medium when supplemented with crushed lignite coal. The fungi also grow directly on crushed lignite coal. The growth of both fungi was observed qualitatively as the production and extension of hyphae. No fungal growth occurred in minimal agar medium without coal. The fungi degraded solid lignite coal to a black liquid product which never appeared in cultures unless fungi and coal were present together. Apparently, lignite coal can serve as the principal substrate for the growth of the fungi. Infrared analyses of the liquid products of lignite degradation showed both similarities to and differences from the original lignite. Images PMID:16346060

  5. Demethylation and delignification of kraft pulp by Trametes versicolor laccase in the presence of 2,2?-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Bourbonnais; Michael G. Paice

    1992-01-01

    Bleaching of hardwood kraft pulp by Trametes versicolor was accompanied by release and accumulation of methanol, which was produced by demethylation of the pulp. A partial demethylation of the pulp was observed with isolated laccase I from T. versicolor. The extent of demethylation by laccase was increased to the level released by the fungus by addition of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS). Methanol

  6. Entrapment of white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor in Ca-alginate beads: preparation and biosorption kinetic analysis for cadmium removal from an aqueous solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Yakup Ar?ca; Yasemin Kaçar; Ömer Genç

    2001-01-01

    The biosorption of cadmium ions onto entrapped Trametes versicolor mycelia has been studied in a batch system. The maximum experimental biosorption capacities for entrapped live and dead fungal mycelia of T. versicolor were found as 102.3±3.2 mg Cd(II) g?1 and 120.6±3.8 mg Cd(II) g?1, respectively. Biosorption equilibrium was established in about 1 h and biosorption was well described by the

  7. Degradation of selected agrochemicals by the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Mir-Tutusaus, Josep Anton; Masís-Mora, Mario; Corcellas, Cayo; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Sarrà, Montserrat; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E

    2014-12-01

    Use of agrochemicals is a worldwide practice that exerts an important effect on the environment; therefore the search of approaches for the elimination of such pollutants should be encouraged. The degradation of the insecticides imiprothrin (IP) and cypermethrin (CP), the insecticide/nematicide carbofuran (CBF) and the antibiotic of agricultural use oxytetracycline (OTC) were assayed with the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Experiments with fungal pellets demonstrated extensive degradation of the four tested agrochemicals, at rates that followed the pattern IP>OTC>CP>CBF. In vitro assays with laccase-mediator systems showed that this extracellular enzyme participates in the transformation of IP but not in the cases of CBF and OTC. On the other hand, in vivo studies with inhibitors of cytochrome P450 revealed that this intracellular system plays an important role in the degradation of IP, OTC and CBF, but not for CP. The compounds 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (DCCA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA) were detected as transformation products of CP, as a result of the breakdown of the molecule. Meanwhile, 3-hydroxycarbofuran was detected as a transformation product of CBF; this metabolite tended to accumulate during the process, nonetheless, the toxicity of the system was effectively reduced. Simultaneous degradation of CBF and OTC showed a reduction in toxicity; similarly, when successive additions of OTC were done during the slower degradation of CBF, the fungal pellets were able to degrade both compounds. The simultaneous degradation of the four compounds successfully took place with minimal inhibition of fungal activity and resulted in the reduction of the global toxicity, thus supporting the potential use of T. versicolor for the treatment of diverse agrochemicals. PMID:25217998

  8. Biosorption of heavy metal ions on immobilized white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Bayramo?lu, Gülay; Bekta?, Sema; Arica, M Yakup

    2003-08-01

    Trametes versicolor mycelia were immobilized in carboxymethylcellulose, CMC, beads via entrapment, and the bead containing immobilized fungus spores were incubated at 30 degrees C for 3 days to attain uniform growth on the bead surface. After incubation, the live and heat inactivated immobilized fungus on the CMC beads were used for the biosorption of Cu(2+), Pb(2+) and Zn(2+) ions. Plain CMC beads were used as a control system. The biosorption of Cu(2+), Pb(2+) and Zn(2+) ions by the CMC and both live and inactivated immobilized preparations increased as the initial concentration of Cu(2+), Pb(2+) and Zn(2+) ions in the medium increased. The maximum biosorption capacities for both immobilized live and heat inactivated Trametes versicolor were 1.51 and 1.84mmol Cu(2+), 0.85 and 1.11mmol Pb(2+) and 1.33 and 1.67mmol Zn(2+) per g of dry biosorbents, respectively. Biosorption equilibrium was established in about 1.0h and the equilibrium was well described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. A temperature change in the range of 15-45 degrees C did not affect the biosorption capacity. The affect of pH was also investigated and the maximum adsorption of Cu(2+), Pb(2+) and Zn(2+) ions on the CMC and both live and inactivated immobilized fungal biomass was observed between pH 4.0 and 6.0. The CMC beads with the immobilized fungus can be regenerated using 10mM HCl, with up to 97% recovery of the metal ions; the biosorbents reused up to five biosorption-desorption cycles without any major loss in the biosorption capacity. PMID:12935760

  9. Tinea Versicolor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... State society resources Become a member Meetings and events 2015 Annual Meeting 2015 Summer Academy Meeting Practice Management Symposium for Residents Webinars Event calendar Previous meetings ...

  10. Tinea Versicolor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with high humidity and high temperatures. In milder climates, teens and young adults are affected most frequently. ... likely to occur: Living in a warm, humid climate Having oily skin Sweating frequently or excessively Using ...

  11. Tinea versicolor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the sun so may appear lighter than surrounding healthy skin African Americans may have a loss of skin color ( hypopigmentation ) or an increase in skin color ( hyperpigmentation ). Other symptoms include: Increased sweating ...

  12. Genotyping by RAPD-PCR analyses of Malassezia furfur strains from pityriasis versicolor and seborrhoeic dermatitis patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rinaldo F. Gandra; Rita C. G. Simão; Flávia E. Matsumoto; Bosco C. M. da Silva; Luciana S. Ruiz; Eriques G. da Silva; Walderez Gambale; Claudete R. Paula

    2006-01-01

    Malassezia furfur is lypophilic yeast commonly associate with dermatological disorders. In the present work, we described the isolation of\\u000a 47 M. furfur strains from three groups of patients: pityriasis versicolor (21 isolates), seborrhoeic dermatitis (15 isolates) and seborrhoeic\\u000a dermatitis of the HIV positive patients (11 isolates). To investigate the identity of the strains at molecular level, DNA\\u000a genomic of M.

  13. Restriction endonuclease mapping of ribosomal RNA genes: Sequence divergence and the origin of the tetraploid treefrog Hyla versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Romano; J. C. Vaughn

    1986-01-01

    Hyla chrysoscelis (2n=24) and H. versicolor (2n=48) are a diploid-tetraploid species pair of treefrogs. Restriction endonuclease mapping of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene repeat units of diploids collected from eastern and western populations reveals no differences within rRNA gene coding regions but distinctive differences within the nontranscribed spacers. A minimum of two physical maps is required to construct an rRNA gene

  14. Substrate specificity, de novo synthesis and partial purification of polyphenol oxidase derived from the wood-decay fungus, Coriolus versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. L. Moore; D. H. Mariam; A. L. Williams; W. V. Dashek

    1989-01-01

    Summary Coriolus versicolor, a white-rot Basidiomycete, secretes cellulolytic and ligninolytic enzymes as well as polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Whereas the former degrade wood polymers, the latter can convert diphenols to diquinones and oligomerize syringic acid, a lignin derivative. Certain phenolic compounds can serve as disease-resistance factors controlling the proliferation of wood-decay fungi within host tissues. BecauseC. vesicolor can be ‘batch-cultured’, overproduction

  15. Examining multiple sublethal contaminants on the gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor): Effects of an insecticide, herbicide, and fertilizer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boone, M.D.; Bridges-Britton, C. M.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the single and interactive effects of an insecticide, an herbicide, and a fertilizer on gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles. Tadpoles were reared in mesocosms from hatching through metamorphosis and were exposed to the presence or absence of as many as three contaminants. Tadpoles did not appear to be more susceptible to single versus multiple contaminants, which may result from positive changes in food resources that compensate for the effects of other contaminants. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  16. Expression of laccase IIIb from the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica for environmental applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude Jolivalt; Catherine Madzak; Agathe Brault; Eliane Caminade; Christian Malosse; Christian Mougin

    2005-01-01

    Improvement of the catalytic properties of fungal laccases is a current challenge for the efficient bioremediation of natural media polluted by xenobiotics. We developed the heterologous expression of a laccase from the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica as a first step for enzyme evolution. The full-length cDNA consisted of a 1,561-bp open reading frame encoding lacIIIb,

  17. Characterization of a gene encoding Trametes versicolor laccase A and improved heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by decreased cultivation temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Cassland; L. J. Jönsson

    1999-01-01

    Laccase can be used for enzymatic detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with enhanced resistance to phenolic inhibitors and thereby improved ability to ferment lignocellulosic hydrolysates\\u000a would presumably be obtained by heterologous expression of laccase. Sequencing of the cDNA for the novel laccase gene lcc2 from the lignin-degrading basidiomycete Trametes versicolor showed that it encodes an isoenzyme of

  18. In vivo-decolorization of coal-derived humic acids by laccase-excreting fungus Trametes versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Fakoussa; P. J. Frost

    1999-01-01

    Lignite (brown coal) can be liquefied\\/solubilized with several fungi by different mechanisms. When applied industrially,\\u000a only catalytic mechanisms can compete with chemical methods. The well-known fungal ligninolytic peroxidases are at a disadvantage,\\u000a in that the relatively expensive hydrogen peroxide must be used as a cofactor. Comparing several fungal strains, we observed\\u000a that the fungus Trametes versicolor is able to decolorize

  19. Characterization of a Ca-alginate-immobilized Trametes versicolor bioreactor for decolorization and AOX reduction of paper mill effluents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sammaiah Pallerla; Robert P. Chambers

    1997-01-01

    The reduction of color and adsorbable organic halides (AOX) from the kraft bleach plant effluents was investigated using a laboratory-scale fungal bioreactor. The fungal bioreactor, containing calcium-alginate-entrapped white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor, was developed and evaluated for continuous color and AOX reduction. A color reduction percentage of 69% (±6%) and AOX reduction percentage of 58% (±6%) were achieved using caustic stage

  20. Mineralization and conversion of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in soil inoculated with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marja Tuomela; Merja Lyytikäinen; Pekka Oivanen; Annele Hatakka

    1998-01-01

    The fate of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in autoclaved soil supplemented with straw and inoculated with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor was investigated. Inoculated flasks were incubated for 0 to 42d and control flasks for 0 to 28d. Mineralization and volatilization of PCP and its transformation products were measured using 14C-labelled PCP for radiorespirometry and extraction analysis, and non-labelled PCP to monitor

  1. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls by white?rot fungi pleurotus ostreatus and trametes versicolor in a solid state system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Zeddel; Andrzej Majcherczyk; Aloys Hüttermann

    1993-01-01

    An industrial PCB?isomer mixture, made up mainly of tri? and tetra chlorinated biphenyls, were loaded on wood chips and incubated with Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor. After only 5 weeks the PCB mixture was degraded more than 95%. Penta? and hexachlorbiphenyls are also found to be degradable by more than 50%, depending on their substitution pattern. Only 2,2’,4,4’,5,5'?hexachlorbiphenyl (Ballschmiter No.

  2. In vitro chemopreventive effects of plant polysaccharides (Aloe barbadensis Miller, Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum and Coriolus versicolor)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyung Sik Kim; Sam Kacew; Byung Mu Lee

    1999-01-01

    A plant polysaccharide, Aloe gel extract, was reported to have an inhibitory effect on benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P)-DNA adduct formation in vitro and in vivo. Hence, chemopreven- tive effects of plant polysaccharides (Aloe barbadensis Miller (APS), Lentinus edodes (LPS), Ganoderma lucidum (GPS) and Coriolus versicolor (CPS)) were compared using in vitro short-term screening methods associated with both initi- ation and promotion processes

  3. Production of sterigmatocystin by Aspergillus versicolor QM 432 used in fungus resistance tests for United States military specifications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. T. Wicklow; Gail M. Shannon; O. L. Shotwell

    1981-01-01

    A study was made to determine whether Aspergillus flavus (QM 380; NRRL 3537; ATCC 9643) and Aspergillus versicolor (QM 432; NRRL 573; ATCC 16,020), mold strains routinely combined in fungus resistance tests for United States military specification (MIL-STD-810B; MIL-STD-331A), were capable of producing aflatoxins or sterigmatocystin when grown separately or in mixed culture fermentations of cracked corn (11 days at

  4. Biochemical response of crayfish Astacus leptodactylus exposed to textile wastewater treated by indigenous white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Aksu, Onder; Yildirim, Nuran Cikcikoglu; Yildirim, Numan; Danabas, Durali; Danabas, Seval

    2015-02-01

    The discharge of textile effluents into the environment without appropriate treatment poses a serious threat for the aquatic organisms. The present study was undertaken to investigate biochemical response of crayfish Astacus leptodactylus exposed to textile wastewater (TW) treated by indigenous white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor. Glutathione S-transferase (GST), cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) levels in hepatopancreas and abdomen tissues of crayfish exposed to untreated, treated, and diluted rates (1/10) in both TW during 24 and 96 h were tested. Physiochemical parameters (electrical conductivity (EC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH, and total dissolved solid (TDS)) of TW were determined before and after treatment. Physiochemical parameters of TW decreased after treatment. The GST activity and AchE were generally increased, but CYP1A1 activity was decreased in hepatopancreas tissue of crayfish exposed to different kinds of untreated TW. After treatment by indigenous white rot fungus (C. versicolor), GST and CYP1A1 activities were returned to control values, while AchE activities were increasing further. In this study, only GST and CYP1A1 activities of A. leptodactylus confirmed the efficiency of TW treatment with C. versicolor. PMID:25226834

  5. Adsorption of Trametes versicolor laccase to soil iron and aluminum minerals: enzyme activity, kinetics and stability studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue; Jiang, Ying; Jiao, Jiaguo; Liu, Manqiang; Hu, Feng; Griffiths, Bryan S; Li, Huixin

    2014-02-01

    Laccases play an important role in the degradation of soil phenol or phenol-like substance and can be potentially used in soil remediation through immobilization. Iron and aluminum minerals can adsorb extracellular enzymes in soil environment. In the present study, we investigated the adsorptive interaction of laccase, from the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor, with soil iron and aluminum minerals and characterized the properties of the enzyme after adsorption to minerals. Results showed that both soil iron and aluminum minerals adsorbed great amount of laccase, independent of the mineral specific surface areas. Adsorbed laccases retained 26-64% of the activity of the free enzyme. Compared to the free laccase, all adsorbed laccases showed higher Km values and lower Vmax values, indicating a reduced enzyme-substrate affinity and a lower rate of substrate conversion in reactions catalyzed by the adsorbed laccase. Adsorbed laccases exhibited increased catalytic activities compared to the free laccase at low pH, implying the suitable application of iron and aluminum mineral-adsorbed T. versicolor laccase in soil bioremediation, especially in acid soils. In terms of the thermal profiles, adsorbed laccases showed decreased thermal stability and higher temperature sensitivity relative to the free laccase. Moreover, adsorption improved the resistance of laccase to proteolysis and extended the lifespan of laccase. Our results implied that adsorbed T. versicolor laccase on soil iron and aluminum minerals had promising potential in soil remediation. PMID:24225344

  6. Solid-state fermentation of rapeseed meal with the white-rot fungi trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    ?uchowski, Jerzy; Pecio, ?ukasz; Jaszek, Magdalena; Stochmal, Anna

    2013-12-01

    Rapeseed meal is valuable high-protein forage, but its nutritional value is significantly reduced by the presence of a number of antinutrients, including phenolic compounds. Solid-state fermentation with white-rot fungi was used to decrease the sinapic acid concentration of rapeseed meal. After 7 days of growth of Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus, the sinapic acid content of rapeseed meal was reduced by 59.9 and 74.5 %, respectively. At the end of the experiment, sinapic acid concentration of T. versicolor cultures decreased by 93%of the initial value; in the case of cultures of P. ostreatus, 93.2 % reduction was observed. Moreover, cultivation of white-rot fungi on rapeseed meal resulted in the intensive production of extracellular laccase, particularly strong during the late phases of growth of T. versicolor. The obtained results confirm that both fungal species may effectively be used to decompose antinutritional phenolics of rapeseed meal. Rapeseed meal may also find use as an inexpensive and efficient substrate for a biotechnological production of laccase by white-rot fungi. PMID:24022781

  7. Purification and Characterization of Cellobiose Dehydrogenases from the White Rot Fungus Trametes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Roy, B. P.; Dumonceaux, T.; Koukoulas, A. A.; Archibald, F. S.

    1996-01-01

    The white rot fungus Trametes versicolor degrades lignocellulosic material at least in part by oxidizing the lignin via a number of secreted oxidative and peroxidative enzymes. An extracellular reductive enzyme, cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH), oxidizes cellobiose and reduces insoluble Mn(IV)O(inf2), commonly found as dark deposits in decaying wood, to form Mn(III), a powerful lignin-oxidizing agent. CDH also reduces ortho-quinones and produces sugar acids which can promote manganese peroxidase and therefore ligninolytic activity. To better understand the role of CDH in lignin degradation, proteins exhibiting cellobiose-dependent quinone-reducing activity were isolated and purified from cultures of T. versicolor. Two distinct proteins were isolated; the proteins had apparent molecular weights of 97,000 and 81,000 and isoelectric points of 4.2 and 6.4, respectively. The larger CDH (CDH 4.2) contained both flavin and heme cofactors, whereas the smaller contained only a flavin (CDH 6.4). These CDH enzymes were rapidly reduced by cellobiose and lactose and somewhat more slowly by cellulose and certain cello-oligosaccharides. Both glycoproteins were able to reduce a very wide range of quinones and organic radical species but differed in their ability to reduce metal ion complexes. Temperature and pH optima for CDH 4.2 were affected by the reduced substrate. Although CDH 4.2 showed rather high substrate specificity among the ortho-quinones, it could also rapidly reduce a structurally very diverse collection of other species, from negatively charged triiodide ions to positively charged hexaquo ferric ions. CDH 6.4 showed a higher K(infm) and a lower V(infmax) and turnover number than did CDH 4.2 for all substrates tested. Furthermore, CDH 6.4 did not reduce the transition metals Fe(III), Cu(II), and Mn(III) at concentrations likely to be physiologically relevant, while CDH 4.2 was able to rapidly reduce even very low concentrations of these ions. The reduction of Fe(III) and Cu(II) by CDH 4.2 may be important in sustaining a Fenton's-type reaction, which produces hydroxyl radicals that can cleave both lignin and cellulose. Unlike the CDH proteins from Phanerochaete chrysosporium, CDH 4.2 and CDH 6.4 are unable to produce hydrogen peroxide. PMID:16535462

  8. Fungal biodegradation of lignopolystyrene graft copolymers. [Pleurotus ostreatus; Phanerochaete chrysosporium; Trametes versicolor; Gloeophyllum trabeum

    SciTech Connect

    Milstein, O.; Gersonde, R.; Huttermann, A. (Forstbotanisches Inst. der Univ. Gottingen (Germany)); MengJiu Chen; Meister, J.J (Univ. of Detroit Mercy, MI (United States))

    1992-10-01

    White rot basidiomycetes were able to biodegrade styrene (1-phenylethene) graft copolymers of lignin containing different proportions of lignin and polystyrene (poly(1-phenylethylene)). The biodegradation tests were run on lignin-styrene copolymerization products which contained 10.3, 32.2, and 50.4{percent} (wt/wt) lignin. The polymer samples were incubated with the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Trametes versicolor and the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. White rot fungi degraded the plastic samples at a rate which increased with increasing lignin content in the copolymer sample. Both polystyrene and lignin components of the copolymer were readily degraded. Polystyrene pellets were not degradable in these tests. Degradation was verified for both incubated and control samples by weight loss, quantitative UV spectrophotometric analysis of both lignin and styrene residues, scanning electron microscopy of the plastic surface, and the presence of enzymes active in degradation during incubation. Brown rot fungus did not affect any of the plastics. White rot fungi produced and secreted oxidative enzymes associated with lignin degradation in liquid media during incubation with lignin-polystyrene copolymer.

  9. Kraft pulp bleaching and delignification by dikaryons and monokaryons of trametes versicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Addleman, K.; Archibald, F. (Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada, Point Claire, Quebec (Canada))

    1993-01-01

    To reduce the levels of chlorinated lignin residues in effluents from the pulp and paper industry, interest has focused on the white rot basidiomycete fungi. The kraft process, the most common commercial delignification method, produces a dark pulp which is bleached by use of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and caustic extraction. A dikaryon of Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor has been shown to bleach and delignify kraft pulp, offering a possible alternative to chlorine. A monokaryon strain, if comparable to the effect of the dikaryon, would be a much simpler system for study of mechanisms and genetic munipulation. The researchers compared strains of both and conclude that the following characteristics justify replacing the parent dikaryon with monokaryon 52J in future work on biobleaching and biological delignification: (1) reduced biomass and slower growth rate; (2)no dark pigment production; (3) superior biological bleaching ability; (4) a simpler system for genetic manipulation and biochemical analysis. The involvement of MnP, but not LP, in pulp bleaching, delignification is strongly suggested. 40 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. High-level coproduction, purification and characterisation of laccase and exopolysaccharides by Coriolus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Que, Youxiong; Sun, Shujing; Xu, Liping; Zhang, Yuye; Zhu, Hu

    2014-09-15

    In this study, a two-stage pH-shift fermentation process was developed for the coproduction of laccase and exopolysaccharides (EPS) by Coriolus versicolor. At the same time, laccase and EPS were purified and characterised in detail. The results showed that the highest laccase and EPS production reached 7680 U l(-1) and 8.2 g l(-1). Furthermore, the flow behaviour of fermentation broth was Newtonian and the maximum ?(ap) was 2.7×10(-3) Pa s. The MW of laccase was 64 kDa and it showed a pI value of 4.2. The CD analysis showed that laccase had a high ?-helical content (68%). The MW of the purified EPS was determined to be 1.8×10(6) Da, consisting of carbohydrates (87.6%) and proteins (12.4%). The EPS consisted of 17 amino acids, mainly serine (11.3%), glutamic acid (12.60%), leucine (13.3%) and phenylalanine (9.4%) in protein moiety, and three monosaccharides (galactose, mannose and xylose). PMID:24767046

  11. Identification and Biological Evaluation of Secondary Metabolites from the Endolichenic Fungus Aspergillus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Bin; Zhou, Yan-Hui; Zhu, Rong-Xiu; Chang, Wen-Qiang; Yuan, Hui-Qing; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Zhao, Zun-Tian; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2015-04-01

    A chemical investigation of the endolichenic fungus Aspergillus versicolor (125a), which was found in the lichen Lobaria quercizans, resulted in the isolation of four novel diphenyl ethers, named diorcinols F-H (1-3, resp.) and 3-methoxyviolaceol-II (4), eight new bisabolane sesquiterpenoids, named (-)-(R)-cyclo-hydroxysydonic acid (5), (-)-(7S,8R)-8-hydroxysydowic acid (6), (-)-(7R,10S)-10-hydroxysydowic acid (7), (-)-(7R,10R)-iso-10-hydroxysydowic acid (8), (-)-12-acetoxy-1-deoxysydonic acid (9), (-)-12-acetoxysydonic acid (10), (-)-12-hydroxysydonic acid (11), and (-)-(R)-11-dehydrosydonic acid (12), two new tris(pyrogallol ethers), named sydowiols D (13) and E (14), and fifteen known compounds, 15-29. All of the structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses, and a number of them were further identified through chemical transformations and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Preliminary bioassays of these isolates for the determination of their inhibitory activities against the fungus Candida albicans, and their cytotoxicities against the human cancer cell lines PC3, A549, A2780, MDA-MB-231, and HEPG2 were also evaluated. PMID:25879502

  12. Production and Characterization of Trametes versicolor Mutants Unable To Bleach Hardwood Kraft Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Addleman, K.; Dumonceaux, T.; Paice, M. G.; Bourbonnais, R.; Archibald, F. S.

    1995-01-01

    Protoplasts of the monokaryotic strain 52J of Trametes versicolor were treated with UV light and screened for the inability to produce a colored precipitate on guaiacol-containing agar plates. Mutants unable to oxidize guaiacol had absent or very low secretion of laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) proteins. All isolates unable to secrete MnP were also unable to bleach or delignify kraft pulp. One mutant strain, M49, which grew normally but did not oxidize guaiacol, was tested further with a number of other substrates whose degradation has been associated with delignification by white rot fungi. Compared with the parent, 52J, mutant M49, secreting no MnP and low laccase, could not brighten or delignify kraft pulp, produced less ethylene from 2-keto methiolbutyric acid, released much less (sup14)CO(inf2) from [(sup14)C]DHP (a synthetic lignin-like polymerizate), and produced much less methanol from pulp. This mutant also displayed decreased abilities to oxidize the dyes poly B-411, poly R-478, and phenol red compared with the wild-type strain and was also unable to decolorize kraft bleachery effluent or mineralize its organochlorine. Addition of purified MnP in conjunction with H(inf2)O(inf2), MnSO(inf4), and an Mn(III) chelator to M49 cultures partially restored methanol production, pulp delignification, and biobleaching in some cases. PMID:16535150

  13. Treatment of a textile effluent from dyeing with cochineal extracts using Trametes versicolor fungus.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Figueroa, Gabriela; Ruiz-Aguilar, Graciela M L; López-Martínez, Leticia; González-Sánchez, Guillermo; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

    2011-01-01

    Trametes versicolor (Tv) fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in the presence or absence of Kirk's medium, glucose, and fungus, with an addition of 50% (v v-1) of nonsterilized effluent were performed. Physicochemical characterization was performed at the start and end of the treatment. Degradation kinetics were determined. A direct relationship was found between the dry weight of fungi, pH, and the decolorization system, with higher decolorization at lower pH levels (pH ~4.3). High decolorization (81% ± 0.09; 88% ± 0.17; and 99% ± 0.04) for three of the eight treatments (Kirk's medium without glucose, Kirk's medium with glucose, and without medium with glucose, respectively) was found. Toxicity tests determined an increase in the initial effluent toxicity (7.33 TU) compared with the final treatment (47.73 TU) in a period of 11 days. For this system, a degradation sequence of the carminic acid structure present in the effluent by the Tv fungus is suggested, in which it is seen that metabolites still containing aromatic structures are generated. PMID:21552764

  14. Diversification and Demography of the Oriental Garden Lizard (Calotes versicolor) on Hainan Island and the Adjacent Mainland

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong; Guo, Xianguang; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Shi, Haitao; Li, Jiatang; Li, Jun; Cai, Bo; Wang, Yuezhao

    2013-01-01

    The Oriental garden lizard (Calotes versicolor) is one of the few non-gekkonid lizards that are geographically widespread in the tropics. We investigated its population dynamics on Hainan Island and the adjacent mainland of China and Vietnam, focusing on the impact of cyclic upheaval and submergence of land bridges during the Pleistocene. Our Bayesian phylogenetic analysis reveals two mitochondrial lineages, A and B, which are estimated to have coalesced about 0.26 million years ago (95% credibility interval: 0.05–0.61 million years ago). Lineage A contains individuals mainly from central and southern Wuzhi Mountain on Hainan Island, whereas lineage B mainly comprises individuals from other sites on the island plus the adjacent mainland. The estimated coalescence times within lineages A (0.05 million years ago) and B (0.13 million years ago) fall within a period of cyclical land-bridge formation and disappearance in the Pleistocene. A spatial analysis of molecular variance identified two distinct population groupings: I, primarily containing lineage A, and II, mainly consisting of lineage B. However, haplotypes from lineages A and B occur sympatrically, suggesting that gene flow is ongoing. Neither Wuzhi Mountain nor Qiongzhou Strait and Gulf of Tonkin act as barriers to gene flow among C. versicolor populations. Analyses of the data using mismatch distributions and extended Bayesian skyline plots provide evidence of a relatively stable population size through time for Group I, and moderate population expansions and contractions during the end of the Pleistocene for Group II. We conclude that the phylogeographical patterns of C. versicolor are the combined product of Pleistocene sea-level oscillations and nonphysical barriers to gene flow. PMID:23840304

  15. Treatment of pityriasis versicolor with topical application of essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf - therapeutic pilot study*

    PubMed Central

    Carmo, Egberto Santos; Pereira, Fillipe de Oliveira; Cavalcante, Neuza Maria; Gayoso, Carla Wanderley; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pityriasis versicolor is a fungal infection caused by Malassezia spp. that has frequent relapses. OBJECTIVES The main objective of this research was to perform phase I and II clinical studies, using formulations containing essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus in patients with pityriasis versicolor. METHODS Phase I study included twenty volunteers to ascertain the safety of the formulations. In phase II, 47 volunteers randomly received essential oil formulations at 1.25 ?L/mL concentration, for forty days. The shampoo should be applied three times a week and the cream twice a day. A control group in phase II, consisting of 29 volunteers, received the same formulations but with 2% ketoconazole as the active ingredient. RESULTS No significant adverse events were observed in volunteers during Phase I. In Phase II, 30 (63.83%) volunteers using essential oil and 18 (62.07%) using ketoconazole remained until the end of the study. We observed a predominance of lesions in disseminated form, with M. sympodialis detected as the predominant agent identified in cultures. After 40 days of treatment, the rate of mycological cure was 60% (p <0.05) for the group treated with essential oil of C. citratus and over 80% (p <0.05) for the group treated with ketoconazole formulations. CONCLUSIONS Notwithstanding the safety and antifungal effects observed in this study after application of formulations containing the essential oil of C. citratus, further studies with larger populations should be performed to confirm the actual potential of these formulations in the treatment of patients with Pityriasis versicolor. PMID:23793205

  16. Xylosylation of Phenolic Hydroxyl Groups of the Monomeric Lignin Model Compounds 4-Methylguaiacol and Vanillyl Alcohol by Coriolus versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Ryuichiro; Yamagami, Hikari; Sakai, Kokki

    1993-01-01

    When 4-methylguaiacol (MeG), a phenolic lignin model compound, was added to a culture that was inoculated with Coriolus versicolor, it was bioconverted into 2-methoxy-4-methylphenyl ?-d-xyloside (MeG-Xyl). The phenolic hydroxyl group of vanillyl alcohol was much more extensively xylosylated than the alcoholic hydroxyl group. When a mixture of MeG and commercial UDP-xylose was incubated with cell extracts of mycelia, transformation of UDP-xylose into MeG-Xyl was observed. This result suggested that UDP-xylosyltransferase was involved in the xylosylation of phenolic hydroxyl groups of lignin model compounds. PMID:16348869

  17. The interactive effects of chytrid fungus, pesticides, and exposure timing on gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) larvae.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Shane M; Parris, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic organisms are often exposed to a wide variety of perturbations in nature, including pathogens and chemical contaminants. Despite the co-occurrence of these 2 stressors, few studies have examined the effects of chemical contaminants on host-pathogen dynamics. The authors tested the individual and combined effects on gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles of 2 commonly used pesticides (Roundup® and Sevin®) and the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). A fully factorial design was used, and tadpoles were exposed to Bd, Roundup, or Sevin alone, or a combination of Bd and either pesticide at 3 points during larval development (early, mid, late). It was predicted that pesticides would mediate the effect of Bd on tadpoles and reduce the likelihood of negative consequences of infection and that timing of exposure would influence these effects. Tadpoles exposed to Bd at the mid point experienced higher survival through metamorphosis than those exposed to Bd at the early or late points, while tadpoles exposed to Sevin at the early point experienced reduced survival compared with those exposed to Roundup or no-pesticide control at the same exposure point. Roundup ameliorated the effects of Bd on survival compared with tadpoles exposed to Bd alone, while there was no interactive effect of Sevin on survival. In addition, Sevin reduced mass of new metamorphs compared with Roundup and reduced snout-vent length compared with all other treatments. The present study supports the hypothesis that pesticides can mitigate the effects of Bd on amphibian hosts and that such effects may depend on the timing of exposure. PMID:24259231

  18. Overexpression and characterization of laccase from Trametes versicolor in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Pei, J; Zhao, L; Xie, J; Cao, F; Wang, G

    2014-01-01

    A laccase-encoding gene of Trametes versicolor, lccA, was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris X33. The lccA gene consists ofa 1560 bp open reading frame encoding 519 amino acids, which was classified into family copper blue oxidase. To improve the expression level of recombinant laccase in P. pastoris, conditions of the fermentation were optimized by the single factor experiments. The optimal fermentation conditions for the laccase production in shake flask cultivation using BMGY medium were obtained: the optimal initial pH 7.0, the presence of 0.5 mM Cu2+, 0.6% methanol added into the culture every 24 h. The laccase activity was up to 11.972 U/L under optimal conditions after 16 days of induction in a medium with 4% peptone. After 100 h of large scale production in 5 L fermenter the enzyme activity reached 18.123 U/L. The recombinant laccase was purified by ultrafiltration and (NH4)2SO4 precipitation showing a single band on SDS-PAGE, which had a molecular mass of 58 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature for the laccase were pH 2.0 and 50 degrees C with 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) as a substrate. The recombinant laccase was stable over a pH range of 2.0-7.0. The K(m) and the V(max) value of LccA were 0.43 mM and 82.3 U/mg for ABTS, respectively. PMID:25272733

  19. Interaction between perchlorate and iodine in the metamorphosis of Hyla versicolor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.; Harvey, G.; Nzengung, V.

    2003-01-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) is a water-soluble, inorganic anion that is often combined with ammonium, potassium or other cations for use in industry and agriculture. Ammonium perchlorate, for example, is a potent oxidizer and is used in various military applications including rocket fuel. It has also been found in an historically widely used fertilizer, Chilean nitrate and in other fertilizers. It has been found in ground and surface waters of over 30 states and is considered a human health risk. Because of its similar atomic radius and volume, perchlorate competes with iodide for thyroid uptake and storage and thereby inhibits production of thyroid hormones. Amphibians may be particularly affected by perchlorate because they rely on the thyroid for metamorphosis. This study exposed early larval Hyla versicolor to concentrations of perchlorate ranging from 2.2 to 50 ppm to determine the effects of perchlorate on a native amphibian. In addition, three controls, 0 perchlorate, 0 perchlorate with 0.10 ppm iodide (C + I) and 50 ppm perchlorate + 0.10 ppm iodide (50 + I) were tested. Mortality (< 11% with all treatments) and growth appeared to be unaffected by perchlorate. Inhibition of development started with 2.2 ppm perchlorate and little or no development occurred at 22.9 ppm and above. This inhibition was particularly apparent at the latter stages of development including hindlimb formation and metamorphosis. The estimated EC50 for total inhibition of metamorphosis at 70 days of treatment was 3.63 ppm. There was no evidence of inhibition of development with the 50 + I, C + I, or controls, indicating that the presence of small concentrations of iodide could counter the effects of perchlorate. When tadpoles that had been inhibited by perchlorate were subsequently treated with iodide, development through prometamorphosis progressed but mortality was very high.

  20. Interaction between perchlorate and iodine in the metamorphosis of Hyla versicolor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Harvey, G.; Nzengung, V.

    2003-01-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) is a water-soluble, inorganic anion that is often combined with ammonium, potassium or other cations for use in industry and agriculture. Ammonium perchlorate, for example, is a potent oxidizer and is used in various military applications including rocket fuel. It has also been found in an historically widely used fertilizer, Chilean nitrate and in other fertilizers. It has been found in ground and surface waters of over 30 states and is considered a human health risk. Because of its similar atomic radius and volume, perchlorate competes with iodide for thyroid uptake and storage and thereby inhibits production of thyroid hormones. Amphibians may be particularly affected by perchlorate because they rely on the thyroid for metamorphosis. This study exposed early larval Hyla versicolor to concentrations of perchlorate ranging from 2.2 to 50 ppm to determine the effects of perchlorate on a native amphibian. In addition, three controls, 0 perchlorate, 0 perchlorate with 0.10 ppm iodide (C + I) and 50 ppm perchlorate + 0.10 ppm iodide (50 + I) were tested. Mortality (<11% with all treatments) and growth appeared to be unaffected by perchlorate. Inhibition of development started with 2.2 ppm perchlorate and little or no development occurred at 22.9 ppm and above. This inhibition was particularly apparent at the latter stages of development including hindlimb formation and metamorphosis. The estimated EC50 for total inhibition of metamorphosis at 70 days of treatment was 3.63 ppm. There was no evidence of inhibition of development with the 50 + I, C + I, or controls, indicating that the presence of small concentrations of iodide could counter the effects of perchlorate. When tadpoles that had been inhibited by perchlorate were subsequently treated with iodide, development through prometamorphosis progressed but mortality was very high.

  1. Kraft Pulp Bleaching and Delignification by Dikaryons and Monokaryons of Trametes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Addleman, Katherine; Archibald, Frederick

    1993-01-01

    The ability of 10 dikaryotic and 20 monokaryotic strains of Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor to bleach and delignify hardwood and softwood kraft pulps was assessed. A dikaryon (52P) and two of its mating-compatible monokaryons (52J and 52D) derived via protoplasting were compared. All three regularly bleached hardwood kraft pulp more than 20 brightness points (International Standards Organization) in 5 days and softwood kraft pulp the same amount in 12 days. Delignification (kappa number reduction) by the dikaryon and the monokaryons was similar, but the growth of the monokaryons was slower. Insoluble dark pigments were commonly found in the mycelium, medium, and pulp of the dikaryon only. Laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) but not lignin peroxidase activities were secreted during bleaching by all three strains. Their laccase and MnP isozyme patterns were compared on native gels. No segregation of isozyme bands between the monokaryons was found. Hardwood kraft pulp appeared to adsorb several laccase isozyme bands. One MnP isozyme (pI, 3.2) was secreted in the presence of pulp by all three strains, but a second (pI, 4.9) was produced only by 52P. A lower level of soluble MnP activity in one monokaryon (52D) was associated with reduced bleaching ability and a lower level of methanol production. Since monokaryon 52J bleached pulp better than its parent dikaryon 52P, especially per unit of biomass, this genetically simpler monokaryon will be the preferred subject for further genetic manipulation and improvement of fungal pulp biological bleaching. Images PMID:16348851

  2. The Synergistic Beneficial Effects of Ginkgo Flavonoid and Coriolus versicolor Polysaccharide for Memory Improvements in a Mouse Model of Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xianying; Jiang, Yan; Ji, Hui; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhenzhong; Ding, Gang

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the combination of Ginkgo flavonoid (GF) and Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide (CVP) in the prevention and treatment of a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). GF is a traditional health product, and CVP is the main active ingredient of the medicinal fungus Coriolus versicolor. The Morris water maze test, the Y maze, and the step-through test showed that the combinational use of CVP and GF synergistically improved memory in a mouse model of AD. Based on H&E staining analysis, the combination of CVP and GF decreased the severity of the pathological findings in the brain. Given that the expression of IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-? was downregulated, the inflammation response in AD mice was considered to be inhibited. The downregulation of GFAP further demonstrated that inflammation was reduced in the brain of AD mice following treatment. Moreover, the expression levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were elevated in the brains of treated mice, indicating that oxidation levels were reduced upon the combination treatment. Our results provide new insights into the efficient utilization of traditional medicine for preventing dementia.

  3. Removal of pharmaceuticals, polybrominated flame retardants and UV-filters from sludge by the fungus Trametes versicolor in bioslurry reactor.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Barón, Enrique; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Jeli?, Aleksandra; Llorca, Marta; Farré, Marinella; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Eljarrat, Ethel; Petrovi?, Mira; Caminal, Glòria; Barceló, Damià; Vicent, Teresa

    2012-09-30

    Conventional wastewater treatments are inefficient in the removal of many organic pollutants. The presence of these contaminants in the final sludge represents a source of environmental pollution due to the increasing use of biosolids in land application. A biotechnological approach which employed the fungus Trametes versicolor in a sludge-bioslurry reactor was assessed in order to remove several groups of emerging pollutants. Biological fungal activity was monitored by means of ergosterol and laccase determinations. Fifteen out of 24 detected pharmaceuticals were removed at efficiencies over 50% after the treatment, including eight completely degraded. Removal ranged between 16-53% and 22-100% for the brominated flame retardants and the UV-filters, respectively. Only two of all the detected compounds remained unchanged after the treatment. Although elimination results are promising, the toxicity of the final sludge increased after the treatment. This finding is contrary to the toxicity results obtained in similar treatments of sludge with T. versicolor in solid-phase. PMID:22840500

  4. The Synergistic Beneficial Effects of Ginkgo Flavonoid and Coriolus versicolor Polysaccharide for Memory Improvements in a Mouse Model of Dementia.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xianying; Jiang, Yan; Ji, Hui; Zhao, Linguo; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhenzhong; Ding, Gang

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the combination of Ginkgo flavonoid (GF) and Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide (CVP) in the prevention and treatment of a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). GF is a traditional health product, and CVP is the main active ingredient of the medicinal fungus Coriolus versicolor. The Morris water maze test, the Y maze, and the step-through test showed that the combinational use of CVP and GF synergistically improved memory in a mouse model of AD. Based on H&E staining analysis, the combination of CVP and GF decreased the severity of the pathological findings in the brain. Given that the expression of IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-? was downregulated, the inflammation response in AD mice was considered to be inhibited. The downregulation of GFAP further demonstrated that inflammation was reduced in the brain of AD mice following treatment. Moreover, the expression levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were elevated in the brains of treated mice, indicating that oxidation levels were reduced upon the combination treatment. Our results provide new insights into the efficient utilization of traditional medicine for preventing dementia. PMID:25821476

  5. Biological pretreatment with a cellobiose dehydrogenase-deficient strain of Trametes versicolor enhances the biofuel potential of canola straw.

    PubMed

    Canam, Thomas; Town, Jennifer R; Tsang, Adrian; McAllister, Tim A; Dumonceaux, Tim J

    2011-11-01

    The use of Trametes versicolor as a biological pretreatment for canola straw was explored in the context of biofuel production. Specifically, the effects on the straw of a wild-type strain (52J) and a cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH)-deficient strain (m4D) were investigated. The xylose and glucose contents of the straw treated with 52J were significantly reduced, while only the xylose content was reduced with m4D treatment. Lignin extractability was greatly improved with fungal treatments compared to untreated straw. Saccharification of the residue of the m4D-treated straw led to a significant increase in proportional glucose yield, which was partially attributed to the lack of cellulose catabolism by m4D. Overall, the results of this study indicate that CDH facilitates cellulose access by T. versicolor. Furthermore, treatment of lignocellulosic material with m4D offers improvements in lignin extractability and saccharification efficacy compared to untreated biomass without loss of substrate due to fungal catabolism. PMID:21903381

  6. Effect of the antifungal activity of oxygenated aromatic essential oil compounds on the white-rot Trametes versicolor and the brown-rot Coniophora puteana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karmen Voda; Bojana Boh; Margareta Vrta?nik; Franc Pohleven

    2003-01-01

    Essential oils and their constituents have a long history of applications as antimicrobial agents, but their use as wood preservatives has not yet been reported. In this study, 22 essential oil phenols, phenol ethers, and aromatic aldehydes have been tested for their antifungal activity against the wood-decaying fungi Trametes versicolor and Coniophora puteana. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of the selected compounds

  7. Effects of Lycium barbarum extract on production and immunomodulatory activity of the extracellular polysaccharopeptides from submerged fermentation culture of Coriolus versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fang-Yi Lin; Yiu-Kay Lai; Hao-Chen Yu; Nan-Yin Chen; Chi-Yue Chang; Hui-Chen Lo; Tai-Hao Hsu

    2008-01-01

    Polysaccharopeptides (PSPs) from Coriolus versicolor have been used as immunomodulatory and anticancer agents. However, most studies have concentrated on the mycelial PSPs and not those in the fermented broth. On the other hand, Lycium barbarum fruit has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine for two millennia. Its extract contains various nutrients, minerals, and also polysaccharide–protein complexes, which are

  8. Isolation, structure elucidation, and biomimetic total synthesis of versicolamide B and the isolation of antipodal (-)-stephacidin A and (+)-notoamide B from Aspergillus versicolor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new prenylated indole alkaloid, versicolamide B, was isolated from cultures of Aspergillus versicolor NRRL 35600. The structure was assigned by 2D NMR data, and confirmed by a biomimetic total synthesis. Versicolamide B is the first member of the paraherquamide-stephacidin family of alkaloids fo...

  9. Comparison of two laccases from Trametes versicolor for application in the decolorization of dyes.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Ge, Lin; Cai, Junli; Pei, Jianjun; Xie, Jingcong; Zhao, Linguo

    2014-04-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that laccases exhibit great potential for use in several industrial and environmental applications. In this paper, two laccase isoenzyme genes, lccB and lccC, were cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The sequence analysis indicated that the lccB and lccC genes consisted of 1,563 and 1,584 bp, and their open reading frames encoded 520 and 527 amino acids, respectively. They had 72.7% degree of identity in nucleotides and 86.7% in amino acids. The expression levels of LccB and LccC were up to 32,479 and 34,231 U/l, respectively. The recombinant laccases were purified by ultrafiltration and (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, showing a single band on SDS-PAGE, which had a molecular mass of 58 kDa. The optimal pH and temperature for LccB were 2.0 and 55°C with 2,2'-azino-bis-[3-ethylbenzthiazolinesulfonic acid (ABTS) as a substrate, whereas LccC exhibited optimal pH and temperature at 3.0 and 60°C. The apparent kinetic parameters of LccB were 0.43 mM for ABTS with a Vmax value of 51.28 U/mg, and the Km and Vmax values for LccC were 0.29 mM and 62.89 U/mg. The recombinant laccases were able to decolorize five types of dyes. Acid Violet 43 (100 g/ml) was completely decolorized by LccB or LccC (2 U/ml), and the decolorization of Reactive Blue KN-R (100 g/ml) was 91.6% by LccC (2 U/ml). Thus, the study characterizes useful laccase isoenzymes from T. versicolor that have the capability of being incorporated into the treatment of similar azo and anthraquinone dyes from dyeing industries. PMID:24448164

  10. Production, purification and biochemical characterization of two laccase isoforms produced by Trametes versicolor grown on oak sawdust.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Morales, Fernando; Bertrand, Brandt; Pasión Nava, Angélica A; Tinoco, Raunel; Acosta-Urdapilleta, Lourdes; Trejo-Hernández, María R

    2015-02-01

    Two laccase isoforms (lcc1 and lcc2) produced by Trametes versicolor, grown on oak sawdust under solid-state fermentation conditions, were purified and characterized. The two isoforms showed significant biochemical differences. Lcc1 and lcc2 had MWs of 60 and 100 kDa, respectively. Both isoforms had maximal activity at pH 3 with ABTS and 2,6-dimethyloxyphenol (DMP). Lcc1 was the most attractive isoform due to its greater affinity towards all the laccase substrates used. Lcc1 had Km values of 12, 10, 15 and 17 mM towards ABTS, DMP, guaiacol and syringaldazine, respectively. Lcc2 had equivalent values of 45, 47, 15 and 39 mM. The biochemical properties of lcc1 substantiate the potential of this enzyme for application in the treatment of contaminated water with low pH values and high phenolic content. PMID:25257594

  11. Image analysis technique as a tool to identify morphological changes in Trametes versicolor pellets according to exopolysaccharide or laccase production.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Ana P M; Silva, Rui P; Amaral, António L; Ferreira, Eugénio C; Xavier, Ana M R B

    2014-02-01

    Image analysis technique was applied to identify morphological changes of pellets from white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor on agitated submerged cultures during the production of exopolysaccharide (EPS) or ligninolytic enzymes. Batch tests with four different experimental conditions were carried out. Two different culture media were used, namely yeast medium or Trametes defined medium and the addition of lignolytic inducers as xylidine or pulp and paper industrial effluent were evaluated. Laccase activity, EPS production, and final biomass contents were determined for batch assays and the pellets morphology was assessed by image analysis techniques. The obtained data allowed establishing the choice of the metabolic pathways according to the experimental conditions, either for laccase enzymatic production in the Trametes defined medium, or for EPS production in the rich Yeast Medium experiments. Furthermore, the image processing and analysis methodology allowed for a better comprehension of the physiological phenomena with respect to the corresponding pellets morphological stages. PMID:24338251

  12. Secondary metabolites of a deep sea derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor CXCTD-06-6a and their bioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xianglan; Cai, Shengxin; Zhu, Tianjiao; Gu, Qianqun; Li, Dehai; Luan, Yepeng

    2014-08-01

    In order to obtain novel secondary metabolites, a deep sea inhabiting fungus Aspergillus versicolor CXCTD-06-6a was investigated. One new diketopiperazine brevianamide W ( 1a), as well as five known diketopiperazine alkaloids, diketopiperazine V ( 1b), brevianamide Q ( 2), brevianamide R ( 3), brevianamide K ( 4), and brevianamide E ( 5), were isolated from the EtOAc extract of the fermentation broth. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopy techniques (NMR, MS). The six compounds exhibited moderate radical scavenging activity against DPPH with clearance ratio of 55.0% ( 1a and 1b), 53.7% ( 2), 46.2% ( 3), 61.4% ( 4) and 19.3% ( 5) at a concentration of 13.9 ?mol L-1, respectively; while the positive control ascorbic acid showed a ratio of 70.3% at the concentration of 28.4 ?mol L-1.

  13. Historical Isolation versus Recent Long-Distance Connections between Europe and Africa in Bifid Toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores)

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Mazuecos, Mario; Vargas, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Background Due to its complex, dynamic and well-known paleogeography, the Mediterranean region provides an ideal framework to study the colonization history of plant lineages. The genus Linaria has its diversity centre in the Mediterranean region, both in Europe and Africa. The last land connection between both continental plates occurred during the Messinian Salinity Crisis, in the late Miocene (5.96 to 5.33 Ma). Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the colonization history of Linaria sect. Versicolores (bifid toadflaxes), which includes c. 22 species distributed across the Mediterranean, including Europe and Africa. Two cpDNA regions (rpl32-trnLUAG and trnK-matK) were sequenced from 66 samples of Linaria. We conducted phylogenetic, dating, biogeographic and phylogeographic analyses to reconstruct colonization patterns in space and time. Four major clades were found: two of them exclusively contain Iberian samples, while the other two include northern African samples together with some European samples. The bifid toadflaxes have been split in African and European clades since the late Miocene, and most lineage and speciation differentiation occurred during the Pliocene and Quaternary. We have strongly inferred four events of post-Messinian colonization following long-distance dispersal from northern Africa to the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Greece. Conclusions/Significance The current distribution of Linaria sect. Versicolores lineages is explained by both ancient isolation between African and European populations and recent events of long-distance dispersal over sea barriers. This result provides new evidence for the biogeographic complexity of the Mediterranean region. PMID:21779399

  14. Changes in GnRH I, bradykinin and their receptors and GnIH in the ovary of Calotes versicolor during reproductive cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Padmasana Singh; Amitabh Krishna; Rajagopala Sridaran; Kazuyoshi Tsutsui

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the abundance of gonadotrophin releasing hormone I (GnRH I) and GnRH I receptor in the ovary of Calotes versicolor during the reproductive cycle and correlate them with the changes in gonadotrophin inhibitory hormone (GnIH), bradykinin and bradykinin B2 receptor in order to understand their interaction during ovarian cycle. GnRH I,

  15. Male-biased distribution of the human Y chromosomal genes SRY and ZFY in the lizard Calotes versicolor , which lacks sex chromosomes and temperature-dependent sex determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subramaniam Ganesh; Jayashree Mohanty; Rajiva Raman

    1997-01-01

    In the present investigation on the lizard Calotes versicolor, which lacks temperature-dependent sex determination, all the conventional cytological techniques used failed to resolve a distinguishable pair of sex chromosomes. However, probing of the genome with the human Y-linked genes SRY and ZFY showed sex-specific bias in their distribution. While the SRY probe hybridized to all the males, more than half

  16. A cluster of genes encoding major isozymes of lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase from the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomas Johansson; Per Olof Nyman

    1996-01-01

    A gene cluster from the white-rot basidiomycete Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor (Tv) PRL 572 containing three structural genes, LPGIII, LPGIV and MPGI, was characterized. The genes are arranged in the same transcriptional direction, within a 10-kb region, and found to encode quantitatively dominant isozymes of lignin peroxidase (LP) and manganese peroxidase (MP). The second gene in sequence, LPGIV, predicts a 346-amino-acid

  17. Hydroxyl radical generation by an extracellular low-molecular-weight substance and phenol oxidase activity during wood degradation by the white-rot basidiomycete Trametes versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiromi Tanaka; Shuji Itakura; Akio Enoki

    1999-01-01

    One-electron oxidation activity, as measured by ethylene generation from 2-keto-4-thiomethylbutyric acid, phenol oxidase activity, and the generation of hydroxyl radical were examined in cultures of the lignin-degrading white-rot basidiomycete fungus, Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor. The activity levels of specific lignin-degrading enzymes and cellulases, as well as the rate of wood degradation, also were examined. The fungus secreted a low-molecular-weight substance (Mr

  18. The effect of pH on the transformation of syringic and vanillic acids by the laccases of Rhizoctonia praticola and Trametes versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Leonowicz; R. U. Edgehill; J.-M. Bollag

    1984-01-01

    Laccases (benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductases, EC 1.10.3.2) from Rhizoctonia praticola and Trametes versicolor formed different products from syringic and vanillic acids at different pH values, but both enzymes generated the same chemicals at a particular pH. The products were separated by thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography. Four compounds were determined from syringic acid (m\\/z 168, 334, 350 and 486) at pH

  19. Transformation of 2-hydroxydibenzofuran by laccases of the white rot fungi Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus and characterization of oligomerization products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrike Jonas; Elke Hammer; Frieder Schauer; Jean-Marc Bollag

    1998-01-01

    Laccase, a ligninolytic enzyme, was secreted by each ofthe white rot fungi Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus cinnabarinusduring growth in a nitrogen-rich medium under agitated conditions. Afteraddition of 2-hydroxydibenzofuran to cell-freesupernatants of the cultures, yellow precipitates wereformed. These precipitates were poorly soluble in waterand therefore readily separated from the supernatant. Theproducts formed were more hydrophobic than thesubstrate, as indicated by their

  20. Patterns of ligninolytic enzymes in Trametes versicolor . Distribution of extra- and intracellular enzyme activities during cultivation on glucose, wheat straw and beech wood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Schlosser; R. Grey; W. Fritsche

    1997-01-01

    Trametes versicolor was shown to produce extracellular laccase during surface cultivation on glucose, wheat straw and beech wood. Growth on both\\u000a wheat straw and beech wood led to an increase as high as 3.5-fold in extracellular laccase activity, in comparison with growth\\u000a on glucose. The corresponding yields in fungal biomass reached only about 20% of the value obtained on glucose.

  1. Kinetics of wheat straw solid-state fermentation with Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus — lignin and polysaccharide alteration and production of related enzymatic activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Valmaseda; María Jesús Martínez; Angel T. Martínez

    1991-01-01

    The kinetics of straw solid-state fermentation (SSF) with Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus was investigated to characterize the delignification processes by these white-rot fungi. Two successive phases could be defined during straw transformation, characterized by changes in respiratory activity, changes in lignin and polysaccharide content and composition, increase in in-vitro digestibility, and enzymatic activities produced by the fungi. Lignin composition

  2. Characterization of graphite electrodes modified with laccase from Trametes versicolor and their use for bioelectrochemical monitoring of phenolic compounds in flow injection analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Haghighi; L. Gorton; T. Ruzgas; L. J. Jönsson

    2003-01-01

    Spectrographic graphite electrodes were modified through adsorption with laccase from Trametes versicolor. The laccase-modified graphite electrode was used as the working electrode in an amperometric flow-through cell for monitoring phenolic compounds in a single line flow injection system. The experimental conditions for bioelectrochemical determination of catechol were studied and optimized. The relative standard deviation of the biosensor for catechol (10?M,

  3. Laccase from the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor: cDNA cloning of lcc1 and expression in Pichia pastoris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leif J. Jönsson; Markku Saloheimo; Merja Penttilä

    1997-01-01

    A cDNA coding for laccase was isolated from the ligninolytic fungus Trametes versicolor by RNA-PCR. The cDNA corresponds to the gene lcc1, which encodes a laccase isoenzyme of 498 amino-acid residues preceded by a 22-residue signal peptide. The lcc1 cDNA was cloned into the vector pHIL-D2 for expression in Pichia pastoris under the control of the AOX1 promoter. Transformants were

  4. Trametes versicolor Protein YZP Activates Regulatory B Lymphocytes – Gene Identification through De Novo Assembly and Function Analysis in a Murine Acute Colitis Model

    PubMed Central

    Kuan, Yen-Chou; Wu, Ying-Jou; Hung, Chih-Liang; Sheu, Fuu

    2013-01-01

    Background Trametes versicolor (Yun-Zhi) is a medicinal fungus used as a chemotherapy co-treatment to enhance anti-tumor immunity. Although the efficacies of T. versicolor extracts have been documented, the active ingredients and mechanisms underlying the actions of these extracts remain uncharacterized. Results We purified a new protein, YZP, from the fruiting bodies of T. versicolor and identified the gene encoding YZP using RNA-seq and de novo assembly technologies. YZP is a 12-kDa non-glycosylated protein comprising 139 amino acids, including an 18-amino acids signal peptide. YZP induced a greater than 60-fold increase in IL-10 secretion in mice B lymphocytes; moreover, YZP specifically triggered the differentiation of CD1d+ B cells into IL-10-producing regulatory B cells (Bregs) and enhanced the expression of CD1d. YZP-induced B cells suppressed approximately 40% of the LPS-activated macrophage production of inflammatory cytokines in a mixed leukocyte reaction and significantly alleviated the disease activity and colonic inflammation in a DSS-induced acute colitis murine model. Furthermore, YZP activated Breg function via interaction with TLR2 and TLR4 and up-regulation of the TLR-mediated signaling pathway. Conclusions We purified a novel Breg-stimulating protein, YZP, from T. versicolor and developed an advanced approach combining RNA-seq and de novo assembly technologies.to clone its gene. We demonstrated that YZP activated CD1d+ Breg differentiation through TLR2/4-mediated signaling pathway, and the YZP-stimulated B cells exhibited anti-inflammatory efficacies in vitro and in murine acute colitis models. PMID:24019869

  5. Activation of Dormant Secondary Metabolite Production by Introducing Neomycin Resistance into the Deep-Sea Fungus, Aspergillus versicolor ZBY-3

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yuan; Cui, Cheng-Bin; Li, Chang-Wei; Hua, Wei; Wu, Chang-Jing; Zhu, Tian-Jiao; Gu, Qian-Qun

    2014-01-01

    A new ultrasound-mediated approach has been developed to introduce neomycin-resistance to activate silent pathways for secondary metabolite production in a bio-inactive, deep-sea fungus, Aspergillus versicolor ZBY-3. Upon treatment of the ZBY-3 spores with a high concentration of neomycin by proper ultrasound irradiation, a total of 30 mutants were obtained by single colony isolation. The acquired resistance of the mutants to neomycin was confirmed by a resistance test. In contrast to the ZBY-3 strain, the EtOAc extracts of 22 of the 30 mutants inhibited the human cancer K562 cells, indicating that these mutants acquired a capability to produce antitumor metabolites. HPLC-photodiode array detector (PDAD)-UV and HPLC-electron spray ionization (ESI)-MS analyses of the EtOAc extracts of seven bioactive mutants and the ZBY-3 strain indicated that diverse secondary metabolites have been newly produced in the mutant extracts in contrast to the ZBY-3 extract. The followed isolation and characterization demonstrated that six metabolites, cyclo(d-Pro-d-Phe) (1), cyclo(d-Tyr-d-Pro) (2), phenethyl 5-oxo-l-prolinate (3), cyclo(l-Ile-l-Pro) (4), cyclo(l-Leu-l-Pro) (5) and 3?,5?,9?-trihydroxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-6-one (6), were newly produced by the mutant u2n2h3-3 compared to the parent ZBY-3 strain. Compound 3 was a new compound; 2 was isolated from a natural source for the first time, and all of these compounds were also not yet found in the metabolites of other A. versicolor strains. Compounds 1–6 inhibited the K562 cells, with inhibition rates of 54.6% (1), 72.9% (2), 23.5% (3), 29.6% (4), 30.9% (5) and 51.1% (6) at 100 ?g/mL, and inhibited also other human cancer HL-60, BGC-823 and HeLa cells, to some extent. The present study demonstrated the effectiveness of the ultrasound-mediated approach to activate silent metabolite production in fungi by introducing acquired resistance to aminoglycosides and its potential for discovering new compounds from silent fungal metabolic pathways. This approach could be applied to elicit the metabolic potentials of other fungal isolates to discover new compounds from cryptic secondary metabolites. PMID:25076061

  6. Short- and long-term movements of painted lobster ( Panulirus versicolor) on a coral reef at Northwest Island, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, A. J.

    2007-06-01

    Understanding movements of palinurid (spiny) lobsters is important to fisheries management. However, movement data obtained with mark-capture techniques are often influenced by artefacts (e.g., displacement, tag-loss, tag-induced injury). To avoid these problems, a novel approach was employed to investigate the movements of an important coral reef palinurid, the painted lobster ( Panulirus versicolor). Eighty adult individuals were captured by hand near Northwest Island, Australia. Each lobster was tagged internally (with elastomer) and externally (with plastic zip-ties) to enable both short- (1-10 days) and long-term (6-24 months) observations. Shortly thereafter, all lobsters were manually returned to their shelters (dens). After 6-24 months, 44 lobsters were recaptured, giving an overall recapture rate of 55%. All of these individuals were recaptured within 500 m of their original den, thus indicating a high level of site-fidelity for this species. Short-term observations revealed that individuals moved frequently to and from nearby dens, and that male lobsters typically moved further than female lobsters. It is hypothesized that male lobsters move about their home range more actively, perhaps to seek mating opportunities or to defend resources. The significance of these observations is discussed with respect to the management of this important fishery resource.

  7. Successive transformation of benzo[a]pyrene by laccase of Trametes versicolor and pyrene-degrading Mycobacterium strains.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jun; Lin, Xiangui; Zhang, Jing; Zhu, Hong; Chen, Hong; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-04-01

    We previously hypothesized that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria that produce laccase may enhance the degree of benzo[a]pyrene mineralization. However, whether the metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene oxidized by laccase can be further transformed by PAH degraders remains unknown. In this study, pyrene-degrading mycobacteria with diverse degradation properties were isolated and employed for investigating the subsequent transformation on the metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene oxidized by fungal laccase of Trametes versicolor. The results confirm the successive transformation of benzo[a]pyrene metabolites, 6-benzo[a]pyrenyl acetate, and quinones by Mycobacterium strains, and report the discovery of the involvement of a O-methylation mediated pathway in the process. In detail, the vast majority of metabolite 6-benzo[a]pyrenyl acetate was transformed into benzo[a]pyrene quinones or methoxybenzo[a]pyrene, via two distinct steps that were controlled by the catechol-O-methyltransferase mediated O-methylation, while quinones were reduced to dihydroxybenzo[a]pyrene and further transformed into dimethoxy derivatives. PMID:22573273

  8. Purification an ?-galactosidase from Coriolus versicolor with acid-resistant and good degradation ability on raffinose family oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Du, Fang; Liu, Qin; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, TziBin

    2014-04-01

    An acid-tolerant ?-galactosidase (CVGI) was isolated from the fruiting bodies of Coriolus versicolor with a 229-fold of purification and a specific activity of 398.6 units mg?¹. It was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme gave a single band corresponding to a molecular mass of 40 kDa in SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. The ?-galactosidase was identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and its inner peptides were sequenced by ESI-MS/MS. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme were determined as 60 °C and 3.0, respectively. The enzyme was very stable at a temperature range of 4-50 °C and at a pH range of 2-5. Among the metal ions tested, Cu²?, Cd²? and Hg²? ions have been shown to partially inhibit the activity of ?-galactosidase, while the activity of CVGI was completely inactivated by Ag? ions. N-bromosuccinamide inhibited enzyme activity by 100 %, indicating the importance of tryptophan residue(s) at or near the active site. CVGI had wide substrate specificity (p-nitrophenyl galactoside, melidiose, raffinose and stachyose). After treatment with CVGI, raffinose family oligosaccharide was hydrolyzed effectively to yield galactose and sucrose. The results showed that the general properties of the enzyme offer potential for use of this ?-galactosidase in several production processes. PMID:24197787

  9. The TvPirin Gene Is Necessary for Haustorium Development in the Parasitic Plant Triphysaria versicolor1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Bandaranayake, Pradeepa C.G.; Tomilov, Alexey; Tomilova, Natalya B.; Ngo, Quy A.; Wickett, Norman; dePamphilis, Claude W.; Yoder, John I.

    2012-01-01

    The rhizosphere is teemed with organisms that coordinate their symbioses using chemical signals traversing between the host root and symbionts. Chemical signals also mediate interactions between roots of different plants, perhaps the most obvious being those between parasitic Orobanchaceae and their plant hosts. Parasitic plants use specific molecules provided by host roots to initiate the development of haustoria, invasive structures critical for plant parasitism. We took a transcriptomics approach to identify parasitic plant genes associated with host factor recognition and haustorium signaling and previously identified a gene, TvPirin, which is transcriptionally up-regulated in roots of the parasitic plant Triphysaria versicolor after being exposed to the haustorium-inducing molecule 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone (DMBQ). Because TvPirin shares homology with proteins associated with environmental signaling in some plants, we hypothesized that TvPirin may function in host factor recognition in parasitic plants. We tested the function of TvPirin in T. versicolor roots using hairpin-mediated RNA interference. Reducing TvPirin transcripts in T. versicolor roots resulted in significantly less haustoria development in response to DMBQ exposure. We determined the transcript levels of other root expressed transcripts and found that several had reduced basal levels of gene expression but were similarly regulated by quinone exposure. Phylogenic investigations showed that TvPirin homologs are present in most flowering plants, and we found no evidence of parasite-specific gene duplication or expansion. We propose that TvPirin is a generalized transcription factor associated with the expression of a number of genes, some of which are involved in haustorium development. PMID:22128136

  10. The molecular composition of lignin in spruce decayed by white-rot fungi ( Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor) using pyrolysis-GC–MS and thermochemolysis with tetramethylammonium hydroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher H Vane

    2003-01-01

    Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC–MS) and off-line thermochemolysis with tetramethylammonium hydroxide followed by GC–MS were used in the molecular characterisation of lignin in spruce wood decayed by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor. Mono-methoxyphenols were the main pyrolysis products from the undegraded lignin. Py-GC–MS provided qualitative evidence that 2-methoxy-4-(prop-2-enal)phenol and trans-2-methoxy-4-(1-hydroxy-prop-2-enyl)phenol content decreased whereas 1,2-dihydroxybenzene increased in intensity relative to other products

  11. The use of Trametes versicolor laccase for the polymerization of aniline in the presence of vesicles as templates.

    PubMed

    Junker, Katja; Kissner, Reinhard; Rakvin, Boris; Guo, Zengwei; Willeke, Martin; Busato, Stephan; Weber, Thomas; Walde, Peter

    2014-02-01

    The enzymatic polymerization of aniline to polyaniline (PANI) with Trametes versicolor laccase (TvL) as catalyst and dioxygen (O?) as oxidant was investigated in an aqueous medium containing unilamellar vesicles with an average diameter of about 80 nm formed from AOT (=sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate). Compared to the same reaction carried out with horseradish peroxidase isoenzyme C (HRPC) as catalyst and hydrogen peroxide (H?O?) as oxidant, notable differences were found in the kinetics of the reaction, as well as in the characteristics of the PANI obtained. Under comparable optimal conditions, which are pH 3.5 for TvL/O? and pH 4.3 for HRPC/H?O?, the reaction with TvL/O? was much slower than with HRPC/H?O?, i.e. ?27 days vs. 1 day reaction time to reach equilibrium with >90% yield at 25 °C. Although in both cases, aniline monomer coupling occurred mainly via the carbon atom in para position of aniline, UV-vis-NIR absorption and EPR measurements indicate that the reaction with TvL/O? yielded mainly overoxidized products (with ?(max)=730 nm). These products had a lower amount of unpaired electrons if compared with the products obtained with HRPC/H?O? (with ?(max)?1000 nm, which is characteristic for the polaron state of PANI-ES, the emeraldine salt form of PANI). Similarly to previous findings with HRPC/H?O?, enzyme inactivation occurred during the polymerization also in the case of TvL/O?. Since the aqueous PANI-vesicle suspensions obtained are of high colloidal stability, they can be used directly as ink in a conventional thermal inkjet printer for printing on paper or on surface treated polyimide films. Printed PANI-ES patterns on paper changed colour from green (emeraldine salt) to blue (emeraldine base) upon exposure to ammonia gas, demonstrating the expected ammonia sensing properties. PMID:24411448

  12. Kinetic evidence for the interactive inhibition of laccase from Trametes versicolor by pH and chloride.

    PubMed

    Raseda, Nasrin; Hong, Soonho; Kwon, O Yul; Ryu, Keungarp

    2014-12-28

    The interactive inhibitory effects of pH and chloride on the catalysis of laccase from Trametes versicolor were investigated by studying the alteration of inhibition characteristics of sodium chloride at different pHs for the oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid). At pH 3.0, the addition of sodium chloride (50 mM) brought about a 40-fold increase in Km(app) and a 4-fold decrease in Vmax(app). As the pH increased to 7.0, the inhibitory effects of sodium chloride became significantly weakened. The mixed-inhibition mechanism was successfully used to quantitatively estimate the competitive and uncompetitive inhibition strengths by chloride at two different pHs (pH 3.0 and 6.0). At pH 3.0, the competitive inhibition constant, Ki, was 0.35 mM, whereas the uncompetitive inhibition constant, Ki', was 18.1 mM, indicating that the major cause of the laccase inhibition by chloride is due to the competitive inhibition step. At a higher pH of 6.0, where the inhibition of the laccase by hydroxide ions takes effect, the inhibition of the laccase by chloride diminished to a great extent, showing increased values of both the competitive inhibition constant (Ki= 23.7 mM) and uncompetitive inhibition constant (Ki' = 324 mM). These kinetic results evidenced that the hydroxide anion and chloride share a common mechanism to inhibit the laccase activity. PMID:25152059

  13. Pityriasis versicolor: clinical-epidemiological characterization of patients in the urban area of Buerarema-BA, Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Juliano Oliveira; de Azevedo, Fernanda Luiza Andrade; Campos, Pedro Costa

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a cutaneous pigmentation disorder caused by a lipophilic yeast of the genus Malassezia sp. It is a superficial mycosis characterized by well-defined, slightly scaly skin lesions of variable color. In Brazil, the number of reported cases is small, and there are few epidemiological studies. OBJECTIVES: to assess incidence, characteristics of the lesions, effectiveness of the Zileri's Sign procedure, and the epidemiological profile of PV in the urban area of Buerarema - Bahia. METHODS: Biological samples were collected on pre-established days at Basic Health Care Units from July to September 2010. Sample collection was followed by laboratory diagnosis using Porto's Method. RESULTS: Of the 158 patients with suspected PV participating in the study, 105 (66.5%) were positive; 72 (68.6%) were female and 33 (31.4%) were male. Sex and location of lesions showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05). The region with the highest rate of cases of PV was found to be the center of the city, with 40.9% of diagnosed cases. The most affected age group was between 10 and 19 years. There was a significant association between the results produced through Zileri's Sign and Porto's Method in relation to positive and negative results (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results showed a higher prevalence of PV among individuals at puberty. The Zileri's Sign method proved to be counterproductive, because it showed low efficacy as a method for clinical diagnosis, yielding negative results for 36 (34.3%) patients who had been diagnosed with PV through laboratory examination. PMID:23739695

  14. Characterization of purified and Xerogel immobilized Novel Lignin Peroxidase produced from Trametes versicolor IBL-04 using solid state medium of Corncobs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cost-effective production of industrially important enzymes is a key for their successful exploitation on industrial scale. Keeping in view the extensive industrial applications of lignin peroxidase (LiP), this study was performed to purify and characterize the LiP from an indigenous strain of Trametes versicolor IBL-04. Xerogel matrix enzyme immobilization technique was applied to improve the kinetic and thermo-stability characteristics of LiP to fulfil the requirements of the modern enzyme consumer sector of biotechnology. Results A novel LiP was isolated from an indigenous T. versicolor IBL-04 strain. T. versicolor IBL-04 was cultured in solid state fermentation (SSF) medium of corn cobs and maximum LiP activity of 592?±?6 U/mL was recorded after five days of incubation under optimum culture conditions. The crude LiP was 3.3-fold purified with specific activity of 553 U/mg after passing through the DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex-G-100 chromatography columns. The purified LiP exhibited a relatively low molecular weight (30?kDa) homogenous single band on native and SDS-PAGE. The LiP was immobilized by entrapping in xerogel matrix of trimethoxysilane (TMOS) and proplytetramethoxysilane (PTMS) and maximum immobilization efficiency of 88.6% was achieved. The free and immobilized LiPs were characterized and the results showed that the free and immobilized LiPs had optimum pH 6 and 5 while optimum temperatures were 60°C and 80°C, respectively. Immobilization was found to enhance the activity and thermo-stability potential of LiP significantly and immobilized LiP remained stable over broad pH and temperature range as compare to free enzyme. Kinetic constants Km and Vmax were 70 and 56??M and 588 and 417 U/mg for the free and immobilized LiPs, respectively. Activity of this novel extra thermo-stable LiP was stimulated to variable extents by Cu2+, Mn2+ and Fe2+ whereas, Cystein, EDTA and Ag+ showed inhibitory effects. Conclusions The indigenously isolated white rot fungal strain T. versicolor IBL-04 showed tremendous potential for LiP synthesis in SSF of corncobs in high titters (592 U/mL) than other reported Trametes (Coriolus, Polyporus) species. The results obtained after dual phase characterization suggested xerogel matrix entrapment a promising tool for enzyme immobilization, hyper-activation and stabilization against high temperature and inactivating agents. The pH and temperature optima, extra thermo-stability features and kinetic characteristics of this novel LiP of T. versicolor IBL-04 make it a versatile enzyme for various industrial and biotechnological applications. PMID:22862820

  15. Pyranose Oxidase, a Major Source of H2O2 during Wood Degradation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor, and Oudemansiella mucida

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Geoffrey; Volc, Jindrich; Kubatova, Elena

    1994-01-01

    The production of the H2O2-generating enzyme pyranose oxidase (POD) (EC 1.1.3.10) (synonym, glucose 2-oxidase), two ligninolytic peroxidases, and laccase in wood decayed by three white rot fungi was investigated by correlated biochemical, immunological, and transmission electron microscopic techniques. Enzyme activities were assayed in extracts from decayed birch wood blocks obtained by a novel extraction procedure. With the coupled peroxidase-chromogen (3-dimethylaminobenzoic acid plus 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride) spectrophotometric assay, the highest POD activities were detected in wood blocks degraded for 4 months and were for Phanerochaete chrysosporium (149 mU g [dry weight] of decayed wood-1), Trametes versicolor (45 mU g-1), and Oudemansiella mucida (1.2 mU g-1), corresponding to wood dry weight losses of 74, 58, and 13%, respectively. Mn-dependent peroxidase activities in the same extracts were comparable to those of POD, while lignin peroxidase activity was below the detection limit for all fungi with the veratryl alcohol assay. Laccase activity was high with T. versicolor (422 mU g-1 after 4 months), in trace levels with O. mucida, and undetectable in P. chrysosporium extracts. Evidence for C-2 specificity of POD was shown by thin-layer chromatography detection of 2-keto-d-glucose as the reaction product. By transmission electron microscopy-immunocytochemistry, POD was found to be preferentially localized in the hyphal periplasmic space of P. chrysosporium and O. mucida and associated with membranous materials in hyphae growing within the cell lumina or cell walls of partially and highly degraded birch fibers. An extracellular distribution of POD associated with slime coating wood cell walls was also noted. The periplasmic distribution in hyphae and extracellular location of POD are consistent with the reported ultrastructural distribution of H2O2-dependent Mn-dependent peroxidases. This fact and the dominant presence of POD and Mn-dependent peroxidase in extracts from degraded wood suggest a cooperative role of the two enzymes during white rot decay by the test fungi. Images PMID:16349330

  16. Microbiological transformation of L-tyrosine to L-dopa from methanol pretreated biomass of a novel Coriolus versicolor under submerged culture.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sikander; Rizvi, Nazia

    2014-02-01

    The present study is concerned with the microbiological transformation of L-tyrosine to L-dopa by a newly isolated turkey tail mushroom Coriolus versicolor DOB-4. As tyrosinase (catechol oxidase, EC 1.10.3.1) is an extracellular enzyme, therefore biomass was used as an enzyme source in the reaction mixture. Biomass particles were pretreated with methanol and oven dried at 105 °C for 2 h. The optimal L-dopa production was achieved when 1.5 mg/ml L-tyrosine was used as the basal substrate. Thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis depicted that citric acid supports higher substrate conversion and product formation rates. A noticeable enhancement was observed when process parameters viz. L-tyrosine concentration (1.5 mg/ml), citric acid (1.5 mg/ml), time of incubation (50 min), and reaction temperature (60 °C) were optimized using Plackett-Burman design. The maximum production of L-dopa was found to be 0.872 mg/ml with L-tyrosine consumption of 1.002 mg/ml. The model terms were found highly significant (HS, p ? 0.05), suggesting the potential commercial utility of the culture (df = 3, LSD = 0.342). PMID:24326681

  17. Environmental biodegradability of [¹?C] single-walled carbon nanotubes by Trametes versicolor and natural microbial cultures found in New Bedford Harbor sediment and aerated wastewater treatment plant sludge.

    PubMed

    Parks, Ashley N; Chandler, G Thomas; Ho, Kay T; Burgess, Robert M; Ferguson, P Lee

    2015-02-01

    Little is known about environmental biodegradability or biotransformations of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Because of their strong association with aquatic organic matter, detailed knowledge of the ultimate fate and persistence of SWNT requires investigation of possible biotransformations (i.e., biodegradation) in environmental media. In the present study, [(14)C]SWNT were utilized to track biodegradation over 6 mo by pure liquid culture of the fungus Trametes versicolor and mixed bacterial isolates from field-collected sediment or aerated wastewater treatment plant sludge. The mixed cultures were chosen as more environmentally relevant media where SWNT will likely be deposited under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Activity of [(14)C] was assessed in solid, aqueous, and (14)CO2 gaseous phases to determine amounts of intact SWNT, partially soluble SWNT degradation products, and mineralized SWNT, respectively, during the 6 mo of the experiment. Mass balances based on radiocarbon activity were approximately 100% over 6 mo, and no significant degradation of SWNT was observed. Approximately 99% of the [(14)C] activity remained in the solid phase, 0.8% in the aqueous phase, and less than 0.1% was mineralized to (14)CO2, regardless of culture type. These results suggest that SWNT are not readily biodegraded by pure fungal cultures or environmental microbial communities, and are likely persistent in environmental media. PMID:25352477

  18. Regulation of cell cycle transition and induction of apoptosis in HL-60 leukemia cells by the combination of Coriolus versicolor and Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Tze-Chen; Wu, Joseph M

    2013-07-01

    Medicinal mushrooms have served as the mainstay of treatment for a variety of human illnesses in Asian countries, mostly as supplements by cancer patients. Extracts prepared from Trametes versicolor under the trade name of I'm-Yunity exhibit anti-tumorigenic activities, as supported by inhibition of the proliferation and induction of apoptosis in malignant cells. Similar effects have also been observed for the Reishi mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. The two mushrooms exert their medicinal activities primarily through a family of polysaccharo-peptides. Despite the common identity in their bioactive ingredients, whether their combination might elicit an expanded efficacy and mechanism has not been investigated. In the present study, we investigated similarities and differences between extracts prepared from I'm-Yunity and from a formulation denoted I'm-Yunity-Too combining I'm-Yunity and Ganoderma lucidum. By assaying their anti-proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects using human promyelocytic HL-60 cells, we found that the ethanolic extract of I'm-Yunity-Too was more active in inducing cell death compared to I'm-Yunity, based on measured changes in the expression of caspase 3 and Bax. Moreover, ethanolic extracts of I'm-Yunity-Too exhibited more potent activity compared to its aqueous extracts with regard to suppression of the growth and induction of apoptosis, as assayed by the more pronounced downregulation of phosphorylation of Rb and increased cleavage of poly(ADP?ribose) polymerase (PARP) from its native 112-kDa form to the inactive 89-kDa product. These results suggested that the chemopreventive potential of I'm-Yunity may be enhanced by adding Ganoderma lucidum and that their bioactive ingre-dients potentially exhibit mechanistic synergism suggesting a more efficacious adjunct in chemotherapy. PMID:23670292

  19. Effects of photochemical oxidant injury of ponderosa and Jeffrey pines on susceptibility of sapwood and freshly cut stumps to Fomes annosus. [Pinus ponderosa; Pinus jeffreyi; Fomes annosus; Trichoderma spp. ; Polyporus versicolor; Poria Monticola

    SciTech Connect

    James, R.L.; Cobb, F.W. Jr.; Wilcox, W.W.; Rowney, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Ponderosa and Jeffrey pine sapwood samples and freshly cut stumps from trees with different amounts of oxidant injury were inoculated with Fomes annosus. With stumps, percentage of surface cross-section area infected and extent of vertical colonization were determined 1 mo and 6-10 mo after inoculation, respectively. Increase in surface area infection with increased oxidant injury, expressed as upper-crown needle retention, was statistically significant for ponderosa pine (P=0.01), but was not for Jeffrey pine. Also, the rate of vertical colonization was greater in stumps from severely oxidant-injured trees than in those from slightly injured trees. The relationship between injury and colonization was significant for Jeffrey pine (P = 0.05) and for ponderosa pine at one site (P = 0.03), but nonsignificant (P = 0.18) for ponderosa pine at a second site. Increased susceptibility of stumps to F. annosus appeared to be associated with decreased colonization by other fungi (especially Trichoderma spp. and blue stain fungi). Laboratory tests indicated that decay susceptibility of excised sapwood to F. annosus apparently was not affected by oxidant injury with Jeffrey pine, but weight loss of ponderosa pine sapwood was correlated with decreased injury (greater needle retention). On the other hand, weight losses of Jeffrey pine caused by Polyporus versicolor and of ponderosa pine caused by Poria monticola were correlated with increased injury (increased needle chlorosis). 27 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  20. Biodegradation of the X-ray contrast agent iopromide and the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ofloxacin by the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor in hospital wastewaters and identification of degradation products.

    PubMed

    Gros, Meritxell; Cruz-Morato, Carles; Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Longrée, Philipp; Singer, Heinz; Sarrà, Montserrat; Hollender, Juliane; Vicent, Teresa; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes the degradation of the X-ray contrast agent iopromide (IOP) and the antibiotic ofloxacin (OFLOX) by the white-rot-fungus Trametes versicolor. Batch studies in synthetic medium revealed that between 60 and 80% of IOP and OFLOX were removed when spiked at approximately 12 mg L(-1) and 10 mg L(-1), respectively. A significant number of transformation products (TPs) were identified for both pharmaceuticals, confirming their degradation. IOP TPs were attributed to two principal reactions: (i) sequential deiodination of the aromatic ring and (ii) N-dealkylation of the amide at the hydroxylated side chain of the molecule. On the other hand, OFLOX transformation products were attributed mainly to the oxidation, hydroxylation and cleavage of the piperazine ring. Experiments in 10 L-bioreactor with fungal biomass fluidized by air pulses operated in batch achieved high percentage of degradation of IOP and OFLOX when load with sterile (87% IOP, 98.5% OFLOX) and unsterile (65.4% IOP, 99% OFLOX) hospital wastewater (HWW) at their real concentration (?g L(-1) level). Some of the most relevant IOP and OFLOX TPs identified in synthetic medium were also detected in bioreactor samples. Acute toxicity tests indicated a reduction of the toxicity in the final culture broth from both experiments in synthetic medium and in batch bioreactor. PMID:24867600

  1. Cloning and Expression of Laccase from Trametes versicolor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a Novel Vector System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The long-term goal of this research is to increase efficiency and decrease cost of ethanol fermentation of lignocellulosic feedstocks by combining pre-treatment using laccase enzyme and subsequent fermentation to ethanol through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation paradigms. The first st...

  2. Age related modifications of soluble proteins in various organs of male garden lizard, Calotes versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. S. Jena; S. Das; B. K. Patnaik

    1996-01-01

    The oxidative modification of proteins measured as carbonyl derivatives increased with advancing age in the liver of male garden lizard. The same parameter did not show a significant change in other organs (brain, heart and kidney). Based on the observations in both homeotherms (mammals) and poikilotherms (insect and reptile), the in vivo oxidative modification of cellular proteins appears to be

  3. Synthesis and effect of modification on methacylate - acrylate microspheres for Trametes versicolor laccase enzyme immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazlan, Siti Zulaikha; Hanifah, Sharina Abu

    2014-09-01

    Immobilization of laccase on the modified copolymer methacrylate-acrylate microspheres was studied. A poly (glycidyl methacrylate-co-n-butyl acrylate) microsphere consists of epoxy groups were synthesized using suspension photocuring technique. The epoxy group in poly (GMA-nBA) microspheres were converted into amino groups with aldehyde group. Laccase immobilization is based on having the amino groups on the enzyme surface and aldehyde group on the microspheres via covalent binding. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis proved the successful surface modification on microspheres. The FTIR spectrum shows the characteristic peaks at 1646 cm-1 assigned to the conformation of the polymerization that took place between monomer GMA and nBA respectively. In addition, after modification, FTIR peaks that assigned to the epoxy ring (844 cm-1 and 904 cm-1) were decreased. The results obtained from FTIR method signify good agreement with the epoxy content method. Hence, the activity of the laccase-immobilized microspheres increased upon increasing the epoxy content. Furthermore, poly (GMA-nBA) exhibited uniform microspheres with below 2 ?m surface. Immobilized enzyme showed a broader pH profile and higher temperature compared native enzyme.

  4. Oxidation of anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene by immobilized laccase from Trametes versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel E Dodor; Huey-Min Hwang; Stephen I. N Ekunwe

    2004-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to be toxic, mutagenic and\\/or carcinogenic, and their contamination of soils and aquifer is of great environmental concern. Laccases (E.C. 1.10.3.2) are phenoloxidases that catalyze the oxidation of PAHs in the presence of mediator compounds that act as “electron shuttle” between the free enzyme and the substrate. However, the oxidative potential of immobilized laccase-mediator

  5. Biodegradation of azo and phthalocyanine dyes by Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Heinfling; M. Bergbauer; U. Szewzyk

    1997-01-01

    Eighteen fungal strains, known for their ability to degrade lignocellulosic material or lignin derivatives, were screened\\u000a for their potential to decolorize commercially used reactive textile dyes. Three azo dyes, Reactive Orange 96, Reactive Violet\\u000a 5 and Reactive Black 5, and two phthalocyanine dyes, Reactive Blue 15 and Reactive Blue 38, were chosen as representatives\\u000a of commercially used reactive dyes. From

  6. Oxidation of anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene by laccases from Trametes versicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, P.J.; Dobson, A.D.W. [Univ. College, Cork (Ireland); Kotterman, M.J.J.; Field, J.A. [Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands)

    1996-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, particularly benzene homologs, are highly toxic organic pollutants. One of the three major groups of extracellular oxidative enzymes involved in the white rot fungal lignin degradative process are laccases. This study presents evidence indicating that laccase has a role in PAH oxidation by white rot fungi. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Embryonic and Larval Exposure of Hyla versicolor to Stormwater Pond Sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrianne B. Brand; Joel W. Snodgrass; Matthew T. Gallagher; Ryan E. Casey; Robin Van Meter

    2010-01-01

    Stormwater ponds are common features of modern stormwater management practices. Stormwater ponds often retain standing water\\u000a for extended periods of time, develop vegetative characteristics similar to natural wetlands, and attract wildlife. However,\\u000a because stormwater ponds are designed to capture pollutants, wildlife that utilize ponds might be exposed to pollutants and\\u000a suffer toxicological effects. To investigate the toxicity of stormwater pond

  8. Detoxification of wood hydrolysates with laccase and peroxidase from the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Jönsson; E. Palmqvist; N.-O. Nilvebrant; B. Hahn-Hägerdal

    1998-01-01

    Fermentation of wood hydrolysates to desirable products, such as fuel ethanol, is made difficult by the presence of inhibitory\\u000a compounds in the hydrolysates. Here we present a novel method to increase the fermentability of lignocellulosic hydrolysates:\\u000a enzymatic detoxification. Besides the detoxification effect, treatment with purified enzymes provides a new way to identify\\u000a inhibitors by assaying the effect of enzymatic attack

  9. Pars intermedia of the pituitary gland and integumentary colour changes in the garden lizard Calotes versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shanta Nayar; K. R. Pandalai

    1963-01-01

    1.The effect of light and of colour of the background on the secretory activity of the pars intermedia of the garden lizard has been investigated.2.Absence of light, as well as black illuminated background, produces increased acticity of the pars intermedia, proportional to the duration of the experiment.3.Pale illuminated background has no effect on the secretory activity of the pars intermedia.4.The

  10. Plan de estudios de nivel secundario para adultos (Study Plan for Adult Secondary Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boletin del Centro Nacional de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa, Parte II: Informaciones, 1970

    1970-01-01

    This document describes an experimental, multinational plan for adult secondary education sponsored through the Organization of American States and the Argentine Ministry of Culture and Education. General and specific goals of the program are listed here along with details of the proposed curriculum and areas of study, entrance requirements,…

  11. Pgina 1 de 2 Efectos secundarios de los medicamentos contra el VIH --Osteonecrosis,

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    osteoporosis Osteonecrosis, osteopenia y osteoporosis ¿Qué es la osteonecrosis y cuáles son sus síntomas huesos y reducir los riesgos de caídas. ¿Qué son la osteopenia y la osteoporosis y cuáles son sus pérdida de hueso es grave, la afección se llama osteoporosis. No hay síntomas obvios en las primeras

  12. Aldehyde PEGylation of laccase from Trametes versicolor in route to increase its stability: effect on enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Mayolo-Deloisa, Karla; González-González, Mirna; Simental-Martínez, Jesús; Rito-Palomares, Marco

    2015-03-01

    Laccase is a multicopper oxidase that catalyzes the oxidation of phenolic compounds. Laccase can be used in bioremediation, beverage (wine, fruit juice, and beer) processing, ascorbic acid determination, sugar beet pectin gelation baking, and as a biosensor. Recently, the antiproliferative activity of laccase toward tumor cells has been reported. Because of the potential applications of this enzyme, the efforts for enhancing and stabilizing its activity have increased. Thus, the PEGylation of laccase can be an alternative. PEGylation is the covalent attachment of one or more molecules of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) to a protein. Normally, during the PEGylation reaction, the activity is reduced but the stability increases; thus, it is important to minimize the loss of activity. In this work, the effects of molar ratio (1:4, 1:8, and 1:12), concentration of laccase (6 and 12?mg/ml), reaction time (4 and 17?h), molecular weight, and type of mPEG (20, 30, 40?kDa and 40?kDa-branched) were analyzed. The activity was measured using three substrates: ABTS, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, and syringaldazine. The best conditions for laccase PEGylation were 12?mg/ml of laccase, molar ratio 1:4, and 4?h reaction time. Under these conditions, the enzyme was able to maintain nearly 100% of its enzymatic activity with ABTS. The PEGylation of laccase has not been extensively explored, so it is important to analyze the effects of this bioconjugation in route to produce a robust modified enzyme. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25652594

  13. Characterization of a laccase gene from the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor and structural features of basidiomycete laccases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leif Jönsson; Kjell Sjöström; Ingrid Häggström; Per Olof Nyman

    1995-01-01

    A gene coding for the multi-copper phenol oxidase laccase has been isolated from the white-rot basidiomycete Trametes oersicolor. The gene, which is preceded by a TATA box and a pyrimidine-rich region, is predicted to contain ten introns. The mature translation product, preceded by a 22-residue signal peptide, should consist of 498 residues. Comparisons with Edman degradation data of peptides from

  14. Genetic Relatedness Among Co-Foundresses of Two Desert Ants, Veromessor Pergandei and Acromyrmex Versicolor (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    E-print Network

    Hagen, Robert H.; Smith, Deborah R.; Rissing, Steven W.

    1988-09-20

    ). Optimal separation for the V. pergandei esterase allozymes was given by buffer I (25 min at 250 V); for Mdh-1 by buffer C (30 min at 250 V); and for Pgm by buffer I (25 min at 250 V). An additional polymorphism for Idh-1 (isoci- trate dehydrogenase, EC 1.1.1... of 18 presumptive genetic loci from V. pergandei queens, 4 of which were polymorphic with 2 alleles each: Est-1 and Est-2 (general esterase; beta-naphthyl acetate as substrate), Mdh-1 (malate dehydrogenase, EC 1.1.1.37) and Pgm (phosphoglucomutase, EC 2.7.5.1...

  15. Historical Isolation versus Recent Long-Distance Connections between Europe and Africa in Bifid Toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Fernández-Mazuecos; Pablo Vargas

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundDue to its complex, dynamic and well-known paleogeography, the Mediterranean region provides an ideal framework to study the colonization history of plant lineages. The genus Linaria has its diversity centre in the Mediterranean region, both in Europe and Africa. The last land connection between both continental plates occurred during the Messinian Salinity Crisis, in the late Miocene (5.96 to 5.33

  16. PRODUCCI ON DE AEROSOLES PRIMARIOS, SECUNDARIOS Y OZONO EN LA REGI ON METROPOLITANA DE RIO DE JANEIRO ENFOCADO EN EMISIONES

    E-print Network

    Barbosa, Henrique

    emission factors, which will vary the partitions of ethanol, gasoline and diesel in the city fleet grandes ´areas urbanas (como Rio de Janeiro), ya que varios procesos qu´imico entre dichas emi- siones

  17. TRANSFORMATION OF 2-HYDROXYDIBENZOFURAN BY LACCASES OF THE WHITE ROT FUNGI TRAMETES VERSICOLOR AND PYCNOPORUS CINNABARINUS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF OLIGOMERIZATION PRODUCTS. (R823847)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  18. Oxidation of aromatic alcohols by laccase from Trametes versicolor mediated by the 2,2?-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) cation radical and dication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Majcherczyk; C. Johannes; A. Hüttermann

    1999-01-01

    Oxidation of aromatic alcohols, such as non-phenolic lignin model compounds, by oxidised species of 2,2?-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic\\u000a acid) (ABTS) has been investigated. The cation radical and dication formed from ABTS were both capable of oxidising aromatic\\u000a alcohols to aldehydes. The reactions terminated at the level of the aldehyde and no acids were formed. The cation radical\\u000a and dication worked in a cycle

  19. Immobilization of laccase from Trametes versicolor on a modified PVDF microfiltration membrane: characterization of the grafted support and application in removing a phenylurea pesticide in wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Jolivalt; S. Brenon; E. Caminade; C. Mougin; M. Pontié

    2000-01-01

    Laccase immobilization onto a hydrophilic PVDF microfiltration membrane and its application for removing a herbicide derivative, N?,N?-(dimethyl)-N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)urea (2-HF), from waste water were studied. 2-HF was transformed via an oxidation reaction catalyzed by laccase mostly into an insoluble product, which was simultaneously separated by filtration through the membrane. The microfiltration membrane used to graft laccase was treated with hydrazine to form

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL BIODEGRADABILITY OF [14C] SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBESBY TRAMETES VERSICOLOR AND NATURAL MICROBIAL CULTURES FOUND IN NEWBEDFORD HARBOR SEDIMENT AND AERATED WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little is known about environmental biodegradability or biotransformations of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Because of their strong association with aquatic organic matter, detailed knowledge of the ultimate fate and persistence of SWNT requires investigation of possible...

  1. Biological active metabolite cyclo ( l Trp l -Phe) produced by South China Sea sponge Holoxea sp. associated fungus Aspergillus versicolor strain TS08

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Chu; Chongsheng Peng; Bo Ding; Fang Liu; Fengli Zhang; Houwen Lin; Zhiyong Li

    2011-01-01

    Sponge-associated fungi represent the single most prolific source of novel natural products from marine fungi. Cyclo (l-Trp-l-Phe) exhibits biological functions such as plant growth regulation, moderate cytotoxicity and thus has the application potential\\u000a in pharmaceutical and agricultural biotechnologies. In this study, a fungal strain TS08 was isolated from sponge Holoxea sp. in the South China Sea and identified as A.

  2. Estilo de Liderazgo de Maestros y Maestras de Salud Escolar del Nivel Secundario en la Implantacion del Programa de Educacion en Salud Escolar en Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosario Arroyo, Luis Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Health education school programs have a planned activity structure that focus on developing awareness on the need of keeping an adequate integral health, through the teaching and learning processes within an appropriate methodological context that promotes students full development. It is expected that school health teachers are effective leaders;…

  3. Metabolism of mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Cunninghamella elegans

    E-print Network

    Olatubi, Oluwaseun Alfred

    2007-04-25

    , Naematoloma frowardii, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Phanerochaete laevis, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus sajor-caju, Romaria sp., Rhizoctonia solani, Trametes versicolor phenanthrene Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella elegans..., Naematoloma frowardii, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Phanerochaete laevis, Pleurotus ostreatus, Syncephalastrum racemosum, Trametes versicolor flouranthene Cunninghamella elegans, Naematoloma...

  4. Ann. For. Sci. 67 (2010) 210 Available online at: c INRA, EDP Sciences, 2010 www.afs-journal.org

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    by Trametes versicolor in Fraxinus excelsior Dirk Bieker, Rolf Kehr, Gesine Weber, Steffen Rust* University four Fraxinus excelsior trees with Trametes versicolor using wooden dowels and mea- sured two wood. · We conclude that the growth of white rot by Trametes versicolor can be monitored with electric

  5. Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Page 1 of 1 Reviewed 3/11/12

    E-print Network

    Yener, Aylin

    Causes Tinea Versicolor? Tinea versicolor is a harmless skin disorder caused by a yeast fungus living is not contagious. Tinea versicolor is more common in hot humid climates with excessive sweating, in persons clear the yeast fungus, we do not have a permanent cure. Although the infection is gone, the return

  6. Biodegradation and bioconversion of coals by fungi: Technical report No. 6 for the period December 1, 1986-February 28, 1987. [Candida sp. , Cunninghamella sp. , Acremonium sp. , and Trametes versicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, B.

    1987-02-01

    We continued our tests for biosolubilization activity on lignite, subbituminous, and bituminous coals, using both surface solubilization and agar diffusion assays for selected lignite-solubilizing strains challenged with untreated and treated coals shown in earlier tests to be resistant to biosolubilization. These latter were subjected to treatments with heat or pressurized oxygen atmosphere, or to combinations of the same. We have observed biosolubilization of some weathered high-rank coals by some of the fungal isolates tested. 1 tab.

  7. Matematicas Para El Primer Ciclo Secundario, Volumen I (Parte 2). Traduccion Preliminar de la Edicion Inglesa Revisada. (Mathematics for Junior High School, Volume I, Part 2. Preliminary Translation of the Revised English Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, R. D.; And Others

    This is part two of a two-part SMSG mathematics text for junior high school students. Key ideas emphasized are structure of arithmetic from an algebraic viewpoint, the real number system, and metric and non-metric relations in geometry. Included are chapters on the rational number system; parallels, parallelograms, triangles, and right prisms;…

  8. Matematicas Para El Primer Ciclo Secundario, Volumen II (Parte 2). Traduccion Preliminar de la Edicion en Ingles Revisada. (Mathematics for Junior High School, Volume II, Part 2. Preliminary Translation of the Revised English Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, R. D.; And Others

    This is part two of a two-part SMSG mathematics text for junior high school students. Key ideas emphasized are structure of arithmetic from an algebraic viewpoint, the real number system as a progressing development, and metric and non-metric relations in geometry. Chapter topics include real numbers, similar triangles, variation, polyhedrons,…

  9. Matematicas Para El Primer Ciclo Secundario, Volumen II (Parte 1). Traduccion Preliminar de la Edicion en Ingles Revisada. (Mathematics for Junior High School, Volume II, Part 1. Preliminary Translation of the Revised English Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, R. D.; And Others

    This is part one of a two-part SMSG mathematics text for junior high school students. Key ideas emphasized are structure of arithmetic from an algebraic viewpoint, the real number system as a progressing development, and metric and non-metric relations in geometry. Chapter topics include number line and coordinates, equations, scientific notation,…

  10. Matematicas Para El Primer Ciclo Secundario, Volumen I (Parte 1). Traduccion Preliminar de la Edicion Inglesa Revisada. (Mathematics for Junior High School, Volume I, Part 1, Preliminary Translation of the Revised English Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, R. D.; And Others

    This is part one of a two-part SMSG mathematics text for junior high school students. Key ideas emphasized are structure of arithmetic from an algebraic viewpoint, the real number system, and metric and non-metric relations in geometry. Topics included are numbers; cardinal numbers; geometry of lines, points, and planes; geometry of angles,…

  11. Skin - abnormally dark or light

    MedlinePLUS

    Hyperpigmentation; Hypopigmentation ... disease Hemochromatosis (iron overload) Sun exposure Causes of hypopigmentation include: History of skin inflammation Certain fungal infections (such as tinea versicolor) ...

  12. Consejos para pacientes que reciben quimioterapia

    Cancer.gov

    Serie de dieciocho (18) hojas sobre los efectos secundarios de la quimioterapia. Cada hoja contiene recomendaciones y sugerencias prácticas para ayudarle a controlar los efectos secundarios durante la quimioterapia, y a que se sienta mejor durante el tratamiento.

  13. Consejos para pacientes que reciben radioterapia

    Cancer.gov

    Serie de nueve (9) hojas sobre los efectos secundarios de la radioterapia. Cada hoja contiene recomendaciones y sugerencias prácticas para ayudarle a controlar los efectos secundarios durante la radioterapia, y a que se sienta mejor durante el tratamiento.

  14. Comparative studies of fungal degradation of single or mixed bioaccessible reactive azo dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Adosinda M. Martins; Nelson Lima; Armando J. D. Silvestre; M. João Queiroz

    2003-01-01

    A screening using several fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes versicolor and Aureobasidium pullulans) was performed on the degradation of syringol derivatives of azo dyes possessing either carboxylic or sulphonic groups, under optimized conditions previously established by us. T. versicolor showed the best biodegradation performance and its potential was confirmed by the degradation of differently substituted fungal bioaccessible dyes. Enzymatic

  15. Laboratory research on the efficacy of chlorine dioxide fumigation for the remediation of mold-contaminated buildings--conference paper

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project was to determine the efficacy ofCl02 fumigation to inactivate viable mold, mycotoxins, and allergens on building materials. Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus Jumigatus, Chaetomium globosum, and Stachybotrys chartarum were indivi...

  16. Observer Name(s) & contact info Circle the zone you are in

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    # - Number of species observed in sighting Common Name Scientific Name Easting 1 Painted Turtle Chrysemys picta 2 Gray Tree Frog Hyla versicolor 3 Diamondback Terrapin Malaclemys terrapin 4 Red-Spotted Newt

  17. www.carleton.ca/~kbstorey ADAPTATIONS TO COLD

    E-print Network

    Storey, Kenneth B.

    - GARTER SNAKES - LIZARDS (some) Garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis Painted turtle hatchlings Chrysemys picta marginata #12;12/19/2012 7 Box turtle, Terrapene carolina "OSCAR" GRAY TREE FROG Hyla versicolor

  18. Ketoconazole Topical

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is used to treat tinea versicolor. Over-the-counter ketoconazole shampoo is used to control flaking, scaling, ... shampoo to apply to the skin. Over-the-counter ketoconazole comes as a shampoo to apply to ...

  19. EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT METHODS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF DNA FROM FUNGAL CONIDIA BY QUANTITATIVE COMPETITIVE PCR ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five different DNA extraction methods were evaluated for their effectiveness in recovering PCR templates from the conidia of a series of fungal species often encountered in indoor air. The test organisms were Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartaru...

  20. Fungal Skin Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals available ... Ringworm Beard Ringworm Dermatophytid Reaction Tinea Versicolor Intertrigo Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Skin Disorders > Fungal Skin Infections 4 ...

  1. Regulation of coal polymer degradation by fungi. Eighth quarterly report, [January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.L. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences; Bumpus, J.A. [University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-07-28

    Progress is reported on solubilization of low-rank coal by enzyme activity derived from Trametes versicolor or P. chrysosporium. Specifically during the reporting period efforts were directed towards the determining the effect of pH on solubilization of leonardite, the role of laccase in low coal solubilization and metabolism, the decolorization of soluble coal macromolecule by P. chrysosprium and T. versicolor in solid agar gel, and the solubilization of low rank coal in slurry cultures and solid phase reactors.

  2. Functional genomics of a generalist parasitic plant: Laser microdissection of host-parasite interface reveals host-specific patterns of parasite gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Orobanchaceae is the only plant family with members representing the full range of parasitic lifestyles plus a free-living lineage sister to all parasitic lineages, Lindenbergia. A generalist member of this family, and an important parasitic plant model, Triphysaria versicolor regularly feeds upon a wide range of host plants. Here, we compare de novo assembled transcriptomes generated from laser micro-dissected tissues at the host-parasite interface to uncover details of the largely uncharacterized interaction between parasitic plants and their hosts. Results The interaction of Triphysaria with the distantly related hosts Zea mays and Medicago truncatula reveals dramatic host-specific gene expression patterns. Relative to above ground tissues, gene families are disproportionally represented at the interface including enrichment for transcription factors and genes of unknown function. Quantitative Real-Time PCR of a T. versicolor ?-expansin shows strong differential (120x) upregulation in response to the monocot host Z. mays; a result that is concordant with our read count estimates. Pathogenesis-related proteins, other cell wall modifying enzymes, and orthologs of genes with unknown function (annotated as such in sequenced plant genomes) are among the parasite genes highly expressed by T. versicolor at the parasite-host interface. Conclusions Laser capture microdissection makes it possible to sample the small region of cells at the epicenter of parasite host interactions. The results of our analysis suggest that T. versicolor’s generalist strategy involves a reliance on overlapping but distinct gene sets, depending upon the host plant it is parasitizing. The massive upregulation of a T. versicolor ?-expansin is suggestive of a mechanism for parasite success on grass hosts. In this preliminary study of the interface transcriptomes, we have shown that T. versicolor, and the Orobanchaceae in general, provide excellent opportunities for the characterization of plant genes with unknown functions. PMID:23302495

  3. A study of over production and enhanced secretion of enzymes. Quarterly report 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dashek, W.V.

    1992-12-28

    The current project is concerned with the over-production and enhanced secretion of PPO, cellulase and lignin peroxidase. The project is divided into two segments: over-production of lignocellulolytic enzymes by genetic engineering methodologies and hyper-production and enhanced secretion of these enzymes by biochemical/electron microscopical techniques. The former approach employs recombinant DNA procedures, ligation of appropriate nuclease generated DNA fragments into a vector and the subsequent transformation of Escherichia coli to yield E. coli harboring a C. versicolor DNA insert. The biochemistry/electron microscopical method involves substrate induction and the time-dependent addition of respiration and PPO inhibitors to elevate C.versicolor`s ability to synthesize and secrete lignocellulosic enzymes. In this connection, cell fractionation/kinetic analysis, TEM immunoelectron microscopic localization and TEM substrate localization of PPO are being employed to assess the route of secretion. Both approaches will culminate in the batch culture of either E. coli or C. versicolor, in a fermentor with the subsequent development of rapid isolation and purification procedures to yield elevated quantities of pure lignocellulosic enzymes. During the past year, research effort were directed toward determining the route of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) secretion by the wood-decay fungus, Coriolus versicolor. In addition, research activities were continued to over-produce and to purify PPO as well as define the time-dependent intra- and extra-cellular appearances of C. versicolor ligninases and cellulases.

  4. Effect of different carbon sources on decolourisation of an industrial textile dye under alkaline-saline conditions.

    PubMed

    Ottoni, Cristiane; Lima, Luis; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    White-rot fungal strains of Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium were selected to study the decolourisation of the textile dye, Reactive Black 5, under alkaline-saline conditions. Free and immobilised T. versicolor cells showed 100 % decolourisation in the growth medium supplemented with 15 g l(-1) NaCl, pH 9.5 at 30 °C in liquid batch culture. Continuous culture experiments were performed in a fixed-bed reactor using free and immobilised T. versicolor cells and allowed 85-100 % dye decolourisation. The immobilisation conditions for the biomass and the additional supply of carbon sources improved the decolourisation performance during a long-term trial of 40 days. Lignin peroxidase, laccase and glyoxal oxidase activities were detected during the experiments. The laccase activity varied depending on carbon source utilized and glycerol-enhanced laccase activity compared to sucrose during extended growth. PMID:23982200

  5. Food partitioning of leaf-eating mangrove crabs ( Sesarminae): Experimental and stable isotope ( 13C and 15N) evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Ditte K.; Kristensen, Erik; Mangion, Perrine

    2010-05-01

    The feasibility of mangrove leaves as a full diet for sesarmid crabs has been questioned for decades. Since these leaves are nitrogen-poor, sesarmids probably obtain nitrogen from other sources to sustain growth. The aim of this study was to assess the food partitioning of the sesarmid species Neoepisesarma versicolor with emphasis on nitrogen allocation. The preference for animal tissue when crabs were pre-fed diets of different nitrogen content was determined in the laboratory. Furthermore, the possible in situ diet composition of N. versicolor was established from carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signature ( ?13C and ?15N) of freshly caught individuals and their potential food sources, using a concentration-dependent mixing model. N. versicolor showed significantly higher feeding preferences for fish meat when pre-fed leaf material without than with access to meat, indicating that this crab species can meet its nitrogen demand by ingesting animal tissue. The stable isotope mixing model based on in situ materials suggests that the diet of N. versicolor consists of ˜60% leaves in terms of biomass, leaving ˜40% for other sources such as animal tissue and benthic microorganisms. The biomass contribution from animal tissues, in form of e.g. other crustaceans and fish carcasses, was found to account for ˜15%. Despite the relative low biomass fraction, animal food sources may contribute with up to half of the nitrogen in the diet of N. versicolor. The quantity of ingested sediment most likely exceeds that of animal tissues. However, due to the low concentration of assimilable microalgae and other microorganism, we propose that sediment associated sources are less important as a nitrogen source for N. versicolor than hitherto presumed.

  6. Species delimitation in Trametes: a comparison of ITS, RPB1, RPB2 and TEF1 gene phylogenies.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Alexis; Justo, Alfredo; Hibbett, David S

    2014-01-01

    Trametes is a cosmopolitan genus of white rot polypores, including the "turkey tail" fungus, T. versicolor. Although Trametes is one of the most familiar genera of polypores, its species-level taxonomy is unsettled. The ITS region is the most commonly used molecular marker for species delimitation in fungi, but it has been shown to have a low molecular variation in Trametes resulting in poorly resolved phylogenies and unclear species boundaries, especially in the T. versicolor species complex (T. versicolor sensu stricto, T. ochracea, T. pubescens, T. ectypa). Here we evaluate the performance of three protein-coding genes (TEF1, RPB1, RPB2) for species delimitation and phylogenetic reconstruction in Trametes. We obtained 59 TEF1, 34 RPB1 and 55 RPB2 sequences from 69 individuals, focusing on the T. versicolor complex and performed phylogenetic analyses with maximum likelihood and parsimony methods. All three protein-coding genes outperformed ITS for separating species in the T. versicolor complex. The multigene phylogenetic analysis shows the highest amount of resolution and supported nodes separating T. ectypa, T. ochracea, T. pubescens and T. versicolor with strong support. In addition three slineages are resolved in the species complex of T. elegans. The T. elegans complex includes three species: T. elegans (based on material from Puerto Rico, Belize, the Philippines), T. aesculi (from North America) and T. repanda (from Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Venezuela). The utility of gene markers varies, with TEF1 having the highest PCR and sequencing success rate and RPB1 offering the best backbone resolution for the genus. PMID:24898532

  7. Unsupervised Learning Supervised Learning: Learn to predict y from x from

    E-print Network

    Bylander, Tom

    Width Petal Length setosa versicolor virginica 4 Clusters in Glass 2-Attribute 2-Class Dataset 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 1.51 1.515 1.52 1.525 1.53 1.535 1.54 Aluminum Refractive Index build wind float build wind non-float setosa versicolor virginica #12;4 Clusters in Simplified Glass Dataset 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 1.51 1.515 1

  8. Biosynthetic Studies of the Notoamides: Isotopic Synthesis of Stephacidin A and Incorporation into Notoamide B and Sclerotiamide

    PubMed Central

    Finefield, Jennifer M.; Kato, Hikaru; Greshock, Thomas J.; Sherman, David H.; Tsukamoto, Sachiko

    2011-01-01

    The advanced natural product stephacidin A is proposed as a biosynthetic precursor to notoamide B in various Aspergillus species. Doubly 13C-labeled racemic stephacidin A was synthesized and fed to cultures of the terrestrial-derived fungus, Aspergillus versicolor NRRL 35600, and the marine-derived fungus, Aspergillus sp. MF297-2. Analysis of the metabolites revealed enantiospecific incorporation of intact (–)-stephacidin A into (+)-notoamide B in Aspergillus versicolor, and (+)-stephacidin A into (–)-notoamide B in Aspergillus sp. MF297-2. 13C-Labeled sclerotiamide was also isolated from both fungal cultures. PMID:21714564

  9. Consejos para pacientes que reciben radioterapia

    Cancer.gov

    Una serie de 11 páginas individuales que ofrece consejos sobre cómo controlar los efectos secundarios de la radioterapia. Cada página incluye el punto de vista de personas con cancer sobre la radioterapia.

  10. Terapia hormonal para el cáncer de próstata

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa que describe la terapia hormonal y su función en el tratamiento del cáncer de próstata. Incluye información acerca de los tipos diferentes de terapia hormonal, cómo se usan y los efectos secundarios posibles.

  11. Terapia hormonal para el cáncer de seno

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa que describe la terapia hormonal y su función en la prevención y tratamiento del cáncer de seno. Incluye información acerca de los efectos secundarios posibles y de los fármacos que pueden interferir con la terapia hormonal.

  12. Investigacin Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional

    E-print Network

    moleculares microbianos en suelos. Ana Carmela Ramos Valdivia Biotecnología del metabolismo secundario y la y de plantas de especies americanas y su producción a nivel de biorreactor. Graciano Calva Calva

  13. Biodecolorization of azo, anthraquinonic and triphenylmethane dyes by white-rot fungi and a laccase-secreting engineered strain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weixiao Liu; Yapeng Chao; Xiuqing Yang; Hongbo Bao; Shijun Qian

    2004-01-01

    One laccase-secreting engineered strain and four white-rot fungi were tested for their capacity to decolorize nine dyes that could be classified as azo, anthraquinonic and triphenylmethane dyes. Trametes versicolor was the most efficient of the tested strains under these experimental conditions. Anthraquinonic dyes were decolorized more easily than the other two types. Small structural differences among the dyes could significantly

  14. ENHANCED ENZYMATIC REMOVAL OF CHLOROPHENOLS IN THE PRESENCE OF CO-SUBSTRATES. (R823847)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of reactive co-substrates such as guaiacol and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol on the removal of chlorinated phenols by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and a laccase from the fungus Trametes versicolor was investigated. Addition of 50 mM guaiacol enhanced the precipitation of 4-ch...

  15. Circular Polarization of Transmitted Light by Sapphirinidae Copepods

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Joseph

    ­7,10,12,13]. The multilayer structure that is responsible for the circularly polarized light in the scarab beetle Plusiotis. versicolor firefly larvae, in reflections from beetles of the Scarabaeidae family, in Panulirus argus microfibril layers in the exocuticle of beetles belonging to the Scarabaeidae family is usually left handed [5

  16. A diversified approach to evaluate biostimulation and bioaugmentation strategies for heavy-oil-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Lladó, S; Solanas, A M; de Lapuente, J; Borràs, M; Viñas, M

    2012-10-01

    A diversified approach involving chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicity assessment of soil polluted by heavy mineral oil was adopted, in order to improve our understanding of the biodegradability of pollutants, microbial community dynamics and ecotoxicological effects of various bioremediation strategies. With the aim of improving hydrocarbon degradation, the following bioremediation treatments were assayed: i) addition of inorganic nutrients; ii) addition of the rhamnolipid-based biosurfactant M(AT10); iii) inoculation of an aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading microbial consortium (TD); and iv) inoculation of a known hydrocarbon-degrading white-rot fungus strain of Trametes versicolor. After 200 days, all the bioremediation assays achieved between 30% and 50% total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) biodegradation, with the T. versicolor inoculation degrading it the most. Biostimulation and T. versicolor inoculation promoted the Brevundimonas genus concurrently with other ?-proteobacteria, ?-proteobacteria and Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides (CFB) as well as Actinobacteria groups. However, T. versicolor inoculation, which produced the highest hydrocarbon degradation in soil, also promoted autochthonous Gram-positive bacterial groups, such as Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. An acute toxicity test using Eisenia fetida confirmed the improvement in the quality of the soil after all biostimulation and bioaugmentation strategies. PMID:22858534

  17. 2003 TAXONOMY OF THE EARLY CRETACEOUS BELEMNITE SPECIES AULACOTEUTHIS ABSOLUTIFORMIS (SINZOW, 1877) AND ITS TYPE STATUS J. Mutterlose 1 & E

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Baraboshkin

    Recent field work in the Early Cretaceous succession of the Ulyanovsk - Syzran - Saratov region, Volga River, Russia has shown that the belemnite species Aulacoteuthis absolutiformis occurs in the lower part of the Upper Hauterivian Speetoniceras versicolor ammonite Zone. These findings are in accordance with the original species assignment by Sinzow (1875, 1877). A. absolutiformis was lateron misidentified by

  18. Nearest Neighbors The kNN algorithm predicts the outcome y for

    E-print Network

    Bylander, Tom

    .528 1.53 Aluminum Refractive Index A Region of the Two-Attribute Glass Dataset build wind float build Dataset versicolor virginica Glass Dataset Example 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.52 1.522 1.524 1.526 1 wind non-float #12;

  19. The effects of collembola grazing on microbial activity in decomposing leaf litter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. G. Hanlon; J. M. Anderson

    1979-01-01

    Ground leaf litter was inoculated with the fungus Coriolus versicolor and incubated in respirometers for 6 days (“fresh” cultures) or 33 days (“senescent” cultures) before different number of Folsomia candida were added. Grazing by 5 animals stimulated O2 consumption in both series of cultures but 10, 15 or 20 animals inhibited microbial respiration. The stimulatory effect was less marked in

  20. Mycoflora and mycotoxins in Brazilian black pepper, white pepper and Brazil nuts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco das Chagas O. Freire; Zofia Kozakiewicz; R. Russell M. Paterson

    2000-01-01

    A wide range of field and storage fungi were isolated from black pepper, white pepper and Brazil nut kernels from Amazonia. A total of 42 species were isolated from both peppers. Aspergillus flavus and A. niger were isolated more frequently from black than from white pepper. Other potential mycotoxigenic species isolated included: A. ochraceus, A. tamarii, A. versicolor, Emericella nidulans

  1. Effect of relative humidity on fungal colonization of fiberglass insulation.

    PubMed Central

    Ezeonu, I M; Noble, J A; Simmons, R B; Price, D L; Crow, S A; Ahearn, D G

    1994-01-01

    Fiberglass duct liners and fiberglass duct boards from eight buildings whose occupants complained of unacceptable or moldy odors in the air were found to be heavily colonized by fungi, particularly by Aspergillus versicolor. Unused fiberglass was found to be susceptible to fungal colonization in environmental chambers dependent upon relative humidity. No colonization was observed at relative humidities below 50%. Images PMID:8031101

  2. Lignin biodegradation and ligninolytic enzyme studies during biopulping of Acacia mangium wood chips by tropical white rot fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Y. Liew; A. Husaini; H. Hussain; S. Muid; K. C. Liew; H. A. Roslan

    2011-01-01

    White rot fungi are good lignin degraders and have the potential to be used in industry. In the present work, Phellinus sp., Daedalea sp., Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus coccineus were selected due to their relatively high ligninolytic enzyme activity, and grown on Acacia mangium wood chips under solid state fermentation. Results obtained showed that manganese peroxidase produced is far more

  3. The structure and steroidogenic potential of the developing gonad and interrenals in the tropical oviparous lizard,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    oviparous lizard, Calotes versicolor (Daud.) Shrimati G. GAITONDE B. Y. M. GOUDER Department of Zoology.e. amphibians, birds and mammals have mostly been domestic or laboratory animals. Except for a few lizards determined histochemically. Material and methods. Adult females of the lizard, Calotes versico%r which had

  4. MITOCHONDRIAL DNA VARIATION POPULATION STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION OF THE COMMON GRACKLE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quiscalus Quiscula; Robert M. Zink; William L. Rootes; Donna L. Dittmann

    Abstract. The Common,Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula) includes two phenotypically dif- ferentiated forms, the Purple Grackle (Q. q. quiscula), which breeds along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States, and the Bronzed Grackle (Q. q. versicolor), which occurs over the rest of eastern North America. These grackles meet and hybridize in a zone that stretches from northeastern to the extreme

  5. MITOCHONDRIAL DNA VARIATION, POPULATION STRUCTURE, AND EVOLUTION OF THE COMMON GRACKLE (QUISCALUS QUISCULA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT M. ZINK; WILLIAM L. ROOTES; DONNA L. DITTMANN

    The Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula) includes two phenotypically dif- ferentiated forms, the Purple Grackle (Q. q. quiscula), which breeds along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States, and the Bronzed Grackle (Q. q. versicolor), which occurs over the rest of eastern North America. These grackles meet and hybridize in a zone that stretches from northeastern to the extreme

  6. Bilirubin oxidase bioelectrocatalytic cathodes: the impact of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Milton, Ross D; Giroud, Fabien; Thumser, Alfred E; Minteer, Shelley D; Slade, Robert C T

    2014-01-01

    Mediator-less, direct electro-catalytic reduction of oxygen to water by bilirubin oxidase (Myrothecium sp.) was obtained on anthracene-modified, multi-walled carbon nanotubes. H2O2 was found to significantly and irreversibly affect the electro-catalytic activity of bilirubin oxidase, whereas similar electrodes comprised of laccase (Trametes versicolor) were reversibly inhibited. PMID:24185735

  7. Decolorization of textile dyes by laccases from a newly isolated strain of Trametes modesta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S Nyanhongo; J Gomes; G. M Gübitz; R Zvauya; J Read; W Steiner

    2002-01-01

    Four ligninolytic fungi, Trametes modesta, Trametes hirsuta, Trametes versicolor and Sclerotium rolfsii, were compared for their ability to produce laccases. The fungal laccases were screened for their ability to decolorize eight synthetic dyes (anthraquinone, azo, indigo and triarylmethane). The decolorization rate depended both on the source of the enzyme preparation and on the structure of the dye. Based on laccase

  8. Functional genomics of a generalist parasitic plant: Laser microdissection of host-parasite

    E-print Network

    Yoder, John I.

    . Keywords: Parasitic plant, RNA-Seq, Illumina, De novo assembly, Transcriptome, Laser microdissection de novo assembled transcriptomes generated from laser micro-dissected tissues at the host. In this preliminary study of the interface transcriptomes, we have shown that T. versicolor, and the Orobanchaceae

  9. Plant growth hormone production from olive oil mill and alcohol factory wastewaters by white rot fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Yürekli; O. Yesilada; M. Yürekli; S. F. Topcuoglu

    1999-01-01

    In this study, olive oil mill and alcohol factory wastewaters have been tested as growth media for the production of plant growth hormones. Funalia trogii ATCC 200800 and Trametes versicolor ATCC 200801 have been tested. Gibberellic acid (GA3), abscisic acid (ABA), indole acetic acid (IAA), and cytokinin were determined in the culture media of these fungi. Both organisms produced enhanced

  10. Transgenic tobacco expressing fungal laccase promotes the detoxification of environmental pollutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomonori Sonoki; Shinya Kajita; Seiichiro Ikeda; Mikiko Uesugi; Kenji Tatsumi; Yoshihiro Katayama; Yosuke Iimura

    2005-01-01

    The phytoremediation of soils contaminated with organic pollutants offers a low-cost method for removal of such pollutants. We have attempted to enhance the environmental decontamination functions of plants by introducing appropriate enzymatic activities from microorganisms. In the present study, we introduced an extracellular fungal enzyme, the laccase of Coriolus versicolor, into tobacco plants. One transgenic plant, designated FL4, produced laccase

  11. White rot fungi and their role in remediating oil-contaminated soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. El-Nawawy; M. T. Balba; N. Al-Awadhi

    1998-01-01

    White rot fungi, which utilize lignin as an energy source, possess the ability to degrade a wide spectrum of environmental pollutants using peroxidases enzymes. This ability led to several studies that focused on the development of bio-treatment systems using white rot fungi. Three strains of white rot fungi, namely Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Coriolus versicolor, have been tested for

  12. Ecological energetics of Nerita (Archaeogastropoda, Neritacea) populations on Barbados, West Indies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Hughes; W. Indies

    1971-01-01

    Population energy budgets estimated on the assumption of steady state conditions for Nerita tessellataGmelin, N. versicolorGmelin, and N. peloronta L. on Barbados, W. Indies, are presented. Large differences in population structure, and hence energetics, occurred at different localities along the beach. Relatively high proportions (81 to 88%) of the assimilated energy were lost via metabolism. Assimilation efficiencies ranged from 39

  13. NORTHEASTERN NATURALIST2004 11(1):3340 THE DEMI-LICHENIZATION OF TRAMETES

    E-print Network

    Toth, Charles

    NORTHEASTERN NATURALIST2004 11(1):33­40 THE DEMI-LICHENIZATION OF TRAMETES VERSICOLOR (L the lichen forming phycobiont Trebouxia and Stichococcus were identified (Zavada and Simoes 2001). A majority of the 13,500 species of lichenized fungi are Asco- mycetes. Five families of Basidiomycetes are known

  14. Process Biochemistry 46 (2011) 14691474 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-print Network

    Huang, Ching-Tsan

    ], Agaricus bisporus [8], Trametes versicolor [9] and Ganoderma lucidum [10], are not suitable for commer of a thermostable, pH-stable and organic solvent-tolerant Ganoderma fornicatum laccase in Pichia pastoris Wan 2011 Accepted 28 March 2011 Keywords: pH stable Thermal stable Solvent-tolerant Ganoderma fornicatum

  15. Fungal production of volatiles during growth on fiberglass.

    PubMed Central

    Ezeonu, I M; Price, D L; Simmons, R B; Crow, S A; Ahearn, D G

    1994-01-01

    Acoustic and thermal fiberglass insulation materials used in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems were colonized with fungi in laboratory chambers. The mixed fungal population, principally Aspergillus versicolor, Acremonium obclavatum, and Cladosporium herbarum, produced odoriferous volatiles, including 2-ethyl hexanol, cyclohexane, and benzene. These volatiles may be related to poor indoor air quality and the sick building syndrome. PMID:7993098

  16. Effects of Disease and Pond Drying on Gray Tree Frog Growth, Development, and Survival

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph M. Kiesecker; David K. Skelly

    2001-01-01

    Pathogens have important effects on host growth, behavior, and population dynamics. Nevertheless, the impact of parasitic infection on host populations may be strong- ly context dependent. For example, the outcome of host-pathogen interactions may be subject to change based on the level of abiotic stress experienced by the host. In northeastern Connecticut, USA, larvae of the gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor)

  17. Skin diseases associated with Malassezia species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aditya K. Gupta; Roma Batra; Robyn Bluhm; Teun Boekhout; Thomas L. Dawson

    2004-01-01

    The yeasts of the genus Malassezia have been associated with a number of diseases affecting the human skin, such as pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia (Pityrosporum) folliculitis, seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and—less commonly—with other dermatologic disorders such as confluent and reticulated papillomatosis, onychomycosis, and transient acantholytic dermatosis. Although Malassezia yeasts are a part of the normal microflora, under certain

  18. Preparation of starch-sodium lignosulfonate graft copolymers via laccase catalysis and characterization of antioxidant activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Graft copolymers of waxy maize starch and sodium lignosulfonate (SLS) were prepared by T. Versicolor laccase catalysis in aqueous solution. Amount of SLS grafted based on phenol analysis was 0.5% and 1.0% in the absence and presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT), respectively. Starch-SLS graft cop...

  19. Succession analysis of plant communities in abandoned croplands in the eastern Loess Plateau of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-T. Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Data were collected simultaneously at different succession stages, and were analysed using the quantitative classification method (TWINSPAN) and the ordination technique (DCA). The succession series of plant communities from abandoned croplands of loess soils was as follows: Assoc. Ixeris chinensis var. versicolor+Setaria viridis ? Assoc. Artemisia spp. ? Assoc. Artemisia lavandulaefolia+Elymus dahuricus ? Assoc. Elymus dahuricus+Poa annua+Artemisia spp. ? Assoc.

  20. UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA Twin Cities Campus

    E-print Network

    Levinson, David M.

    100 liters 110 Cladosporium spp. (4) Aspergillus versicolor (2) Penicillium spp. (2) Eurotium spp. (2) Wallemia spp. (1) Normal 2-177 DG-18 100 liters 50 Cladosporium spp. (3) Penicillium spp. (1) Other (1) Normal 3-295 DG-18 100 liters 110 Cladosporium spp. (10) Penicillium spp. (1) Normal 4-277A-C DG-18 100

  1. Degradation of nitrocellulose by fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadja Auer; John N. Hedger; Christine S. Evans

    2005-01-01

    Three lignocellulolytic fungi, Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Coprinus cinereus, and two cellulolytic fungi Trichoderma reesei andChaetomium elatum were tested for their ability to degrade nitrocellulose. They were provided with different carbon and nitrogen sources in liquid cultures. Nitrocellulose (N content above 12%) was added as nitrogen source (in solution in acetone) alongside amino acids or as sole N source.

  2. Aerodynamic characteristics and respiratory deposition of fungal fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Seung-Hyun; Seo, Sung-Chul; Schmechel, Detlef; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Reponen, Tiina

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of fungal fragments and to estimate their respiratory deposition. Fragments and spores of three different fungal species ( Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium melinii, and Stachybotrys chartarum) were aerosolized by the fungal spore source strength tester (FSSST). An electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) measured the size distribution in real-time and collected the aerosolized fungal particles simultaneously onto 12 impactor stages in the size range of 0.3-10 ?m utilizing water-soluble ZEF-X10 coating of the impaction stages to prevent spore bounce. For S. chartarum, the average concentration of released fungal fragments was 380 particles cm -3, which was about 514 times higher than that of spores. A. versicolor was found to release comparable amount of spores and fragments. Microscopic analysis confirmed that S. chartarum and A. versicolor did not show any significant spore bounce, whereas the size distribution of P. melinii fragments was masked by spore bounce. Respiratory deposition was calculated using a computer-based model, LUDEP 2.07, for an adult male and a 3-month-old infant utilizing the database on the concentration and size distribution of S. chartarum and A. versicolor aerosols measured by the ELPI. Total deposition fractions for fragments and spores were 27-46% and 84-95%, respectively, showing slightly higher values in an infant than in an adult. For S. chartarum, fragments demonstrated 230-250 fold higher respiratory deposition than spores, while the number of deposited fragments and spores of A. versicolor were comparable. It was revealed that the deposition ratio (the number of deposited fragments divided by that of deposited spores) in the lower airways for an infant was 4-5 times higher than that for an adult. As fungal fragments have been shown to contain mycotoxins and antigens, further exposure assessment should include the measurement of fungal fragments for evaluating mold exposures in damp buildings.

  3. Quantitative structure-activity relationship of antifungal activity of rosin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Nguyen, Thi Thanh Hien; Li, Shujun; Liang, Tao; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Jian

    2015-01-15

    To develop new rosin-based wood preservatives with good antifungal activity, 24 rosin derivatives were synthesized, bioassay tested with Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum, and subjected to analysis of their quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). A QSAR analysis using Ampac 9.2.1 and Codessa 2.7.16 software built two QSAR models of antifungal ratio for T. versicolor and G. trabeum with values of R(2)=0.9740 and 0.9692, respectively. Based on the models, tri-N-(3-hydroabietoxy-2-hydroxy) propyl-triethyl ammonium chloride was designed and the bioassay test result proved its better inhibitory effect against the two selected fungi as expected. PMID:25466709

  4. Concerted electron/proton transfer mechanism in the oxidation of phenols by laccase.

    PubMed

    Galli, Carlo; Madzak, Catherine; Vadalà, Raffaella; Jolivalt, Claude; Gentili, Patrizia

    2013-12-16

    This study aimed to assess structural requirements in the enzyme/substrate interactions that are responsible for tuning the enzymatic reactivity. To better assess the role of the aspartic residue in the substrate-binding pocket of basidiomycete-type laccases, we compared the catalytic efficiency of wild-type enzymes to that of a mutant in which carboxylic acid residue Asp206 was changed to alanine. Oxidation efficiency towards phenolic substrates by laccases of Trametes villosa, Trametes versicolor and a T. versicolor D206A mutant was studied at two pH values. By the Hammett approach and Marcus analysis, we obtained unambiguous evidence that the oxidation takes place by a concerted electron/proton transfer (EPT) mechanism, and that at pH 5 (optimum pH for enzyme activity) the phenolic proton is transferred to Asp206 during the concerted electron/proton transfer process. PMID:24151197

  5. Bleaching kraft pulps with white-rot fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, I.D.; Paice, M.G.; Bourbonnais, R. [Pulp and Paper Research Institute, Quebec (Canada)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Certain white-rot fungi, notably Trametes versicolor, Phanerochaete sordida, and isolate IZU-154 can lower the residual lignin content and increase the brightness of kraft pulps without damaging the pulps` strength or yield. This biological delignification effect can be used in Elemental Chlorine Free and Totally Chlorine Free bleaching sequences. Physical contact between the fungal hyphae and the pulp fibers is not required, but the presence of the living fungus is necessary for continued delignification. In many but not a systems, delignification is correlated with manganese peroxidase activity. Experiments with pulps containing {sup 14}C-labelled lignin indicate that the residual lignin is solubilized, but not extensively mineralized, by T. versicolor. The solubilized lignin has the same molecular size as the residual lignin originally present in the pulp. Demethylation of the phenolic rings in the pulp is an early effect of incubation with the fungus.

  6. [Microscopic fungi in the air of film documents depositories].

    PubMed

    Kondratiuk, T O; Nakonechna, L T; Kharkevich, O S

    2012-01-01

    Microscopic fungi of the studied 5 film documents depositories in Kyiv are presented by 14 species of 8 genera of the division Ascomycota (Chaetomium sp.) and the group Anamorphic fungi (13 species 7 genera). Among the isolated species there are generally accepted active destructors of various products and materials, in particular of a cine-film (A. niger, A. versicolor, representatives of genus Penicillium) and species which are potentially dangerous for the human health (A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. versicolor, Geotrichum candidum, P. expansum, Stachybotrys chartarum). The species A. fumigatus, Chaetomium sp., Cladosporium oxysporum have been identified in the air of film depositories for the first time. An individual approach to identifying species-indicators of microbiological quality of the air in film documents depositories is proposed and discussed. PMID:22830197

  7. Evaluation of the toxicological properties and hepatoprotective effects of PAIN002, a mixture of herbal extracts, in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung-Hwan Kim; Jeong-Hyeon Lim; In-Sik Shin; Changjong Moon; Soo-Hyun Park; Sung-Ho Kim; Jung-Sik Lee; Eun-Hye Kwon; Jong-Choon Kim

    2010-01-01

    The short-term toxicity of PAI-N002, a mixture of Schizandra chinensis, Astragalus membranaceus, Artemisia capillaris, and Coriolus versicolor extracts (1 : 1 : 1 : 1), was evaluated in rats. This study also investigated the protective effect of PAI-N002 on liver injury induced\\u000a by the co-administration of ethanol and carbon tetrachloride (EC) in rats. PAI-N002 was virtually non-toxic to rats after

  8. Superficial mycoses observed at the Department of Dermatology of the University of Pavia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Silverio; M. Mosca; M. Gatti; G. Brandozzi

    1989-01-01

    Over a period of 13 years, 4100 specimens were cultured for fungi. Pityriasis versicolor (Malassezia furfur) was demonstrated in 17.6%, dermatophytosis in 34.6% and candidiasis in 10.8%. The most frequently isolated strains were M. canis (31.5%), T. rubrum (26.3%), E. floccosum (19.7%), T. mentagrophytes (19.3%) for the dermatophytes and C. albicans (88.9%). Those rarely seen were: M. gypseum, T. violaceum,

  9. Application of chemical and physical agents in model systems to controlling phenoloxidase enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonella De Leonardis; Giuseppe Lustrato; Vincenzo Macciola; Giancarlo Ranalli

    2010-01-01

    Several chemical and physical anti-browning agents are studied in different model systems in which caffeic acid (as substrate)\\u000a and laccase from Trametes versicolor (LAC) and polyphenoloxidase from sunflower seeds (PPO) (as enzymes) are used to emulate the browning reaction. Temperature\\u000a and low electric current were the tested physical agents, while acetic acid, sodium acetate, sodium chloride and, finally,\\u000a sodium bisulfite

  10. Wood decay: a submicroscopic view

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchette, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Typical patterns of decay in softwoods are shown by ultrastructural differences revealed by SEM. Illustrative micrographs are reproduced showing fungi and their effects. Brown rot fungi (e.g. Fomitopsis pinicolor) degrade cellulose leaving a lignin skeleton. White rot fungi (e.g. Coriolus versicolor and Hirschioporus abietinus) degrade both lignin and cellulose. White pocket rots (e.g. Phellinus pini) primarily degrade lignin; they have potential for use in paper making, or the production of animal feed.

  11. Total synthesis of aspeverin via an iodine(III)-mediated oxidative cyclization.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Adam M

    2014-09-19

    The first total synthesis of aspeverin, a prenylated indole alkaloid isolated from Aspergillus versicolor in 2013, is described. Key steps utilized to assemble the core structure of the target include a highly diastereoselective Diels-Alder reaction, a Curtius rearrangement, and a unique strategy for installation of the geminal dimethyl group. A novel iodine(III)-initiated cyclization was then used to install the bicyclic urethane linkage distinctive to the natural product. PMID:25171639

  12. Combinatorial evaluation of laccase-mediator system in the oxidation of veratryl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Larson, Troy M; Anderson, Amber M; Rich, Joseph O

    2013-02-01

    Laccases play an important role in the biological break down of lignin and have great potential in the deconstruction of lignocellulosic feedstocks. We examined 16 laccases, both commercially prepared and crude extracts, for their ability to oxidize veratryl alcohol in the presence of various solvents and mediators. Screening revealed complete conversion of veratryl alcohol to veratraldehyde catalyzed by a crude preparation of the laccase from Trametes versicolor ATCC 11235 and the mediator TEMPO in 20 % (v/v) tert-butanol. PMID:23132490

  13. Enhanced production of laccase in Trametes vesicolor by the addition of ethanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In-Young Lee; Kyung-Hee Jung; Choong-Hwan Lee; Young-Hoon Park

    1999-01-01

    In a medium containing 40 g ethanol l-1, laccase production by Trametes versicolor was 2.6 unit per ml of the supernatant, which was over 20 times higher than that without ethanol. Laccase activity with ethanol was quite comparable to that with the well-known inducers such as veratryl alcohol, xylidine and guaiacol. With other white-rot fungi, Coriolus hirsutus and Grifola frondosa, ethanol had

  14. Simultaneous GC-MS quantitation of acids and sugars in the hydrolyzates of immunostimulant, water-soluble polysaccharides of basidiomycetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Boldizsár; K. Horváth; Gy. Szedlay; I. Molnár-Perl

    1998-01-01

    Summary  The simultaneous quantitation of acids and sugars as their trimethyl silyl (TMS) derivatives has been extended in order to\\u000a identify and quantitate the simple acid and sugar constituents in the hydrolyzates of various immunostimulant, water-soluble\\u000a polysaccharides obtained from various Basidiomycetes, such as Armillariella mellea, Auricularia auricula-judae, Coriolus versicolor,\\u000a Flammulina velutipes, Fomes fomentarius, Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Pleurotus ostreatus, Schizophyllum commune,

  15. [Resources and utilization of anticarciogenic medical fungi].

    PubMed

    Lan, J; Yang, J; Xu, J

    1999-12-01

    This paper summarizes the resources of anticarcinogenic medical fungi, and the information of distribution, eco-environment. It outlines the present statuts of the exploitation and utilization of some species of common anticarcinogenic medical fungi such as Ganoderma lucidum, Coriolus versicolor, Polyporus frondosus etc. The anticarcinogenic mechanism of medical fungi is discussed. Suggestions on how to development and utilize rationally these resources are offered as well. PMID:12571901

  16. Colonization of fiberglass insulation used in heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Price; R. B. Simmons; I. M. Ezeonu; S. A. Crow; D. G. Ahearn

    1994-01-01

    Summary The number of fungal species colonizing thermal and acoustic fiberglass insulations used in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems was fewer than that obtained from initial direct culture of these insulations. The colonization, determined by the microscopic observation of conidiophores with conidia, was primarily of acrylic-latex-facing material, but eventually the fungi permeated the fiberglass matrix. Isolates ofAspergillus versicolor

  17. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis induced by a new human papillomavirus (HPV8)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Claudy; J. L. Touraine; D. Mitanne

    1982-01-01

    A new case of epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is reported in a 35-year-old man characterized by multiple common warts, flat warts, psoriasis-form lesions, and pityriasis-versicolor-(PV) like lesions. There was no familial history, no mental retardation, and no malignant changes. Human papilloma virus type 8 was identified in PV-like lesions. Immunologic studies detected no abnormalities: Delayed skin tests, DNCB sensitization, levels of

  18. In situ encapsulation of laccase in microfibers by emulsion electrospinning: Preparation, characterization, and application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunrong Dai; Junfeng Niu; Jia Liu; Lifeng Yin; Jiangjie Xu

    2010-01-01

    Laccase from Trametes versicolor was successfully in situ encapsulated into the poly(d,l-lactide) (PDLLA)\\/PEO–PPO–PEO (F108) electrospun microfibers by emulsion electrospinning. The porous morphology of electrospun microfibers was observed with scanning electron microscope, and the core–shell structure of microfibers and existence of laccase in microfibers were proved by laser confocal scanning microscopy micrograph. In this study, fibrous porosity and core–shell structure are

  19. A Potentially Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV5) Found in Two Renal Allograft Recipients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marvin Lutzner; Odile Croissant; Marie-Françoise Ducasse; Henri Kreis; Jean Crosnier; Gérard Orth

    1980-01-01

    We have observed 2 immunosuppressed renal allograft recipients with skin lesions induced by human papillomavirus type 5 (HPV-5). One recipient had multiple pityriasis versicolor-like (PV-like) skin lesions on his arms and trunk, and multiple Bowenoid in-situ skin cancers. The other had 2 warty lesions on the back of her fingers. Structural antigens of human papillomavirus type 5 (HPV-5) were identified

  20. Bacterial versus fungal laccase: potential for micropollutant degradation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Relatively high concentrations of micropollutants in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents underscore the necessity to develop additional treatment steps prior to discharge of treated wastewater. Microorganisms that produce unspecific oxidative enzymes such as laccases are a potential means to improve biodegradation of these compounds. Four strains of the bacterial genus Streptomyces (S. cyaneus, S. ipomoea, S. griseus and S. psammoticus) and the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor were studied for their ability to produce active extracellular laccase in biologically treated wastewater with different carbon sources. Among the Streptomyces strains evaluated, only S. cyaneus produced extracellular laccase with sufficient activity to envisage its potential use in WWTPs. Laccase activity produced by T. versicolor was more than 20 times greater, the highest activity being observed with ash branches as the sole carbon source. The laccase preparation of S. cyaneus (abbreviated LSc) and commercial laccase from T. versicolor (LTv) were further compared in terms of their activity at different pH and temperatures, their stability, their substrate range, and their micropollutant oxidation efficiency. LSc and LTv showed highest activities under acidic conditions (around pH 3 to 5), but LTv was active over wider pH and temperature ranges than LSc, especially at near-neutral pH and between 10 and 25°C (typical conditions found in WWTPs). LTv was also less affected by pH inactivation. Both laccase preparations oxidized the three micropollutants tested, bisphenol A, diclofenac and mefenamic acid, with faster degradation kinetics observed for LTv. Overall, T. versicolor appeared to be the better candidate to remove micropollutants from wastewater in a dedicated post-treatment step. PMID:24152339

  1. Fungal DNA in hotel rooms in Europe and Asia--associations with latitude, precipitation, building data, room characteristics and hotel ranking.

    PubMed

    Norbäck, Dan; Cai, Gui-Hong

    2011-10-01

    There is little information on the indoor environment in hotels. Analysis of fungal DNA by quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a new method which can detect general and specific sequences. Dust was collected through swab sampling of door frames in 69 hotel rooms in 20 countries in Europe and Asia (2007-2009). Five sequences were detected by qPCR: total fungal DNA, Aspergillus and Penicillium DNA (Asp/Pen DNA), Aspergillus versicolor (A. versicolor DNA), Stachybotrys chartarum (S. chartarum DNA) and Streptomyces spp. (Streptomyces DNA). Associations were analysed by multiple linear regression. Total fungal DNA (GM = 1.08 × 10(8) cell equivalents m(-2); GSD = 6.36) and Asp/Pen DNA (GM = 1.79 × 10(7) cell equivalents m(-2); GSD = 10.12) were detected in all rooms. A. versicolor DNA, S. chartarum DNA and Streptomyces DNA were detected in 84%, 28% and 47% of the samples. In total, 20% of the rooms had observed dampness/mould, and 30% had odour. Low latitude (range 1.5-64.2 degrees) was a predictor of Asp/Pen DNA. Seaside location, lack of mechanical ventilation, and dampness or mould were other predictors of total fungal DNA and Asp/Pen DNA. Hotel ranking (Trip Advisor) or self-rated quality of the interior of the hotel room was a predictor of total fungal DNA, A. versicolor DNA and Streptomyces DNA. Odour was a predictor of S. chartarum DNA. In conclusion, fungal DNA in swab samples from hotel rooms was related to latitude, seaside location, ventilation, visible dampness and indoor mould growth. Hotels in tropical areas may have 10-100 times higher levels of common moulds such as Aspergillus and Penicillium species, as compared to a temperate climate zone. PMID:21897974

  2. Evaluation of biotechnological potentials of some industrial fungi in economical lipid accumulation and biofuel production as a field of use.

    PubMed

    Karatay, Sevgi Ertu?rul; Dönmez, Gönül

    2014-01-01

    Considering the vast number of scientific reports on various potential uses of fungi, there was an attempt to select the best lipid producer of some fungi at optimized conditions (Aspergillus versicolor, Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus arrhizus, Tramates versicolor). The aim was to offer new fields of use to the industries already culturing and using such materials. Aspergillus versicolor mycelia were found to be accumulating the highest amount of lipids. Experiments to improve lipid accumulation and transesterification properties were performed in molasses medium; the first steps were testing the effects of different pH values and different nitrogen sources on lipid accumulation. Various concentrations of KNO(3) (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 gL(-1)) and molasses (6%, 8%, 10%) were tried in order to find the optimum carbon and nitrogen requirements. Maximum lipid content was 22.8% in the samples containing 6% molasses solution and 1.0 gL(-1) KNO(3) at pH 4 after 10 days of incubation. The highest fatty acid ethyl ester yield of these samples was 77% (5.0 ethanol:oil, 0.4 sulfuric acid:oil at 30°C for 6 hr). Since the crude lipids were rich in C16 and C18 fatty acids, this was considered as suitable feedstock for biodiesel production. PMID:24320234

  3. Heritable Variation in Quinone-Induced Haustorium Development in the Parasitic Plant Triphysaria1

    PubMed Central

    Jamison, Denneal S.; Yoder, John I.

    2001-01-01

    We are using the facultative hemiparasite, Triphysaria, as a model for studying host-parasite signaling in the Scrophulariaceae. Parasitic members of this family form subterranean connections, or haustoria, on neighboring host roots to access host water and nutrients. These parasitic organs develop in response to haustorial-inducing factors contained in host root exudates. A well-characterized inducing factor, 2, 6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone (DMBQ), can be used to trigger in vitro haustorium formation in the roots of Triphysaria. We have assayed three species, Triphysaria eriantha (Benth.) Chuang and Heckard, Triphysaria pusilla (Benth.) Chuang and Heckard, and Triphysaria versicolor Fischer and C. Meyer, for haustorium development in response to DMBQ. There were significant differences between the species in their ability to recognize and respond to this quinone. Ninety percent of T. versicolor individuals responded, whereas only 40% of T. pusilla and less than 10% of T. eriantha formed haustoria. Within field collections of self-pollinating T. pusilla, differential responsiveness to DMBQ was seen in distinct maternal families. Assaying haustorium development in subsequent generations of self-pollinated T. pusilla showed that DMBQ responsiveness was heritable. Reciprocal crosses between T. eriantha and T. versicolor demonstrated that DMBQ responsiveness was influenced by maternal factors. These results demonstrate heritable, natural variation in the recognition of a haustorial-inducing factor by a parasitic member of the Scrophulariaceae. PMID:11299366

  4. Correlation of brightening with cumulative enzyme activity related to lignin biodegradation during biobleaching of kraft pulp by white rot fungi in the solid-state fermentation system.

    PubMed Central

    Katagiri, N; Tsutsumi, Y; Nishida, T

    1995-01-01

    Biobleaching of hardwood unbleached kraft pulp (UKP) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor was studied in the solid-state fermentation system with different culture media. In this fermentation system with low-nitrogen and high-carbon culture medium, pulp brightness increased by 15 and 30 points after 5 days of treatment with T. versicolor and P. chrysosporium, respectively, and the pulp kappa number decreased with increasing brightness. A comparison of manganese peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP), and laccase activities assayed by using fungus-treated pulp and the filtrate after homogenizing the fungus-treated pulp in buffer solution indicated that enzymes secreted from fungi were adsorbed onto the UKP and that assays of these enzyme activities should be carried out with the treated pulp. Time course studies of brightness increase and MnP activity during treatment with P. chrysosporium suggested that it was difficult to correlate them on the basis of data obtained on a certain day of incubation, because the MnP activity fluctuated dramatically during the treatment time. When brightness increase and cumulative MnP, LiP, and laccase activities were determined, a linear relationship between brightness increase and cumulative MnP activity was found in the solid-state fermentation system with both P. chrysosporium and T. versicolor. This result suggests that MnP is involved in brightening of UKP by white rot fungi. PMID:7574600

  5. Role of Germination in Murine Airway CD8+ T-Cell Responses to Aspergillus Conidia

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Steven P.; Buskirk, Amanda D.; Law, Brandon; Green, Brett J.; Beezhold, Donald H.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary exposure to Aspergillus fumigatus has been associated with morbidity and mortality, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. A. fumigatus conidia produce ?-glucan, proteases, and other immunostimulatory factors upon germination. Murine models have shown that the ability of A. fumigatus to germinate at physiological temperature may be an important factor that facilitates invasive disease. We observed a significant increase in IFN-?-producing CD8+ T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of immunocompetent mice that repeatedly aspirated A. fumigatus conidia in contrast to mice challenged with A. versicolor, a species that is not typically associated with invasive, disseminated disease. Analysis of tissue sections indicated the presence of germinating spores in the lungs of mice challenged with A. fumigatus, but not A. versicolor. Airway IFN-?+CD8+ T-cells were decreased and lung germination was eliminated in mice that aspirated A. fumigatus conidia that were formaldehyde-fixed or heat-inactivated. Furthermore, A. fumigatus particles exhibited greater persistence in the lungs of recipient mice when compared to non-viable A. fumigatus or A. versicolor, and this correlated with increased maintenance of airway memory-phenotype CD8+ T cells. Therefore, murine airway CD8+ T cell-responses to aspiration of Aspergillus conidia may be mediated in part by the ability of conidia to germinate in the host lung tissue. These results provide further evidence of induction of immune responses to fungi based on their ability to invade host tissue. PMID:21533200

  6. [The first case of persistent vaginitis due to Aspergillus protuberus in an immunocompetent patient].

    PubMed

    Borsa, Bar?? Ata; Özgün, Gonca; Houbraken, Jos; Ökmen, F?rat

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of vaginal fungal infections are caused by Candida species. However, vaginitis cases caused by molds are extremely rare. Aspergillus protuberus is previously known as a member of Aspergillus section Versicolores which can cause opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients, however it has recently been described as a seperate species. Although the members of Aspergillus section Versicolores have been isolated rarely in cases of pulmonary infections, eye infections, otomycosis, osteomyelitis and onycomycoses, to the best of our knowledge, there is no published case of human infection caused by A.protuberus. In this report, the first case of persistent vaginitis due to A.protuberus in an immunocompetent patient was presented. A 42-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with the complaints of pelvic pain, vaginal itching and discharge during one month. Her symptoms had been persistant despite of the miconazole nitrate and clotrimazole therapies for probable candidal vaginitis. Fungal structures such as branched, septate hyphae together with the conidial forms were seen in microscopic examination as in the cervical smear. Thereafter, a vaginal discharge sample was taken for microbiological evaluation and similar characteristics of fungal structures were observed in the microscopic examination as of cervical smear. Then, preliminary result was reported as Aspergillus spp. At the same time, the sample was plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) in duplicate and incubated at room temperature and at 37oC. After 5 days, white, powdery and pure-looking fungal colonies were observed in SDA which was incubated at room temperature, while the other medium remained sterile. The culture was submitted to the CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Center for further characterization. Phenotypic identification showed that the isolated strain belonged to the Aspergillus section Versicolores. The strain was grown for 7 days on malt extract agar and then ITS regions were amplified and sequenced from isolated DNA for genomic characterization. The obtained sequences were compared with the NCBI database and internal databases of the CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre and confirmed as Aspergillus section Versicolores. As a result of recent changes in classification of fungi, analysis of partial ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequences have also been used to obtain a detailed and precise characterization. Eventually, the strain has been identified as A.protuberus which is a recently accepted species distinct from Aspergillus section Versicolores. As the patient could not be contacted after the preliminary report, detailed demographical information, probable origin and route of transmission of the agent and prognosis of infection remained obscure. In conclusion, the first case of vaginitis caused by A.protuberus was described in this report with the support of clinical, pathological, microbiological and molecular data. PMID:25706739

  7. Diseño y evaluación de un programa de seguimiento farmacoterapéutico a pacientes anticoagulados en atención primaria de salud

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MM Guerra García

    Resumen La incorporación del farmacéutico a los equipos de atención primaria en Galicia supone la implementación y desarrollo de programas de seguimiento farmacoterapéutico. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue dise- ñar y evaluar un programa de seguimiento farmacoterapéutico a pacientes anticoagulados; otros objetivos secundarios fueron los siguientes: 1. Establecer y cuantificar indicadores de seguimiento. 2. Registrar, cuantificar y clasificar

  8. Spécificités des grandes villes de province

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Julien

    1996-01-01

    [spa] Especificidades de las grandes ciudades de provincias . El cruce entre la actividad econômica y la cualificaciôn individual (funciôn) permite describir el empleo ofrecido por las areas urbanas con toda la precision deseable : se toman en cuenta, entre otras, las interferencias entre sectores secundario y terciario (empleos terciarios de la industria). Doce de dichas funciones, llamadas funciones estratégicas,

  9. Universidad de Buenos Aires Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Aires, 2013 #12;RESUMEN Los traits son un nuevo concepto en la programaci´on orientada a objetos, fueron in- cluidos en lenguajes de programaci´on como PHP, Perl y Pharo/Smalltalk. Son unidades puras de aceptar co-dirigirla. A mis profesores del secundario que me introdujeron en el mundo de la programaci´on

  10. Terapias adyuvantes y neoadyuvantes para el cáncer de seno

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa que explica las terapias adyuvantes (tratamiento que se administra además de la terapia primaria para aumentar la posibilidad de supervivencia a largo plazo) y las neoadyuvantes (terapia que se administra antes de la terapia principal). Contiene información sobre los efectos secundarios y sobre los riesgos y beneficios de estas terapias.

  11. Medicina de precisión y terapia dirigida

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre la función que desempeñan las terapias dirigidas en la medicina de precisión. Explica cómo las terapias dirigidas actúan contra el cáncer, quién recibe estas terapias, los efectos secundarios más comunes y lo que se debe esperar al recibir este tipo de tratamientos.

  12. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Rudnick, Hugh

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA DEPARTAMENTO DE INGENIERIA ELECTRICA Chile con el de California y con el de Colombia b) Explique lo que significan servicios secundarios o generación en Chile. ¿Que pasa si no se cumplen los supuestos de este principio? d)¿Cuáles son las

  13. Climatic variation and the distribution of an amphibian polyploid complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otto, C.R.V.; Snodgrass, J.W.; Forester, D.C.; Mitchell, J.C.; Miller, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    1. The establishment of polyploid populations involves the persistence and growth of the polyploid in the presence of the progenitor species. Although there have been a number of animal polyploid species documented, relatively few inquiries have been made into the large-scale mechanisms of polyploid establishment in animal groups. Herein we investigate the influence of regional climatic conditions on the distributional patterns of a diploid-tetraploid species pair of gray treefrogs, Hyla chrysoscelis and H. versicolor (Anura: Hylidae) in the mid-Atlantic region of eastern North America. 2. Calling surveys at breeding sites were used to document the distribution of each species. Twelve climatic models and one elevation model were generated to predict climatic and elevation values for gray treefrog breeding sites. A canonical analysis of discriminants was used to describe relationships between climatic variables, elevation and the distribution of H. chrysoscelis and H. versicolor. 3. There was a strong correlation between several climatic variables, elevation and the distribution of the gray treefrog complex. Specifically, the tetraploid species almost exclusively occupied areas of higher elevation, where climatic conditions were relatively severe (colder, drier, greater annual variation). In contrast, the diploid species was restricted to lower elevations, where climatic conditions were warmer, wetter and exhibited less annual variation. 4. Clusters of syntopic sites were associated with areas of high variation in annual temperature and precipitation during the breeding season. 5. Our data suggest that large-scale climatic conditions have played a role in the establishment of the polyploid H. versicolor in at least some portions of its range. The occurrence of the polyploid and absence of the progenitor in colder, drier and more varied environments suggests the polyploid may posses a tolerance of severe environmental conditions that is not possessed by the diploid progenitor. 6. Our findings support the hypothesis that increased tolerance to severe environmental conditions is a plausible mechanism of polyploid establishment.

  14. Regulation of coal polymer degradation by fungi. Tenth Quartery report, October 1996--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.L. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences; Bumpus, J.A. [Univ. of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-01-28

    It has long been known that low rank coal such as leonardite can be solubilized by strong base (>pH 12). Recent discoveries have also shown that leonardite is solubilized by Lewis bases at considerably lower pH values and by fungi that secrete certain Lewis bases (i.e., oxalate ion). During the current reporting period we have studied the ability of a strong base (sodium hydroxide, pH 12), and two fungi, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor, to solubilize Argonne Premium Coals. In general, Argonne Premium Coals were relatively resistant to base mediated solubilization. However, when these coals were preoxidized (150{degrees}C for seven days), substantial amounts of several coals were solubilized. Most affected were the Lewiston-Stockton bituminous coal, the Beulah-Zap lignite, the Wyodak-Anderson subbituminous coal and the Blind Canyon bituminous coal. Argonne Premium Coals were previously shown by us to be relatively resistant to solubilization by sodium oxalate. When preoxidized coals were treated with sodium oxalate, only the Beulah-Zap lignite was substantially solubilized. Although very small amounts of the other preoxidized coals were solubilized by treatment with oxalate, the small amount of solubilization that did take place was generally increased relative to that observed for coals that were not preoxidized. None of the Argonne Premium Coals were solubilized by P. chrysosporium or T. versicolor. Of considerable interest, however, is the observation that P. chrysosporium and T. versicolor mediated extensive solubilization of Lewiston-Stockton bituminous coal, the Beulah-Zap lignite and the Wyodak-Anderson subbituminous coal.

  15. Evaluation of Ten Wild Nigerian Mushrooms for Amylase and Cellulase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Adeoyo, Olusegun Richard

    2011-01-01

    Amylases and cellulases are important enzymes that can be utilized for various biological activities. Ten different wild Nigerian mushrooms (Agaricus blazei, Agaricus sp., Corilopsis occidentalis, Coriolus versicolor, Termitomyces clypeatus, Termitomyces globulus, Pleurotus tuber-regium, Podoscypha bolleana, Pogonomyces hydnoides, and Nothopanus hygrophanus) were assayed for production of these secondary metabolites. The results revealed that most of the tested wild fungi demonstrated very good amylase and cellulase activities. With the incorporation of carboxymethyl-cellulose (a carbon source) into the culture medium, Agaricus blazei had the highest amylolytic activity of 0.60 unit/mL (at 25?, pH 6.8). This was followed in order by P. tuber-regium and Agaricus sp. with 0.42 and 0.39 unit/mL, respectively (p ? 0.05). Maltose and sucrose supplementation into the submerged liquid medium made N. hygrophanus and P. hydnoides to exhibit very low amylase activities of 0.09 and 0.11 unit/mL, respectively. Introducing peptone (an organic nitrogen source) into the basal medium enhanced the ability of C. versicolor to produce a cellulase value of 0.74 unit/mL. Other organic nitrogen sources that supported good cellulase activities were yeast extract and urea. Sodium nitrate (inorganic nitrogen source) generally inhibited cellulase production in all mushrooms. The best carbon source was carboxymethyl-cellulose, which promoted very high cellulase activity of 0.67 unit/mL in C. versicolor, which was followed in order by P. tuber-regium, T. chypeatus, and C. occidentalis (p ? 0.05). Sucrose was the poorest carbon compound, supporting the lowest values of 0.01, 0.01, and 0.14 unit/mL in P. hydnoides, A. blazei, and Agaricus sp., respectively. PMID:22783085

  16. Comparison of phenanthrene and pyrene degradation by different wood-decaying fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Sack, U; Heinze, T M; Deck, J; Cerniglia, C E; Martens, R; Zadrazil, F; Fritsche, W

    1997-01-01

    The degradation of phenanthrene and pyrene was investigated by using five different wood-decaying fungi. After 63 days of incubation in liquid culture, 13.8 and 4.3% of the [ring U-14C]phenantherene and 2.4 and 1.4% of the [4,5,9,10-14C]pyrene were mineralized by Trametes versicolor and Kuehneromyces mutabilis, respectively. No 14CO2 evolution was detected in either [14C]phenanthrene or [14C]pyrene liquid cultures of Flammulina velutipes, Laetiporus sulphureus, and Agrocybe aegerita. Cultivation in straw cultures demonstrated that, in addition to T. versicolor (15.5%) and K. mutabilis (5.0%), L. sulphureus (10.7%) and A. aegerita (3.7%) were also capable of mineralizing phenanthrene in a period of 63 days. Additionally, K. mutabilis (6.7%), L. sulphureus (4.3%), and A. aegerita (3.3%) mineralized [14C]pyrene in straw cultures. The highest mineralization of [14C] pyrene was detected in straw cultures of T. versicolor (34.1%), which suggested that mineralization of both compounds by fungi may be independent of the number of aromatic rings. Phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites were purified by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by UV absorption, mass, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Fungi capable of mineralizing phenanthrene and pyrene in liquid culture produced enriched metabolites substituted in the K region (C-9,10 position of phenanthrene and C-4,5 position of pyrene), whereas all other fungi investigated produced metabolites substituted in the C-1,2, C-3,4, and C-9,10 positions of phenanthrene and the C-1 position of pyrene. PMID:9327556

  17. Cutaneous fungal infection in a renal transplantation patient due to a rare fungus belonging to order Pleosporales.

    PubMed

    Galipothu, S; Kalawat, U; Ram, R; Kishore, C; Sridhar, A V S S N; Chaudhury, A; Kumar, V S

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are being increasingly reported from immuno-compromised as well as immuno-competent patients. Transplant patients are on long term immunosuppressive therapy which makes them highly vulnerable to opportunistic fungal infections .These infections can be cutaneous or systemic. Several fungi have been reported to be the culprits such as Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., C. neoformans, P. carinii, and zygomycetes group of fungi. Cutaneous infections are most commonly caused by Pityriasis (tinea) versicolor, dermatophytes, and candida sp but these days the demtiaceous fungi are becoming more frequently reported .Here we report a case of post renal transplant cutaneous infection caused by dematiaceous fungus belonging to the order Pleosporales. PMID:25560027

  18. Linear feature selection and the probability of misclassification

    E-print Network

    Darcey, Louise Wilson

    1974-01-01

    priori probabilities: ql = . 25 (0. 245, 0. 347, -0. 471, -0. 773) q2 = . 75 Bp = -0. 614 1 Bp = -1. 533 2 BX B 0. 054 1 BX B 0. 062 g(B) = 0. 024 Rl(B) = [-0. 993, 12. 470] R2(B) = (-(n, -0. 993) IJ(12. 470?~) 27 Population 1 Versicolor...) (Member) May 1974 ABSTRACT Linear Feature Selecti. on and the Probability of Misclassification. (May 1974) Louise Wilson Darcey, B. S. , University of Texas at Austin Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. L. F. Guseman, Jr. A classifi. cation...

  19. Superficial fungal infections in children.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Danielle M; Smidt, Aimee C

    2014-04-01

    Superficial fungal infections can involve the hair, skin, and nails. Most affected children are healthy, although immunosuppression is a risk factor for more severe presentation. Causative organisms typically are members of the Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton genera (dermatophytes), can be acquired from other infected humans, animals, or soil, and illicit a host inflammatory response. Nondermatophyte infections include pityriasis versicolor. In this article, the most common clinical presentations, diagnostic recommendations, and treatment algorithms for dermatophyte and nondermatophyte mycoses in children and adolescents are described. PMID:24636655

  20. Efficient direct oxygen reduction by laccases attached and oriented on pyrene-functionalized polypyrrole/carbon nanotube electrodes.

    PubMed

    Lalaoui, Noémie; Elouarzaki, Kamal; Le Goff, Alan; Holzinger, Michael; Cosnier, Serge

    2013-10-18

    We report the functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes by oxidative electropolymerization of pyrrole monomers bearing pyrene and N-hydroxysuccinimide groups. Both polymers were applied to the immobilization and electrical wiring of Trametes versicolor laccase via chemical grafting or non-covalent binding. A "pseudo" host-guest interaction of polymerized pyrene with a hydrophobic cavity of laccase was used for the oriented enzyme immobilization on MWCNT electrodes. The latter leads to higher catalytic current for oxygen reduction (1.85 mA cm(-2)) and higher electroenzymatic stability (50% after one month). PMID:23994955

  1. Laccase-mediator system for alcohol oxidation to carbonyls or carboxylic acids: toward a sustainable synthesis of profens.

    PubMed

    Galletti, Paola; Pori, Matteo; Funiciello, Federica; Soldati, Roberto; Ballardini, Alberto; Giacomini, Daria

    2014-09-01

    By combining two green and efficient catalysts, such as the commercially available enzyme laccase from Trametes versicolor and the stable free radical 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO), the oxidation in water of some primary alcohols to the corresponding carboxylic acids or aldehydes and of selected secondary alcohols to ketones can be accomplished. The range of applicability of bio-oxidation is widened by applying the optimized protocol to the oxidation of enantiomerically pure 2-arylpropanols (profenols) into the corresponding 2-arylpropionic acids (profens), in high yields and with complete retention of configuration. PMID:25044433

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of the ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus (Galliformes: Phasianidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Xifeng; Ren, Qiongqiong; Kan, Xianzhao; Qian, Chaoju; Li, Xixi; Qian, Min

    2013-04-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Phasianus colchicus is 16,692 bp in length and composed of 13 typical protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and 1 putative control region. One extra nucleotide "C" is present in nad3 of P. colchicus, which is found in many other birds and is thought not to be translated. All protein-coding, rRNA, and tRNA genes have more than 99.0% nucleotide sequence similarity with the previously reported individual, except for cox3 and tRNA (Pro) genes which has more similarity with Phasianus versicolor. PMID:22950703

  3. Chromatographic behaviour of glucose 1- and 2-oxidases from fungal strains on immobilized metal chelates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Pacheco; A Karmali

    1998-01-01

      Glucose 2-oxidase (EC 1.1.3.10) from Coriolus versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium and glucose 1-oxidase (EC 1.1.3.4) from Aspergillus niger bound to a CU(II)-IDA column in the pH range of 6–8. However, glucose 1-oxidase from Penicillium amagasakiense bound only partially to a CU(II)-IDA column at pH 8.0. Metal chelates containing either Ni(II) or Zn(II) were useful in the\\u000a adsorption of glucose 2-oxidase

  4. Regulation of coal polymer degradation by fungi. Eighth quarterly report, [April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.L. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences; Bumpus, J.A. [University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-07-28

    This project addresses the solubilization of low-rank coal (leonardite) by lignin degrading fungi. During this reporting period efforts were focused on determining the effect of pH on coal solubilization by oxalate ion and other biologically important compounds that might function as metal chelators, on the role of laccase in coal solubilization and metabolism, on decolorization of soluble coal macromolecule by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and T. versicolor in solid agar media, and on solubilization of coal in slurry cultures and solid phase reactors.

  5. Action des ennemis naturels de Lymantria dispar [Lep.: Lymantriidae] en forêt de mamora (Maroc)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Hérard

    1979-01-01

    Résumé  L'effet des ennemis naturels oophages deLymantria dispar (L.) est étudié dans une parcelle de la forêt de chêne-liège de Mamora, à partir d'échantillons de pontes prélevées au cours\\u000a de l'été et de l'automne 1975. Les prédateurs sont les larves des coléoptèresTrogoderma versicolor (Creutzer),Anthrenus verbasci (L.) etTenebroides maroccanus\\u000a Reitter; le parasite est l'hyménoptèreOoencyrtus kuvanae (Howard). Leur impact s'est accru au cours

  6. La quimioterapia y usted

    Cancer.gov

    Hable con su doctor y enfermera sobre lo que puede esperar durante la quimioterapia. Es posible que le sugieran que lea ciertas secciones de este libro. También podrían sugerirle que siga algunos consejos que se dan en este libro para controlar los efectos secundarios. No lea este libro de principio a fin. Lea sólo aquellas secciones que necesita ahora. Consulte el índice para ver una lista de los temas que se tratan en este libro.

  7. Regulation of coal polymer degradation by fungi. Fourth quarterly progress report, May 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.L.

    1995-07-24

    To test the hypothesis that coal (leonardite) Solubilization and the subsequent depolymerization of the solubilized coal macromolecules are distinct events in lignin degrading fungi. In addition to T versicolor, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, another lignin degrading fungus that also has the ability to solubilize coal, will be studied. To test the hypothesis that the processes of coal (leonardite) solubilization and coal macro molecule depolymerization in lignin degrading fungi can be regulated by altering the nutritional status of the microorganism. Coal solubilization is expected to occur in nutrient rich media whereas depolymerization of solubilized coal macromolecules is expected to occur in nutrient limited media. To determine the role of extracellular enzymes (laccases, lignin peroxidases and Mn peroxidases) that are secreted by lignin degrading fungi during coal solubilization or coal macro molecule depolymerization. To assess the role of enzymatically generated oxygen radicals, non-radical active oxygen species, veratryl alcohol radicals and Mn{sup +++} complexes in coal macro molecule depolymerization. To characterize products of coal solubilization and coal macro molecule depolymerization that are formed by T. versicolor and P. chrysosporium and their respective extracellular enzymes. Solubilization products formed using oxalic acid and other metal chelators will also be characterized and compared.

  8. Mycotoxin-Producing Potential of Mold Flora of Dried Beans

    PubMed Central

    Mislivec, P. B.; Dieter, C. T.; Bruce, V. R.

    1975-01-01

    To evaluate the potential for mycotoxin production by molds in dried beans, the mold flora of 114 samples was determined both before and after surface disinfection of the beans with 5% NaOCl. Surface disinfection substantially reduced mold incidence, indicating that contamination was mainly on the surface. The flora, both before and after disinfection, was dominated by species of the Aspergillus glaucus group, the toxicogenic species A. ochraceus, Penicillium cyclopium, and P. viridicatum, and species of Alternaria, Cladosporium, and Fusarium. The toxicogenic species Aspergillus flavis, A. versicolor, Penicillium citrinum, P. expansum, P. islandicum, and P. urticae were encountered less frequently. Of 209 species of Aspergillus and Penicillium screened for mycotoxin production on sterile rice substrate, 114 produced one or more of the following mycotoxins: A. flavus, aflatoxins; A. ochraceus, ochratoxins; A. nidulans, A. unguis, and A. versicolor, sterigmatocystin; P. cyclopium, penicillic acid; P. citrinum and P. viridicatum, citrinin; P. urticae, patulin and griseofulvin. Sterigmatocystin production by A. unguis is reported for the first time. PMID:1168442

  9. Comparison of biosorption properties of different kinds of fungi for the removal of Gryfalan Black RL metal-complex dye.

    PubMed

    Aksu, Zümriye; Karabayir, Göknur

    2008-11-01

    Three kinds of filamentous fungi (Rhizopus arrhizus, Trametes versicolor, Aspergillus niger) were tested for their ability to adsorb Gryfalan Black RL metal-complex dye as a function of pH, temperature and dye concentration. R. arrhizus and T. versicolor exhibited the maximum dye uptake at pH 2.0 and at 25 degrees C while A. niger performed the highest dye biosorption at pH 1.0 and at 35 degrees C. Sorption capacity of each biosorbent increased with increasing initial dye concentration. Among the three fungi, R. arrhizus was the most effective biosorbent showing a maximum dye uptake of 666.7 mg g(-1). The Langmuir model described the equilibrium data of each dye-fungus system accurately in the concentration and temperature ranges studied. Kinetic analysis indicated that both adsorption kinetics and internal diffusion played an important role on controlling the overall adsorption rate for each fungus. Thermodynamic analysis verified that A. niger biosorption was endothermic while the others were exothermic. PMID:18325761

  10. Microfungal contamination of damp buildings--examples of risk constructions and risk materials.

    PubMed Central

    Gravesen, S; Nielsen, P A; Iversen, R; Nielsen, K F

    1999-01-01

    To elucidate problems with microfungal infestation in indoor environments, a multidisciplinary collaborative pilot study, supported by a grant from the Danish Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, was performed on 72 mold-infected building materials from 23 buildings. Water leakage through roofs, rising damp, and defective plumbing installations were the main reasons for water damage with subsequent infestation of molds. From a score system assessing the bioavailability of the building materials, products most vulnerable to mold attacks were water damaged, aged organic materials containing cellulose, such as wooden materials, jute, wallpaper, and cardboard. The microfungal genera most frequently encountered were Penicillium (68%), Aspergillus (56%), Chaetomium (22%), Ulocladium, (21%), Stachybotrys (19%) and Cladosporium (15%). Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Stachybotrys chartarum were the most frequently occurring species. Under field conditions, several trichothecenes were detected in each of three commonly used building materials, heavily contaminated with S. chartarum. Under experimental conditions, four out of five isolates of S. chartarum produced satratoxin H and G when growing on new and old, very humid gypsum boards. A. versicolor produced the carcinogenic mycotoxin sterigmatocystin and 5-methoxysterigmatocystin under the same conditions. PMID:10347000

  11. Fungal life in the dead sea.

    PubMed

    Oren, Aharon; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The waters of the Dead Sea currently contain about 348 g/l salts (2 M Mg(2+), 0.5 M Ca(2+), 1.5 M Na(+), 0.2 M K(+), 6.5 M Cl(-), 0.1 M Br(-)). The pH is about 6.0. After rainy winters the surface waters become diluted, triggering development of microbial blooms. The 1980 and 1992 blooms were dominated by the unicellular green alga Dunaliella and red Archaea. At least 70 species (in 26 genera) of Oomycota (Chromista), Mucoromycotina, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota (Fungi) were isolated from near-shore localities and offshore stations, including from deep waters. Aspergillus and Eurotium were most often recovered. Aspergillus terreus, A. sydowii, A. versicolor, Eurotium herbariorum, Penicillium westlingii, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. sphaerospermum, C. ramnotellum, and C. halotolerans probably form the stable core of the community. The species Gymnascella marismortui may be endemic. Mycelia of Dead Sea isolates of A. versicolor and Chaetomium globosum remained viable for up to 8 weeks in Dead Sea water; mycelia of other species survived for many weeks in 50% Dead Sea water. Many isolates showed a very high tolerance to magnesium salts. There is no direct proof that fungi contribute to the heterotrophic activity in the Dead Sea, but fungi may be present at least locally and temporarily, and their enzymatic activities such as amylase, protease, and cellulase may play a role in the lake's ecosystem. PMID:22222829

  12. Re-inoculation strategies enhance the degradation of emerging pollutants in fungal bioaugmentation of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Lucas, Daniel; Barón, Enrique; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Molins-Delgado, Daniel; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Eljarrat, Ethel; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa

    2014-09-01

    The use of Trametes versicolor has been partially successful in the removal of some pharmaceuticals from sewage sludge in laboratory-scale biopile systems. The application of two strategies for the re-inoculation of biomass was assessed during the fungal bioaugmentation of non-sterile sludge (42-d treatment) as an approach to improve the elimination of pharmaceuticals and other groups of emerging pollutants. Globally, the re-inoculation of biopiles with blended mycelium exerted a major effect on the removal of pharmaceuticals (86%), brominated-flame-retardants (81%) and UV filters (80%) with respect to the re-inoculation with additional lignocellulosic substrate colonized by the fungus (69-67-22%). The performance was better than that of the analogous non-re-inoculated systems that were assayed previously for the removal of pharmaceuticals. The results demonstrate the ability of T. versicolor to remove a wide spectrum of emerging micropollutants under non-sterile conditions, while re-inoculation appears to be a useful step to improve the fungal treatment of sludge. PMID:24582425

  13. Trametes meyenii possesses elevated dye degradation abilities under normal nutritional conditions compared to other white rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Chenaux, Peter R; Lalji, Narisa; Lefebvre, Daniel D

    2014-01-01

    Several species of white-rot fungi were investigated for their utility in prolonged decolouration of the recalcitrant sulfonated azo dye, amaranth. Trametes pubescens, T. multicolor, T. meyenii and T. versicolor decoloured amaranth azo-dye best on low-nitrogen agar-solidified media whereas Bjerkandera adusta and Phlebia radiata were most effective in low nitrogen medium supplemented with manganese. Trametes cotonea did not decolour effectively under any condition. The decolouring Trametes species were also effective in liquid culture whereas B. adusta and P. radiata were not. Trametes meyenii, T. pubescens and T. multicolor were equal to or better than commonly employed T. versicolor at decolouring amaranth. This is the first study to show the dye decolouration potential of T. meyenii, T. pubescens, and T. multicolor. Supplementing with Mn(II) increased assayable manganese peroxidase activity, but not long-term decolouration, indicating that laccase is the main decolourizing enzyme in these Trametes species. This appears to be because of inadequate Mn(3+) chelation required by manganese peroxidase because adding relatively low amounts of malonate enhanced decolouration rates. The ability of Trametes meyenii to simultaneously decolour dye over prolonged periods of time while growing in relatively nutrient-rich medium appears to be unique amongst white-rot fungi, indicating its potential in wastewater bioremediation. PMID:25401075

  14. Antiviral activity of Basidiomycete mycelia against influenza type A (serotype H1N1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Krupodorova, Tetiana; Rybalko, Svetlana; Barshteyn, Victor

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the in vitro antiviral activity of the mycelia of higher mushrooms against influenza virus type A (serotype H1N1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), strain BH. All 10 investigated mushroom species inhibited the reproduction of influenza virus strain A/FM/1/47 (H1N1) in MDCK cells reducing the infectious titer by 2.0-6.0 lg ID50. Four species, Pleurotus ostreatus, Fomes fomentarius, Auriporia aurea, and Trametes versicolor, were also determined to be effective against HSV-2 strain BH in RK-13 cells, with similar levels of inhibition as for influenza. For some of the investigated mushroom species-Pleurotus eryngii, Lyophyllum shimeji, and Flammulina velutipes-this is the first report of an anti-influenza effect. This study also reports the first data on the medicinal properties of A. aurea, including anti-influenza and antiherpetic activities. T. versicolor 353 mycelium was found to have a high therapeutic index (324.67), and may be a promising material for the pharmaceutical industry as an anti-influenza and antiherpetic agent with low toxicity. Mycelia with antiviral activity were obtained in our investigation by bioconversion of agricultural wastes (amaranth flour after CO2 extraction), which would reduce the cost of the final product and solve some ecological problems. PMID:25358999

  15. Degradation of C60 Fullerol by White-Rot Basidiomycete Fungi: Implications for Environmental Release of Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, K. M.; Filley, T. R.; Bolskar, R. D.; Blanchette, R. A.

    2008-12-01

    Industrially produced carbon-based nanomaterials, including fullerenes and fullerols, will be introduced into the environment in increasing amounts over the next century. Oxygenated fullerenes are likely to be produced in the environment through both biotic and abiotic weathering, and yet the environmental fate of compounds like hydroxylated fullerenes are almost unknown. This study examines the ability of two white rot basidiomycete fungi (Phlebia tremellosa and Trametes versicolor) to metabolize and degrade 13C-labeled C60 fullerol. Both of these fungi were shown to degrade fullerol to CO2 both in the presence of wood tissue and without, and incorporate trace amounts of the carbon into fungal biomass. Absorbance data also indicate that a significant portion of the original fullerol was broken down into small molecular weight metabolites. Phlebia tremellosa proved to be, in general, more aggressive towards fullerol degradation than Trametes versicolor. These findings represent the report of fungal degradation of this important nanomaterial and also provide valuable information about the possible environmental fates of this compound.

  16. Evolution of genomic diversity and sex at extreme environments: fungal life under hypersaline Dead Sea stress.

    PubMed

    Kis-Papo, Tamar; Kirzhner, Valery; Wasser, Solomon P; Nevo, Eviatar

    2003-12-01

    We have found that genomic diversity is generally positively correlated with abiotic and biotic stress levels (1-3). However, beyond a high-threshold level of stress, the diversity declines to a few adapted genotypes. The Dead Sea is the harshest planetary hypersaline environment (340 g.liter-1 total dissolved salts, approximately 10 times sea water). Hence, the Dead Sea is an excellent natural laboratory for testing the "rise and fall" pattern of genetic diversity with stress proposed in this article. Here, we examined genomic diversity of the ascomycete fungus Aspergillus versicolor from saline, nonsaline, and hypersaline Dead Sea environments. We screened the coding and noncoding genomes of A. versicolor isolates by using >600 AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers (equal to loci). Genomic diversity was positively correlated with stress, culminating in the Dead Sea surface but dropped drastically in 50- to 280-m-deep seawater. The genomic diversity pattern paralleled the pattern of sexual reproduction of fungal species across the same southward gradient of increasing stress in Israel. This parallel may suggest that diversity and sex are intertwined intimately according to the rise and fall pattern and adaptively selected by natural selection in fungal genome evolution. Future large-scale verification in micromycetes will define further the trajectories of diversity and sex in the rise and fall pattern. PMID:14645702

  17. Evolution of genomic diversity and sex at extreme environments: Fungal life under hypersaline Dead Sea stress

    PubMed Central

    Kis-Papo, Tamar; Kirzhner, Valery; Wasser, Solomon P.; Nevo, Eviatar

    2003-01-01

    We have found that genomic diversity is generally positively correlated with abiotic and biotic stress levels (1–3). However, beyond a high-threshold level of stress, the diversity declines to a few adapted genotypes. The Dead Sea is the harshest planetary hypersaline environment (340 g·liter–1 total dissolved salts, ?10 times sea water). Hence, the Dead Sea is an excellent natural laboratory for testing the “rise and fall” pattern of genetic diversity with stress proposed in this article. Here, we examined genomic diversity of the ascomycete fungus Aspergillus versicolor from saline, nonsaline, and hypersaline Dead Sea environments. We screened the coding and noncoding genomes of A. versicolor isolates by using >600 AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers (equal to loci). Genomic diversity was positively correlated with stress, culminating in the Dead Sea surface but dropped drastically in 50- to 280-m-deep seawater. The genomic diversity pattern paralleled the pattern of sexual reproduction of fungal species across the same southward gradient of increasing stress in Israel. This parallel may suggest that diversity and sex are intertwined intimately according to the rise and fall pattern and adaptively selected by natural selection in fungal genome evolution. Future large-scale verification in micromycetes will define further the trajectories of diversity and sex in the rise and fall pattern. PMID:14645702

  18. Synthetic dye decolorization by three sources of fungal laccase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Decolorization of six synthetic dyes using three sources of fungal laccase with the origin of Aspergillus oryzae, Trametes versicolor, and Paraconiothyrium variabile was investigated. Among them, the enzyme from P. variabile was the most efficient which decolorized bromophenol blue (100%), commassie brilliant blue (91%), panseu-S (56%), Rimazol brilliant blue R (RBBR; 47%), Congo red (18.5%), and methylene blue (21.3%) after 3 h incubation in presence of hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT; 5 mM) as the laccase mediator. It was also observed that decolorization efficiency of all dyes was enhanced by increasing of HBT concentration from 0.1 mM to 5 mM. Laccase from A. oryzae was able to remove 53% of methylene blue and 26% of RBBR after 30 min incubation in absence of HBT, but the enzyme could not efficiently decolorize other dyes even in presence of 5 mM of HBT. In the case of laccase from T. versicolor, only RBBR was decolorized (93%) in absence of HBT after 3 h incubation. PMID:23369690

  19. White-rot fungi capable of decolourising textile dyes under alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Ottoni, Cristiane A; Santos, Cledir; Kozakiewicz, Zofia; Lima, Nelson

    2013-05-01

    Twelve white-rot fungal strains belonging to seven different species were screened on plates under alkaline condition to study the decolourisation of the textile dyes Reactive Black 5 and Poly R-478. Three strains of Trametes versicolor (Micoteca da Universidade do Minho (MUM) 94.04, 04.100 and 04.101) and one strain of Phanerochaete chrysosporium (MUM 94.15) showed better decolourisation results. These four strains were used for decolourisation studies in liquid culture medium. All four selected strains presented more efficient decolourisation rates on Reactive Black 5 than on Poly R-478. For both dyes on solid and liquid culture media, the decolourisation capability exhibited by these strains depended on dye concentration and pH values of the media. Finally, the decolourisation of Reactive Black 5 by T. versicolor strains MUM 94.04 and 04.100 reached 100 %. In addition, the highest white-rot fungi ligninolytic enzyme activities were found for these two strains. PMID:23008155

  20. Molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography of the white-fronted capuchin (Cebus albifrons; Cebidae, Primates) by means of mtCOII gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-García, M; Castillo, M I; Vásquez, C; Rodriguez, K; Pinedo-Castro, M; Shostell, J; Leguizamon, N

    2010-12-01

    A total of 696 base pairs (bp) of the mitochondrial COII gene were sequenced from 118 individuals of Cebus albifrons (plus an individual of Cebus olivaceus) sampled from diverse geographical areas of Colombia, Peru, Ecuador and Brazil. These animals represented all of the C. albifrons's taxa described by Hershkovitz (1949) in Colombia and Peru (10 out of 13 subspecies are described by this author). The sequences analyzed demonstrate the existence of three well defined groups in northern Colombia (trans-Andean): malitosus, versicolor-pleei-cesarae and leucocephalus. They arose from at least, three distinct migrations from different Amazonian groups. Five different Amazonian and Eastern Llanos C. albifrons's groups (I, II, III, IV, and V) were also found. In many Amazonian localities, some of these groups live in sympatry probably by secondary expansion after their respective formations. Amazonian group I is closely related to the versicolor-pleei-cesarae group, malitosus is closely related to Amazonian group V, while leucocephalus is closely related to Amazonian group IV. Nevertheless, our genetic analysis could not resolve the genetic relationships among the main C. albifrons groups. The ?-statistic applied to the median-joining network yielded that the major part of the temporal splits estimated occurred in the Pleistocene, reinforcing the importance of the Pleistocene refugia during the evolution of C. albifrons. PMID:20854917

  1. Trametes meyenii possesses elevated dye degradation abilities under normal nutritional conditions compared to other white rot fungi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Several species of white-rot fungi were investigated for their utility in prolonged decolouration of the recalcitrant sulfonated azo dye, amaranth. Trametes pubescens, T. multicolor, T. meyenii and T. versicolor decoloured amaranth azo-dye best on low-nitrogen agar-solidified media whereas Bjerkandera adusta and Phlebia radiata were most effective in low nitrogen medium supplemented with manganese. Trametes cotonea did not decolour effectively under any condition. The decolouring Trametes species were also effective in liquid culture whereas B. adusta and P. radiata were not. Trametes meyenii, T. pubescens and T. multicolor were equal to or better than commonly employed T. versicolor at decolouring amaranth. This is the first study to show the dye decolouration potential of T. meyenii, T. pubescens, and T. multicolor. Supplementing with Mn(II) increased assayable manganese peroxidase activity, but not long-term decolouration, indicating that laccase is the main decolourizing enzyme in these Trametes species. This appears to be because of inadequate Mn3+ chelation required by manganese peroxidase because adding relatively low amounts of malonate enhanced decolouration rates. The ability of Trametes meyenii to simultaneously decolour dye over prolonged periods of time while growing in relatively nutrient-rich medium appears to be unique amongst white-rot fungi, indicating its potential in wastewater bioremediation. PMID:25401075

  2. Multicenter study of isavuconazole MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for Aspergillus spp. for the CLSI M38-A2 broth microdilution method.

    PubMed

    Espinel-Ingroff, A; Chowdhary, A; Gonzalez, G M; Lass-Flörl, C; Martin-Mazuelos, E; Meis, J; Peláez, T; Pfaller, M A; Turnidge, J

    2013-08-01

    Epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) were established for the new triazole isavuconazole and Aspergillus species wild-type (WT) MIC distributions (organisms in a species-drug combination with no detectable acquired resistance mechanisms) that were defined with 855 Aspergillus fumigatus, 444 A. flavus, 106 A. nidulans, 207 A. niger, 384 A. terreus, and 75 A. versicolor species complex isolates; 22 Aspergillus section Usti isolates were also included. CLSI broth microdilution MIC data gathered in Europe, India, Mexico, and the United States were aggregated to statistically define ECVs. ECVs were 1 ?g/ml for the A. fumigatus species complex, 1 ?g/ml for the A. flavus species complex, 0.25 ?g/ml for the A. nidulans species complex, 4 ?g/ml for the A. niger species complex, 1 ?g/ml for the A. terreus species complex, and 1 ?g/ml for the A. versicolor species complex; due to the small number of isolates, an ECV was not proposed for Aspergillus section Usti. These ECVs may aid in detecting non-WT isolates with reduced susceptibility to isavuconazole due to cyp51A (an A. fumigatus species complex resistance mechanism among the triazoles) or other mutations. PMID:23716059

  3. Multicenter Study of Isavuconazole MIC Distributions and Epidemiological Cutoff Values for Aspergillus spp. for the CLSI M38-A2 Broth Microdilution Method

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhary, A.; Gonzalez, G. M.; Lass-Flörl, C.; Martin-Mazuelos, E.; Meis, J.; Peláez, T.; Pfaller, M. A.; Turnidge, J.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) were established for the new triazole isavuconazole and Aspergillus species wild-type (WT) MIC distributions (organisms in a species-drug combination with no detectable acquired resistance mechanisms) that were defined with 855 Aspergillus fumigatus, 444 A. flavus, 106 A. nidulans, 207 A. niger, 384 A. terreus, and 75 A. versicolor species complex isolates; 22 Aspergillus section Usti isolates were also included. CLSI broth microdilution MIC data gathered in Europe, India, Mexico, and the United States were aggregated to statistically define ECVs. ECVs were 1 ?g/ml for the A. fumigatus species complex, 1 ?g/ml for the A. flavus species complex, 0.25 ?g/ml for the A. nidulans species complex, 4 ?g/ml for the A. niger species complex, 1 ?g/ml for the A. terreus species complex, and 1 ?g/ml for the A. versicolor species complex; due to the small number of isolates, an ECV was not proposed for Aspergillus section Usti. These ECVs may aid in detecting non-WT isolates with reduced susceptibility to isavuconazole due to cyp51A (an A. fumigatus species complex resistance mechanism among the triazoles) or other mutations. PMID:23716059

  4. Determination of volatile metabolites originating from mould growth on wall paper and synthetic media.

    PubMed

    Matysik, Silke; Herbarth, Olf; Mueller, Andrea

    2008-10-01

    Microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) emitted from the mould species Penicillium expansum, P. chrysogenum, Aspergillus versicolor, A. fumigatus, A. niger and Cladosporium cladosporoides were analyzed by means of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and GCMS. The mould species were cultivated on the synthetic agar dichloran chloramphenicol (DG 18) and on wet wall paper. The production of MVOCs was monitored over several weeks to detect changes in the emission rates between the initial stage and later periods of growth. The cultivation on the synthetic agar resulted in MVOC patterns with a wide variety of signals. In contrast, the growth on wet wall paper led to changed MVOC patterns with less signals. The emission rates were drastically reduced. Components emitted by all six fungi species on wall paper were 2-pentanol and 2-pentanone. 1-Octen-3-ol was emitted by five fungi species. 2-Pentanol was only detected in considerable amounts during the first days of growth whereas 1-octen-3-ol had a more constant emission rate over the whole period of growth. On the basis of our studies some MVOCs could be proposed as specific for single fungi on wall paper, e.g. 1,3-dimethoxybenzene for A. versicolor and 2,4-pentandione for A. fumigatus. PMID:18577403

  5. Microbial solubilization of coals

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Stewart, D.L.; Thomas, B.L.; McCulloch, M.; Wilson, B.W.; Bean, R.M.

    1988-11-01

    Microbial solubilization of coal may serve as a first step in a process to convert low-rank coals or coal-derived products to other fuels or products. For solubilization of coal to be an economically viable technology, a mechanistic understanding of the process is essential. Leonardite, a highly oxidized, low-rank coal, has been solubilized by the intact microorganism, cell-free filtrate, and cell-free enzyme of /ital Coriolus versicolor/. A spectrophotometric conversion assay was developed to quantify the amount of biosolubilized coal. In addition, a bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6, was solubilized by a species of /ital Penicillium/, but only after the coal had been preoxidized in air. Model compounds containing coal-related functionalities have been incubated with the leonardite-degrading fungus, its cell-free filtrate, and purified enzyme. The amount of degradation was determined by gas chromatography and the degradation products were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We have also separated the cell-free filtrate of /ital C. versicolor/ into a <10,000 MW and >10,000 MW fraction by ultrafiltration techniques. Most of the coal biosolubilization activity is contained in the <10,000 MW fraction while the model compound degradation occurs in the >10,000 MW fraction. The >10,000 MW fraction appears to contain an enzyme with laccase-like activity. 10 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Previous exposure of predatory fish to a pesticide alters palatability of larval amphibian prey.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Shane M; Parris, Matthew J

    2013-12-01

    Habitat preferences of organisms are reliant on a variety of factors. For amphibians specifically, preferences can depend on factors such as food availability, water quality, and the presence of potential predators. Because some amphibians breed in permanent bodies of water (e.g., ponds), the threat of predation (e.g., from fish) is constant. Thus, some amphibians are unpalatable to many predators, allowing them to coexist in the same habitats. However, the addition of anthropogenic stressors (i.e., pesticides) may alter the perceived palatability of prey items to predators. The authors tested the hypothesis that bluegill fish (Lepomis macrochirus), previously exposed to the pesticide carbaryl, would consume more unpalatable prey (Fowler's toad [Anaxyrus fowleri] tadpoles) than unexposed predators. Carbaryl is a pesticide that attacks the nervous system and is linked to taste sense in organisms. Moreover, the authors conducted an identical test using palatable prey (gray treefrog [Hyla versicolor] tadpoles) and predicted that no change in preference would be observed. In support of the primary hypothesis, bluegill exposed to the highest concentration of carbaryl consumed more A. fowleri tadpoles compared with those exposed to carbaryl at the lowest concentration or water control. Moreover, an effect of carbaryl on predation success on H. versicolor tadpoles was not observed. The present study shows that an anthropogenic stressor (carbaryl) can alter the perceived palatability of noxious prey to fish predators, potentially altering predator-prey relationships in natural settings. PMID:24383102

  7. Previous exposure of predatory fish to a pesticide alters palatability of larval amphibian prey.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Shane M; Parris, Matthew J

    2013-09-01

    Habitat preferences of organisms are reliant upon a variety of factors. Specifically with amphibians, preferences can depend on factors such as food availability, water quality, or the presence of potential predators. Because some amphibians breed in permanent bodies of water (e.g., ponds), the threat of predation (e.g., from fish) is constant. Thus, some amphibians are unpalatable to many predators, allowing them to coexist in the same habitats. However, the addition of anthropogenic stressors (i.e., pesticides) may alter the perceived palatability of prey items to predators. We tested the hypothesis that bluegill fish (Lepomis macrochirus), previously exposed to the pesticide carbaryl, would consume more unpalatable prey (Fowler's toad [Anaxyrus fowleri] tadpoles) than unexposed predators. Carbaryl is a pesticide that attacks the nervous system and is linked to taste sense in organisms. Moreover, we conducted an identical test using palatable prey (gray treefrog [Hyla versicolor] tadpoles) and predicted that no change in preference would be observed. In support of our primary hypothesis, bluegill exposed to the highest concentration of carbaryl consumed more A. folweri tadpoles compared to those exposed to carbaryl at the lowest concentration or water control. Moreover, an effect of carbaryl on predation success on H. versicolor tadpoles was not observed. Our study shows that an anthropogenic stressor (carbaryl) can alter the perceived palatability of noxious prey to fish predators, potentially altering predator-prey relationships in natural settings. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2013 SETAC. PMID:23996644

  8. Degradation of lindane and endosulfan by fungi, fungal and bacterial laccases.

    PubMed

    Ul?nik, A; Kralj Cigi?, I; Pohleven, F

    2013-12-01

    The ability of two white-rot fungi (Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus) and one brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum) to degrade two organochlorine insecticides, lindane and endosulfan, in liquid cultures was studied and dead fungal biomass was examined for adsorption of both insecticides from liquid medium. Lindane and endosulfan were also treated with fungal laccase and bacterial protein CotA, which has laccase activities. The amount of degraded lindane and endosulfan increased with their exposure period in the liquid cultures of both examined white-rot fungi. Endosulfan was transformed to endosulfan sulphate by T. versicolor and P. ostreatus. A small amount of endosulfan ether was also detected and its origin was examined. Degradation of lindane and endosulfan by a brown rot G. trabeum did not occur. Mycelial biomasses of all examined fungi have been found to adsorb lindane and endosulfan and adsorption onto fungal biomass should therefore be considered as a possible mechanism of pollutant removal when fungal degradation potentials are studied. Bacterial protein CotA performed more efficient degradation of lindane and endosulfan than fungal laccase and has shown potential for bioremediation of organic pollutants. PMID:23736895

  9. Screening of Biodegradable Function of Indigenous Ligno-degrading Mushroom Using Dyes.

    PubMed

    Jang, Kab-Yeul; Cho, Soo-Muk; Seok, Soon-Ja; Kong, Won-Sik; Kim, Gyu-Hyun; Sung, Jae-Mo

    2009-03-01

    The process of biodegradation in lingo-cellulosic materials is critically relevant to biospheric carbon. The study of this natural process has largely involved laboratory investigations, focused primarily on the biodegradation and recycling of agricultural by-products, generally using basidiomycetes species. In order to collect super white rot fungi and evaluate its ability to degrade lingo-cellulosic material, 35 fungal strains, collected from forests, humus soil, livestock manure, and dead trees, were screened for enzyme activities and their potential to decolorize the commercially used Poly-R 478 dye. In the laccase enzymatic analysis chemical test, 33 white rot fungi and 2 brown rot fungi were identified. The degradation ability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) according to the utilized environmental conditions was higher in the mushrooms grown in dead trees and fallen leaves than in the mushrooms grown in humus soil and livestock manure. Using Poly-R 478 dye to assess the PAH-degradation activity of the identified strains, four strains, including Agrocybe pediades, were selected. The activities of laccase, MnP, and Lip of the four strains with PAH-degrading ability were highest in Pleurotus incarnates. 87 fungal strains, collected from forests, humus soil, livestock manure, and dead trees, were screened for enzyme activities and their potential to decolorize the commercially used Poly-R 478 dye on solid media. Using Poly-R 478 dye to assess the PAHdegrading activity of the identified strains, it was determined that MKACC 51632 and 52492 strains evidenced superior activity in static and shaken liquid cultures. Subsequent screening on plates containing the polymeric dye poly R-478, the decolorization of which is correlated with lignin degradation, resulted in the selection of a strain of Coriolus versicolor, MKACC52492, for further study, primarily due to its rapid growth rate and profound ability to decolorize poly R-478 on solid media. Considering our findings using Poly-R 478 dye to evaluate the PAH-degrading activity of the identified strains, Coriolus versicolor, MKACC 52492 was selected as a favorable strain. Coriolus versicolor, which was collected from Mt. Yeogi in Suwon, was studied for the production of the lignin-modifying enzymes laccase, manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP), and lignin peroxidase (LiP). PMID:23983508

  10. [Study on the quantitative and qualitative composition of fungi in dried medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Janda, Katarzyna; Ulfig, Krzysztof

    2005-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative composition of fungi was determined in selected dried medicinal plants purchased in one of the herbal shops in Szczecin, Poland. The samples examined were as follows: chamomile (Flos Chamomillae), peppermint (Folium Menthae piperitae), lemon balm (Folium Melissae), St. John's wort (Herba Hyperici), and two herbal mixtures. The fungal composition depended on the specified sample. Xerophilic fungi, i.e. Eurotium amstelodami, E. herbariorum, E. rubrum and Wallemia sebi were isolated from dried medicinal plants. E. amstelodami was the predominating species. The prevailing thermophilic and thermotolerant species were Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis and Aspergillus fumigatus. Pink and white yeasts were also numerous in some samples. Except for Aspergillus niger, mesophilic and toxigenous species were found to occur infrequently in the samples. However, Aspergillus versicolor was found to occur abundantly in lemon balm. PMID:16610669

  11. Antifungal activity of 10 Guadeloupean plants.

    PubMed

    Biabiany, Murielle; Roumy, Vincent; Hennebelle, Thierry; François, Nadine; Sendid, Boualem; Pottier, Muriel; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Rouaud, Isabelle; Lohézic-Le Dévéhat, Françoise; Joseph, Henry; Bourgeois, Paul; Sahpaz, Sevser; Bailleul, François

    2013-11-01

    Screening of the antifungal activities of ten Guadeloupean plants was undertaken to find new extracts and formulations against superficial mycoses such as onychomycosis, athlete's foot, Pityriasis versicolor, as well as the deep fungal infection Pneumocystis pneumonia. For the first time, the CMI of these plant extracts [cyclohexane, ethanol and ethanol/water (1:1, v/v)] was determined against five dermatophytes, five Candida species, Scytalidium dimidiatum, a Malassezia sp. strain and Pneumocystis carinii. Cytotoxicity tests of the most active extracts were also performed on an HaCat keratinocyte cell line. Results suggest that the extracts of Bursera simaruba, Cedrela odorata, Enterolobium cyclocarpum and Pluchea carolinensis have interesting activities and could be good candidates for developing antifungal formulations. PMID:23280633

  12. The influence of moisture content variation on fungal pigment formation in spalted wood

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Eight fungal species known to produce wood pigmentation were tested for reaction to various moisture contents in two hardwood species. Fungal pigmentation by Trametes versicolor and Xylaria polymorpha was stimulated at low water concentrations in both Acer saccharum (sugar maple) and Fagus grandifolia (American beech), while Inonotus hispidus and Polyporus squamosus were stimulated above 22-28% and 34-38% moisture content in beech and in sugar maple respectively. Fomes fomentarius and Polyporus brumalis produced maximum pigmentation in beech at 26 - 41% and in sugar maple at 59 - 96% moisture content. The pink staining Scytalidium cuboideum pigmented both wood species at above 35% moisture content. This research indicates that controlling the moisture content values of wood substrates can stimulate the intensity of pigmentation of specific fungi when spalting wood for decorative and commercial purpose. PMID:23245292

  13. Screening for ligninolytic enzymes from autochthonous fungi and applications for decolorization of Remazole Marine Blue

    PubMed Central

    Erden, Emre; Ucar, M. Cigdem; Gezer, Tekin; Pazarlioglu, Nurdan Kasikara

    2009-01-01

    This study presents new and alternative fungal strains for the production of ligninolytic enzymes which have great potential to use in industrial and biotechnological processes. Thirty autochthonous fungal strains were harvested from Bornova-Izmir in Turkiye. In the fresh fruitbody extracts laccase, manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase activities, which are the principal enzymes responsible for ligninocellulose degradation by Basidiomycetes, were screened. Spores of some of the basidiomycetes species such as Cortinarius sp., Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Abortiporus biennis, Lyophyllum subglobisporium, Ramaria stricta, Ganoderma carnosum, Lactarius delicious ve Lepista nuda were isolated and investigated optimum cultivation conditions in submerged fermentation for high yields of ligninolytic enzyme production. In addition, isolated fungal strains were monitored on agar plates whether having the capability of decolorization of a textile dye Remazol Marine Blue. PMID:24031371

  14. Bacterial-fungal interactions enhance power generation in microbial fuel cells and drive dye decolourisation by an ex situ and in situ electro-Fenton process.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Dios, María Ángeles; del Campo, Araceli González; Fernández, Francisco Jesús; Rodrigo, Manuel; Pazos, Marta; Sanromán, María Ángeles

    2013-11-01

    In this work, the potential for sustainable energy production from wastes has been exploited using a combination fungus-bacterium in microbial fuel cell (MFC) and electro-Fenton technology. The fungus Trametes versicolor was grown with Shewanella oneidensis so that the bacterium would use the networks of the fungus to transport the electrons to the anode. This system generated stable electricity that was enhanced when the electro-Fenton reactions occurred in the cathode chamber. This configuration reached a stable voltage of approximately 1000 mV. Thus, the dual benefits of the in situ-designed MFC electro-Fenton, the simultaneous dye decolourisation and the electricity generation, were demonstrated. Moreover, the generated power was effectively used to drive an ex situ electro-Fenton process in batch and continuous mode. This newly developed MFC fungus-bacterium with an in situ electro-Fenton system can ensure a high power output and a continuous degradation of organic pollutants. PMID:24035817

  15. The comparative study of a laccase-natural clinoptilolite-based catalyst activity and free laccase activity on model compounds.

    PubMed

    Donati, Enrica; Polcaro, Chiara M; Ciccioli, Piero; Galli, Emanuela

    2015-05-30

    For the first time a laccase from Trametes versicolor was immobilized on a natural clinoptilolite with Si/Al=5 to obtain a biocatalyst for environmental applications. Immobilization procedures exploiting adsorption and covalent binding were both tested, and only the last provided enough activity for practical applications. The optimal conditions for the immobilization of the enzyme on the support and the kinetic parameters for the free and covalent bonded laccase were determined. The laccase bonded to the zeolitic support showed a lower activity than the free laccase, but the pH and thermal stability were greater. 20 mg of dry biocatalyst containing 1U of laccase were able to remove in 50h 73-78% of 2-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol in relatively concentrated aqueous solutions (100?molL(-1)). PMID:25710818

  16. Identification of some factors affecting pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) removal in real wastewater. Case study of fungal treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate.

    PubMed

    Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Lucas, Daniel; Gros, Meritxell; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa

    2015-02-11

    Many technologies are being developed for the efficient removal of micropollutants from wastewater and, among them, fungal degradation is one of the possible alternative biological treatments. In this article, some factors that might affect pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) removal in a fungal treatment of real wastewater were identified in batch bioreactor treating reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). We found that degradation of PhACs by Trametes versicolor was enhanced by addition of external nutrients (global removal of 44%). Moreover, our results point out that high aeration might be involved in the increase in the concentration of some PhACs. In fact, conjugation and deconjugation processes (among others) affect the removal assessment of emerging contaminants when working with real concentrations in comparison to experiments with spiked samples. Moreover, factors that could affect the quantification of micropollutants at lab-scale experiments were studied. PMID:25464308

  17. Malassezia furfur: a fungus belonging to the physiological skin flora and its relevance in skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A

    1997-01-01

    Malassezia furfur is an anthropophilic fungus that belongs to the physiological skin flora. The fungus can grow in a yeast phase as well as in a mycelial phase; on nonaffected skin the fungus is mainly prevalent in the yeast phase. The organism has complex lipid requirements for growth, which also explains its occurrence on the skin. This also leads to the requirement for specially supplemented media for in vitro cultivation. Malassezia furfur is the causative agent of pityriasis versicolor. It also seems to be associated with seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff formation, folliculitis, confluent and reticulate papillomatosis, and the provocation of psoriatic lesions. Many substances for topical application, such as azole antimycotics, ciclopirox olamine, piroctone-olamine, zinc pyrithione, or sulfur-containing substances are effective in the treatment of these diseases. In recent years rare cases of systemic infections and fungemias caused by Malassezia have been reported. PMID:9013067

  18. Distribution and mycotoxin-producing ability of some fungal isolates from the air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetni?, Zdenka; Pepeljnjak, S.

    Research was carried out on presence and prevalence of common fungal air spores at locations in Croatia. The sampling method employed in the study was by exposure 350 of Petri agar plates to the air for 10 min. Approximately 3400 colonies were found and mould spores belonging to 22 fungal genera were identified. Cladosporium (44.7%), Penicillium (34.4%), Alternaria (26.3%), Aspergillus (21.6%) and Absidia (12.2%) were the most prevalent fungi encountered. Investigation of toxigenic potential of airborne fungi isolates of genera Aspergillus, Fusarium and Trichoderma showed 16.9% mycotoxin-producing strains. The production of aflatoxin B 1 by A. flavus sterigmatocystin by A. versicolor zearalenon and T-2 toxin by F. graminearum and diacetoscirpenol by strains of T. viride were obtained.

  19. Combined submerged and solid substrate fermentation for the bioconversion of lignocellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Viesturs, U.E.; Strikauska, S.V.; Leite, M.P.; Berzins, A.J.; Tengerdy, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    A novel two-stage bioreactor has been designed for a combined submerged (SF) and solid substrate fermentation (SSF) of wheat straw. The straw was pretreated with steam, and cellulases from the culture fluid of Trichoderma reesei were adsorbed on it for increased bio-convertibility. SSF was conducted in the top part of the bioreactor by inoculating the straw with a 36-h mycelial culture of T. reesei, or Coriolus versicolor. In the bottom part of the fermenter, Endomycopsis fibuliger was grown in SF. The SF liquor was recirculated through the SSF stage at 24 hour intervals to remove glucose and other metabolites that may inhibit growth, and to maintain optimum moisture level and temperature. The removed glucose and other metabolites provided nutrients for the yeast in the SF stage. The combined fermentation resulted in overall higher biomass yield, increased bioconversion, increased cellulase production, and increased digestibility compared with single SSF or SF. (Refs. 16).

  20. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

    2012-01-01

    This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms (???? b? x? mó g?; Agaricus blazei, ?? yún zh?; Coriolus versicolor, ?? líng zh?; Ganoderma lucidum, ?? xi?ng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, ??? niú zh?ng zh?; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps (???? d?ng chóng xià c?o), pomegranate (?? shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea (?? l? chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic (?? dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric (?? ji?ng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba (?? q?ng h?o; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120

  1. Isolation, purification, and antibiotic activity of o-methoxycinnamaldehyde from cinnamon.

    PubMed Central

    Morozumi, S

    1978-01-01

    o-Methoxycinnamaldehyde has been isolated and purified from powdered cinnamon. The compound inhibits the growth and toxin production of mycotoxin-producing fungi. The substance completely inhibited the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus at 100 microgram/ml and A. ochraceus and A. versicolor at 200 microgram/ml. It inhibited the production of aflatoxin B1 by over 90% at 6.25 microgram/ml, ochratoxin A at 25 microgram/ml, and sterigmatocystin at 50 microgram/ml. The substance also displayed a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of five dermatophytoses species, e.g., Microsporum canis (minimum inhibitory concentration, 3.12 to 6.25 microgram/ml). However, no antibacterial effect was observed at concentrations as high as 50 microgram/ml. PMID:708030

  2. Adolescent Skin: How to Keep it Healthy

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, Eugene W.T.

    1986-01-01

    In order to identify and successfully treat the age-specific problems of adolescence, the physician must have knowledge of the physiologic skin changes of adolescence. The physician should provide practical advice on the basics of skin care, including face-washing technique, cosmetic use and sun exposure, since other sources of this information may be misleading. Acne, warts, scabies, tinea versicolor and molluscum contagiosum represent common skin disorders that require an organized treatment strategy. Most teenage patients will comply with even the most complex treatment regimens if reasons for, and mechanisms of, therapy have been adequately explained. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5aFigure 5bFigure 6Figure 7 PMID:21267224

  3. Electroactive nanobiomolecular architectures of laccase and cytochrome c on electrodes: applying silica nanoparticles as artificial matrix.

    PubMed

    Feifel, Sven Christian; Kapp, Andreas; Lisdat, Fred

    2014-05-20

    Fully electroactive multilayer architectures combining the redox protein cytochrome c and the enzyme laccase by the use of silica nanoparticles as artificial matrix have been constructed on gold electrodes capable of direct dioxygen reduction. Laccase form Trametes versicolor and cytochrome c from horse heart were electrostatically coimmobilized by alternate deposition with interlayers of silica nanoparticles in a multilayer fashion. The layer formation has been monitored by quartz crystal microbalance. The electrochemical properties and performance of the nanobiomolecular entities were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, indicating, that a multistep electron transfer cascade, from the electrode via cytochrome c in the layered system toward the enzyme laccase, and here to molecular dioxygen was achieved. The response of the novel architecture is based on direct electron exchange between immobilized proteins and can be tuned by the assembly process. PMID:24804981

  4. Development and optimization of single and combined detoxification processes to improve the fermentability of lignocellulose hydrolyzates.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Daniel; Amann, Manfred; Hirth, Thomas; Rupp, Steffen; Zibek, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    In this work, an enzyme catalyzed detoxification process of lignocellulose hydrolyzates with immobilized laccase from Trametes versicolor was developed and optimized. Further, the immobilized laccase significantly reduced the amount of toxic phenolic compounds in the xylan rich fraction (XRF) by polymerization within 1h. The insoluble products precipitated onto the carrier surface and could be reversible resolubilized by an aqueous ethanol solution. Consequently, an in situ product removal could be realized. The reusability of the immobilized laccase could be additionally shown. The reaction kinetics could be described by a reversible Michaelis Menten equation giving the prerequisite for scaling up the process. In a second step, the organic acids, hydroxymethylfurfural and phenolic acids could be further removed by employing an anion exchanger. Both, the laccase and the laccase+anion exchanger treatment enhanced successfully the fermentability of an organosolv wheat straw fraction. PMID:23454802

  5. Oxidative enzymatic response of white-rot fungi to single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Berry, Timothy D; Filley, Timothy R; Blanchette, Robert A

    2014-10-01

    Although carbon nanomaterials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are becoming increasingly prevalent in manufacturing, there is little knowledge on the environmental fate of these materials. Environmental degradation of SWCNT is hindered by their highly condensed aromatic structure as well as the size and aspect ratio, which prevents intracellular degradation and limits microbial decomposition to extracellular processes such as those catalyzed by oxidative enzymes. This study investigates the peroxidase and laccase enzymatic response of the saprotrophic white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor and Phlebia tremellosa when exposed to SWCNTs of different purity and surface chemistry under different growth conditions. Both unpurified, metal catalyst-rich SWCNT and purified, carboxylated SWCNTs promoted significant changes in the oxidative enzyme activity of the fungi while pristine SWCNT did not. These results suggest that functionalization of purified SWCNT is essential to up regulate enzymes that may be capable of decomposing CNT in the environment. PMID:25047356

  6. Regulation of Coal Polymer Degradation by Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Irvin, R.L. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences; Bumpus, J.A. [University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-04-30

    Previous studies in our laboratory used a spectrophotometric assay to study biomimetic solubilization of leonardite by sodium oxalate. It was found, however, that in extended incubations of several days, this assay resulted in overestimation of the percent of leonardite that was solubilized. This problem did not appear to be significant for short term incubations (ie., up to -24 h) and was circumvented in long term incubations by using a gravimetric assay to assay for solubilization. In other studies during this reporting period we examined oxalate production by P. chrysosporium and T. versicolor grown in Fahreus-Reinhammar medium in agitated pelleted culture. It was found that in this system concentrations of oxalate are produced that are much lower than those that would be optimal for leonardite solubilization.

  7. Natural mediators in the oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by laccase mediator systems

    SciTech Connect

    Johannes, C.; Majcherczyk, A.

    2000-02-01

    The oxidation of polycyclic aromatic compounds was studied in systems consisting of laccase from Trametes versicolor and so-called mediator compounds. The enzymatic oxidation of acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, and fluorene was mediated by various laccase substrates (phenols and aromatic amines) or compounds produced and secreted by white rot fungi. The best natural mediators, such as phenol, aniline, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol were as efficient as the previously described synthetic compounds ABTS [2,2{prime}-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. The oxidation efficiency increased proportionally with the redox potentials of the phenolic mediators up to a maximum value of 0.9 V and decreased thereafter with redox potentials exceeding this value. Natural compounds such as methionine, cysteine, and reduced glutathione, containing sulfhydryl groups, were also active as mediator compounds.

  8. Waste treatment of kraft effluents by white-rot fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, R. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    The residual lignin in unbleached kraft pulp is commonly removed to afford a fully bleached pulp through a multi-stage bleaching process consisting of chlorination and alkaline-extraction stages. The effluent from such a bleaching process is of growing environmental concern because it shows a dark brown color and contains numerous chlorinated organic substances. Moreover, this effluent is not easily recycled within a mill recovery system because of the potential corrosion problems created by its high chlorine content. White-rot fungi have even heavily modified lignin such as kraft lignin and atoms demonstrated that kraft bleaching effluent can be rot fungi, in particular, Trametes versicolor and this review lecture, the possibility of the application of kraft effluents will be discussed.

  9. Lignin oxidation and pulp delignification by laccase and mediators

    SciTech Connect

    Bourbonnais, R.; Paice, M.G.; Reid, I.D. [Pulp and Paper Research Institute, Quebec (Canada)

    1996-10-01

    The phenol oxidizing enzyme laccase is produced abundantly by the lignin-degrading fungus Trametes versicolor. We found previously that laccase can oxidize veratryl alcohol and other non-phenolic lignin model compounds when a mediator such as 2,2{prime}-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-5-sulphonate) (ABTS) was present. The laccase/mediator couple was also shown to be effective for delignification of kraft pulps. Two different isozymes of laccase produced by this fungus were purified and their reactivities towards lignins and kraft pulps were studied. The mediator ABTS was shown to be essential for pulp delignification and to reverse the polymerization of kraft lignin by either laccase. Pulp delignification with laccase and ABTS was also optimized. resulting in up to 55% lignin removal from kraft pulp following sequential enzyme treatments and alkaline extractions. Several variables were surveyed including enzyme and mediator dosage, oxygen pressure, temperature, reaction time, and pH.

  10. The use of white-rot fungi as active biofilters

    SciTech Connect

    Braun-Luellemann, A.; Johannes, C.; Majcherczyk, A.; Huettermann, A. [Univ. Goettingen (Germany). Forstbotanisches Inst.

    1995-12-31

    White-rot fungi, growing on lignocellulosic substrates, have been successfully used as active organisms in biofilters. Filters using these fungi have a very high biological active surface area, allowing for high degrees of retention, a comparatively low pressure drop, and a high physical stability. The unspecific action of the extracellular enzymes of the white-rot fungi allows for the degradation of a wide variety of substances by the same organism. Degradation of several compounds in the gas phase by the white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Bjerkandera adusta, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium was tested. Among the aromatic solvents, styrene was the compound that was most readily degraded, followed by ethylbenzene, xylenes, and toluene. Tetrahydrofuran and dichloromethane were also degraded, whereas dioxane could not be attacked by fungi under the conditions used. Acrylonitrile and aniline were degraded very well, whereas pyridine was resistant to degradation. The process for removing styrene is now in the scaling-up stage.

  11. Northeast regional and state trends in anuran occupancy from calling survey data (2001-2011) from the North American Amphibian Monitoring Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weir, Linda A.; Royle, Andy; Gazenski, Kimberly D.; Villena Carpio, Oswaldo

    2014-01-01

    We present the first regional trends in anuran occupancy from North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP) data from 11 northeastern states using an 11 years of data. NAAMP is a long-term monitoring program where observers collect data at assigned random roadside routes using a calling survey technique. We assessed occupancy trends for 17 species. Eight species had statistically significant regional trends, of these seven were negative (Anaxyrus fowleri, Acris crepitans, Pseudacris brachyphona, Pseudacris feriarum-kalmi complex, Lithobates palustris, Lithobates pipiens, and Lithobates sphenocephalus) and one was positive (Hyla versicolor-chrysoscelis complex). We also assessed state level trends for 101 species/state combinations, of these 29 showed a significant decline and nine showed a significant increase in occupancy.

  12. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

    2012-04-01

    This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms ( b? x? mó g?; Agaricus blazei, yún zh?; Coriolus versicolor, líng zh?; Ganoderma lucidum, xi?ng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, niú zh?ng zh?; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps ( d?ng chóng xià c?o), pomegranate ( shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea ( l? chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic ( dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric ( ji?ng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba ( q?ng h?o; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120

  13. New microsatellite markers for Campanula pyramidalis (Campanulaceae) and cross-amplification in closely related species1

    PubMed Central

    Radosavljevi?, Ivan; Jakse, Jernej; Satovic, Zlatko; Javornik, Branka; Jankovi?, Ivana; Liber, Zlatko

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were identified and characterized to study the genetic diversity and structure, conservation status, taxonomy, and biogeography of subspecific taxa and populations of Campanula pyramidalis (Campanulaceae). Methods and Results: Eleven microsatellite markers were developed from genomic libraries enriched for di- and trinucleotide repeats. A total of 80 alleles were observed in the tested natural population. The number of alleles per locus, observed heterozygosity, and expected heterozygosity ranged from four to 13, 0.217 to 0.913, and 0.521 to 0.895, respectively. Conclusions: The new microsatellite markers will be useful for studying genetic diversity and structure as well as for better assessing the conservation status of subspecific taxa and populations of C. pyramidalis. Furthermore, a set of seven loci was successfully cross-amplified in C. secundiflora and C. versicolor and will be of great value for addressing unsolved taxonomic and biogeographic issues within the C. pyramidalis species complex. PMID:25798343

  14. Other fungi causing onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Gabriela; Arenas, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    Nondermatophyte onychomycosis account for 2% to 12% of all nail fungal infections and can be caused by a wide range of fungi, mainly Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Aspergillus versicolor, A. flavus, A. niger, A. fumigatus, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum and Scytalidium spp. Among the predisposing factors are footwear, hyperhidrosis, local trauma, peripheral circulatory disease, and immunosuppression. These nondermatophyte fungi lack the keratinolytic capacity of dermatophytes, but they still can infect alone or in combination with the latter. Because most are considered laboratory contaminants, special criteria have been created for the correct diagnosis of nondermatophyte onychomycosis. The etiologic agent does not determine the clinical pattern of nail invasion, but superficial onychomycosis is frequently observed; leukonychia and melanonychia can also be clinical manifestations. PMID:20347658

  15. Environmental Factors and Bioremediation of Xenobiotics Using White Rot Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Fragoeiro, Silvia; Bastos, Catarina

    2010-01-01

    This review provides background information on the importance of bioremediation approaches. It describes the roles of fungi, specifically white rot fungi, and their extracellular enzymes, laccases, ligninases, and peroxidises, in the degradation of xenobiotic compounds such as single and mixtures of pesticides. We discuss the importance of abiotic factors such as water potential, temperature, and pH stress when considering an environmental screening approach, and examples are provided of the differential effect of white rot fungi on the degradation of single and mixtures of pesticides using fungi such as Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. We also explore the formulation and delivery of fungal bioremedial inoculants to terrestrial ecosystems as well as the use of spent mushroom compost as an approach. Future areas for research and potential exploitation of new techniques are also considered. PMID:23956663

  16. Management of Cosmetic Embarrassment Caused by Malassezia spp. with Fruticose Lichen Cladia Using Phylogenetic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Anand; Mishra, Rohit K.; Tiwari, Amit K.; Kumar, Awadhesh; Bajaj, A. K.; Dikshit, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    During anti-Malassezia screening of plants by CLSI broth microdilution method, Cladia aggregata (Swartz) Nyl. (family Cladoniaceae), a fruticose lichen from Sikkim (northeast Himalayan region), has been found effective at minimum inhibitory concentrations (mg/mL) of 2.72, 0.63, and 1.28 against yeast-like fungi namely, M. furfur, M. globosa and M. sympodialis, respectively. These test pathogens are responsible for pityriasis versicolor (PV) and seborrheic dermatitis (SD) in humans. We tried to establish the reason for variable MICs against various Malassezia spp. using bioinformatical tools, thereby reducing the cost of the experimentation. This is the first report on anti-Malassezia activity of C. aggregata and thus can serve as a potential source for the development of cosmaceuticals. PMID:24069589

  17. Dibenzyl Sulfide Metabolism by White Rot Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Wong, Eddie T.; Dettman, Heather; Gray, Murray R.; Pickard, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Microbial metabolism of organosulfur compounds is of interest in the petroleum industry for in-field viscosity reduction and desulfurization. Here, dibenzyl sulfide (DBS) metabolism in white rot fungi was studied. Trametes trogii UAMH 8156, Trametes hirsuta UAMH 8165, Phanerochaete chrysosporium ATCC 24725, Trametes versicolor IFO 30340 (formerly Coriolus sp.), and Tyromyces palustris IFO 30339 all oxidized DBS to dibenzyl sulfoxide prior to oxidation to dibenzyl sulfone. The cytochrome P-450 inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole eliminated dibenzyl sulfoxide oxidation. Laccase activity (0.15 U/ml) was detected in the Trametes cultures, and concentrated culture supernatant and pure laccase catalyzed DBS oxidation to dibenzyl sulfoxide more efficiently in the presence of 2,2?-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) than in its absence. These data suggest that the first oxidation step is catalyzed by extracellular enzymes but that subsequent metabolism is cytochrome P-450 mediated. PMID:12571066

  18. Striga infestation of cereal crops - an unsolved problem in resource limited agriculture.

    PubMed

    Scholes, Julie D; Press, Malcolm C

    2008-04-01

    The parasitic weed Striga causes devastating losses in cereal yields in sub-Saharan Africa. The parasite lifecycle is intimately linked with its host via a complex interchange of signals. Understanding the molecular basis of these interactions and of host resistance to Striga is essential for the identification of genes for improving crop yield via biotechnological or marker assisted breeding strategies. Cloning and sequencing of ESTs from the 'model' parasite Triphysaria versicolor is facilitating the identification of parasitism genes. The identification of resistance to Striga in sorghum and rice germplasm is allowing molecular dissection of these traits using genomic platforms and quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. QTL underlying different resistance phenotypes have been identified and the use of advanced backcross populations is allowing the exploitation of sources of resistance in wild relatives of cereals. PMID:18337158

  19. In situ encapsulation of laccase in microfibers by emulsion electrospinning: preparation, characterization, and application.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yunrong; Niu, Junfeng; Liu, Jia; Yin, Lifeng; Xu, Jiangjie

    2010-12-01

    Laccase from Trametes versicolor was successfully in situ encapsulated into the poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA)/PEO-PPO-PEO (F108) electrospun microfibers by emulsion electrospinning. The porous morphology of electrospun microfibers was observed with scanning electron microscope, and the core-shell structure of microfibers and existence of laccase in microfibers were proved by laser confocal scanning microscopy micrograph. In this study, fibrous porosity and core-shell structure are advantageous to the activity and stability preservation of immobilized laccase. The activity of immobilized laccase could retain over 67% of that of the free enzyme. After 10 successive runs in the enzyme reactor, the immobilized laccase could also maintain 50% of its initial activity. Crystal violet dye was successfully degraded by the PDLLA/F108-laccase electrospun microfiber membranes. It was observed that the immobilized laccase possessed a broadening pH range of catalysis activity compared to free laccase. PMID:20673716

  20. Potentialities of a Membrane Reactor with Laccase Grafted Membranes for the Enzymatic Degradation of Phenolic Compounds in Water

    PubMed Central

    Chea, Vorleak; Paolucci-Jeanjean, Delphine; Sanchez, José; Belleville, Marie-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the degradation of phenolic compounds by laccases from Trametes versicolor in an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR). The enzymatic membranes were prepared by grafting laccase on a gelatine layer previously deposited onto ?-alumina tubular membranes. The 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (DMP) was selected  from among the three different phenolic compounds tested (guaiacol, 4-chlorophenol and DMP) to study the performance of the EMR in dead end configuration. At the lowest feed substrate concentration tested (100 mg·L?1), consumption increased with flux (up to 7.9 × 103 mg·h?1·m?2 at 128 L·h?1·m?2), whereas at the highest substrate concentration (500 mg·L?1), it was shown that the reaction was limited by the oxygen content. PMID:25295628

  1. Fungal food choices of Dermatophagoides farinae affect indoor fungi selection and dispersal.

    PubMed

    Naegele, Alexandre; Reboux, Gabriel; Scherer, Emeline; Roussel, Sandrine; Millon, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    House dust mite (HDM) feces and molds are the main allergens involved in allergic asthma. Differences exist between the housing fungal biome of allergic patients and standard or unhealthy housing. House dust mite (HDM) feed off spores and transport them on their bodies, but do they have fungal food preferences? We observed Dermatophagoïdes farinae in vitro with 16 mold menus and repeated the experiment 10 times. This observation led us to define Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, and Wallemia sebi as "tasty" molds and Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Stachybotrys chartarum as "repulsive" molds. The food preferences of D. farinae may play a role in the following two phenomena: a decrease in spore numbers due to HDM consumption and a scattering of spores that stick to the bodies of HDMs. The extent of these two phenomena should be estimated in future studies for other common domestic HDM species. PMID:22774849

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of Chrysolophus pictus (Galliformes: Phasianidae) and a phylogenetic analysis with related species.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Min; Shi, Jing-Ping; Zeng, De-Long; Zeng, Zhen-Hua; Qin, Xin-Min

    2011-10-01

    The 16,678 bp mitochondrial genome of the Chrysolophus pictus has been sequenced in this paper. To determine the phylogentic position of C. pictus with related species within Phasianidae, the phylogenetic tree was reconstructed with the concatenated nucleotide dataset of the 12 heavy-strand-encoded protein genes. The phylogenetic analysis was carried out using maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods. MP and BI phylogenetic trees here showed similar topology and consistently suggested that C. pictus shared a close relationship with Phasianus versicolor. The results also showed that the Meleagris gallopavo possessed a basal phylogenetic position within Phasianidae, which may imply that it should be classified into the Phasianidae. PMID:22165827

  3. Solubilization of Australian lignites by microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Catcheside, D.E.A.; Mallett, K.J.; Cox, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Australia has substantial lignite deposits, particularly in the Latrobe Valley in Victoria where 4.10/sup 10/ tons are accessible with available technologies. The authors have investigated the susceptibility of these coal to solubilization by microorganisms, including species additional to those already identified as active on North American lignites. The data presented here show that acid oxidized lignites from the Latrobe Valley are solubilized by each of seven species of microorganisms previously found to be active on Leonardite and oxidized North American lignites. These are the wood rot fungi: Trametes versicolor, Poria placenta and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, the lignin degrading prokaryote Streptomyces viridosporus and three fungi isolated from lignite in Mississippi: Candida ML-13, Cunninghamelia YML-1 and Penicillium waksmanii.

  4. A study of overproduction and enhanced secretion of enzymes. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Dashek, W.V.

    1993-09-01

    Wood decay within forests, a significant renewable photosynthetic energy resource, is caused primarily by Basidiomycetous fungi, e.g., white rot fungi. These organisms possess the ability to degrade lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose, the main organic polymers of wood. In the case of the white rot fungi, e.g., Coriolus versicolor, the capacity results from the fungus` ability to elaborate extracellular cellulolytic and ligninolytic enzymes. With regard to the latter, at least one of the enzymes, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) appears within a defined growth medium. This proposal focuses on the over-production and enhanced secretion of PPO, cellulase and lignin peroxidase. There are two major sections to the proposal: (1) overproduction of lignocellulolytic enzymes by genetic engineering methodologies and hyper-production and enhanced secretion of these enzymes by biochemical/electro microscopical techniques and (2) the biochemical/electron microscopical method involves substrate induction and the time-dependent addition of respiration and PPO enzymes.

  5. Biological solubilization of low-rank coal

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.S.

    1991-07-01

    Low-ranked coals have been solubilized using cell-free extracts derived from liquid cultures of the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. The coal solubilizing agent (CSA) has been separated from the broth components and purified by several analytical techniques including rotary evaporation, reverse osmosis, and solvent extraction. The recrystallized CSA retains coal solubilizing activity. Results from polarography, FTIR, and x-ray crystallography confirm that the purified CSA crystals responsible for coal-solubilization are ammonium oxalate monohydrate. The mechanism of solubilization has been deduced to involve removal of divalent cations (particularly iron FE(III)) from low-rank coals. This is followed by dissolution of the macromolecular coal structure. 38 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. El espacio y el tiempo negativos en Los fantoches y Jesucristo Gómez

    E-print Network

    Quackenbush, L. Howard

    1998-04-01

    objeto central, hace que el espectador incluya lo secundario o aparentemente supérfluo en su análisis de la materia para entender mejor lo que en verdad está presente en la escena. En The Habit of Being: Letters ofFlannery O'Connor, dice la narradora... SPRING 1998 31 Notas 1. Kimberly Greene Angle, al tratar de explicar la espiritualidad cristiana que resulta de la violencia grotesca de las obras de Flannery O'Connor, dice que es el producto del espacio negativo: "O'Connor knew that the devil...

  7. Landscape associations of frog and toad species in Iowa and Wisconsin, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, M.G.; Sauer, J.R.; Olsen, D.A.; Mossman, M.J.; Hemesath, L.M.; Lannoo, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Landscape habitat associations of frogs and toads in Iowa and Wisconsin were tested to determine whether they support or refute previous general habitat classifications. We examined which Midwestern species shared similar habitats to see if these associations were consistent across large geographic areas (states). Rana sylvatica (wood frog), Hyla versicolor (eastern gray treefrog), Pseudacris crucifer (spring peeper), and Acris crepitans (cricket frog) were identified as forest species, P. triseriata (chorus frog), H. chrysoscelis (Cope's gray treefrog), R. pipiens (leopard frog), and Bufo americanus (American toad) as grassland species, and R. catesbeiana (bullfrog), R. clamitans (green frog), R. palustris (pickerel frog), and R. septentrionalis (mink frog) as lake or stream species. The best candidates to serve as bioindicators of habitat quality were the forest species R. sylvatica, H. versicolor, and P. crucifer, the grassland species R. pipiens and P. triseriata, and a cold water wetland species, R. palustris. Declines of P. crucifer, R. pipiens, and R. palustris populations in one or both states may reflect changes in habitat quality. Habitat and community associations of some species differed between states, indicating that these relationships may change across the range of a species. Acris crepitans may have shifted its habitat affinities from open habitats, recorded historically, to the more forested habitat associations we recorded. We suggest contaminants deserve more investigation regarding the abrupt and widespread declines of this species. Interspersion of different habitat types was positively associated with several species. A larger number of wetland patches may increase breeding opportunities and increase the probability of at least one site being suitable. We noted consistently negative associations between anuran species and urban development. Given the current trend of urban growth and increasing density of the human population, declines of amphibian populations are likely to continue.

  8. Endotoxin, ergosterol, fungal DNA and allergens in dust from schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia- associations with asthma and respiratory infections in pupils.

    PubMed

    Norbäck, Dan; Markowicz, Pawel; Cai, Gui-Hong; Hashim, Zailina; Ali, Faridah; Zheng, Yi-Wu; Lai, Xu-Xin; Spangfort, Michael Dho; Larsson, Lennart; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies on associations between respiratory health and allergens, fungal and bacterial compounds in schools in tropical countries. The aim was to study associations between respiratory symptoms in pupils and ethnicity, chemical microbial markers, allergens and fungal DNA in settled dust in schools in Malaysia. Totally 462 pupils (96%) from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated. Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of different types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH), muramic acid, ergosterol, allergens and five fungal DNA sequences. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 13.1% pupils reported doctor's diagnosed asthma, 10.3% wheeze and 21.1% pollen or pet allergy. Indian and Chinese children had less atopy and asthma than Malay. Carbon dioxide levels were low (380-690 ppm). No cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f 1) or horse allergens (Ecu cx) were detected. The levels of Bloomia tropicalis (Blo t), house dust mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der m 1) and cockroach allergens (Per a 1 and Bla g 1) were low. There were positive associations between levels of Aspergillus versicolor DNA and daytime breathlessness, between C14 3-OH and respiratory infections and between ergosterol and doctors diagnosed asthma. There were negative (protective) associations between levels of C10 3-OH and wheeze, between C16 3-OH and day time and night time breathlessness, between cockroach allergens and doctors diagnosed asthma. Moreover there were negative associations between amount of fine dust, total endotoxin (LPS) and respiratory infections. In conclusion, endotoxin at school seems to be mainly protective for respiratory illness but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. Fungal contamination measured as ergosterol and Aspergillus versicolor DNA can be risk factors for respiratory illness. The ethnical differences for atopy and asthma deserve further attention. PMID:24523884

  9. Visualization of aerocolloidal biological particles using 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Carsie A., III; Masabattula, Sree; Akyuzlu, Kazim M.; Russo, Edwin P.; Klich, Maren A.

    2003-11-01

    Recent concerns over the possible use of airborne biological particles as weapons of mass destruction have significantly increased the attention that researchers are giving to this threat. The size of these particles, ranging from a fraction of a micrometer to several tens of micrometers, allows them to travel over long distances before settling out of the airstreams carrying these particles. Furthermore, the odd shapes of many of these particles along with uncertainties about their light scattering characteristics make detection and tracking quite a challenge. In the present paper, results are reported on the visualization of airborne biological particles using two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV). These initial results show the utility of PIV in illuminating and tracking airborne biological particles. A compressed air nebulizer is used to aerosolize the biological particles inside a Plexiglas test section. The biological particles prepared for the nebulizer are first inoculated and cultured onto agar media, gypsum board, and acoustic ceiling tile to achieve an abundant growth of spores. A colloidal suspension of biological particles is then made using sterilized, de-ionized water and a mild surfactant to de-agglomerate the biological particles in the suspension. The concentration of biological particles in the colloidal suspension is determined using a hemacytometer. In the visualization experiments, images are captured for polystyrene latex (PSL) test particles, liquid water droplets, and spores of the fungal species Aspergillus versicolor. During the PIV system operation, two successive images are captured with a time delay of 50 ?m to develop flow field velocities of the PSL test particles, liquid water droplets, and the A. versicolor spores.

  10. Fungal DNA, allergens, mycotoxins and associations with asthmatic symptoms among pupils in schools from Johor Bahru, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Cai, Gui-Hong; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Hashim, Zailina; Ali, Faridah; Bloom, Erica; Larsson, Lennart; Lampa, Erik; Norbäck, Dan

    2011-05-01

    While there is a large variation of prevalence of asthma symptoms worldwide, what we do know is that it is on the rise in developing countries. However, there are few studies on allergens, moulds and mycotoxin exposure in schools in tropical countries. The aims were to measure selected fungal DNA, furry pet allergens and mycotoxins in dust samples from schools in Malaysia and to study associations with pupils' respiratory health effects. Eight secondary schools and 32 classrooms in Johor Bahru, Malaysia were randomly selected. A questionnaire with standardized questions was used for health assessment in 15 randomly selected pupils from each class. The school buildings were inspected and both indoor and outdoor climate were measured. Dust samples were collected by cotton swabs and Petri dishes for fungal DNA, mycotoxins and allergens analysis. The participation rate was 96% (462/480 invited pupils), with a mean age of 14 yr (range 14-16). The pupils mostly reported daytime breathlessness (41%), parental asthma or allergy (22%), pollen or pet allergy (21%) and doctor-diagnosed asthma (13%) but rarely reported night-time breathlessness (7%), asthma in the last 12 months (3%), medication for asthma (4%) or smoking (5%). The inspection showed that no school had any mechanical ventilation system, but all classrooms had openable windows that were kept open during lectures. The mean building age was 16 yr (range 3-40) and the mean indoor and outdoor CO(2) levels were 492 ppm and 408 ppm, respectively. The mean values of indoor and outdoor temperature and relative humidity were the same, 29°C and 70% respectively. In cotton swab dust samples, the Geometric Mean (GM) value for total fungal DNA and Aspergillus/Penicillium (Asp/Pen) DNA in swab samples (Cell Equivalents (CE)/m(2)) was 5.7*10(8) and 0.5*10(8), respectively. The arithmetic mean (CE/m(2)) for Aspergillus versicolor DNA was 8780, Stachybotrys chartarum DNA was 26 and Streptomyces DNA was 893. The arithmetic means (pg/m(2)) for the mycotoxins sterigmatocystin and verrucarol were 2547 and 17, respectively. In Petri dish dust samples, the GM value for total fungal DNA and Asp/Pen DNA (CE/m(2) per day) was 9.2*10(6) and 1.6*10(6), respectively. The arithmetic mean (CE/m(2) per day) for A. versicolor DNA was 1478, S. chartarum DNA was 105 and Streptomyces DNA was 1271, respectively. The GM value for cat (Fel d1) allergen was 5.9 ng/m(2) per day. There were positive associations between A. versicolor DNA, wheeze and daytime breathlessness and between Streptomyces DNA and doctor-diagnosed asthma. However, the associations were inverse between S. chartarum DNA and daytime breathlessness and between verrucarol and daytime breathlessness. In conclusion, fungal DNA and cat allergen contamination were common in schools from Malaysia and there was a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms among pupils. Moreover, there were associations between levels of some fungal DNA and reported respiratory health in the pupils. PMID:21457336

  11. Mineral-microorganism interactions in Acid Mine Drainage environments: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Cristina; Zotti, Mirca; Pozzolini, Marina; Giovine, Marco; Di Piazza, Simone; Mariotti, Mauro; Lucchetti, Gabriella

    2014-05-01

    Minerals play a key role in controlling the mobility and distribution of metals and metalloids of environmental concern in supergenic environments. These are involved in a variety of processes, spanning the alteration of primary minerals to the formation of secondary authigenic phases and can represent a source or a trap for Potentially Ecotoxic Elements (PTEs). Soil, sediments, and waters heavily polluted with PTEs through AMD processes are a reservoir of a unusual bacteria and fungi well adapted to these toxic environments. Classical studies of biotic weathering have mainly focused on water-mineral interaction and on the ability of microorganism to influence the soil solution chemical composition. In this work, we analyzed two different representative ochreous and greenish-blue AMD colloidal precipitates in order to i) characterize the biota population present in these colloidal minerals and ii) verify the bioaccumulation of PTEs into the fungi and the potential impact of bacteria in the geochemistry of the system. The samples are composed by nanocrystalline goethite which contains high amounts of Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni and woodwardite that is characterized by Cu, Zn, Ni, Y, and Ce. These precipitates were examined in order to evaluate the presence of fungal strains and to extract bacteria DNA. The preliminary results of fungi characterization show an interesting and selected mycobiota able to survive under unfavourable environmental conditions. A significant number of fungal strains was isolated in pure culture. Most of them belong to the genus Mucor and Penicillium. It is worth noting the presence of Trametes versicolor, a macrofungal lignicolous species already known for heavy metal biosorption capability from aqueous solution (Gülay et al 2003). The same colloidal precipitates have been processed to extract bacteria DNA, using a specific procedure developed for DNA extraction from sediments. The results gave a good yield of nucleic acids and the positive PCR amplification of 16S rDNA accomplished the first step for future metagenomic analysis. Gülay B., Sema B., M. Yakup A.. 2003 Biosorption of heavy metal ions on immobilized white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Journal of Hazardous Materials B101 (2003) 285-300

  12. Essential role of the N- and C-terminals of laccase from Pleurotus florida on the laccase activity and stability.

    PubMed

    Hu, Meirong; Zhou, Xue; Shi, Yiping; Lin, Jianhui; Irfan, Muhammad; Tao, Yong

    2014-11-01

    POXA1b is the most thermostable laccase isoenzyme from Pleurotus ostreatus. POXA1b is remarkably stable at alkaline pH (the t1/2 at pH 10 was 30 days), and its C-terminal affects its catalytic and stability properties. We cloned POXA1c from P. florida, which showed 99 % identity with POXA1b. POXA1c was functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris. The functions of the N and C termini of POXA1c were investigated using site-directed mutagenesis. Compared with POXA1c, the N-terminal R5V site effectively increased the specific activities for 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and guaiacol by 2- and 3.5-fold, respectively. A C-terminal truncated mutant, POXA1c?13, also increased the specific activities for ABTS and guaiacol by 2.3- and 3.4-fold, respectively. A double mutant, POXA1c?13-R5V, combined the R5V and ?13 effects. The specific activity of this double mutant for ABTS was 1,321 U/mg, which indicated a 4-fold increase compared with the wild type. The role of residue V5 on laccase catalytic properties was also observed for laccases from Trametes versicolor and Rigidoporus lignosus. The specific activities of the V5R of the laccases from T. versicolor and R. lignosus were half of that of the wild type. The pH and thermal stability analysis of POXA1c and its mutants showed that the enzymes were remarkably stable because they showed 63 % residual activity after incubation for 108 h at 30 °C over a pH range of 4.5 to 9.0. Similar results were observed for POXA1c?13-R5V. POXA1c?13-R5V can be widely used in industrial biotechnology because of its excellent catalytic properties. PMID:25161036

  13. Fungal post-treatment of pulp mill effluents for the removal of recalcitrant pollutants.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Clemente, Alfredo; Caffarel-Méndez, S; Ponce-Noyola, M T; Barrera-Córtes, J; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the post-treatment of an anaerobic recalcitrant effluent (anaerobically-treated weak black liquor, AnE) in an aerobic, upflow reactor packed with "biocubes" of Trametes versicolor immobilized onto small cubes of holm oak wood. The treated effluent (named anaerobic effluent; AnE) from an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor was fed to an up-flow aerobic fungal packed bed reactor (PBR). Two HRT were tested in this unit, namely 5 and 2.5days; the PBR operated 60days at 5-day HRT and 35days at 2.5-day HRT. The aerobic packed bench scale reactor was a glass column 1.5L total geometric volume containing 0.75L biocubes of T. versicolor immobilized onto holm oak wood small cubes of 5mm side. The reactor was operated at 25 degrees C. The pH of the AnE was adjusted to 4.5 before feeding; no carbohydrates or other soluble carbon source was supplemented. The fungal packed bed bioreactor averaged organic matter removals of 30% and 32% COD basis, during an experimental run of 60days at 5-day HRT and 35days at 2.5-day HRT, respectively. Colour and ligninoids contents were removed at higher percentages (69% and 54% respectively, average of both HRT). There was no significant difference between reactor performance at 5- and 2.5-day HRT, so, operation at 2.5-day HRT is recommended since reactor throughput is double. Activity of manganese peroxidase and laccase was found during the entire operation of the fungal PBR whereas lignin peroxidase activity practically disappeared in the second operation period. In general, enzyme activities were higher in the first period of operation (5-day HRT) than at 2.5-day HRT. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the few works that demonstrated extended performance (3months) of a fungal bioreactor for the treatment of a recalcitrant wastewater with no supplementation of glucose or other expensive, soluble carbohydrate. PMID:19010664

  14. Topical fenticonazole in dermatology and gynaecology: current role in therapy.

    PubMed

    Veraldi, Stefano; Milani, Rodolfo

    2008-01-01

    Fenticonazole is an imidazole derivative with a broad spectrum of antimycotic activity against dermatophytes and yeasts in in vitro and clinical studies. Fenticonazole exerts its unique antimycotic mechanism of action in the following three ways: (i) inhibition of the secretion of protease acid by Candida albicans; (ii) damage to the cytoplasmic membrane; and (iii) by blocking cytochrome oxidases and peroxidises. Fenticonazole has also been shown to exhibit antibacterial action, with a spectrum of activity that includes bacteria commonly associated with superinfected fungal skin and vaginal infections, and antiparasitic action against the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. Therefore, fenticonazole may be an ideal topical alternative to multi-agent treatment of mixed infections involving mycotic, bacterial, dermatophyte and/or Trichomonas spp.Open-label clinical studies show that fenticonazole, in different pharmaceutical preparations administered once or twice daily, is effective in the treatment of superficial mycoses of the skin. In particular, fenticonazole is very effective (often with 100% of patients achieving a negative mycological assay) in pityriasis versicolor and candidiasis. For example, a large (n = 760) study showed fenticonazole 2% cream, spray or powder to be associated with a mycological response in 100% of patients with pityriasis versicolor, 96.3% of those with tinea infections and 95.2% of patients with Candida infections. Comparative clinical studies show fenticonazole once or twice daily to be at least as effective as six different topical antimycotics (miconazole, clotrimazole, econazole, bifonazole, naftifine and cyclopyroxolamine) in the treatment of superficial mycoses of the skin. Intravaginal administration of fenticonazole is associated with a high rate of microbiological efficacy in patients with vaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis, mixed infection and bacterial vaginosis. Intravaginal fenticonazole is at least as effective as clotrimazole and shows similar efficacy to miconazole in patients with vaginal candidiasis. Fenticonazole has a rapid onset of action and clinical efficacy is generally observed within days of commencing treatment.Topical fenticonazole is very well tolerated; adverse events are generally mild to moderate in severity and transient. The most frequent adverse events are burning sensation/cutaneous irritation and itch when applied to the skin. In a large, open-label study in superficial mycoses of the skin, the incidence of adverse events was <5% and these were rarely responsible for treatment discontinuation. Burning sensation is the most common adverse event seen with fenticonazole when administered intravaginally. However, this symptom of vaginal fungal infection was often present in patients prior to drug administration.Given the rising incidence of superficial fungal, and possibly mixed, infections, topical fenticonazole represents an important part of the topical antimycotic armamentarium. PMID:18840006

  15. Fungi and bacteria in mould-damaged and non-damaged office environments in a subarctic climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salonen, Heidi; Lappalainen, Sanna; Lindroos, Outi; Harju, Riitta; Reijula, Kari

    The fungi and bacterial levels of the indoor air environments of 77 office buildings were measured in winter and a comparison was made between the buildings with microbe sources in their structures and those without such sources. Penicillium, yeasts, Cladosporium and non-sporing isolates were the commonest fungi detected in the indoor air and in settled dust, in both the mould-damaged and control buildings. Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus glaucus and Stachybotrys chartarium were found only in environmental samples from the mould-damaged buildings. Some other fungi, with growth requiring of water activity, aw, above 0.85, occurred in both the reference and mould-damaged buildings, but such fungi were commoner in the latter type of buildings. The airborne concentrations of Penicillium, Aspergillus versicolor and yeasts were the best indicators of mould damage in the buildings studied. Penicillium species and A. versicolor were also the most abundant fungi in the material samples. This study showed that the fungi concentrations were very low (2-45 cfu m -3 90% of the concentrations being <15 cfu m -3) in the indoor air of the normal office buildings. Although the concentration range of airborne fungi was wider for the mould-damaged buildings (2-2470 cfu m -3), only about 20% of the samples exceeded 100 cfu m -3. The concentrations of airborne bacteria ranged from 12 to 540 cfu m -3 in the control buildings and from 14 to 1550 cfu m -3 in the mould-damaged buildings. A statistical analysis of the results indicated that bacteria levels are generally <600 cfu m -3 in office buildings in winter and fungi levels are <50 cfu m -3. These normal levels are applicable to subarctic climates for urban, modern office buildings when measurements are made using a six-stage impactor. These levels should not be used in evaluations of health risks, but elevated levels may indicate the presence of abnormal microbe sources in indoor air and a need for additional environmental investigations.

  16. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Cassegrain IAC80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

    1987-05-01

    El proyecto de instrumentación de mayor importancia que ha tenido el Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias en los últimos afios ha sido el diseflo y construcción del te1escopio IAC8O. Este requería del esfuerzo con junto en mec´nica, óptica y electrónica, lo que facilitó la estructuración y el crecimiento de los respectivos grupos de trabajo, que posteriormente se integraron en departamentos En su origen (1977), el telescopio IAC80 fue concebido como un sistema clásico tipo Cassegrain, con una razón focal F/i 1.3 para el sistema Casse grain y una razón focal F/20 para el sistema Coudé. Posteriormente, aunque se mantuvo la filosofia de que el sistema básico fuera el F/11.3, se consideró conveniente el diseño de secundarios para razones focales F/16 y F/32, y se eliminó el de F/20. Sin embargo, dada la importancia relativa que un foco estrictamente fotográfico tiene en un telescopio moderno, diseñado básicamente para fotometría fotoeléctrica y con un campo util mínimamente de 40 minutos de arco, se decídió Ilevar a cabo el diseño de un secundario F/8 con un sistema corrector de campo, pero que estuviera formado únicamente por lentes con superficies esféricas para que asl su construcción fuera posible en España ó en México. La creciente utilización de detectores bidimensionales para fines de investigación astron6mica y la viabilidad de que en un futuro cercano éstos tengan un área sensible cada vez mayor, hicieron atractiva la idea de tener diseñado un sistema corrector de campo para el foco primario (F/3), con un campo útil mínimo de un grado, y también con la limitante de que sus componentes tuvieron sólamente supérficies esféricas. Ambos diseños de los sis-temas correctores de campo se llevaron a cabo, en gran medida, como parte de un proyecto de colaboración e intercambio en el área de diseño y evaluación de sistemas ópticos.

  17. Parallel changes in mate-attracting calls and female preferences in autotriploid tree frogs

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Mitch A.; Gerhardt, H. C.

    2012-01-01

    For polyploid species to persist, they must be reproductively isolated from their diploid parental species, which coexist at the same time and place at least initially. In a complex of biparentally reproducing tetraploid and diploid tree frogs in North America, selective phonotaxis—mediated by differences in the pulse-repetition (pulse rate) of their mate-attracting vocalizations—ensures assortative mating. We show that artificially produced autotriploid females of the diploid species (Hyla chrysoscelis) show a shift in pulse-rate preference in the direction of the pulse rate produced by males of the tetraploid species (Hyla versicolor). The estimated preference function is centred near the mean pulse rate of the calls of artificially produced male autotriploids. Such a parallel shift, which is caused by polyploidy per se and whose magnitude is expected to be greater in autotetraploids, may have facilitated sympatric speciation by promoting reproductive isolation of the initially formed polyploids from their diploid parental forms. This process also helps to explain why tetraploid lineages with different origins have similar advertisement calls and freely interbreed. PMID:22113033

  18. A Single-Electron Reducing Quinone Oxidoreductase Is Necessary to Induce Haustorium Development in the Root Parasitic Plant Triphysaria[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Bandaranayake, Pradeepa C.G.; Filappova, Tatiana; Tomilov, Alexey; Tomilova, Natalya B.; Jamison-McClung, Denneal; Ngo, Quy; Inoue, Kentaro; Yoder, John I.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic plants in the Orobanchaceae develop haustoria in response to contact with host roots or chemical haustoria-inducing factors. Experiments in this manuscript test the hypothesis that quinolic-inducing factors activate haustorium development via a signal mechanism initiated by redox cycling between quinone and hydroquinone states. Two cDNAs were previously isolated from roots of the parasitic plant Triphysaria versicolor that encode distinct quinone oxidoreductases. QR1 encodes a single-electron reducing NADPH quinone oxidoreductase similar to ?-crystallin. The QR2 enzyme catalyzes two electron reductions typical of xenobiotic detoxification. QR1 and QR2 transcripts are upregulated in a primary response to chemical-inducing factors, but only QR1 was upregulated in response to host roots. RNA interference technology was used to reduce QR1 and QR2 transcripts in Triphysaria roots that were evaluated for their ability to form haustoria. There was a significant decrease in haustorium development in roots silenced for QR1 but not in roots silenced for QR2. The infrequent QR1 transgenic roots that did develop haustoria had levels of QR1 similar to those of nontransgenic roots. These experiments implicate QR1 as one of the earliest genes on the haustorium signal transduction pathway, encoding a quinone oxidoreductase necessary for the redox bioactivation of haustorial inducing factors. PMID:20424175

  19. The Response of Gray Treefrogs to Anesthesia by Tricaine Methanesulfonate (TMS or MS-222)

    PubMed Central

    Paduano, Mary; Colafrancesco, Kaitlen C.; Wong, Sarah A.; Caldwell, Michael S.; Gridi-Papp, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    The design of anesthetic protocols for frogs is commonly hindered by lack of information. Results from fishes and rodents do not always apply to frogs, and the literature in anurans is concentrated on a few species. We report on the response of treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis and H. versicolor) to tricaine methanesulfonate. Body mass did not differ significantly between the species or between sexes. In the first exposure of a frog to TMS, variation in induction time was best explained by species (H. chrysoscelis resisted longer) and body mass (larger animals resisted longer). Multiple exposures revealed a strong effect of individual variation on induction time and a significant increase of induction time with number of previous anesthesia events within the same day. Recovery time was mostly explained by individual variation, but it increased with total time in anesthetic and decreased with induction time. It also increased with number of days since the last series of anesthesias and decreased with number of previous uses of the anesthetic bath. This is one of the first studies of anesthesia in hylids and also one of the first assessments of the factors that influence the variability of the response to anesthesia within a species. PMID:24851186

  20. Medicinal and edible lignicolous fungi as natural sources of antioxidative and antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Karaman, M; Jovin, E; Malbasa, R; Matavuly, M; Popovi?, M

    2010-10-01

    The antioxidant activity of organic extracts of eight fungal species, Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma applanatum, Meripilus giganteus, Laetiporus sulphureus, Flammulina velutipes, Coriolus versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus and Panus tigrinus, was evaluated for free radical (DPPH· and OH·) scavenging capacity and an effect on lipid peroxidation, and the antibacterial activity was tested by the agar well diffusion method. The highest DPPH· scavenging activity was found in the methanol extract of G. applanatum (12.5 ?g/mL, 82.80%) and the chloroform extract of G. lucidum (510.2??g/mL, 69.12%). The same extracts also showed the highest LP inhibition (91.83%, 85.09%) at 500 ?g/mL, while the methanol extracts of G. applanatum and L. sulphureus showed the highest scavenging effect on OH· radicals (68.47%, 57.06%, respectively) at 400 ?g/mL. A strong antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria was also manifested. The antioxidative potencies correlated generally with the total phenol content (0.19-9.98 mg/g). The HPLC determination showed that the majority of analysed species contained gallic and protocatechic acids. Consequently, these fungi are shown to be potential sources of antioxidative and antibacterial agents. PMID:20878697

  1. Antihyperglycemic effect of crude extracts of some Egyptian plants and algae.

    PubMed

    AbouZid, Sameh Fekry; Ahmed, Osama Mohamed; Ahmed, Rasha Rashad; Mahmoud, Ayman; Abdella, Ehab; Ashour, Mohamed Badr

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major global health problem. Various plant extracts have proven antidiabetic activity and are considered as promising substitution for antidiabetic drugs. The antihyperglycemic effect of 16 plants and 4 algae, commonly used in Egypt for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, was investigated. A diabetes model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (120?mg/kg body weight [b.wt.]), then streptozotocin (200?mg/kg b.wt.) after 15?min. Hydroethanolic extracts (80%) of the plants and algae under investigation were prepared. The extracts were orally administered to nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by a gastric tube at doses 10 or 50?mg/kg b.wt. for 1 week. The antidiabetic activity was assessed by detection of serum glucose concentrations at the fasting state and after 2?h of oral glucose loading (4.2?mg/kg b.wt.). Extracts prepared from Cassia acutifolia, Fraxinus ornus, Salix aegyptiaca, Cichorium intybus, and Eucalyptus globulus showed the highest antihyperglycemic activity among the tested plants. Extracts prepared from Sonchus oleraceus, Bougainvillea spectabilis (leaves), Plantago psyllium (seeds), Morus nigra (leaves), and Serena repens (fruits) were found to have antihyperglycemic potentials. Extracts prepared from Caulerpa lentillifera and Spirulina versicolor showed the most potent antihyperglycemic activity among the tested algae. However, some of the tested plants have insulinotropic effects, all assessed algae have not. Identification of lead compounds from these plants and algae for novel antidiabetic drug development is recommended. PMID:24404976

  2. Radiocesium Concentration Change in Game Animals: Use of Food Monitoring Data - 13168

    SciTech Connect

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)] [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Radionuclides were released into the environment in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Radiocesium (Cs-134+137) concentrations in most agricultural products became lower than the detection limit (?10 Bq kg{sup -1}) from June 2011, and the concentrations have remained low. However, some wild food materials such as meat of game animals (e.g., bear and wild boar) caught in Fukushima and surrounding areas some times showed higher values than the detection limits. In this study, monitoring data on game animal meat were summarized to understand the amount of activities found in wild animals and the activity distribution in the contaminated areas. Concentration data are available from monthly reports issued by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Data were collected on wild boar (Sus scrofa), deer (Cervus nippon), Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus), Japanese pheasant (Phasianus versicolor), and duck (e.g. Anas poecilorhynch). There is a tendency that the concentration decreases with distance from the FDNPP; in order to compare the Cs-137 concentrations among animals, one collection site was selected. The results showed that the concentration was in the following order within one year: Asian black bear>wild boar> deer >duck and Japanese pheasant. Bear and boar are omnivorous animals and their feeding pattern would affect the concentrations in their meats. (authors)

  3. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from the cerrado of the centralwestern region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Violante, Ivana Maria Póvoa; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Batista, Ana Lucia; Chang, Marilene Rodrigues; Pott, Vali Joana; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues

    2012-10-01

    Ethanol extracts from six selected species from the Cerrado of the Central-Western region of Brazil, which are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and other medical conditions, namely Erythroxylum suberosum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae), Hyptis crenata Pohl. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae), Roupala brasiliensis Klotz. (Proteaceae), Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (Simaroubaceae), Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae) and Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) March. (Burseraceae), as well as fractions resulting from partition of these crude extracts, were screened in vitro for their antifungal and antibacterial properties. The antimicrobial activities were assessed by the broth microdilution assay against six control fungal strains, Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans, and five control Gram-positive and negative bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Toxicity of the extracts and fractions against Artemia salina was also evaluated in this work. All plants investigated showed antimicrobial properties against at least one microorganism and two species were also significantly toxic to brine shrimp larvae. The results tend to support the traditional use of these plants for the treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders and/or skin diseases, opening the possibility of finding new antimicrobial agents from these natural sources. Among the species investigated, Hyptis crenata, Erythroxylum suberosum and Roupala brasiliensis were considered the most promising candidates for developing of future bioactivity-guided phytochemical investigations. PMID:24031956

  4. Fungal volatiles associated with moldy grain in ventilated and non-ventilated bin-stored wheat.

    PubMed

    Sinha, R N; Tuma, D; Abramson, D; Muir, W E

    1988-01-01

    The fungal odor compounds 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone were monitored in nine experimental bins in Winnipeg, Manitoba containing a hard red spring wheat during the autumn, winter and summer seasons of 1984-85. Quality changes were associated with seed-borne microflora and moisture content in both ventilated and non-ventilated bins containing wheat of 15.6 and 18.2% initial moisture content. All three odor compounds occurred in considerably greater amounts in bulk wheat in non-ventilated than in ventilated bins, particularly in those with wheat having 18.2% moisture content. The presence of these compounds usually coincided with infection of the seeds by the fungi Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler, Aspergillus repens DeBarry, A. versicolor (Vuill.) Tiraboschi, Penicillium crustosum Thom, P. oxalicum Currie and Thom, P. aurantiogriesum Dierckx, and P. citrinum Thom. High production of all three odor compounds in damp wheat stored in non-ventilated bins was associated with heavy fungal infection of the seeds and reduction in seed germinability. High initial moisture content of the harvested grain accelerated the production of all three fungal volatiles in non-ventilated bins. PMID:3352722

  5. Degradation of three aromatic dyes by white rot fungi and the production of ligninolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Chandana; Imtiaj, Ahmed; Lee, Geon Woo; Im, Kyung Hoan; Hur, Hyun; Lee, Min Woong; Yang, Hee-Sun; Lee, Tae-Soo

    2008-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the degradation of aromatic dyes and the production of ligninolytic enzymes by 10 white rot fungi. The results of this study revealed that Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, Pleurotus pulmonarius, Ganoderma lucidum, Trametes suaveolens, Stereum ostrea and Fomes fomentarius have the ability to efficiently degrade congo red on solid media. However, malachite green inhibited the mycelial growth of these organisms. Therefore, they did not effectively decolorize malachite green on solid media. However, P. cinnabarinus and P. pulmonarius were able to effectively decolorize malachite green on solid media. T. suaveolens and F. rosea decolorized methylene blue more effectively than any of the other fungi evaluated in this study. In liquid culture, G. lucidum, P. cinnabarinus, Naematoloma fasciculare and Pycnoporus coccineus were found to have a greater ability to decolorize congo red. In addition, P. cinnabarinus, G. lucidum and T. suaveolens decolorized methylene blue in liquid media more effectively than any of the other organisms evaluated in this study. Only F. fomentarius was able to decolorize malachite green in liquid media, and its ability to do so was limited. To investigate the production of ligninolytic enzymes in media containing aromatic compounds, fungi were cultured in naphthalene supplemented liquid media. P. coccineus, Coriolus versicolor and P. cinnabarinus were found to produce a large amount of laccase when grown in medium that contained napthalene. PMID:23990745

  6. Overcoming bottlenecks of enzymatic biofuel cell cathodes: crude fungal culture supernatant can help to extend lifetime and reduce cost.

    PubMed

    Sané, Sabine; Jolivalt, Claude; Mittler, Gerhard; Nielsen, Peter J; Rubenwolf, Stefanie; Zengerle, Roland; Kerzenmacher, Sven

    2013-07-01

    Enzymatic biofuel cells (BFCs) show great potential for the direct conversion of biochemically stored energy from renewable biomass resources into electricity. However, enzyme purification is time-consuming and expensive. Furthermore, the long-term use of enzymatic BFCs is hindered by enzyme degradation, which limits their lifetime to only a few weeks. We show, for the first time, that crude culture supernatant from enzyme-secreting microorganisms (Trametes versicolor) can be used without further treatment to supply the enzyme laccase to the cathode of a mediatorless BFC. Polarization curves show that there is no significant difference in the cathode performance when using crude supernatant that contains laccase compared to purified laccase in culture medium or buffer solution. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the oxygen reduction activity of this enzymatic cathode can be sustained over a period of at least 120 days by periodic resupply of crude culture supernatant. This is more than five times longer than control cathodes without the resupply of culture supernatant. During the operation period of 120 days, no progressive loss of potential is observed, which suggests that significantly longer lifetimes than shown in this work may be possible. Our results demonstrate the possibility to establish simple, cost efficient, and mediatorless enzymatic BFC cathodes that do not require expensive enzyme purification procedures. Furthermore, they show the feasibility of an enzymatic BFC with an extended lifetime, in which self-replicating microorganisms provide the electrode with catalytically active enzymes in a continuous or periodic manner. PMID:23801592

  7. Refolding of laccase in dilution additive mode with copper-based ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sang-Woo; Ahn, Kihun; Koo, Yoon-Mo; Ha, Sung Ho

    2013-11-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are molten salts which do not crystallize at room temperature. Tunable physicochemical properties of ILs including hydrophobicity and polarity facilitate their applications in many biological processes. In this study, a copper-based IL was employed in order to enhance the refolding efficiency of laccase from Trametes versicolor which requires copper as a cofactor. When 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trichlorocuprate ([EMIM][CuCl?]) was added to refolding buffer instead of urea, the laccase refolding yield was improved more than 2.7 times compared to the conventional refolding buffer which contains urea. When the refolding of laccase was carried out at different temperatures (4, 25, and 37 °C), the highest refolding yield was obtained at 25 °C. At low temperature, two conflicting effects, i.e., suppression of the aggregate formation and decrease of folding rate, influence the protein refolding. In contrast, a copper-based IL did not enhance the refolding of lysozyme, a non-copper-containing protein. From these results, we can conclude that this copper-based IL, [EMIM][CuCl?], was exclusively effective on the refolding process of a copper-containing protein. PMID:23975279

  8. Enzymatic nanoreactors for environmentally benign biotransformations. 1. Formation and catalytic activity of supramolecular complexes of laccase and linear-dendritic block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Gitsov, Ivan; Hamzik, James; Ryan, Joseph; Simonyan, Arsen; Nakas, James P; Omori, Shigetoshi; Krastanov, Albert; Cohen, Tomer; Tanenbaum, Stuart W

    2008-03-01

    We describe the construction of enzymatic nanoreactors through noncovalent envelopment of a glycoprotein by amphiphilic linear-dendritic AB or ABA copolymers. The synthetic procedure is based on the regioselective adsorption of dendritic poly(benzyl ether)-block-linear poly(ethylene glycol)-block-dendritic poly(benzyl ether) or linear poly(ethylene oxide)-block-dendritic poly(benzyl ether) copolymers onto the oxidative enzyme laccase from Trametes versicolor in aqueous medium. The complexes formed have improved catalytic activity compared with the native enzyme (77-85 nkat/mL vs 60 nkat/mL, respectively) and are more stable at elevated temperatures up to 70 degrees C. Experiments with deglycosylated laccase confirm that the glycoside fragments in the native enzyme serve as the anchor sites for the linear-dendritic copolymers. The enzymatic nanoreactors are able to effectively oxidize series of substrates: phenolic compounds (syringaldazine) and hydrophobic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene) under "green" chemistry conditions. PMID:18257555

  9. Oxalate production by wood-rotting fungi growing in toxic metal-amended medium.

    PubMed

    Jarosz-Wilkolazka, Anna; Gadd, Geoffrey M

    2003-07-01

    In this report, we have identified oxalic acid as an important metabolite elaborated in the response of wood-rotting fungi to toxic metal stress. The formation of oxalate crystals by white rot fungi (Bjerkandera fumosa, Phlebia radiata and Trametes versicolor) and the brown rot fungus Fomitopsis pinicola, grown on media containing high levels of toxic metal ions has been visualized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray micro-analysis (EDXA) and HPLC. There were no significant differences between the growth of controls (metal-free) and on the 0.5% CaCO(3), Co(3)(PO(4))(2) or Zn(3)(PO(4))(2)-amended plates. ZnO inhibited the growth of all strains. Crystals were not detected in Zn(3)(PO(4))(2)-amended plates. The four examined strains displayed the formation of crystals on ZnO, Co(3)(PO(4))(2) and CaCO(3)-amended plates. PMID:12738291

  10. Biotic and abiotic degradation behaviour of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME).

    PubMed

    Fischer, A; Hahn, C

    2005-05-01

    Glycol ethers are widely used in many processes in the chemical industry. Their high water solubility means they are used as solvents for different purposes (e.g. lacquers and varnishes). Since glycol ethers are known to produce toxic metabolites such as the teratogenic methoxyacetic acid during biodegradation, the biological treatment of glycol ethers can be hazardous. However, using oxidizing agents like hydrogen peroxide could be a feasible option for treating wastewater containing glycol ether. In this study, both-, biodegradation and abiotic oxidation experiments with ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) as contaminant were performed. The biodegradation experiments were conducted with a synthetic model wastewater containing 15 wt% NaCl and 5000 mgl(-1) of EGME. While experiments with the fungus Aspergillus versicolor resulted in the exhaustive biotic degradation of EGME, the toxic metabolite methoxyacetic acid (MAA) was produced as a 'dead end' product. Sodium hydroxide was added to adjust the decreasing pH caused by the production of MAA. In abiotic degradation experiments with EGME, other degradation products--organic acids and toxic aldehydes, e.g. methoxy acetaldehyde (MALD)--were detected. It must be taken into account that EGME and its biotic and abiotic degradation products are usually not analysed in routine wastewater measurements owing to their physical properties. PMID:15878604

  11. Survival of microorganisms under the extreme conditions of the Atacama Desert.

    PubMed

    Dose, K; Bieger-Dose, A; Ernst, B; Feister, U; Gómez-Silva, B; Klein, A; Risi, S; Stridde, C

    2001-06-01

    Spores of Bacillus subtilis, conidia of Aspergillus niger, versicolor and ochraceus and cells of Deinococcus radiodurans have been exposed in the dark at two locations (at about 23 degrees S and 24 degrees S) in the Atacama Desert for up to 15 months. B. subtilis spores (survival approximately 15%) and A. niger conidia (survival approximately 30%) outlived the other species. The survival of the conidia and spores species was only slightly poorer than that of the corresponding laboratory controls. However, the Deinococcus radiodurans cells did not survive the desert exposure, because they are readily inactivated at relative humidities between 40 and 80% which typically occur during desert nights. Cellular monolayers of the dry spores and conidia have in addition been exposed to the full sun light for up to several hours. The solar fluences causing 63% loss in viability (F37-values) have been determined. These F37-values are compared with those determined at other global locations such as Punta Arenas (53 degrees S), Key Largo (25 degrees N) or Mainz (50 degrees N) during the same season. The solar UVB radiation kills even the most resistant microorganisms within a few hours due to DNA damages. The data are also discussed with respect to possible similarities between the climatic conditions of the recent Atacama Desert and the deserts of early Mars. PMID:11434107

  12. Malassezia skin diseases in humans.

    PubMed

    Difonzo, E M; Faggi, E; Bassi, A; Campisi, E; Arunachalam, M; Pini, G; Scarfì, F; Galeone, M

    2013-12-01

    Although Malassezia yeasts are a part of the normal microflora, under certain conditions they can cause superficial skin infection, such as pityriasis versicolor (PV) and Malassezia folliculitis. Moreover the yeasts of the genus Malassezia have been associated with seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and, less commonly, with confluent and reticulated papillomatosis, onychomycosis, and transient acantholytic dermatosis. The study of the clinical role of Malassezia species has been surrounded by controversy due to the relative difficulty in isolation, cultivation, and identification. This review focuses on the clinical, mycologic, and immunologic aspects of the various skin diseases associated with Malassezia. Moreover, since there exists little information about the epidemiology and ecology of Malassezia species in the Italian population and the clinical significance of these species is not fully distinguished, we will report data about a study we carried out. The aim of our study was the isolation and the identification of Malassezia species in PV-affected skin and non-affected skin in patients with PV and in clinically healthy individuals without any Malassezia associated skin disease. PMID:24442041

  13. Laccase-based biosensor for the determination of polyphenol index in wine.

    PubMed

    Di Fusco, Massimo; Tortolini, Cristina; Deriu, Daniela; Mazzei, Franco

    2010-04-15

    In this work we have developed and characterized the use of Laccases from Trametes versicolor (TvL) and Trametes hirsuta (ThL) as biocatalytic components of electrochemical biosensors for the determination of polyphenol index in wines. Polyazetidine prepolimer (PAP) was used as immobilizing agent, multi-walled and single-walled carbon nanotubes screen-printed electrodes as sensors (MWCNTs-SPE and SWCNTs-SPE) and gallic acid as standard substrate. The amperometric measurements were carried out by using a flow system at a fixed potential of -100 mV vs. silver/silver chloride electrode in Britton-Robinson buffer 0.1 mol L(-1), pH 5. The results were compared with those obtained with the Folin-Ciocalteau reference method. The results obtained in the analysis of twelve Italian wines put in evidence the better suitability of ThL-MWCNTs-based biosensor in the determination of the polyphenol index in wines. This biosensor shows fast and reliable amperometric responses to gallic acid with a linear range 0.1-18.0 mg L(-1) (r(2)=0.999). The influence of the interferences on both spectrophotometric and electrochemical measurements have been carefully evaluated. PMID:20188914

  14. Screening, morphological and molecular characterization of fungi producing cystathionine ?-lyase.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Ashraf S; Khalaf, Salwa A; Abdel-Hamid, Gamal; El-Batrik, Mohamed I

    2015-03-01

    The potency for production of cystathionine ?-lyase (CGL) by the fungal isolates was screened. Among the tested twenty-two isolates, Aspergillus carneus was the potent CGL producer (6.29 U/mg), followed by A. ochraceous (6.03 U/mg), A. versicolor (2.51 U/mg), A. candidus (2.12 U/mg), A. niveus and Penicillium notatum (2.0 U/mg). The potent six isolates producing CGL was characterized morphologically, A. carneus KF723837 was further molecularly characterized based on the sequence of 18S-28S rDNA. Upon sulfur starvation, the yield of A. carneus extracellular CGL was increased by about 1.7- and 4.1-fold comparing to non-sulfur starved and L-methionine free medium, respectively. Also, the uptake of L-methionine was duplicated upon sulfur starvation, assuming the activation of specific transporters for L-methionine and efflux of CGL. Also, the intracellular thiols and GDH activity of A. carneus was strongly increased by S starvation, revealing the activation of in vivo metabolic antioxidant systems. Upon irradiation of A. carneus by 2.0 kGy of ?-rays, the activity of CGL was increased by two-fold, regarding to control, with an obvious decreases on its yield upon further doses. Practically, CGL activity from the solid A. carneus cultures, using rice bran as substrate, was increased by 1.2-fold, comparing to submerged cultures, under optimum conditions. PMID:25740443

  15. Production and Degradation of Oxalic Acid by Brown Rot Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Espejo, Eduardo; Agosin, Eduardo

    1991-01-01

    Our results show that all of the brown rot fungi tested produce oxalic acid in liquid as well as in semisolid cultures. Gloeophyllum trabeum, which accumulates the lowest amount of oxalic acid during decay of pine holocellulose, showed the highest polysaccharide-depolymerizing activity. Semisolid cultures inoculated with this fungus rapidly converted 14C-labeled oxalic acid to CO2 during cellulose depolymerization. The other brown rot fungi also oxidized 14C-labeled oxalic acid, although less rapidly. In contrast, semisolid cultures inoculated with the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor did not significantly catabolize the acid and did not depolymerize the holocellulose during decay. Semisolid cultures of G. trabeum amended with desferrioxamine, a specific iron-chelating agent, were unable to lower the degree of polymerization of cellulose or to oxidize 14C-labeled oxalic acid to the extent or at the rate that control cultures did. These results suggest that both iron and oxalic acid are involved in cellulose depolymerization by brown rot fungi. PMID:16348522

  16. Transcriptomes of the parasitic plant family Orobanchaceae reveal surprising conservation of chlorophyll synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wickett, Norman J; Honaas, Loren A; Wafula, Eric K; Das, Malay; Huang, Kan; Wu, Biao; Landherr, Lena; Timko, Michael P; Yoder, John; Westwood, James H; dePamphilis, Claude W

    2011-12-20

    Parasitism in flowering plants has evolved at least 11 times [1]. Only one family, Orobanchaceae, comprises all major nutritional types of parasites: facultative, hemiparasitic (partially photosynthetic), and holoparasitic (nonphotosynthetic) [2]. Additionally, the family includes Lindenbergia, a nonparasitic genus sister to all parasitic Orobanchaceae [3-6]. Parasitic Orobanchaceae include species with severe economic impacts: Striga (witchweed), for example, affects over 50 million hectares of crops in sub-Saharan Africa, causing more than $3 billion in damage annually [7]. Although gene losses and increased substitution rates have been characterized for parasitic plant plastid genomes [5, 8-11], the nuclear genome and transcriptome remain largely unexplored. The Parasitic Plant Genome Project (PPGP; http://ppgp.huck.psu.edu/) [2] is leveraging the natural variation in Orobanchaceae to explore the evolution and genomic consequences of parasitism in plants through a massive transcriptome and gene discovery project involving Triphysaria versicolor (facultative hemiparasite), Striga hermonthica (obligate hemiparasite), and Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Orobanche [12]; holoparasite). Here we present the first set of large-scale genomic resources for parasitic plant comparative biology. Transcriptomes of above-ground tissues reveal that, in addition to the predictable loss of photosynthesis-related gene expression in P. aegyptiaca, the nonphotosynthetic parasite retains an intact, expressed, and selectively constrained chlorophyll synthesis pathway. PMID:22169535

  17. Malassezia species and their associated skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazutoshi; Saito, Mami; Sugita, Takashi; Tsuboi, Ryoji

    2015-03-01

    Malassezia spp. are lipophilic fungi that occur on all skin surfaces of humans and animals as commensal and pathogenic organisms. In the 2000s, several new species were added to the Malassezia genus by Japanese researchers. The genus Malassezia now includes 14 species of basidiomycetous yeast. Culture-independent molecular analysis clearly demonstrated that the DNA of Malassezia spp. was predominantly detected in core body and arm sites, suggesting that they are the dominant fungal flora of the human body. Malassezia spp. have been implicated in skin diseases including pityriasis versicolor (PV), Malassezia folliculitis (MF), seborrheic dermatitis (SD) and atopic dermatitis (AD). While Malassezia spp. are directly responsible for the infectious diseases, PV and MF, they act as an exacerbating factor in AD and SD. The fatty acids generated by Malassezia lipase can induce inflammation of the skin, resulting in development of SD. Patch and serum immunoglobulin E tests revealed that AD patients were hypersensitive to Malassezia. However, these findings only partially elucidated the mechanism by which Malassezia spp. induce inflammation in the skin; understanding of the pathogenetic role of Malassezia spp. in SD or AD remains incomplete. In this article, the latest findings of Malassezia research are reviewed with special attention to skin diseases. PMID:25736318

  18. Chemical organization of the cell wall polysaccharide core of Malassezia restricta.

    PubMed

    Stalhberger, Thomas; Simenel, Catherine; Clavaud, Cécile; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Jourdain, Roland; Delepierre, Muriel; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Breton, Lionel; Fontaine, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    Malassezia species are ubiquitous residents of human skin and are associated with several diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis, tinea versicolor, folliculitis, atopic dermatitis, and scalp conditions such as dandruff. Host-Malassezia interactions and mechanisms to evade local immune responses remain largely unknown. Malassezia restricta is one of the most predominant yeasts of the healthy human skin, its cell wall has been investigated in this paper. Polysaccharides in the M. restricta cell wall are almost exclusively alkali-insoluble, showing that they play an essential role in the organization and rigidity of the M. restricta cell wall. Fractionation of cell wall polymers and carbohydrate analyses showed that the polysaccharide core of the cell wall of M. restricta contained an average of 5% chitin, 20% chitosan, 5% ?-(1,3)-glucan, and 70% ?-(1,6)-glucan. In contrast to other yeasts, chitin and chitosan are relatively abundant, and ?-(1,3)-glucans constitute a minor cell wall component. The most abundant polymer is ?-(1,6)-glucans, which are large molecules composed of a linear ?-(1,6)-glucan chains with ?-(1,3)-glucosyl side chain with an average of 1 branch point every 3.8 glucose unit. Both ?-glucans are cross-linked, forming a huge alkali-insoluble complex with chitin and chitosan polymers. Data presented here show that M. restricta has a polysaccharide organization very different of all fungal species analyzed to date. PMID:24627479

  19. Collection efficiencies of an electrostatic sampler with superhydrophobic surface for fungal bioaerosols

    PubMed Central

    Han, T.; Nazarenko, Y.; Lioy, P. J.; Mainelis, G.

    2014-01-01

    We recently developed an electrostatic precipitator with superhydrophobic surface (EPSS), which collects particles into a 10- to 40-?l water droplet allowing achievement of very high concentration rates (defined as the ratio of particle concentration in the collection liquid vs. the airborne particle concentration per time unit) when sampling airborne bacteria. Here, we analyzed the performance of this sampler when collecting three commonly found fungal spores – Cladosporium cladosporioides, Penicillium melinii, and Aspergillus versicolor – under different operating conditions. We also adapted adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-based bioluminescence for the analysis of collection efficiency and the concentration rates. The collection efficiency ranged from 10 to 36% at a sampling flow rate of 10 l/min when the airborne fungal spore concentration was approximately 105–106 spores/m3 resulting in concentration rates in the range of 1 × 105–3 × 105/min for a 10-?l droplet. The collection efficiency was inversely proportional to the airborne spore concentration and it increased to above 60% for common ambient spore concentrations, e.g., 104–105 spores/m3. The spore concentrations determined by the ATP-based method were not statistically different from those determined by microscopy and allowed us to analyze spore concentrations that were too low to be reliably detected by microscopy. PMID:21204982

  20. Onchodermatitis--correlation between skin disease and parasitic load in an endemic focus in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Hay, R J; Mackenzie, C D; Guderian, R; Noble, W C; Proano, J R; Williams, J F

    1989-08-01

    Onchocerciasis is a chronic parasitic infection in which infiltration of the skin by microfilariae has been associated with a number of different pathological changes. This survey compared the prevalence of different forms of skin disease in two villages, one of which was located within the endemic zone for onchocerciasis (Zapallo Grande), in a lowland rain forest area of western Ecuador. The commonest skin diseases in both villages were scabies, pyoderma and pityriasis versicolor. In addition changes closely correlated with the presence of microfilariae in skin snips were found in Zapallo Grande--such as atrophic gluteal changes, and acute and chronic papular dermatitis. The only other skin disease associated with onchocerciasis was widespread tinea corporis due to T. rubrum. The Amerindians in the endemic onchocerciasis area were more likely than Negroes to have generalized atrophic changes of the skin, whereas in the latter group significant numbers of individuals had no obvious skin lesions but large numbers of microfilariae were detected in skin snips. Acute papular dermatitis was common in both groups and in biopsied lesions microfilariae could usually be identified within the epidermis or close to the dermo-epidermal junction. One patient had developed severe reactive onchodermatitis (Sowda). Swabs taken from onchocercal skin lesions showed no evidence of skin surface carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. Changes classically associated with onchocerciasis such as pretibial hypopigmentation (leopard skin) and hanging groin were notably absent in this population. PMID:2775644

  1. Characterization of the fungal microbiota (mycobiome) in healthy and dandruff-afflicted human scalps.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee Kuk; Ha, Myung-Ho; Park, Sang-Gue; Kim, Myeung Nam; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Wonyong

    2012-01-01

    The human scalp harbors a vast community of microbial mutualists, the composition of which is difficult to elucidate as many of the microorganisms are not culturable using current culture techniques. Dandruff, a common scalp disorder, is known as a causative factor of a mild seborrheic dermatitis as well as pityriasis versicolor, seborrheic dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis. Lipophilic yeast Malassezia is widely accepted to play a role in dandruff, but relatively few comprehensive studies have been reported. In order to investigate fungal biota and genetic resources of dandruff, we amplified the 26S rRNA gene from samples of healthy scalps and dandruff-afflicted scalps. The sequences were analyzed by a high throughput method using a GS-FLX 454 pyrosequencer. Of the 74,811 total sequence reads, Basidiomycota (Filobasidium spp.) was the most common phylum associated with dandruff. In contrast, Ascomycota (Acremonium spp.) was common in the healthy scalps. Our results elucidate the distribution of fungal communities associated with dandruff and provide new avenues for the potential prevention and treatment of dandruff. PMID:22393454

  2. Fat of the wild avian filarial nematode Chandlerella quiscali (Onchocercidae: Filarioidea) in the domestic chicken.

    PubMed

    Granath, W O

    1980-05-01

    Chandlerella quiscali is a filarial nematode parasitizing the brain of the common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula versicolor), blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata bromia), brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater ater), and starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Filarial infections of many wild bird species are common but natural infections of domestic fowl are rare. The habits of many wild birds commonly bring them in close association with domestic poultry. Because of the high prevalence of C. quiscali in grackles (98%) and the pathogenesis it might cause in an unnatural host, this parasite was used to test the receptiveness of the domestic chicken as a host. Microfilariae of C. quiscali were injected into chickens and adult worms were transplanted into the brain or body cavity of other chickens. One group of experimental chickens was immunosuppressed (IS) while another group was not immunosuppressed (NIS). Microfilariae circulated in the blood of IS and NIS chickens for at least 56 days. There was no significant difference in the number of microfilariae recovered from IS and NIS chickens. Adult worms were encapsulated in the brain of NIS chickens and in the body cavity of IS and NIS chickens. Worms survived for 36 hr in the brains of IS chickens. Past 36 hr the worms were shriveled and dead, apparently the result of a physiological and/or nutritional deficiency in the brain. PMID:7393850

  3. Does common spatial origin promote the auditory grouping of temporally separated signal elements in grey treefrogs?

    PubMed Central

    Bee, Mark A.; Riemersma, Kasen K.

    2008-01-01

    ‘Sequential integration’ represents a form of auditory grouping in which temporally separated sounds produced by the same source are perceptually bound together over time into a coherent ‘auditory stream’. In humans, sequential integration plays important roles in music and speech perception. In this study of the grey treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis), we took advantage of female selectivity for advertisement calls with conspecific pulse rates to investigate common spatial location as a cue for sequential integration. We presented females with two temporally interleaved pulse sequences with pulse rates of 25 pulses/s, which is half the conspecific pulse rate and more similar to that of H. versicolor, a syntopically breeding heterospecific. We tested the hypothesis that common spatial origin between the two pulse sequences would promote their integration into a coherent auditory stream with an attractive conspecific pulse rate. As the spatial separation between the speakers broadcasting the interleaved pulse sequences decreased from 180° to 0°, more females responded and females exhibited shorter response latencies and travelled shorter distances en route to a speaker. However, even in the 180° condition, most females (74%) still responded. Detailed video analyses revealed no evidence to suggest that patterns of female phonotaxis resulted from impaired abilities to localize sound sources in the spatially separated conditions. Together, our results suggest that females were fairly permissive of spatial incoherence between the interleaved pulses sequences and that common spatial origin may be only a relatively weak cue for sequential integration in grey treefrogs. PMID:19727419

  4. In vitro acaricidal efficacy of plant extracts from Brazilian flora and isolated substances against Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Valente, Paula Pimentel; Amorim, Juliana Mendes; Castilho, Rachel Oliveira; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Ribeiro, Múcio Flávio Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    The tick Rhipicephalus microplus causes significant losses in livestock cattle and has developed increasing resistance to the primary acaricides that are used to treat these infections. The objective of this study was to identify new biomolecules or isolated substances showing acaricidal activity from plants. Larval packet tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of 11 species of plants and three isolated substances (betulinic acid, eugenol, and nerolidol) on R. microplus. An adult female immersion test was performed with the substance that showed the highest larvicidal activity, which was evaluated for inhibition of reproduction. Tests using Licania tomentosa, Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Hymenaea courbaril, Stryphnodendron obovatum, Jacaranda cuspidifolia, Jacaranda ulei, Struthanthus polyrhizus, Chrysobalanus icaco, Vernonia phosphorea, Duguetia furfuracea, and Simarouba versicolor extracts as well as the isolated substance betulinic acid indicated lower acaricidal effects on R. microplus larvae. The extract displaying the best larvicidal activity was the ethanolic extract from L. tomentosa at a concentration of 60%, resulting in a mortality rate of 40.3%. However, nerolidol and eugenol showed larvicidal activity, which was highest for eugenol. Nerolidol caused a 96.5% mortality rate in the R. microplus larvae at a high concentration of 30%, and eugenol caused 100% mortality at a concentration of 0.3%. In the adult immersion test, 5% eugenol was identified as a good biomolecule for controlling R. microplus, as demonstrated by its high acaricidal activity and inhibition of oviposition. PMID:24221889

  5. Protein-bound polysaccharide-K induces apoptosis via mitochondria and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathways in HL-60 promyelomonocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Hirahara, Noriyuki; Edamatsu, Takeo; Fujieda, Ayako; Fujioka, Masaki; Wada, Tsutomu; Tajima, Yoshitsugu

    2013-07-01

    Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) is extracted from Coriolus versicolor (CM101). PSK is a biological response modifier (BRM), and its mechanism of action is partly mediated by modulating host immune systems; however, recent studies showed antiproliferative activity of PSK. Therefore, we examined the mechanism underlying the antiproliferative activity of PSK using seven different human malignant cell lines (WiDr, HT29, SW480, KATOIII, AGS, HL-60 and U937), and PSK was found to inhibit the proliferation of HL-60 cells most profoundly. Therefore, HL-60 cells were used to elucidate the mechanism of the antiproliferative activity. Western blotting was performed to detect phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). A p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, was used to examine the roles in PSK-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition. Flow cytometry was performed for mitochondrial membrane potential detection. PSK activated caspase-3 and induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Co-treatment with SB203580 blocked PSK-induced apoptosis, caspase-3 activation and growth inhibition. PSK induced apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. The depolarization of mitochondria induced by PSK was reversed by co-treatment with SB203580. The present study revealed that PSK induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells via a mitochondrial and p38 MAPK-dependent pathway. PMID:23604455

  6. Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation of promyelomonocytic leukemia HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Hirahara, Noriyuki; Fujioka, Masaki; Edamatsu, Takeo; Fujieda, Ayako; Sekine, Fujio; Wada, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Tsuneo

    2011-09-01

    Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) is extracted from Coriolus versicolor (CM101), and is clinically used in combination therapy for gastrointestinal cancer and small cell lung carcinoma. PSK is a biological response modifier (BRM), and its mechanism of action is partly mediated, by modulating host immune systems, such as the activation of immune effector cells and the neutralization of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF?) activity. Direct inhibition of tumor cell proliferation has been reported as another mechanism, but how PSK induces such an effect remains to be elucidated. Here, the anti-proliferative activity of PSK was examined using seven different human malignant cell lines (WiDr, HT29, SW480, KATOIII, AGS, HL60 and U937), and PSK was found to inhibit the proliferation of HL-60 cells most profoundly. Therefore, HL-60 cells were used to clarify the mechanism of anti-proliferative activity. Caspase-3 activation followed by apoptosis are involved at least in part in the PSK-induced anti-proliferative activity against HL-60 cells. PMID:21868514

  7. Influence of very low doses of mediators on fungal laccase activity - nonlinearity beyond imagination.

    PubMed

    Malarczyk, Elzbieta; Kochmanska-Rdest, Janina; Jarosz-Wilkolazka, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Laccase, an enzyme responsible for aerobic transformations of natural phenolics, in industrial applications requires the presence of low-molecular substances known as mediators, which accelerate oxidation processes. However, the use of mediators is limited by their toxicity and the high costs of exploitation. The activation of extracellular laccase in growing fungal culture with highly diluted mediators, ABTS and HBT is described. Two high laccase-producing fungal strains, Trametes versicolor and Cerrena unicolor, were used in this study as a source of enzyme. Selected dilutions of the mediators significantly increased the activity of extracellular laccase during 14 days of cultivation what was distinctly visible in PAGE technique and in colorimetric tests. The same mediator dilutions increased demethylation properties of laccase, which was demonstrated during incubation of enzyme with veratric acid. It was established that the activation effect was assigned to specific dilutions of mediators. Our dose-response dilution process smoothly passes into the range of action of homeopathic dilutions and is of interest for homeopaths. PMID:19732425

  8. Removal of the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) by laccase-mediated systems.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Hu, Jiangyong; Urase, Taro

    2013-11-01

    Numerous efforts have been made to remove emerging trace organic contaminants, such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). This study examined the removal of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) by Trametes versicolor laccase and its laccase-mediator systems. Experimental results showed that DEET was poorly removed by laccase alone. The poor removal efficiency of DEET by laccase may be attributed to the presence of strong withdrawing electron group (-CO-N [CH2-CH3]2) in the chemical structure of DEET. Experimental results also indicated that DEET might be indirectly oxidized by laccase-mediator systems. More than 50% initial DEET amount was removed by laccase in the presence of a redox mediator, such as 2,2'-azino-bis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] (ABTS) or 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT). However, laccase activity was considerably decreased in the presence of a redox mediator (ABTS or HBT). Further studies on identification of degradation byproducts and degradation pathways are recommended. PMID:24034986

  9. Biosensor based on laccase immobilized on plasma polymerized allylamine/carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Ardhaoui, Malika; Bhatt, Sudhir; Zheng, Meihui; Dowling, Denis; Jolivalt, Claude; Khonsari, Farzaneh Arefi

    2013-08-01

    In this work, a simple and rapid method was used to functionalize carbon electrode in order to efficiently immobilize laccase for biosensor application. A stable allylamine coating was deposited using a low pressure inductively excited RF tubular plasma reactor under mild plasma conditions (low plasma power (10 W), few minutes) to generate high density amine groups (N/C ratio up to 0.18) on rough carbon surface electrodes. The longer was the allylamine plasma deposition time; the better was the surface coverage. Laccase from Trametes versicolor was physisorbed and covalently bound to these allylamine modified carbon surfaces. The laccase activities and current outputs measured in the presence of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazole-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) showed that the best efficiency was obtained for electrode plasma coated during 30 min. They showed also that for all the tested electrodes, the activities and current outputs of the covalently immobilized laccases were twice higher than the physically adsorbed ones. The sensitivity of these biocompatible bioelectrodes was evaluated by measuring their catalytic efficiency for oxygen reduction in the presence of ABTS as non-phenolic redox substrate and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (DMP) as phenolic one. Sensitivities of around 4.8 ?A mg(-1)L and 2.7 ?A mg(-1)L were attained for ABTS and DMP respectively. An excellent stability of this laccase biosensor was observed for over 6 months. PMID:23706201

  10. Three-dimensional organization of three-domain copper oxidases: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Zhukova, Yu. N.; Lyashenko, A. V.; Za?tsev, V. N.; Mikha?lov, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    “Blue” copper-containing proteins are multidomain proteins that utilize a unique redox property of copper ions. Among other blue multicopper oxidases, three-domain oxidases belong to the group of proteins that exhibit a wide variety of compositions in amino acid sequences, functions, and occurrences in organisms. This paper presents a review of the data obtained from X-ray diffraction investigations of the three-dimensional structures of three-domain multicopper oxidases, such as the ascorbate oxidase catalyzing oxidation of ascorbate to dehydroascorbate and its three derivatives; the multicopper oxidase CueO (the laccase homologue); the laccases isolated from the basidiomycetes Coprinus cinereus, Trametes versicolor, Coriolus zonatus, Cerrena maxima, and Rigidoporus lignosus and the ascomycete Melanocarpus albomyces; and the bacterial laccases CotA from the endospore coats of Bacillus subtilis. A comparison of the molecular structures of the laccases of different origins demonstrates that, structurally, these objects are highly conservative. This obviously indicates that the catalytic activity of the enzymes under consideration is characterized by similar mechanisms.

  11. A mechanism for NaCl inhibition of Reactive Blue 19 decolorization and ABTS oxidation by laccase.

    PubMed

    Champagne, P-P; Nesheim, M E; Ramsay, J A

    2013-07-01

    Laccases produced by white rot fungi have been extensively evaluated for their potential to decolorize textile wastewaters which contain salts like sodium chloride and sodium sulfate. The effect of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate on Trametes versicolor laccase during the decolorization of an anthraquinone dye (Reactive Blue 19) and the oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) were evaluated by steady-state kinetic analysis. The results showed that, while sodium sulfate did not affect laccase activity, sodium chloride inhibited both ABTS oxidation and dye decolorization. However, the type of inhibition was substrate-dependent: it was hyperbolic, noncompetitive with ABTS and parabolic, noncompetitive with Reactive Blue 19. Furthermore, the results suggested that two chlorides may bind to laccase in the presence of the dye unlike recent inhibition models which suggest that there is only one inhibition site. This investigation is the first to provide evidence for and to propose a two-site model of laccase inhibition, providing new insight into NaCl inhibition of laccase. The proposed model is also useful to predict decolorization rates in the presence of sodium chloride and to determine operating conditions that will minimize inhibition. PMID:23129183

  12. Molecular docking and dynamics simulation analyses unraveling the differential enzymatic catalysis by plant and fungal laccases with respect to lignin biosynthesis and degradation.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Manika; Jaiswal, Nivedita; Singh, Swati; Pandey, Veda P; Dwivedi, Upendra N

    2014-11-01

    Laccase, widely distributed in bacteria, fungi, and plants, catalyzes the oxidation of wide range of compounds. With regards to one of the important physiological functions, plant laccases are considered to catalyze lignin biosynthesis while fungal laccases are considered for lignin degradation. The present study was undertaken to explain this dual function of laccases using in-silico molecular docking and dynamics simulation approaches. Modeling and superimposition analyses of one each representative of plant and fungal laccases, namely, Populus trichocarpa and Trametes versicolor, respectively, revealed low level of similarity in the folding of two laccases at 3D levels. Docking analyses revealed significantly higher binding efficiency for lignin model compounds, in proportion to their size, for fungal laccase as compared to that of plant laccase. Residues interacting with the model compounds at the respective enzyme active sites were found to be in conformity with their role in lignin biosynthesis and degradation. Molecular dynamics simulation analyses for the stability of docked complexes of plant and fungal laccases with lignin model compounds revealed that tetrameric lignin model compound remains attached to the active site of fungal laccase throughout the simulation period, while it protrudes outwards from the active site of plant laccase. Stability of these complexes was further analyzed on the basis of binding energy which revealed significantly higher stability of fungal laccase with tetrameric compound than that of plant. The overall data suggested a situation favorable for the degradation of lignin polymer by fungal laccase while its synthesis by plant laccase. PMID:25301391

  13. Protein-bound polysaccharide-K induces IL-1? via TLR2 and NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Inatsuka, Carol; Gad, Ekram; Disis, Mary L; Standish, Leanna J; Pugh, Nirmal; Pasco, David S; Lu, Hailing

    2014-11-01

    Inflammasome activation has been shown to regulate both innate and adaptive immune responses. It is important to investigate whether immune-enhancing natural products can also activate inflammasome. The current study examined the potential of protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK), a hot water extract from Trametes versicolor, to activate inflammasome. Using THP-1 cells, we have demonstrated that PSK induces both pro-IL-1? and mature IL-1? in THP-1 cells in a caspase 1- and NLRP3-dependent manner. PSK also induces IL-1? and IL-18 in human PBMC. Cathepsin B is required for PSK-induced inflammasome activation as CA-074-Me, a cathepsin B inhibitor, significantly decreased PSK-induced IL-1?. PSK induces NLRP3 at both mRNA and protein level. Comparison of PSK-induced IL-1? in bone marrow-derived macrophages from wild type C57BL/6 mice, TLR2(-/-), P2X7R(-/-) and NLRP3(-/-) mice demonstrated that PSK-induced IL-1? is dependent on both TLR2 and NLRP3. P2X7R is not required for PSK-induced inflammasome activation, but enhances PSK-induced caspase-1 activation and IL-1? induction. Altogether, these results demonstrated that PSK induces inflammasome activation and production of IL-1? in a TLR2- and NLRP3-dependent mechanism. These results provide novel insights into the mechanisms of the immune modulatory effects of PSK. PMID:24323452

  14. Potential of fungal co-culturing for accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil.

    PubMed

    Yanto, Dede Heri Yuli; Tachibana, Sanro

    2014-08-15

    The potential of fungal co-culture of the filamentous Pestalotiopsis sp. NG007 with four different basidiomycetes--Trametes versicolor U97, Pleurotus ostreatus PL1, Cerena sp. F0607, and Polyporus sp. S133--for accelerating biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) was studied using three different physicochemical characteristic PHCs in soil. All the combinations showed a mutual intermingling mycelial interaction on the agar plates. However, only NG007/S133 (50/50) exhibited an optimum growth rate and enzymatic activities that supported the degradation of asphalt in soil. The co-culture also degraded all fractions at even higher concentrations of the different PHCs. In addition, asphaltene, which is a difficult fraction for a single microorganism to degrade, was markedly degraded by the co-culture, which indicated that the simultaneous biodegradation of aliphatic, aromatic, resin, and asphaltene fractions had occurred in the co-culture. An examination of in-vitro degradation by the crude enzymes and the retrieval fungal culture from the soil after the experiment confirmed the accelerated biodegradation due to enhanced enzyme activities in the co-culture. The addition of piperonyl butoxide or AgNO3 inhibited biodegradation by 81-99%, which demonstrated the important role of P450 monooxygenases and/or dioxygenases in the initial degradation of the aliphatic and aromatic fractions in PHCs. PMID:24997261

  15. Current trends in trichloroethylene biodegradation: a review.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Awadhesh Kumar; Upadhyay, Siddh Nath; Dubey, Suresh Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Over the past few years biodegradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) using different microorganisms has been investigated by several researchers. In this review article, an attempt has been made to present a critical summary of the recent results related to two major processes--reductive dechlorination and aerobic co-metabolism used for TCE biodegradation. It has been shown that mainly Clostridium sp. DC-1, KYT-1, Dehalobacter, Dehalococcoides, Desulfuromonas, Desulfitobacterium, Propionibacterium sp. HK-1, and Sulfurospirillum bacterial communities are responsible for the reductive dechlorination of TCE. Efficacy of bacterial communities like Nitrosomonas, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, and Xanthobacter sp. etc. for TCE biodegradation under aerobic conditions has also been examined. Mixed cultures of diazotrophs and methanotrophs have been used for TCE degradation in batch and continuous cultures (biofilter) under aerobic conditions. In addition, some fungi (Trametes versicolor, Phanerochaete chrysosporium ME-446) and Actinomycetes have also been used for aerobic biodegradation of TCE. The available information on kinetics of biofiltration of TCE and its degradation end-products such as CO2 are discussed along with the available results on the diversity of bacterial community obtained using molecular biological approaches. It has emerged that there is a need to use metabolic engineering and molecular biological tools more intensively to improve the robustness of TCE degrading microbial species and assess their diversity. PMID:23057686

  16. Electrochemical studies of a truncated laccase produced in Pichia pastoris

    SciTech Connect

    Gelo-Pujic, M.; Kim, H.H.; Butlin, N.G.; Palmore, G.T.R.

    1999-12-01

    The cDNA that encodes an isoform is laccase from Trametes versicolor (LCCI), as well as a truncated version (LCCIa), was subcloned and expressed by using the yeast Pichia pastoris as the heterologous host. The amino acid sequence of LCCIa is identical to that of LCCI except that the final 11 amino acids at the C terminus of LCCI are replaced with a single cysteine residue. This modification was introduced for the purpose of improving the kinetics of electron transfer between an electrode and the copper-containing active site of laccase. The two laccases (LCCI and LCCIa) are compared in terms of their relative activity with two substrates that have different redox potentials. Results from electrochemical studies on solutions containing LCCI and LCCIa indicate that the redox potential of the active site of LCCIa is shifted to more negative values (411 mV versus normal hydrogen electrode voltage) than that found in other fungal laccases. In addition, replacing the 11 codons at the C terminus of the laccase gene with a single cysteine codon influences the rate of heterogeneous electron transfer between and electrode and the copper-containing active site. These results demonstrate for the first time that the rate of electron transfer between an oxidoreductase and an electrode can be enhanced by changes to the primary structure of a protein via site-directed mutagenesis.

  17. Three-dimensional organization of three-domain copper oxidases: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Zhukhlistova, N. E., E-mail: amm@ns.crys.ras.ru; Zhukova, Yu. N.; Lyashenko, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Zaitsev, V. N. [University of St. Andrews, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences (United Kingdom); Mikhailov, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2008-01-15

    'Blue' copper-containing proteins are multidomain proteins that utilize a unique redox property of copper ions. Among other blue multicopper oxidases, three-domain oxidases belong to the group of proteins that exhibit a wide variety of compositions in amino acid sequences, functions, and occurrences in organisms. This paper presents a review of the data obtained from X-ray diffraction investigations of the three-dimensional structures of three-domain multicopper oxidases, such as the ascorbate oxidase catalyzing oxidation of ascorbate to dehydroascorbate and its three derivatives; the multicopper oxidase CueO (the laccase homologue); the laccases isolated from the basidiomycetes Coprinus cinereus, Trametes versicolor, Coriolus zonatus, Cerrena maxima, and Rigidoporus lignosus and the ascomycete Melanocarpus albomyces; and the bacterial laccases CotA from the endospore coats of Bacillus subtilis. A comparison of the molecular structures of the laccases of different origins demonstrates that, structurally, these objects are highly conservative. This obviously indicates that the catalytic activity of the enzymes under consideration is characterized by similar mechanisms.

  18. Changes in chemical composition and digestibility of three maize stover components digested by white-rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Lynch, J P; O'Kiely, P; Murphy, R; Doyle, E M

    2014-08-01

    Maize stover (total stem and leaves) is not considered a ruminant feed of high nutritive value. Therefore, an improvement in its digestibility may increase the viability of total forage maize production systems in marginal growth regions. The objective of this study was to describe the changes in chemical composition during the storage of contrasting components of maize stover (leaf, upper stem and lower stem) treated with either of two lignin degrading white-rot fungi (WRF; Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes versicolor). Three components of maize stover (leaf, upper stem and lower stem), harvested at a conventional maturity for silage production, were digested with either of two WRF for one of four digestion durations (1-4 months). Samples taken prior to fungal inoculation were used to benchmark the changes that occurred. The degradation of acid detergent lignin was observed in all sample types digested with P. ostreatus; however, the loss of digestible substrate in all samples inoculated with P. ostreatus was high, and therefore, P. ostreatus-digested samples had a lower dry matter digestibility than samples prior to inoculation. Similarly, T. veriscolor-digested leaf underwent a non-selective degradation of the rumen-digestible components of fibre. The changes in chemical composition of leaf, upper stem and lower stem digested with either P. ostreatus or T. veriscolor were not beneficial to the feed value of the forage, and incurred high DM losses. PMID:24112093

  19. The solubilization of low-ranked coals by microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, G.W.

    1987-07-09

    Late in 1984, our Laboratory was funded by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, US Department of Energy, to investigate the potential utility of microorganisms for the solubilization of low-ranked coals. Our approach has been multifacited, including studies of the types of microorganisms involved, appropriate conditions for their growth and coal-solubilization, the suceptibility of different coals to microbial action, the chemical and physical nature of the product, and potential bioprocess designs. A substantial number of fungal species have been shown to be able to solubilize coal. Cohen and Gabrielle reported that two lignin-degrading fungi, Polyporous (Trametes) versicolor and Poria monticola could solubilize lignite. Ward has isolated several diverse fungi from nature which are capable of degrading different lignites, and our Laboratory has isolated three coal-solubilizing fungi which were found growing on a sample of Texas lignite. The organisms we studied are shown in Table 1. The perceived significance of lignin degradation led us to examine two lignin-degrading strains of the genus Streptomyces. As discussed later, these bacteria were capable of solubilizing coal; but, in the case of at least one, the mechanism was non-enzymatic. The coal-solubilizing ability of other strains of Streptomyces was recently reported. Fakoussa and Trueper found evidence that a strain of Pseudomonas was capble of solubizing coal. It would thus appear that a diverse array of microorganisms possess the ability to solubilize coal. 16 refs.

  20. Enhanced reduction of phenol content and toxicity in olive mill wastewaters by a newly isolated strain of Coriolopsis gallica.

    PubMed

    Daâssi, Dalel; Belbahri, Lassaad; Vallat, Armelle; Woodward, Steve; Nasri, Moncef; Mechichi, Tahar

    2014-02-01

    The search for novel microorganisms able to degrade olive mill wastewaters (OMW) and withstand the toxic effects of the initially high phenolic concentrations is of great scientific and industrial interest. In this work, the possibility of reducing the phenolic content of OMW using new isolates of fungal strains (Coriolopsis gallica, Bjerkandera adusta, Trametes versicolor, Trichoderma citrinoviride, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Trametes trogii, and Fusarium solani) was investigated. In vitro, all fungal isolates tested caused an outstanding decolorization of OMW. However, C. gallica gave the highest decolorization and dephenolization rates at 30 % v/v OMW dilution in water. Fungal growth in OMW medium was affected by several parameters including phenolic compound concentration, nitrogen source, and inoculum size. The optimal OMW medium for the removal of phenolics and color was with the OMW concentration (in percent)/[(NH4)2SO4]/inoculum ratio of 30:6:3. Under these conditions, 90 and 85 % of the initial phenolic compounds and color were removed, respectively. High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis of extracts from treated and untreated OMW showed a clear and substantial reduction in phenolic compound concentrations. Phytotoxicity, assessed using radish (Raphanus sativus) seeds, indicated an increase in germination index of 23-92 % when a 30 % OMW concentration was treated with C. gallica in different dilutions (1/2, 1/4, and 1/8). PMID:23979847

  1. Nanostructured enzymatic biosensor based on fullerene and gold nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and analytical applications.

    PubMed

    Lanzellotto, C; Favero, G; Antonelli, M L; Tortolini, C; Cannistraro, S; Coppari, E; Mazzei, F

    2014-05-15

    In this work a novel electrochemical biosensing platform based on the coupling of two different nanostructured materials (gold nanoparticles and fullerenols) displaying interesting electrochemical features, has been developed and characterized. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) exhibit attractive electrocatalytic behavior stimulating in the last years, several sensing applications; on the other hand, fullerene and its derivatives are a very promising family of electroactive compounds although they have not yet been fully employed in biosensing. The methodology proposed in this work was finalized to the setup of a laccase biosensor based on a multilayer material consisting in AuNPs, fullerenols and Trametes versicolor Laccase (TvL) assembled layer by layer onto a gold (Au) electrode surface. The influence of different modification step procedures on the electroanalytical performance of biosensors has been evaluated. Cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) were used to characterize the modification of surface and to investigate the bioelectrocatalytic biosensor response. This biosensor showed fast amperometric response to gallic acid, which is usually considered a standard for polyphenols analysis of wines, with a linear range 0.03-0.30 mmol L(-1) (r(2)=0.9998), with a LOD of 0.006 mmol L(-1) or expressed as polyphenol index 5.0-50 mg L(-1) and LOD 1.1 mg L(-1). A tentative application of the developed nanostructured enzyme-based biosensor was performed evaluating the detection of polyphenols either in buffer solution or in real wine samples. PMID:24441023

  2. Immobilized laccase on activated poly(vinyl alcohol) microspheres for enzyme thermistor application.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xue; Gu, Haixin; Chen, Wei; Shi, Hanchang; Yang, Bei; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Qi

    2014-07-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) microspheres were prepared by inverse suspension crosslinked method, with glutaraldehyde as a crosslinking agent. PVA microspheres activated with aldehyde groups were employed for Trametes versicolor laccase immobilization. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the activated PVA microspheres and PVA microspheres with immobilized laccase (Lac/PVA microspheres), which show that laccase was successfully immobilized on the PVA microspheres. The optimum pH and temperature coupling conditions for the immobilized laccase were determined to be 3.3 and 30 °C, respectively. Residual activity was also investigated by soaking the immobilized laccase in organic solvents at different concentrations, proving it chemically stable. Immobilized laccase exhibited good storage stability at 4 °C. The enzyme biosensor showed good performance in 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylthiazoline-6-sulfonate) and bisphenol A, with concentration ranges of 2 to 8 mM and 0.05 to 0.25 mM, respectively. Therefore, PVA microspheres may have high potential as support for enzyme thermistor applications. PMID:24760609

  3. Hospital wastewater treatment by fungal bioreactor: removal efficiency for pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptor compounds.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Morató, Carles; Lucas, Daniel; Llorca, Marta; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Gorga, Marina; Petrovic, Mira; Barceló, Damià; Vicent, Teresa; Sarrà, Montserrat; Marco-Urrea, Ernest

    2014-09-15

    Hospital effluents contribute to the occurrence of emerging contaminants in the environment due to their high load of pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) and some endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs). Nowadays, hospital wastewaters are co-treated with urban wastewater; however, the dilution factor and the inefficiency of wastewater treatment plants in the removal of PhACs and EDCs make inappropriate the co-treatment of both effluents. In this paper, a new alternative to pre-treat hospital wastewater concerning the removal of PhACs and EDCs is presented. The treatment was carried out in a batch fluidized bed bioreactor under sterile and non-sterile conditions with Trametes versicolor pellets. Results on non-sterile experiments pointed out that 46 out of the 51 detected PhACs and EDCs were partially to completely removed. The total initial PhAC amount into the bioreactor was 8185 ?g in sterile treatment and 8426 ?g in non-sterile treatment, and the overall load elimination was 83.2% and 53.3% in their respective treatments. In addition, the Microtox test showed reduction of wastewater toxicity after the treatment. Hence, the good efficiency of the fungal treatment regarding removal of the wide diversity of PhACs and EDCs detected in hospital effluents is demonstrated. PMID:24951894

  4. Degradation of Three Aromatic Dyes by White Rot Fungi and the Production of Ligninolytic Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Jayasinghe, Chandana; Imtiaj, Ahmed; Lee, Geon Woo; Im, Kyung Hoan; Hur, Hyun; Lee, Min Woong; Yang, Hee-Sun

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the degradation of aromatic dyes and the production of ligninolytic enzymes by 10 white rot fungi. The results of this study revealed that Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, Pleurotus pulmonarius, Ganoderma lucidum, Trametes suaveolens, Stereum ostrea and Fomes fomentarius have the ability to efficiently degrade congo red on solid media. However, malachite green inhibited the mycelial growth of these organisms. Therefore, they did not effectively decolorize malachite green on solid media. However, P. cinnabarinus and P. pulmonarius were able to effectively decolorize malachite green on solid media. T. suaveolens and F. rosea decolorized methylene blue more effectively than any of the other fungi evaluated in this study. In liquid culture, G. lucidum, P. cinnabarinus, Naematoloma fasciculare and Pycnoporus coccineus were found to have a greater ability to decolorize congo red. In addition, P. cinnabarinus, G. lucidum and T. suaveolens decolorized methylene blue in liquid media more effectively than any of the other organisms evaluated in this study. Only F. fomentarius was able to decolorize malachite green in liquid media, and its ability to do so was limited. To investigate the production of ligninolytic enzymes in media containing aromatic compounds, fungi were cultured in naphthalene supplemented liquid media. P. coccineus, Coriolus versicolor and P. cinnabarinus were found to produce a large amount of laccase when grown in medium that contained napthalene. PMID:23990745

  5. Improving the performance of a biofuel cell cathode with laccase-containing culture supernatant from Pycnoporus sanguineus.

    PubMed

    Fokina, Oleksandra; Eipper, Jens; Winandy, Lex; Kerzenmacher, Sven; Fischer, Reinhard

    2014-11-01

    Laccases are multicopper oxidoreductases that can be used in biofuel cells to improve cathode performance by cathodic oxygen reduction. Here we present a laccase from the ligninolytic white-rot fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus that, in contrast to the Trametes versicolor laccase, can be produced in the absence of inducers in a standard culture medium. After 7days of cultivation the activity of this laccase in culture supernatant reached 2.5U/ml, which is high enough for direct application of the supernatant in biofuel cells. The highest current density of 115.0±3.5?A/cm(2) at 400mV vs. SCE was obtained at pH 5 with a buckypaper cathode with a laccase-containing culture supernatant. The enzyme also showed electrocatalytic activity at pH 6 and 7. These results not only present a new cost-efficient laccase for improving cathode performance, but also show that new laccases with different catalytic properties can be suitable for biofuel cells. PMID:25459854

  6. [Immobilization of crude laccase onto anion exchange resin and its application in decoloration of malachite green].

    PubMed

    Qi, Xu-liang; Liu, Xiang; Liu, Bo; Wang, Lin; Wang, Xiao-chun; Fang, Chao

    2012-08-01

    Crude laccase from Trametes versicolor was immobilized onto anion exchange resin D201 by three methods, i.e., direct electrostatic adsorption (D201-Lac-I), crosslinking after electrostatic adsorption (D201-Lac-II) and electrostatic adsorption after treating D201 with glutaraldehyde (D201-Lac-III). Compared to direct electrostatic adsorption, the immobilized laccase amount of D201-Lac-II increased by 4.65 times but the laccase activity was decreased to 4.8%, while the laccase activity on D201-Lac-III increased by 2.99 times, with the immobilization amount decreased to 51%. Shadows of laccase aggregation on D201-Lac-III were found by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Continuous batch decoloration of malachite green demonstrated that the decoloration efficiency of D201-Lac-III remained in the range of 40% to 55% for more than 210 hours, in addition, the enzyme activity on D201-Lac-III maintained unchanged while the activity of free laccase declined to less than 20% under the same condition. All of the results above indicated that D201-Lac-III had a significantly enhanced stability and good reusability. Considering the low price and simple production procedure of crude laccase, D201-Lac-III could be promising for water treatment purpose. PMID:23213900

  7. Homogeneous and heterogeneous methods for laccase-mediated functionalization of chitosan by tannic acid and quercetin.

    PubMed

    Boži?, Mojca; Gorgieva, Selestina; Kokol, Vanja

    2012-07-01

    Homogeneous and heterogeneous methods for functionalization of chitosan with quercetin or tannic acid using laccase from Trametes versicolor is presented, yielding a bio-based product with synergistic antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. HPLC-SEC analysis and cyclic voltammetry kinetic studies showed that laccase catalyzes the oxidation of quercetin to electrophilic o-quinones, which undergo to an oligomer/polymer-forming structures. On the other hand, tannic acid was converted into gallic acid, its dimers, partially gallic acid esterified glucose and glucose, when exposed to laccases. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy provided evidence that quercetin o-quinones undergo coupling reactions with amino groups of chitosan via Schiff-base and Michael addition mechanisms under heterogeneous method, while oxidized tannic acid cross-linked with chitosan by hydrogen and electrostatic interactions under both methods. All polyphenols functionalized chitosans showed greatly improved ABTS(+) cation radicals scavenging capacity, compared with the untreated chitosan, while antimicrobial activities significantly depended on the mode of functionalization and type of microorganism. PMID:24750872

  8. Common environmental allergens causing respiratory allergy in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, A B; Kumar, Pawan

    2002-03-01

    Respiratory allergy affects all age groups but the children are the worst affected by the respiratory allergy. Bioparticles from different biological sources are the main cause of allergy. Pollen grains, fungal spores, insect and other materials of biological origin form the most important allergen load in the air. For the efficient diagnosis of the allergy and its effective treatment it is very important to know about the prevalence, seasonal and annual variations of aeroallergens of the area. India being the climatically diversed country, there is diversity in the flora and fauna of different parts of the country. Atmospheric surveys carried out in different parts of India reveal that, Alanus nitida, Amarantus spinosus, Argemone mexicana Cocos nucifera, Betula utilis, Borasus flabellifer, Caraica papaya, Cedrus deodara, Cassia fistula, Parthenium, Chenopodium album, Dodonaea viscosa, Malotus phillipensis, Plantago ovata, Prosopis juliflora, Ricinus communis, Holoptelea intergifolia are the allergenically important pollens of the country. Among the fungal aeroallergens, Alternaria, Candida aibieans, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus japonicus, Cladosporium cladosporoides, Fusarium roseum, Ganoderma lucidum,Neurospora sitophila Helminthosporium, Ustilago trtici, Uromyses are important allergens. Dust mites D. farinae, D.pteronyssinus are also important source of inhalant allergens particularly in the coastal areas of the country. Cockroaches, beetles, weevils, mosquitoes, house flies also contribute towards the aeroallergen load and are allergenically implicated. Avoidance of the indoor and outdoor aeroallergens is recommended for better management of respiratory allergy. PMID:12003301

  9. Therapeutic effects of substances occurring in higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms: a modern perspective.

    PubMed

    Wasser, S P; Weis, A L

    1999-01-01

    This review highlights some of the recently isolated and identified substances of higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms origin that express promising antitumor, immune modulating, cardiovascular and hypercholesterolemia, antiviral, antibacterial, and antiparasitic effects. Medicinal mushrooms have a long history of use in folk medicine. In particular, mushrooms useful against cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lungs, etc. are known in China, Russia, Japan, Korea, as well as the U.S.A. and Canada. There are about 200 species of mushrooms that have been found to markedly inhibit the growth of different kinds of tumors. Searching for new antitumor and other medicinal substances from mushrooms and to study the medicinal value of these mushrooms have become a matter of great significance. However, most of the mushroom origin antitumor substances have not been clearly defined. Several antitumor polysaccharides such as hetero-beta-glucans and their protein complexes (e.g., xyloglucans and acidic beta-glucan-containing uronic acid), as well as dietary fibers, lectins, and terpenoids have been isolated from medicinal mushrooms. In Japan, Russia, China, and the U.S.A. several different polysaccharide antitumor agents have been developed from the fruiting body, mycelia, and culture medium of various medicinal mushrooms (Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum, Schizophyllum commune, Trametes versicolor, Inonotus obliquus, and Flammulina velutipes). Both cellular components and secondary metabolites of a large number of mushrooms have been shown to effect the immune system of the host and therefore could be used to treat a variety of disease states. PMID:9987601

  10. Fungal biodegradation of hard coal by a newly reported isolate, Neosartorya fischeri.

    PubMed

    Igbinigie, Eric E; Aktins, Simon; van Breugel, Yvonne; van Dyke, Susan; Davies-Coleman, Michael T; Rose, Peter D

    2008-11-01

    Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) has been observed to grow sporadically on the surface of coal dumps in the Witbank coal mining area of South Africa. Root zone investigation indicated that a number of fungal species may be actively involved in the biodegradation of hard coal, thus enabling the survival of the plant, through mutualistic interaction, in this extreme environment. In an extensive screening program of over two thousand samples, the Deuteromycete, Neosartorya fischeri, was isolated and identified. The biodegradation of coal by N. fischeri was tested in flask studies and in a perfusion fixed-bed bioreactor used to simulate the coal dump environment. The performance of N. fischeri was compared to Phanaerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes (Polyporus) versicolor, previously described in coal biodegradation studies. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry of the biodegradation product indicated oxidation of the coal surface and nitration of the condensed aromatic structures of the coal macromolecule as possible reaction mechanisms in N. fischeri coal biodegradation. This is a first report of N. fischeri-mediated coal biodegradation and, in addition to possible applications in coal biotechnology, the findings may enable development of sustainable technologies in coal mine rehabilitation. PMID:19016511

  11. Revision of Aspergillus section Flavipedes: seven new species and proposal of section Jani sect. nov.

    PubMed

    Hubka, Vit; Nováková, Alena; Kola?ík, Miroslav; Jurjevi?, Željko; Peterson, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus section Flavipedes contains species found worldwide in soils and rhizospheres, indoor and cave environments, as endophytes, food contaminants and occasionally as human pathogens. They produce many extensively studied bioactive secondary metabolites and biotechnologically relevant enzymes. The taxa were revised based on phylogenetic analysis of sequences from four loci (?-tubulin, calmodulin, RPB2, ITS rDNA), two PCR fingerprinting methods, micro- and macromorphology and physiology. Section Flavipedes includes three known and seven new species: A. ardalensis, A. frequens, A. luppii, A. mangaliensis, A. movilensis, A. polyporicola and A. spelaeus. The name A. neoflavipes was proposed for Fennellia flavipes a distinct species from its supposed asexual state A. flavipes. Aspergillus iizukae, A. frequens and A. mangaliensis are the most common and widely distributed species, whereas A. flavipes s. str. is rare. A dichotomous key based on the combination of morphology and physiology is provided for all recognized species. Aspergillus section Jani is established to contain A. janus and A. brevijanus, species previously classified as members of sect. Versicolores, Terrei or Flavipedes. This new section is strongly supported by phylogenetic data and morphology. Section Jani species produce three types of conidiophores and conidia, and colonies have green and white sectors making them distinctive. Accessory conidia found in pathogenic A. terreus were found in all members of sects. Flavipedes and Jani. Our data indicated that A. frequens is a clinically relevant and produces accessory conidia during infection. PMID:25344259

  12. Fungal permeable reactive barrier to remediate groundwater in an artificial aquifer.

    PubMed

    Folch, Albert; Vilaplana, Marcel; Amado, Leila; Vicent, Teresa; Caminal, Glòria

    2013-11-15

    Biobarriers, as permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), are a common technology that mainly uses bacteria to remediate groundwater in polluted aquifers. In this study, we propose to use Trametes versicolor, a white-rot fungus, as the reactive element because of its capacity to degrade a wide variety of highly recalcitrant and xenobiotic compounds. A laboratory-scale artificial aquifer was constructed to simulate groundwater flow under real conditions in shallow aquifers. Orange G dye was chosen as a contaminant to visually monitor the hydrodynamic behaviour of the system and any degradation of the dye by the fungus. Batch experiments at different pH values (6 and 7) and several temperatures (15 °C, 18 °C, 20 °C and 25 °C) were performed to select the appropriate residence time and glucose consumption rate required for continuous treatment. The maximum Orange G degradation was 97%. Continuous degradation over 85% was achieved for more than 8 days. Experimental results indicate for the first time that this fungus can potentially be used as a permeable reactive barrier in real aquifers. PMID:24095995

  13. Prediction of Toxigenic Fungal Growth in Buildings by Using a Novel Modelling System

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, Neil J.; Johnstone, Cameron M.; McLean, R. Craig; Anderson, John G.; Clarke, Joe A.

    1999-01-01

    There is growing concern about the adverse effects of fungal bioaerosols on the occupants of damp dwellings. Based on an extensive analysis of previously published data and on experiments carried out within this study, critical limits for the growth of the indoor fungi Eurotium herbariorum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Stachybotrys chartarum were mathematically described in terms of growth limit curves (isopleths) which define the minimum combination of temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) at which growth will occur. Each growth limit curve was generated from a series of data points on a T-RH plot and mathematically fitted by using a third-order polynomial equation of the form RH = a3T3 + a2T2 + a1T + a0. This fungal growth prediction model was incorporated within the ESP-r (Environmental Systems Performance [r stands for “research”]) computer-based program for transient simulation of the energy and environmental performance of buildings. For any specified location, the ESP-r system is able to predict the time series evolution of local surface temperature and relative humidity, taking explicit account of constructional moisture flow, moisture generation sources, and air movement. This allows the predicted local conditions to be superimposed directly onto fungal growth curves. The concentration of plotted points relative to the curves allows an assessment of the risk of fungal growth. The system’s predictive capability was tested via laboratory experiments and by comparison with monitored data from a fungus-contaminated house. PMID:10543791

  14. Immobilization of laccase in a sponge-like hydrogel for enhanced durability in enzymatic degradation of dye pollutants.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongfei; Yang, Hua; Huang, Wenguang; Zhang, Shujuan

    2015-07-15

    A highly stable and efficient biocatalyst was fabricated by encapsulating Trametes versicolor laccase within a chitosan grafted polyacrylamide hydrogel (denoted as Lac-PAM-CTS). Scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption tests demonstrated that channels of diameter of 10-20?m were regularly distributed throughout the sponge-like Lac-PAM-CTS. Besides, there were massive mesopores and macropores in the lamellar walls of the hydrogel. Such a network structure reduced the diffusion resistance of the hydrogel to the target substrates. The recovered activity of the obtained Lac-PAM-CTS was 40.8%. As compared to free laccase, the Lac-PAM-CTS showed enhanced thermal and chemical stability. The positive surface charge of the Lac-PAM-CTS endowed it with a pre-enrichment effect in the treatment of anionic dyes. In a continuous six-cycle batch decoloration of Malachite Green, the Lac-PAM-CTS showed much better durability than the free laccase. The results here suggest that sponge-like hydrogel is a good supporting matrix for laccase. PMID:25841061

  15. White-Rot Basidiomycete-mediated Decomposition of C60 Fullerol

    PubMed Central

    Schreiner, Kathryn M.; Filley, Timothy R.; Blanchette, Robert A.; Bowen, Brenda Beitler; Bolskar, Robert D.; Hockaday, William C.; Masiello, Caroline A.; Raebiger, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Industrially produced carbon-based nanomaterials (CNM), including fullerenes and nanotubes, will be introduced into the environment in increasing amounts in the next decades. One likely environmental chemical transformation of C60 is oxidation to C60 fullerol through both abiotic- and biotic-mediated means. Unfortunately, knowledge of the environmental fate of oxidized CNM is lacking. This study used bulk and compound specific 13C stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry techniques and spectroradiometry analysis to examine the ability of two white rot basidiomycete fungi (Phlebia tremellosa and Trametes versicolor) to metabolize and degrade an oxygenated CNM, C60 fullerol. After 32 weeks of decay, both fungi were able to bleach and oxidize fullerol to CO2. Additionally, the fungi incorporated minor amounts of the fullerol carbon into lipid biomass. These findings are significant in that they represent the first report of direct biodegradation and utilization of any fullerene derivative and provide valuable information about the possible environmental fates of other CNM. PMID:19534129

  16. Protection of Wood from Microorganisms by Laccase-Catalyzed Iodination

    PubMed Central

    Engel, J.; Thöny-Meyer, L.; Schwarze, F. W. M. R.; Ihssen, J.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, Norway spruce wood (Picea abies L.) was reacted with a commercial Trametes versicolor laccase in the presence of potassium iodide salt or the phenolic compounds thymol and isoeugenol to impart an antimicrobial property to the wood surface. In order to assess the efficacy of the wood treatment, a leaching of the iodinated and polymerized wood and two biotests including bacteria, a yeast, blue stain fungi, and wood decay fungi were performed. After laccase-catalyzed oxidation of the phenols, the antimicrobial effect was significantly reduced. In contrast, the enzymatic oxidation of iodide (I?) to iodine (I2) in the presence of wood led to an enhanced resistance of the wood surface against all microorganisms, even after exposure to leaching. The efficiency of the enzymatic wood iodination was comparable to that of a chemical wood preservative, VP 7/260a. The modification of the lignocellulose by the laccase-catalyzed iodination was assessed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) technique. The intensities of the selected lignin-associated bands and carbohydrate reference bands were analyzed, and the results indicated a structural change in the lignin matrix. The results suggest that the laccase-catalyzed iodination of the wood surface presents an efficient and ecofriendly method for wood protection. PMID:22865075

  17. Biodegradation of tetrabromobisphenol A by oxidases in basidiomycetous fungi and estrogenic activity of the biotransformation products.

    PubMed

    Uhnáková, Bronislava; Ludwig, Roland; P?knicová, Jana; Homolka, Ladislav; Lisá, Ludmila; Šulc, Miroslav; Pet?í?ková, Alena; Elzeinová, Fatima; Pelantová, Helena; Monti, Daniela; K?en, Vladimír; Haltrich, Dietmar; Martínková, Ludmila

    2011-10-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) degradation was investigated using white rot fungi and their oxidative enzymes. Strains of the Trametes, Pleurotus, Bjerkandera and Dichomitus genera eliminated almost 1 mM TBBPA within 4 days. Laccase, whose role in TBBPA degradation was demonstrated in fungal cultures, was applied to TBBPA degradation alone and in combination with cellobiose dehydrogenase from Sclerotium rolfsii. Purified laccase from Trametes versicolor degraded approximately 2 mM TBBPA within 5 h, while the addition of cellobiose dehydrogenase increased the degradation rate to almost 2.5 mM within 3 h. Laccase was used to prepare TBBPA metabolites 2,6-dibromo-4-(2-hydroxypropane-2-yl) phenol (1), 2,6-dibromo-4-(2-methoxypropane-2-yl) phenol (2) and 1-(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphen-1-yl)-2,2',6,6'-tetrabromo-4,4'-isopropylidene diphenol (3). As compounds 1 and 3 were identical to the TBBPA metabolites prepared by using rat and human liver fractions (Zalko et al., 2006), laccase can provide a simple means of preparing these metabolites for toxicity studies. Products 1 and 2 exhibited estrogenic effects, unlike TBBPA, but lower cell toxicity. PMID:21865031

  18. Development of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with enhanced resistance to phenolic fermentation inhibitors in lignocellulose hydrolysates by heterologous expression of laccase.

    PubMed

    Larsson, S; Cassland, P; Jönsson, L J

    2001-03-01

    To improve production of fuel ethanol from renewable raw materials, laccase from the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor was expressed under control of the PGK1 promoter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to increase its resistance to phenolic inhibitors in lignocellulose hydrolysates. It was found that the laccase activity could be enhanced twofold by simultaneous overexpression of the homologous t-SNARE Sso2p. The factors affecting the level of active laccase obtained, besides the cultivation temperature, included pH and aeration. Laccase-expressing and Sso2p-overexpressing S. cerevisiae was cultivated in the presence of coniferyl aldehyde to examine resistance to lignocellulose-derived phenolic fermentation inhibitors. The laccase-producing transformant had the ability to convert coniferyl aldehyde at a faster rate than a control transformant not expressing laccase, which enabled faster growth and ethanol formation. The laccase-producing transformant was also able to ferment a dilute acid spruce hydrolysate at a faster rate than the control transformant. A decrease in the content of low-molecular-mass aromatic compounds, accompanied by an increase in the content of high-molecular-mass compounds, was observed during fermentation with the laccase-expressing strain, illustrating that laccase was active even at the very low levels of oxygen supplied. Our results demonstrate the importance of phenolic compounds as fermentation inhibitors and the advantage of using laccase-expressing yeast strains for producing ethanol from lignocellulose. PMID:11229906

  19. Mycobiota and aflatoxins in raw materials and pet food in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campos, S G; Cavaglieri, L R; Fernández Juri, M G; Dalcero, A M; Krüger, C; Keller, L A M; Magnoli, C E; Rosa, C A R

    2008-06-01

    Commercial feedstuffs are a basic element in modern pet husbandry in the world. In dogs, the effect of mycotoxins is severe and can lead to death. Few reports on the influence of dietary mycotoxins were found in the scientific literature. The aims of this work were to isolate and identify the mycoflora and to determine the aflatoxins (AFs) natural occurrence in raw materials and ready dry pet food. Therefore, the aflatoxigenic capacity of Aspergillus flavus species was investigated. Aspergillus was the prevalent genera (65-89%) followed by Penicillium and Fusarium spp. Aspergillus flavus was the most prevalent species, followed by Aspergillus sydowii, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus versicolor. Aspergillus flavus frequencies ranged from 58% to 86% except in sorghum meal. All samples assayed (except corn grains and ready pet food) showed Fusarium spp. contamination. Corn meal and corn meal and gluten samples had 100% Fusarium verticillioides. Fusarium graminearum was isolated from sorghum meal. Aspergillus flavus strains (75%) isolated from raw materials and 57% from pet food were able to produce AFs. All samples showed AFs contamination percentages over 70%; corn and sorghum meal obtained the highest AFs levels. Ready pet food did not show quantitative levels of the tested toxins. This is the first report of the aflatoxigenic capacity by A. flavus from Brazilian pet food. PMID:18477320

  20. Biodegradation of ddt (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane) by the white rot fungus phanerochaete chrysosporium

    SciTech Connect

    Bumpus, J.A.; Aust, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive biodegradation of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by disappearance and mineralization of (14C) DDT in nutrient nitrogen-deficient cultures. Mass balance studies demonstrated the formation of polar and water-soluble metabolites during degradation. Hexane-extractable metabolites identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry included 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane(DDD), 2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol (dicofol), 2,2-dichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethanol (FW-152), and 4,4'-dichlorobenzophenone (DBP). DDD was the first metabolite observed; it appeared after 3 days of incubation and disappeared from culture upon continued incubation. This, as well as the fact that ((14)C) dicofol was mineralized, demonstrates that intermediates formed during DDT degradation are also metabolized. These results demonstrate that the pathway for DDT degradation in P. chrysosporium is clearly different from the major pathway proposed for microbial or environmental degradation of DDT. Like P. chrysosporium ME-446 and BKM-F-1767, the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Phellinus weirii, and Polyporus versicolor also mineralized DDT.

  1. Characterization of the Fungal Microbiota (Mycobiome) in Healthy and Dandruff-Afflicted Human Scalps

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee Kuk; Ha, Myung-Ho; Park, Sang-Gue; Kim, Myeung Nam; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Wonyong

    2012-01-01

    The human scalp harbors a vast community of microbial mutualists, the composition of which is difficult to elucidate as many of the microorganisms are not culturable using current culture techniques. Dandruff, a common scalp disorder, is known as a causative factor of a mild seborrheic dermatitis as well as pityriasis versicolor, seborrheic dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis. Lipophilic yeast Malassezia is widely accepted to play a role in dandruff, but relatively few comprehensive studies have been reported. In order to investigate fungal biota and genetic resources of dandruff, we amplified the 26S rRNA gene from samples of healthy scalps and dandruff-afflicted scalps. The sequences were analyzed by a high throughput method using a GS-FLX 454 pyrosequencer. Of the 74,811 total sequence reads, Basidiomycota (Filobasidium spp.) was the most common phylum associated with dandruff. In contrast, Ascomycota (Acremonium spp.) was common in the healthy scalps. Our results elucidate the distribution of fungal communities associated with dandruff and provide new avenues for the potential prevention and treatment of dandruff. PMID:22393454

  2. Antifungal potential of triphala churna ingredients against Aspergillus species associated with them during storage.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Ajay K; Avasthi, Shubhi; Sharma, Anu; Bhadauria, Rekha

    2012-03-01

    The present study describes the antifungal potential of fruit and powdered ingredients of triphala churna, i.e. Emblica officinalis (Garetn.) (Amla), Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. (Baheda) and Terminalia chebula (Retz.) (Harada), collected from the market of Gwalior (M.P.), India. Water extracts of all the fruits and powdered samples were tested (in vitro) for their antifungal activities by poisoned food technique against different Aspergillus species (A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. terreus and A. niger) associated with them during storage. All extracts displayed varied levels i.e. very low to very high antifungal activities on four Aspergillus species. The aqueous extracts of fresh fruits (37.96 +/- 7.59%) was observed to be most effective than dry fruits (34.95 +/- 7.59%) and powder (25.07 +/- 6.05%). Terminalia chebula (fresh and dry) extracts were found most active against the four Aspergillus species with 49.15 and 40.8% inhibition, respectively. None of the extracts were found effective against the growth of A. niger. All fruits and powdered aqueous extracts were observed to be ineffective against the A. niger. The variability in antifungal activity of aqueous extracts in the present study may be useful to study the relationship between antifungal potential of herbal drugs and prevalence of fungal contaminant during their storage. PMID:24199459

  3. Geographical variation of St. Lucia Parrot flight vocalizations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleeman, P.M.; Gilardi, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    Parrots are vocal learners and many species of parrots are capable of learning new calls, even as adults. This capability gives parrots the potential to develop communication systems that can vary dramatically over space. St. Lucia Parrot (Amazona versicolor) flight vocalizations were examined for geographic variation between four different sites on the island of St. Lucia. Spectrographic cross-correlation analysis of a commonly used flight vocalization, the p-chow call, demonstrated quantitative differences between sites. Additionally, the similarity of p-chows decreased as the distance between sites increased. Flight call repertoires also differed among sites; parrots at the Des Bottes and Quilesse sites each used one flight call unique to those sites, while parrots at the Barre de L'Isle site used a flight call that Quilesse parrots gave only while perched. It is unclear whether the vocal variation changed clinally with distance, or whether there were discrete dialect boundaries as in a congener, the Yellow-naped Parrot (Amazona auropalliata, Wright 1996). The geographical scale over which the St. Lucia Parrot's vocal variation occurred was dramatically smaller than that of the Yellow-naped Parrot. Similar patterns of fine-scale vocal variation may be more widespread among other parrot species in the Caribbean than previously documented.

  4. Variation in anti-parasite behaviour and infection among larval amphibian species.

    PubMed

    Koprivnikar, Janet; Redfern, Julia C; Mazier, Hannah L

    2014-04-01

    Along with immune defences, many animals exhibit effective anti-parasite behaviours such as parasite avoidance and removal that influence their susceptibility to infection. Host ecology and life history influence investment into comparatively fixed defences such as innate immunity but may affect the strength of anti-parasite behaviours as well. We investigated activity levels in five different species of larval amphibian with varying life histories and ecology in control, novel food stimulus, and trematode parasite (Echinoparyphium sp.) threat conditions. There was a significant interaction of species and treatment given that American toad (Bufo americanus), wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus), and bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) tadpoles generally increased their activity when parasite infectious stages were present while grey tree frogs (Hyla versicolor) and northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) did not, even though activity was negatively related to infection. In addition, there was considerable variation among species in their susceptibility to parasitism, with infection prevalence ranging from 17% in bullfrog tadpoles to 70% in wood frogs. However, amphibian life history (larval and adult traits) was not related to parasitism or level of anti-parasite behaviour at the species level. Consequently, we suggest that future investigations include more species with a range of life history traits and also consider host ecology, particularly if conspicuous anti-parasite behaviours are more likely in amphibian species that experience a relatively low risk of predation. PMID:24337712

  5. A high throughput colorimetric assay of ?-1,3-D-glucans by Congo red dye.

    PubMed

    Semedo, Magda C; Karmali, Amin; Fonseca, Luís

    2015-02-01

    Mushroom strains contain complex nutritional biomolecules with a wide spectrum of therapeutic and prophylactic properties. Among these compounds, ?-d-glucans play an important role in immuno-modulating and anti-tumor activities. The present work involves a novel colorimetric assay method for ?-1,3-d-glucans with a triple helix tertiary structure by using Congo red. The specific interaction that occurs between Congo red and ?-1,3-d-glucan was detected by bathochromic shift from 488 to 516 nm (>20 nm) in UV-Vis spectrophotometer. A micro- and high throughput method based on a 96-well microtiter plate was devised which presents several advantages over the published methods since it requires only 1.51 ?g of polysaccharides in samples, greater sensitivity, speed, assay of many samples and very cheap. ?-D-Glucans of several mushrooms (i.e., Coriolus versicolor, Ganoderma lucidum, Pleurotus ostreatus, Ganoderma carnosum, Hericium erinaceus, Lentinula edodes, Inonotus obliquus, Auricularia auricular, Polyporus umbellatus, Cordyseps sinensis, Agaricus blazei, Poria cocos) were isolated by using a sequence of several extractions with cold and boiling water, acidic and alkaline conditions and quantified by this microtiter plate method. FTIR spectroscopy was used to study the structural features of ?-1,3-D-glucans in these mushroom samples as well as the specific interaction of these polysaccharides with Congo red. The effect of NaOH on triple helix conformation of ?-1,3-D-glucans was investigated in several mushroom species. PMID:25555819

  6. Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR

    SciTech Connect

    D`Souza, T.M.; Boominathan, K.; Reddy, C.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequences of each of the PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Novel medicinal mushroom blend suppresses growth and invasiveness of human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiahua; Sliva, Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Mushrooms are an integral part of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and have been used for millennia to prevent or treat a variety of diseases. Currently mushrooms or their extracts are used globally in the form of dietary supplements. In the present study we have evaluated the anticancer effects of the dietary supplement, MycoPhyto® Complex (MC), a novel medicinal mushroom blend which consists of a blend of mushroom mycelia from the species Agaricus blazei, Cordyceps sinensis, Coriolus versicolor, Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Polyporus umbellatus, and ?-1,3-glucan isolated from the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we show that MC demonstrates cytostatic effects through the inhibition of cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase of highly invasive human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231. DNA-microarray analysis revealed that MC inhibits expression of cell cycle regulatory genes (ANAPC2, ANAPC2, BIRC5, Cyclin B1, Cyclin H, CDC20, CDK2, CKS1B, Cullin 1, E2F1, KPNA2, PKMYT1 and TFDP1). Moreover, MC also suppresses the metastatic behavior of MDA-MB-231 by the inhibition of cell adhesion, cell migration and cell invasion. The potency of MC to inhibit invasiveness of breast cancer cells is linked to the suppression of secretion of the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) from MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, the MC dietary supplement could have potential therapeutic value in the treatment of invasive human breast cancer. PMID:21042722

  8. Dermatologic conditions in teenage adolescents in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Henshaw, Eshan B; Olasode, Olayinka A; Ogedegbe, Evelyn E; Etuk, Imaobong

    2014-01-01

    Background Skin disorders are common in adolescents, and the impact on quality of life can be enormous, particularly when viewed against the backdrop of the visibility of skin diseases and the psychologically vulnerable period of adolescence. However, few studies have documented the magnitude of skin disorders in this subset of individuals. We therefore estimated the point prevalence and pattern of dermatologic conditions in adolescents attending various secondary schools in Calabar, Southern Nigeria. Methods Using a structured questionnaire, relevant sociodemographic information was obtained from 1,447 teenage adolescents from eight secondary schools. Thereafter, a whole body examination was conducted to determine the presence and types of skin disorders seen. Results Skin diseases were seen in 929 students. The point prevalence was higher in males (72.1%) than in females (58.3%). Private schools had a higher prevalence than public schools. The six most common dermatoses were acne vulgaris, pityriasis versicolor, nevi, tinea, miliaria, and keloid/hypertrophic scars, and accounted for over 80% of the dermatoses seen. Conclusion The point prevalence of dermatoses in senior secondary school adolescents was 64.2%. Although a large number of skin disorders were observed, only a handful accounted for a significant proportion of the diseases seen. This increases the ease of training community health workers in the recognition and treatment of common skin diseases. Age, race, and climatic factors are important determinants of skin diseases in adolescents in Nigeria. PMID:24966708

  9. The Malassezia Genus in Skin and Systemic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Magiatis, Prokopios; Hantschke, Markus; Bassukas, Ioannis D.; Velegraki, Aristea

    2012-01-01

    Summary: In the last 15 years, the genus Malassezia has been a topic of intense basic research on taxonomy, physiology, biochemistry, ecology, immunology, and metabolomics. Currently, the genus encompasses 14 species. The 1996 revision of the genus resulted in seven accepted taxa: M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. sympodialis, M. globosa, M. obtusa, M. restricta, and M. slooffiae. In the last decade, seven new taxa isolated from healthy and lesional human and animal skin have been accepted: M. dermatis, M. japonica, M. yamatoensis, M. nana, M. caprae, M. equina, and M. cuniculi. However, forthcoming multidisciplinary research is expected to show the etiopathological relationships between these new species and skin diseases. Hitherto, basic and clinical research has established etiological links between Malassezia yeasts, pityriasis versicolor, and sepsis of neonates and immunocompromised individuals. Their role in aggravating seborrheic dermatitis, dandruff, folliculitis, and onychomycosis, though often supported by histopathological evidence and favorable antifungal therapeutic outcomes, remains under investigation. A close association between skin and Malassezia IgE binding allergens in atopic eczema has been shown, while laboratory data support a role in psoriasis exacerbations. Finally, metabolomic research resulted in the proposal of a hypothesis on the contribution of Malassezia-synthesized aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands to basal cell carcinoma through UV radiation-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:22232373

  10. Use of Cl and C isotopic fractionation to identify degradation and sources of polychlorinated phenols: mechanistic study and field application.

    PubMed

    Aeppli, Christoph; Tysklind, Mats; Holmstrand, Henry; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2013-01-15

    The widespread use of chlorinated phenols (CPs) as a wood preservative has led to numerous contaminated sawmill sites. However, it remains challenging to assess the extent of in situ degradation of CPs. We evaluated the use of compound-specific chlorine and carbon isotope analysis (Cl- and C-CSIA) to assess CP biotransformation. In a laboratory system, we measured isotopic fractionation during oxidative 2,4,6-trichlorophenol dechlorination by representative soil enzymes (C. fumago chloroperoxidase, horseradish peroxidase, and laccase from T. versicolor). Using a mathematical model, the validity of the Rayleigh approach to evaluate apparent kinetic isotope effects (AKIE) was confirmed. A small but significant Cl-AKIE of 1.0022 ± 0.0006 was observed for all three enzymes, consistent with a reaction pathway via a cationic radical species. For carbon, a slight inverse isotope effect was observed (C-AKIE = 0.9945 ± 0.0019). This fractionation behavior is clearly distinguishable from reported reductive dechlorination mechanisms. Based on these results we then assessed degradation and apportioned different types of technical CP mixtures used at two former sawmill sites. To our knowledge, this is the first study that makes use of two-element CSIA to study sources and transformation of CPs in the environment. PMID:23210465

  11. The Prevalence and Pattern of Superficial Fungal Infections among School Children in Ile-Ife, South-Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oke, Olaide Olutoyin; Onayemi, Olaniyi; Olasode, Olayinka Abimbola; Omisore, Akinlolu Gabriel; Oninla, Olumayowa Abimbola

    2014-01-01

    Fungal infections of the skin and nails are common global problems with attendant morbidity among affected individuals. Children are mostly affected due to predisposing factors such as overcrowding and low socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the clinical patterns of superficial fungal infections among primary school children in Ile-Ife. A multistage sampling was conducted to select eight hundred pupils from ten primary schools in Ile-Ife. Data on epidemiological characteristics and clinical history was collected using a semistructured questionnaire and skin scrapings were done. The prevalence of superficial fungal infections among the 800 respondents was 35.0%. Male pupils constituted 51.0% of respondents while the females were 49.0%. The mean age for all the respondents was 9.42 ± 2.00. Tinea capitis was the commonest infection with a prevalence of 26.9% and tinea unguium, tinea corporis, and tinea faciei had a prevalence of 0.8%, 0.6%, and 0.5%, respectively. Tinea manuum had the least prevalence of 0.1%. Pityriasis versicolor had a prevalence of 4.4%. Microsporum audouinii was the leading organism isolated. The study shows that the prevalence of superficial fungal infection (SFI) among primary school children in Ile-Ife is high with tinea capitis as the commonest SFI. PMID:25574161

  12. Cutaneous fungal infection following renal transplantation: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Shuttleworth, D; Philpot, C M; Salaman, J R

    1987-11-01

    The prevalence of cutaneous fungal infection was studied in 72 patients who had undergone renal transplantation and compared with a group of age and sex matched controls. Samples were obtained from toe nails, toe webs, and the upper back; clinically suspicious lesions from other areas were also examined. A total of 576 sites were sampled (288 in each group). Pathogenic fungi were identified from 44 sites (15%) in the renal transplant (RT) group compared with 26 sites (9%) in the control group, (P less than 0.05). However, site-specific differences were less marked; no difference was found between the RT group and controls when the results from the toe nails and toe webs were analysed separately. Trichophyton mentagrophytes was the most common species isolated from both groups. Colonization of the back with Pityrosporum yeasts was significantly more common in the RT group, but few patients in either group had tinea versicolor. 'Mixed infections', with more than one species of fungus isolated in an individual, were only found in the RT group. We also examined the relationship between the presence of fungal infection and the presence or absence of cutaneous malignancy in the renal transplant group. No increase in the prevalence of fungal colonization was found in those patients who had developed cutaneous malignancy compared with those who had not. PMID:3318908

  13. Oral terbinafine (Lamisil) in the treatment of fungal infections of the skin and nails.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D T

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of antifungal drugs depend upon their mode of action, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and its relationship to the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), the spectrum of activity and drug kinetics at the involved site. Terbinafine acts at the fungal cell wall. Its MIC against dermatophytes is the lowest of all currently available systemic antifungal agents. It is the only one with an MIC:MFC ratio of 1:1 so that terbinafine should be effective over very short treatment durations in dermatophyte infections of the scalp, palms and soles, and nail, providing that drug penetration is adequate, as it appears to be. Therapeutic levels persist for a considerable period after the cessation of treatment, also favouring short-duration therapy. Terbinafine is effective against all varieties of dermatophyte. Terbinafine given over 4 weeks or less is effective against Trichophyton of the scalp in children and adults. Its efficacy in zoophilic ectrothrix infection is anecdotal, but it is likely on theoretical grounds. Terbinafine is also effective against pityriasis versicolor and vaginal candidosis, but only topically. As of March 1996, around 3,000,000 patients have been treated worldwide with terbinafine, mostly for 12 weeks for toe-nail onychomycosis. Gastro-intestinal disturbance and minor skin rashes are seen in 5 and 2% of patients, respectively. PMID:9154400

  14. [Unusual fungal species causing onychomycosis.].

    PubMed

    López-Jodra, O; Torres-Rodríguez, J M

    1999-10-01

    Dermatomycoses caused by non-dermatophytic mycelial fungi are very rare with the exception of onychomycoses. Controversies regarding the pathogenic role often arise when these species and yeasts are isolated from nail scrapings. Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis are the species identified more frequently from nails, particularly from finger nails. Because they could be resident flora of the skin, cultures should be interpreted according to clinical data, direct microscopic observation of clinical samples, and quantification of colonies. The recognition of other yeasts, such as Candida guillermondii, Candida famata or Candida krusei is more problematic. Isolation of moulds form toe nails accounts for 2 to 12% in different studies, with a prevalence of 7.6% in Barcelona being Scopulariopsis brevicaulis the most frequent species, but Aspergillus versicolor is also a particular etiologic agent of onychomycosis (2.5%). To confirm the etiology of any onychomycosis, standard criteria for mycological diagnosis and identification of moulds should be strictly applied. Experience in the diagnosis of superficial mycosis due to new species of fungi is required for improving current knowledge on the prevalence and clinical importance of this type of infections. PMID:18473597

  15. Bioactivity of Trifoliate Orange (Poncirus trifoliate) Seed Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Yeong; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2012-01-01

    Trifoliate orange seed extracts (TSEs) were made using either distilled water (TW), ethanol (TE), or n-hexane (TH), to measure total polyphenol contents, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and anti-complementary activity. The results showed that the total polyphenol content showed higher value at TE (235.24 ?g/mL, p<0.05) than those of TW (132.65 ?g/mL) and TH (165.44 ?g/mL) at 10 mg/mL and TE exerted the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (61.77%, p<0.05), which occurred in the following order: TE>TW (56.87%)>TH (39.78%). The results of ABTS radical scavenging activity showed that TW (34.26%) and TE (31.81%) showed similar activities, which were higher than TH (12.74%, p<0.05). Anti-complementary activity of TE (61% at 500 ?g/mL) showed a higher activity when compared with the positive control (60% at 1,000 ?g/mL) polysaccharide-K (PSK), a known immuno-active polysaccharide from Coriolus versicolor. Consequently, among TSEs, TE is a byproduct from trifoliate orange and could be an important source of dietary polyphenolic antioxidant compounds and immunopotentiating activity, including complement activation. PMID:24471075

  16. Azo dye decolorization by a laccase/mediator system in a membrane reactor: enzyme and mediator reusability.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Laura; Jonstrup, Maria; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni; Mattiasson, Bo

    2011-10-10

    This paper presents the use of a membrane-integrated reactor system with recycling of laccase and mediator for azo dye decolorization. From initial screening of different laccases and mediators, Trametes versicolor laccase and syringaldehyde provided the best system for decolorization. Decolorization yields of 98, 88, 80 and 78% were obtained for Red FN-2BL, Red BWS, Remazol Blue RR and Blue 4BL, respectively. The reaction parameters were optimized and a membrane reactor was set up for dye decolorization in batch mode with reuse of the enzyme. Between 10 and 20 batches could be run with decolorization yields from 95 to 52% depending on the dye type. To study the possibility of reusing both enzyme and mediator, the reactor was run using 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPO) coupled to polyethylene glycol (PEG). Nine batches were run for the treatment of Remazol Blue RR, providing decolorization yields of 96-78%. Cost analysis of the processes showed that the costs of laccase/syringaldehyde or laccase/TEMPO were almost equal when running 20 batches, but the cost for the PEG-TEMPO was higher. However, the advantages associated with reuse of the mediator should motivate further development of the concept. PMID:22112621

  17. The spectrum of Malassezia species isolated from students with pityriasis vesicolor in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ibekwe, P U; Ogunbiyi, A O; Besch, R; Ruzicka, T; Sárdy, M

    2015-04-01

    Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a common superficial fungal infection of the skin caused by Malassezia. Initially M. furfur was suggested as its main aetiological agent; however, more recent studies suggest M. globosa as the dominant species. The possibility of a variance in predominant species based on geographical basis has not been fully evaluated. The objective of this study was to identify the Malassezia species on affected and non-affected skin of students with PV who reside in a tropical environment (Abuja, Nigeria) and correlate them to clinical characteristics. In this study, the literature on prevalence of Malassezia genus in PV was also reviewed. Samples were taken from 304 PV lesions and 110 normal appearing skin. Microscopy, culture and identification of Malassezia species utilising polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis were performed. Three Malassezia species were detected in PV with the major species being M. furfur. On normal appearing skin, M. furfur (77.6%) and M. restricta (10.4%) were both detected. No case of M. globosa was identified in this study. There was no significant difference between species identified and clinical features of PV. M. furfur is probably still the most predominant species causing PV in the tropical environment. PMID:25703018

  18. Cell wall degradation in the autolysis of filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Perez-Leblic, M I; Reyes, F; Martinez, M J; Lahoz, R

    1982-12-27

    A systematic study on autolysis of the cell walls of fungi has been made on Neurospora crassa, Botrytis cinerea, Polystictus versicolor, Aspergillus nidulans, Schizophyllum commune, Aspergillus niger, and Mucor mucedo. During autolysis each fungus produces the necessary lytic enzymes for its autodegradation. From autolyzed cultures of each fungus enzymatic precipitates were obtained. The degree of lysis of the cell walls, obtained from non-autolyzed mycelia, was studied by incubating these cell walls with and without a supply of their own lytic enzymes. The degree of lysis increased with the incubation time and generally was higher with a supply of lytic enzymes. Cell walls from mycelia of different ages were obtained. A higher degree of lysis was always found, in young cell walls than in older cell walls, when exogenous lytic enzymes were present. In all the fungi studied, there is lysis of the cell walls during autolysis. This is confirmed by the change of the cell wall structure as well as by the degree of lysis reached by the cell wall and the release of substances, principally glucose and N-acetylglucosamine in the medium. PMID:6219290

  19. C-type lectin Mincle is an activating receptor for pathogenic fungus, Malassezia

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Sho; Matsumoto, Makoto; Takeuchi, Osamu; Matsuzawa, Tetsuhiro; Ishikawa, Eri; Sakuma, Machie; Tateno, Hiroaki; Uno, Jun; Hirabayashi, Jun; Mikami, Yuzuru; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Saito, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Mincle (also called as Clec4e and Clecsf9) is a C-type lectin receptor expressed in activated phagocytes. Recently, we have demonstrated that Mincle is an FcR?-associated activating receptor that senses damaged cells. To search an exogenous ligand(s), we screened pathogenic fungi using cell line expressing Mincle, FcR?, and NFAT-GFP reporter. We found that Mincle specifically recognizes the Malassezia species among 50 different fungal species tested. Malassezia is a pathogenic fungus that causes skin diseases, such as tinea versicolor and atopic dermatitis, and fatal sepsis. However, the specific receptor on host cells has not been identified. Mutation of the putative mannose-binding motif within C-type lectin domain of Mincle abrogated Malassezia recognition. Analyses of glycoconjugate microarray revealed that Mincle selectively binds to ?-mannose but not mannan. Thus, Mincle may recognize specific geometry of ?-mannosyl residues on Malassezia species and use this to distinguish them from other fungi. Malassezia activated macrophages to produce inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. To elucidate the physiological function of Mincle, Mincle-deficient mice were established. Malassezia-induced cytokine/chemokine production by macrophages from Mincle?/? mice was significantly impaired. In vivo inflammatory responses against Malassezia was also impaired in Mincle?/? mice. These results indicate that Mincle is the first specific receptor for Malassezia species to be reported and plays a crucial role in immune responses to this fungus. PMID:19171887

  20. Quantification of C. globosum spores in house dust samples.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chunhua; Provost, Natacha B; Desroches, Tamara; Miller, J David

    2014-01-01

    Chaetomium globosum is one of the most common fungi that grows in damp buildings and occurs in agricultural and forestry workplaces. Using sera from atopic patients, we characterized and purified an extracellular chitosanase (Chg47) from C. globosum that is antigenic to humans. The study reports the production of monoclonal antibodies to the protein. Three capture ELISAs were developed for Chg47 for detection of spores and spore and mycelial fragments in dust samples using different mono- and polyclonal antibody combinations. One method is based on an enhanced biotinylated polyclonal antibody as the secondary antibody and coating anti-IgM to capture one of two clones of IgM monoclonal antibodies as the capture antibody. The other method makes use of an enhanced rabbit polyclonal antibody as both the primary and capture antibody. The detection limit of the double PAb method for the Chg47 antigen was 7.6 pg/ml. When the anti-IgM+10B3 clone was used, the detection limit was 61 pg/ml and for anti-IgM+5F12, 122 pg/ml. The detection limit of double PAb method is comparable to methods for the allergen and spores of Aspergillus versicolor in house dust and is more sensitive than other immunoassays for allergens in house including for Stachybotrys chartarum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Alternaria alternata. All three methods had limited cross-reactivity to fungi common in house dust representing a diverse array of taxa. PMID:25292122

  1. Effects of leachate from tree leaves and grass litter on tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Earl, Julia E; Cohagen, Kara E; Semlitsch, Raymond D

    2012-07-01

    Tree species composition can change as a result of succession, climate change, fire suppression, and invasive species. These changes clearly affect forests, but they can also affect aquatic ecosystems based on differences in the input quality of leaf litter, such as plant secondary compounds. These compounds vary in type and concentration depending on species and can be toxic to aquatic organisms. To examine toxic effects on Pseudacris maculata and Pseudacris crucifer tadpoles, we conducted 60-d laboratory experiments to compare leaf litter leachate from a dominant canopy species (red oak) and nonnative species (white pine) with an aquatic grass (prairie cordgrass) and plain water control. An additional experiment examined the effects of white pine on Bufo americanus, Hyla versicolor, and tannin concentrations in natural ponds. Compared with the control and grass, tree leaf extracts resulted in reduced tadpole survival. Leached compounds from pine reduced tadpole survival to 3 d or less. Tadpoles were able to metamorphose in significant numbers only from the two controls. The lowered survival with the red oak treatment might have been caused by lowered dissolved oxygen or high tannin concentrations. However, pine is known to have high concentrations of toxic monoterpenes, which should be investigated further. We found that tannin concentrations in natural ponds were much lower than the test concentrations, indicating that these results may represent worst-case scenarios or unrealistic concentrations. PMID:22488805

  2. Effects of subsidy quality on reciprocal subsidies: how leaf litter species changes frog biomass export.

    PubMed

    Earl, Julia E; Castello, Paula O; Cohagen, Kara E; Semlitsch, Raymond D

    2014-05-01

    Spatial subsidies are resources transferred from one ecosystem to another and which can greatly affect recipient systems. Increased subsidy quantity is known to increase these effects, but subsidy quality is likely also important. We examined the effects of leaf litter quality (varying in nutrient and tannin content) in pond mesocosms on gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) biomass export, as well as water quality and ecosystem processes. We used litter from three different tree species native to Missouri [white oak (Quercus alba), northern red oak (Quercus rubra), and sugar maple (Acer saccharum)], one non-native tree [white pine (Pinus strobus)], and a common aquatic grass [prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata)]. We found that leaf litter species affected almost every variable we measured. Gray treefrog biomass export was greatest in mesocosms with grass litter and lowest with white oak litter. Differences in biomass export were affected by high tannin concentrations (or possibly the correlated variable, dissolved oxygen) via their effects on survival, and by primary production, which altered mean body mass. Effects of litter species could often be traced back to the characteristics of the litter itself: leaf nitrogen, phosphorus, and tannin content, which highlights the importance of plant functional traits in affecting aquatic ecosystems. This work and others stress that changes in forest species composition could greatly influence aquatic systems and aquatic-terrestrial linkages. PMID:24399483

  3. The application of dermal papillary rings in dermatology by in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, W. Z.; Xu, A. E.; Xu, J.; Bi, Z. G.; Shang, Y. B.; Ren, Q. S.

    2010-08-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) allows noninvasive visualization of human skin in vivo, without needing to fix or section the tissue. Melanocytes and pigmented keratinocytes at the level of the basal layer form bright dermal papillary rings which are readily amenable to identify in confocal images. Our purpose was to explore the role of dermal papillary rings in assessment of lesion location, the diagnosis, differential diagnosis of lesions and assessment of therapeutic efficacy by in vivo CLSM. Seventy-one patients were imaged with the VivaScope 1500 reflectance confocal microscope provided by Lucid, Inc. The results indicate that dermal papillary rings can assess the location of lesion; the application of dermal papillary rings can provide diagnostic support and differential diagnosis for vitiligo, nevus depigmentosus, tinea versicolor, halo nevus, common nevi, and assess the therapeutic efficacy of NBUVB phototherapy plus topical 0.1 percent tacrolimus ointment for vitiligo. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the dermal papillary rings play an important role in the assessment the location of lesion, diagnosis, differential diagnosis of lesions and assessment of therapeutic efficacy by in vivo CLSM. CLSM may be a promising tool for noninvasive examination in dermatology. However, larger studies are needed to expand the application of dermal papillary rings in dermatology.

  4. Biotransformation of the antibiotic agent flumequine by ligninolytic fungi and residual antibacterial activity of the transformation mixtures.

    PubMed

    Cvan?arová, Monika; Moeder, Monika; Filipová, Alena; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2013-12-17

    Flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, is applied preferably in veterinary medicine, for stock breeding and treatment of aquacultures. Formation of drug resistance is a matter of general concern when antibiotics such as flumquine occur in the environment. Thus, biodegradation of flumequine in solution was investigated using five different ligninolytic fungi. Irpex lacteus, Dichomitus squalens, and Trametes versicolor proved most efficient and transformed more than 90% of flumequine within 6 or even 3 days. Panus tigrinus and Pleurotus ostreatus required up to 14 days to remove >90% of flumequine. Analyses of the metabolites by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry suggest different transformation pathways for the different fungal strains. Structure proposals were elaborated for 8 metabolites. 7-Hydroxy-flumequine and flumequine ethyl ester were identified as common metabolites produced by all ligninolytic fungi. The largest variety of metabolites was formed by D. squalens. Residual antibacterial activity of the metabolite mixtures was tested using gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. While for the less efficient P. tigrinus and P. ostreatus cultures the antibacterial activities corresponded to the residual concentrations of flumequine, a remarkable antibacterial activity remained in the D. squalens cultures although flumequine was transformed to more than 90%. Obviously, antibacterially active transformation products were formed by this fungal strain. PMID:24261869

  5. Aflatoxin biosynthesis: detection of transient, acetate-dependent intermediates in Aspergillus by kinetic pulse-labeling.

    PubMed Central

    Zamir, L O; Ginsburg, R

    1979-01-01

    A simple technique was developed for the detection of intermediary metabolites of Aspergillus versicolor that are putative precursors of aflatoxin. Minicolony populations were allowed to metabolize [1,2-14C]acetate over various time intervals. The biosynthetic reactions were quenched by quick-freezing the minicolonies, the cells were disrupted, and the metabolites were extracted into acetone. Small silica thin-layer chromatographic plates were then used to separate any radioactive metabolites present. Elution in two or three different directions was often necessary. Radioautography of the thin-layer chromatography plates provided a sensitive assay for the appearance of the various intermediates in a timing pattern which implicated the sequence of formation. Transient intermediates were distinguished from dead-end metabolites by the rapid formation and disappearance of the former. At least five unknown precursors of versicolorin A, a dead-end metabolite, were recognized. The kinetic pulse-labeling technique should be generally applicable to other fungal species whenever the entrapment of intermediary metabolites in the mycelium poses and technical problem. Images PMID:457592

  6. Swimming with Predators and Pesticides: How Environmental Stressors Affect the Thermal Physiology of Tadpoles

    PubMed Central

    Katzenberger, Marco; Hammond, John; Duarte, Helder; Tejedo, Miguel; Calabuig, Cecilia; Relyea, Rick A.

    2014-01-01

    To forecast biological responses to changing environments, we need to understand how a species's physiology varies through space and time and assess how changes in physiological function due to environmental changes may interact with phenotypic changes caused by other types of environmental variation. Amphibian larvae are well known for expressing environmentally induced phenotypes, but relatively little is known about how these responses might interact with changing temperatures and their thermal physiology. To address this question, we studied the thermal physiology of grey treefrog tadpoles (Hyla versicolor) by determining whether exposures to predator cues and an herbicide (Roundup) can alter their critical maximum temperature (CTmax) and their swimming speed across a range of temperatures, which provides estimates of optimal temperature (Topt) for swimming speed and the shape of the thermal performance curve (TPC). We discovered that predator cues induced a 0.4°C higher CTmax value, whereas the herbicide had no effect. Tadpoles exposed to predator cues or the herbicide swam faster than control tadpoles and the increase in burst speed was higher near Topt. In regard to the shape of the TPC, exposure to predator cues increased Topt by 1.5°C, while exposure to the herbicide marginally lowered Topt by 0.4°C. Combining predator cues and the herbicide produced an intermediate Topt that was 0.5°C higher than the control. To our knowledge this is the first study to demonstrate a predator altering the thermal physiology of amphibian larvae (prey) by increasing CTmax, increasing the optimum temperature, and producing changes in the thermal performance curves. Furthermore, these plastic responses of CTmax and TPC to different inducing environments should be considered when forecasting biological responses to global warming. PMID:24869960

  7. Suppression of growth and invasive behavior of human prostate cancer cells by ProstaCaid™: mechanism of activity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiahua; Eliaz, Isaac; Sliva, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    Since the use of dietary supplements as alternative treatments or adjuvant therapies in cancer treatment is growing, a scientific verification of their biological activity and the detailed mechanisms of their action are necessary for the acceptance of dietary supplements in conventional cancer treatments. In the present study we have evaluated the anti-cancer effects of dietary supplement ProstaCaid™ (PC) which contains mycelium from medicinal mushrooms (Ganoderma lucidum, Coriolus versicolor, Phellinus linteus), saw palmetto berry, pomegranate, pumpkin seed, green tea [40% epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)], Japanese knotweed (50% resveratrol), extracts of turmeric root (BCM-95®), grape skin, pygeum bark, sarsaparilla root, Scutellaria barbata, eleuthero root, Job's tears, astragalus root, skullcap, dandelion, coptis root, broccoli, and stinging nettle, with purified vitamin C, vitamin D3, selenium, quercetin, citrus bioflavonoid complex, ? sitosterolzinc, lycopene, ? lipoic acid, boron, berberine and 3.3'-diinodolymethane (DIM). We show that PC treatment resulted in the inhibition of cell proliferation of the highly invasive human hormone refractory (independent) PC-3 prostate cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner with IC50 56.0, 45.6 and 39.0 µg/ml for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. DNA-microarray analysis demonstrated that PC inhibits proliferation through the modulation of expression of CCND1, CDK4, CDKN1A, E2F1, MAPK6 and PCNA genes. In addition, PC also suppresses metastatic behavior of PC-3 by the inhibition of cell adhesion, cell migration and cell invasion, which was associated with the down-regulation of expression of CAV1, IGF2, NR2F1, and PLAU genes and suppressed secretion of the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) from PC-3 cells. In conclusion, the dietary supplement PC is a promising natural complex with the potency to inhibit invasive human prostate cancer. PMID:21468543

  8. Road Salts as Environmental Constraints in Urban Pond Food Webs

    PubMed Central

    Van Meter, Robin J.; Swan, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater salinization is an emerging environmental filter in urban aquatic ecosystems that receive chloride road salt runoff from vast expanses of impervious surface cover. Our study was designed to evaluate the effects of chloride contamination on urban stormwater pond food webs through changes in zooplankton community composition as well as density and biomass of primary producers and consumers. From May – July 2009, we employed a 2×2×2 full-factorial design to manipulate chloride concentration (low?=?177 mg L?1 Cl?/high?=?1067 mg L?1 Cl?), gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles (presence/absence) and source of stormwater pond algae and zooplankton inoculum (low conductance/high conductance urban ponds) in 40, 600-L mesocosms. Road salt did serve as a constraint on zooplankton community structure, driving community divergence between the low and high chloride treatments. Phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll [a] µg L?1) in the mesocosms was significantly greater for the high conductance inoculum (P<0.001) and in the high chloride treatment (P?=?0.046), whereas periphyton biomass was significantly lower in the high chloride treatment (P?=?0.049). Gray treefrog tadpole time to metamorphosis did not vary significantly between treatments. However, mass at metamorphosis was greater among tadpoles that experienced a faster than average time to metamorphosis and exposure to high chloride concentrations (P?=?0.039). Our results indicate differential susceptibility to chloride salts among algal resources and zooplankton taxa, and further suggest that road salts can act as a significant environmental constraint on urban stormwater pond communities. PMID:24587259

  9. A Permeable Cuticle Is Associated with the Release of Reactive Oxygen Species and Induction of Innate Immunity

    E-print Network

    Angélique Besson-bard ¤a; Matteo Binda; Mario Serrano; Eliane Abou-mansour; Francine Balet; Henk-jan Schoonbeek ¤b; Stephane Hess; Ricardo Mir ¤c; José Léon ¤c; Olivier Lamotte ¤a

    Wounded leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana show transient immunity to Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of grey mould. Using a fluorescent probe, histological staining and a luminol assay, we now show that reactive oxygen species (ROS), including H2O2 and O2 2, are produced within minutes after wounding. ROS are formed in the absence of the enzymes Atrboh D and F and can be prevented by diphenylene iodonium (DPI) or catalase. H2O2 was shown to protect plants upon exogenous application. ROS accumulation and resistance to B. cinerea were abolished when wounded leaves were incubated under dry conditions, an effect that was found to depend on abscisic acid (ABA). Accordingly, ABA biosynthesis mutants (aba2 and aba3) were still fully resistant under dry conditions even without wounding. Under dry conditions, wounded plants contained higher ABA levels and displayed enhanced expression of ABA-dependent and ABA-reporter genes. Mutants impaired in cutin synthesis such as bdg and lacs2.3 are already known to display a high level of resistance to B. cinerea and were found to produce ROS even when leaves were not wounded. An increased permeability of the cuticle and enhanced ROS production were detected in aba2 and aba3 mutants as described for bdg and lacs2.3. Moreover, leaf surfaces treated with cutinase produced ROS and became more protected to B. cinerea. Thus, increased permeability of the cuticle is strongly linked with ROS formation and resistance to B. cinerea. The amount of oxalic acid, an inhibitor of ROS secreted by B. cinerea could be reduced using plants over expressing a fungal oxalate decarboxylase of Trametes versicolor. Infection of such

  10. Anthropometry and Prevalence of Common Health Problems among School Going Children in Surathkal, Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Airody, Sathyajith Karanth; Mahale, Ramnath; SR, Ravikiran; Shetty, Suresh; Rao, Aarathi R

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To measure the anthropometric data of school children and to compare with the CDC and Agarwal centile Growth charts. The prevalence of thinness, stunting, overweight and obesity were estimated. Children were also screened for hypertension, refractory errors, dental problems, skin disease and other abnormalities. Design: Study was conducted in November in a central school in Surathkal, Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka, India. All children from nursery up to 10th standard were screened. Materials and Methods: Weight and Height were measured using standard equipment and plotted on CDC and Agarwal Charts. BMI was calculated and plotted on both charts. Blood Pressure (BP) was taken using mercury sphygmomanometer by a trained nurse. Vision was tested using Snellens chart by refractionist. Dental evaluation was done by dentist. Statistical analysis: Chi-square test and Student’s unpaired t test were used for statistical analysis. A statistical package SPSS version 17.0 were used. p<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Total 755 children were screened. Among these 392 (51.9%) were females and 363 (48.1%) were males. Eighty five (11.3%) children had short stature and 283 (37.5%) had under nutrition when plotted on CDC chart. Values were lower when plotted on Agarwal charts. Thinness was more prevalent than obesity and overweight. Majority were normotensive though hypertension was noted in 6(0.8%) children and prehypertension in 14(1.9%).112 children (16.3%) had undetected refractory error. Common skin disease noted was T.Versicolor in 27 children. Common dental problem noted was Caries teeth (22.9%). Conclusion: Weight and height were below the CDC centile charts. Under nutrition was more prevalent than overweight and obesity. Majority were normotensive. High prevalence of undetected refractory error and caries teeth were noted. Prevalence of skin disease was low. PMID:25653997

  11. Mycology - an update part 2: dermatomycoses: clinical picture and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Nenoff, Pietro; Krüger, Constanze; Schaller, Jörg; Ginter-Hanselmayer, Gabriele; Schulte-Beerbühl, Rudolf; Tietz, Hans-Jürgen

    2014-09-01

    Most fungal infections of the skin are caused by dermatophytes, both in Germany and globally. Tinea pedis is the most frequent fungal infection in Western industrial countries. Tinea pedis frequently leads to tinea unguium, while in the elderly, both may then spread causing tinea corporis. A variety of body sites may be affected, including tinea glutealis, tinea faciei and tinea capitis. The latter rarely occurs in adults, but is the most frequent fungal infection in childhood. Following antifungal treatment of tinea unguium and also tinea capitis a dermatophytid or hyperergic reaction to dermatophyte antigens may occur. Yeast infections affect the mucous membranes both of the gastro-intestinal system and the genital tract as candidiasis mostly due to Candida albicans. Cutaneous candidiasis affects predominantely the intertriginous regions such as groins and the inframammary area, but also the intertriginous space of fingers and toes. In contrast, pityriasis versicolor is a superficial epidermal fungal infection primarily on the the trunk. Mold infections are rare in dermatology; they play a role nearly exclusively in nondermatophyte-mold (NDM) onychomycosis. The diagnosis of dermatomycoses comprises the microscopic detection of fungi using the potassium hydroxide preparation or alternatively the fluorescence optical Blankophor preparation together with culture. The histological fungal detection with PAS staining possesses a high sensitivity, and it should play a more important role in particular for diagnosis of onychomycosis. Molecular biological methods, based on the amplification of fungal DNA with use of specific primers for the distinct causative agents are on the rise. With PCR, such as dermatophyte-PCR-ELISA, fungi can be detected directly in clinical material in a highly specific and sensitive manner without prior culture. Today, molecular methods, such as Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) as culture confirmation assay, complete the conventional mycological diagnostics. PMID:25176455

  12. A permeable cuticle is associated with the release of reactive oxygen species and induction of innate immunity.

    PubMed

    L'Haridon, Floriane; Besson-Bard, Angélique; Binda, Matteo; Serrano, Mario; Abou-Mansour, Eliane; Balet, Francine; Schoonbeek, Henk-Jan; Hess, Stephane; Mir, Ricardo; Léon, José; Lamotte, Olivier; Métraux, Jean-Pierre

    2011-07-01

    Wounded leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana show transient immunity to Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of grey mould. Using a fluorescent probe, histological staining and a luminol assay, we now show that reactive oxygen species (ROS), including H(2)O(2) and O(2) (-), are produced within minutes after wounding. ROS are formed in the absence of the enzymes Atrboh D and F and can be prevented by diphenylene iodonium (DPI) or catalase. H(2)O(2) was shown to protect plants upon exogenous application. ROS accumulation and resistance to B. cinerea were abolished when wounded leaves were incubated under dry conditions, an effect that was found to depend on abscisic acid (ABA). Accordingly, ABA biosynthesis mutants (aba2 and aba3) were still fully resistant under dry conditions even without wounding. Under dry conditions, wounded plants contained higher ABA levels and displayed enhanced expression of ABA-dependent and ABA-reporter genes. Mutants impaired in cutin synthesis such as bdg and lacs2.3 are already known to display a high level of resistance to B. cinerea and were found to produce ROS even when leaves were not wounded. An increased permeability of the cuticle and enhanced ROS production were detected in aba2 and aba3 mutants as described for bdg and lacs2.3. Moreover, leaf surfaces treated with cutinase produced ROS and became more protected to B. cinerea. Thus, increased permeability of the cuticle is strongly linked with ROS formation and resistance to B. cinerea. The amount of oxalic acid, an inhibitor of ROS secreted by B. cinerea could be reduced using plants over expressing a fungal oxalate decarboxylase of Trametes versicolor. Infection of such plants resulted in a faster ROS accumulation and resistance to B. cinerea than that observed in untransformed controls, demonstrating the importance of fungal suppression of ROS formation by oxalic acid. Thus, changes in the diffusive properties of the cuticle are linked with the induction ROS and attending innate defenses. PMID:21829351

  13. [Superficial mycoses in patients from Anzoátegui state, Venezuela, period 2002-2012].

    PubMed

    Lemus-Espinoza, Druvic; Teresa Maniscalchi, María; Villarroel, Oskarina; Bónoli, Stefano B; Wahab, Fadi; García, Oswaldo

    2014-12-01

    Superficial fungal diseases that affect the skin and its appendages are frequently seen in basic triage and in dermatology services. These diseases are distributed in Venezuela with an incidence of 92.9%. The aim of this study was to determine the genera and species that cause dermatomycoses in residents of Anzoátegui state, Venezuela, during the period 2002-2012. A total of 4257 patients with a presumptive diagnosis of superficial mycoses were studied, with ages from 7 months to 79 years. The overall prevalence was 30.9%. The most frequent were dermatophytosis (44.7%). M. canis produced 148 cases of tinea capitis. Three dermatophytic agents represented 95% of all cases, with a significant predominance of T. mentagrophytes with 50%. Candidosis occurred in 28.4%. C. albicans, and the C. parapsilosis complex, were responsible for 80% of the cases. The other species identified were C. tropicalis (n = 41, 11.0%), C. glabrata (n = 10, 2.7%), C. guilliermondii (n = 6, 1.6%), C. krusei (n = 4, 1.1%). Pityriasis versicolor occurred in 22.4% of the cases studied, and less frequently were present onychomycosis produced by a non dermatophytic mold: Fusarium oxysporum (n = 34, 65.4%), Aspergillus terreus (n=16, 30.8%) and Scytalidium dimidiatum (n=2; 3.8%). Rare cases of Trichosporon onychomycosis (0.5%) and one case of black tinea were also found. Health education in the population is recommended to promote measures to prevent transmission of these fungi and prevent the spread of this silent public health problem. PMID:25558751

  14. Survivorship in micro fungi and crustacean resting stages during ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum land testing of EXPOSE unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, Victor; Alekseev, Victor; Novikova, Nataliya; Sychev, Vladimir; Levinskikh, Margarita; Deshevaya, Elena; Brancelj, Anton; Malyavin, Stanislav

    Dormancy protects animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions within a special resting phases of life cycle lasting from months up to hundred years. This phenomenon is perspective for space researches on interplanetary quarantine within space missions. Direct experiments in open space supported in principle the fact of survivorship of bacteria and fungi spores in open space during long time experiments (Novikova et al. 2007). The rate of survivorship in long-term mission was low but enough to conclude that biological invasion to Mars is a real danger. The possibility for resting stages to survive under UV treatment in vacuum without some protection was not clear. To test it dormant stages (spores) of primitive fungi Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus sydowii, Penicillium expansum, and Penicillium aurantiogriseum derived from ISS environment were used in the land EXPOSE imitation of outside space station UV and vacuum conditions. Survivorship in resting eggs of some crustaceans with dried (cladoceran Daphnia magna, fair-shrimp Streptocephalus torvicornis and ostracode Eucypris ornate from hemi desert Caspian area) and wet diapause state (copepod Mixodiaptomus tatricus from the Tatra mountains, altitude 1510 m) was tested also. The total UV dose of 9,1x10 to the 4th KJ/m2 during this imitation was accomplished with a SOL 2000 sun simulator lamp. The final vacuum value achieved during EST was 10 to the minus 6 Pa. Temperature during the experiment fluctuated in the range 19-25 o C. Micro fungi showed a high level of survivorship in samples treated with UV samples varied from 95 till 100 Supported by RFBR grant 07-04-00006.

  15. Phytochemical screening, antimicrobial and antioxidant efficacy of different extracts of Rumex dentatus L. - A locally used medicinal herb of Kashmir Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Nisa, Humeera; Kamili, Azra N.; Bandh, Suhaib A.; Amin, Shajr-ul; Lone, Bashir A.; Parray, Javaid A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Rumex dentatus L. (R. dentatus) along with its phytochemical analysis. Methods Agar disk diffusion method for antimicrobial activity and DPPH, riboflavin photo-oxidation, deoxyribose and lipid peroxidation assay for antioxidant activity. Results The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of different concentrations of five R. dentatus extracts were tested against different clinical bacterial strains (Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium) and fungal strains (Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus flavus, Accremonium spp., Penicillium dimorphosporum, Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida kruesie). Among all extracts, the butanol extract showed strong antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae (inhibition zone diameter of 20 mm) and aqueous extract showed no activity against any of the bacterial strains. While as in case of the fungal strains, the maximum antifungal activity was observed against Aspergillus flavus by aqueous extract. The antioxidant activity revealed that the extracts exhibited scavenging effect in concentration-dependent manner on superoxide anion radicals and hydroxyl radicals. The phytochemical tests carried out with the crude extracts of R. dentatus showed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, anthraquinones and cardiac glycosides in it. The total phenolic content of these extracts was estimated quantitatively from standard calibration curve of gallic acid and it varied from 145 µg/mg in butanol extract to 45 µg/mg in petroleum ether extract. Conclusions It can be concluded that the plant has got a broad spectrum antimicrobial and antioxidant activity and could be used as a potential alternative for treating various diseases.

  16. Mites and fungi in heavily infested stores in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Hubert, J; Stejskal, V; Munzbergová, Z; Kubátová, A; Vánová, M; Zd'árková, E

    2004-12-01

    Toxigenic and allergen-producing fungi represent a serious hazard to human food and animal feed safety. Ninety-four fungal species were isolated from mite-infested samples of seeds taken from Czech seed stores. Fungi were isolated from the surface of four kinds of seeds (wheat, poppy, lettuce, and mustard) and from the gut and external surface of five species of mites (i.e., Acarus siro L., 1758, Caloglyphus rhizoglyphoides (Zachvatkin, 1973), Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank, 1781), Tyrophagus putrescentnae (Schrank, 1781) and Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans 1903) separately. Multivariate analysis of fungi complex composition showed that the frequency of fungal was species significantly influenced by the kind of seed. Fungal frequencies differed between mites gut and exoskeleton surface and between the surfaces of mites and seeds. Three groups of fungal species were recognized: 1) mite surface-associated fungi: Penicillium brevicompactum, Alternaria alternata, and Aspergillus versicolor; 2) mite surface- and seed-associated fungi: Aspergillus niger, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Aspergillus flavus; and 3) seed-associated fungi: Cladosporium herbarum, Mucor dimorphosporus f. dimorphosporus, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium griseofulvum, and Eurotium repens. Mite-carried species of microfungi are known to produce serious mycotoxins (e.g., aflatoxin B1, cyclopiazonic acid, sterigmatocystin, ochratoxin A, and nephrotoxic glycopeptides) as well as allergen producers (e.g., A. alternata and P. brevicompactum). Storage mites may play an important role in the spread of some medically hazardous micromycetes. In addition, these mite-fungi associations may heighten the risk of occurrence of mycotoxins in food and feed stuffs and cause mixed contamination by fungal and mite allergens. PMID:15666776

  17. In situ encapsulation of laccase in nanofibers by electrospinning for development of enzyme biosensors for chlorophenol monitoring.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Niu, Junfeng; Yin, Lifeng; Jiang, Fan

    2011-11-21

    A biosensor based on Trametes versicolor laccase (Lac) was developed for the determination of phenolic compounds. The biosensor was prepared by in situ electrospinning of a mixture of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), Lac, PEO-PPO-PEO (F108) and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), where F108 was used as an enzyme stabilizing additive and Au NPs was used to enhance the conductivity of the biosensor. Laser confocal scanning microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy proved that the enzyme was successfully encapsulated into the electrospun nanofibers. Under the optimal conditions, the lowest detection limit was found to be 0.04 ?M (S/N = 3) for 2,4-DCP and the highest detection limit was found to be 12.10 ?M for 4-CP. The sensitivity of the biosensor obtained in the linear range for chlorophenols followed the sequence 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) > 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) > 4-chlorophenol (4-CP). The sensing performance for chlorophenols was attributed to the suitable electrochemical interface of PVA/F108/Au NPs/Lac, resulting from biocompatibility, a high surface area-to-volume ratio (10.42 m(2) g(-1)) and superior mechanical properties of the electrospun nanofibers. The biosensor exhibited good repeatabilities of 7.6%, 2.8% and 9.0% (R.S.D.) and reproducibilities of 14.9%, 10.4% and 13.7% (R.S.D.) for 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and 2,4,6-TCP, respectively. Lac retained 65.8% of its initial activity after a 30-day storage period. PMID:21961111

  18. Performance and penetration of laccase and ABTS inks on various printing substrates.

    PubMed

    Matilainen, Katriina; Hämäläinen, Tiina; Savolainen, Anne; Sipiläinen-Malm, Thea; Peltonen, Jouko; Erho, Tomi; Smolander, Maria

    2012-02-01

    Introduction of an enzyme and a colour-forming reagent into paper enables the development of an authenticity indicator. The purpose of this work was to study the performance of Trametes versicolor laccase, TvL, and ABTS, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt, in various printing substrates when printed with inkjet. The printing substrates included pre-coated mechanical paper additionally coated with PVA, silica and latex. The focus was on the bioanalytical performance and ink penetration. The setting of the printed TvL and ABTS ink was studied visually, with optical and confocal microscopy and with a so-called tape laminating technique. Technical properties of the printing substrates and effect of the surface chemistry were discussed and related to the bioanalytical properties. TvL activity persisted well during the printing. The best colour response was attained using the PVA-coated base paper. The film-forming ability of the PVA was found to be the main contributor to the colour reaction. The uniform, dense and non-porous PVA layer retains the ABTS and TVL molecules on top of the printing substrate. The high local ink concentration on the PVA coating layer combined with the absorptive paper substrate suggests that the PVA film acts as a filtering layer which retains TvL and ABTS molecules in the coating layer but allows most of the ink solvents to penetrate into the paper structure. TvL and ABTS molecules are also trapped in the PVA polymer network due to swelling effect of water. Electrostatic attractions between the PVA and ABTS and TvL molecules do not contribute to the colour reaction. PMID:22051108

  19. Development of a semisynthetic cheese medium for fungi using chemometric methods.

    PubMed

    Hansen, B V; Nielsen, P V

    1997-07-01

    The growth, color formation, and mycotoxin production of six cheese-related fungi were studied on nine types of natural cheeses and 24 semisynthetic cheese media and compared using principal component analysis. The semisynthetic cheese media contained various amounts of Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Fe, Cu, Zn, lactate, lactose, and casein. A robust well-defined and easily prepared semisynthetic cheese medium was developed for Penicillium commune, the most frequently occurring contaminant on semihard cheese. Growth experiments on the medium were repeatable and reproducible. The medium was also suitable for Penicillium camemberti. The medium had the following composition: 100 g of casein, 8.3 g of 90% lactate, 7.9 g of lactose, 7.3 g of CaCl2.2H2O, 2.6 g of MgSO4.7H2O, 26.0 g of NaCl, 20 g of agar, 0.025 g of FeSO4.7H2O, 0.004 g of CuSO4.5H2O, and water to a total weight of 1 kg. The semisynthetic cheese medium was less suitable for Penicillium roqueforti, Penicillium discolor, Penicillium verrucosum, and Aspergillus versicolor. However, another semisynthetic cheese medium could be recommended for P. roqueforti and P. discolor. That medium had higher contents of P (5000 ppm, wt/wt), K (5000 ppm), and Zn (50 ppm) and lower contents of Na (2700 ppm), Fe (1 ppm), Cu (0.1 ppm), and casein (1%). PMID:9241586

  20. Synergistic interaction in simultaneous exposure to Streptomyces californicus and Stachybotrys chartarum.

    PubMed Central

    Huttunen, Kati; Pelkonen, Jukka; Nielsen, Kristian Fogg; Nuutinen, Ulla; Jussila, Juha; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2004-01-01

    The microbial exposure associated with health complaints in moldy houses consists of a heterogeneous group of components, including both living and dead bacteria, fungi, and their metabolites and active compounds. However, little is known about the interactions between different microbes and their metabolites, although the cytotoxicity and inflammatory potential of certain individual microbes have been reported. In this study, we investigated the inflammatory responses of mouse RAW264.7 macrophages after exposure to six indoor air microbes (Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium spinulosum, Stachybotrys chartarum, Bacillus cereus, Mycobacterium terrae, and Pseudomonas fluorescens) alone and together with the actinomycete Streptomyces californicus. The production of nitric oxide, levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and cytotoxicity were measured. The coexposure to Sta. chartarum and Str. californicus caused a synergistic increase in the production of IL-6 but not other cytokines. In further experiments, the metabolites from Sta. chartarum or from closely related fungi (atranones B and E, satratoxin G, trichodermin, 7-alpha-hydroxytrichodermol, staplabin, and SMTP-7) and the known fungal toxins sterigmatocystin, citrinin, and ochratoxin A were each tested with Str. californicus. The testing revealed a synergistic response in TNF-alpha and IL-6 production after coexposure to Str. californicus with both trichodermin and 7-alpha-hydroxytrichodermol. Finally, the synergistic inflammatory response caused by Str. californicus and trichodermin together was studied by analyzing for the presence of nuclear factor-kappa-B (NF-kappa-B) in nuclear extracts of the exposed cells. The exposure to Str. californicus induced the binding of NF-kappa-B proteins to the NF-kappa-B consensus sequence as well as to the natural NF-kappa-B site of the IL-6 promoter. Adding trichodermin to the exposure did not increase the DNA binding. PMID:15121507

  1. Immunomodulatory dietary polysaccharides: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A large body of literature suggests that certain polysaccharides affect immune system function. Much of this literature, however, consists of in vitro studies or studies in which polysaccharides were injected. Their immunologic effects following oral administration is less clear. The purpose of this systematic review was to consolidate and evaluate the available data regarding the specific immunologic effects of dietary polysaccharides. Methods Studies were identified by conducting PubMed and Google Scholar electronic searches and through reviews of polysaccharide article bibliographies. Only articles published in English were included in this review. Two researchers reviewed data on study design, control, sample size, results, and nature of outcome measures. Subsequent searches were conducted to gather information about polysaccharide safety, structure and composition, and disposition. Results We found 62 publications reporting statistically significant effects of orally ingested glucans, pectins, heteroglycans, glucomannans, fucoidans, galactomannans, arabinogalactans and mixed polysaccharide products in rodents. Fifteen controlled human studies reported that oral glucans, arabinogalactans, heteroglycans, and fucoidans exerted significant effects. Although some studies investigated anti-inflammatory effects, most studies investigated the ability of oral polysaccharides to stimulate the immune system. These studies, as well as safety and toxicity studies, suggest that these polysaccharide products appear to be largely well-tolerated. Conclusions Taken as a whole, the oral polysaccharide literature is highly heterogenous and is not sufficient to support broad product structure/function generalizations. Numerous dietary polysaccharides, particularly glucans, appear to elicit diverse immunomodulatory effects in numerous animal tissues, including the blood, GI tract and spleen. Glucan extracts from the Trametes versicolor mushroom improved survival and immune function in human RCTs of cancer patients; glucans, arabinogalactans and fucoidans elicited immunomodulatory effects in controlled studies of healthy adults and patients with canker sores and seasonal allergies. This review provides a foundation that can serve to guide future research on immune modulation by well-characterized polysaccharide compounds. PMID:21087484

  2. Very highly toxic effects of endosulfan across nine species of tadpoles: lag effects and family-level sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Jones, Devin K; Hammond, John I; Relyea, Rick A

    2009-09-01

    Pesticides are commonly used for health and economic benefits worldwide, but increased use has led to increased contamination of aquatic habitats. To understand potential impacts on nontarget organisms in these habitats, toxicologists generally use short-term (4-d) toxicity tests on model organisms. For most pesticides, few amphibian tests have been conducted, but there is growing concern about the potential impact of pesticides to amphibian populations. For the insecticide endosulfan, previous studies have found that low concentrations can be very highly toxic to amphibians and have suggested that this mortality may exhibit important lag effects. To estimate the lethal concentration of endosulfan that would cause 50% mortality after 4 d (LC50(4-d)) across a diversity of amphibians and the presence of lag effects, LC50(4-d) experiments were conducted on nine species of tadpoles from three families (Bufonidae: Bufo americanus, B. boreas; Hylidae: Pseudacris crucifer, P. regilla, Hyla versicolor; and Ranidae: Rana pipiens, R. clamitans, R. cascadae, R. catesbeiana) and then held the animals for an additional 4 d in clean water. The LC50(4-d) values for endosulfan ranged from 1.3 to 120 ppb, which classifies endosulfan as highly toxic to very highly toxic. Moreover, holding the animals for an additional 4 d in clean water revealed significant additional mortality in three of the nine species. Leopard frogs, for example, experienced no significant death during the initial 4-d exposure to 60 ppb but 97% death after an additional 4 d in clean water. A phylogenetic pattern also appears to exist among families, with Bufonidae being least susceptible, Hylidae being moderately susceptible, and Ranidae being most susceptible. Results from the present study provide valuable data to assess the impact of endosulfan on a globally declining group of vertebrates. PMID:19358624

  3. Experimental infection dynamics: using immunosuppression and in vivo parasite tracking to understand host resistance in an amphibian-trematode system.

    PubMed

    LaFonte, Bryan E; Johnson, Pieter T J

    2013-10-01

    Although naturally occurring hosts often exhibit pronounced differences in infection and pathology, the relative importance of factors associated with host life history and immunity in explaining such patterns often remains speculative. Research in eco-immunology highlights the trade-offs between host physiology and immunity, for which natural variations in disease susceptibility offer a valuable platform to test predictions within this framework. Here, we combined use of a novel, in vivo assay for tracking parasite fate and an experimental manipulation of host immune function (via chronic corticosterone exposure) to assess the role of host immunity in regulating susceptibility of amphibian hosts to three larval trematodes: Ribeiroia ondatrae, Echinostoma trivolvis and Alaria sp. 2. Results from the in vivo parasite-tracking assay revealed marked differences in initial parasite penetration and subsequent host clearance. Relative to infections in a highly susceptible species (Pseudacris regilla), the virulent trematode R. ondatrae was -25% less successful at penetrating larvae of three hylid frog species and was cleared > 45(×) faster, such that all parasites were rapidly cleared from hylid hosts over 72 h following a Weibull distribution. Immune suppression of Hyla versicolor sharply reduced this resistance and increased infection of all three trematodes by 67 to 190%, with particularly strong increases for R. ondatrae. Diminished resistance correlated with a 62% decrease in circulating eosinophils. Correspondingly, 10 days after corticosterone exposures ended, infections declined dramatically while eosinophil levels returned to normal. In light of ongoing declines and deformities in amphibian populations, these findings have application potential for mitigating disease-driven effects. PMID:23821713

  4. Immobilization of defined laccase combinations for enhanced oxidation of phenolic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Ammann, Erik M; Gasser, Christoph A; Hommes, Gregor; Corvini, Philippe F-X

    2014-02-01

    Immobilization is an important method to increase enzyme stability and allow enzyme reuse. One interesting application in the field of environmental biotechnology is the immobilization of laccase to eliminate phenolic contaminants via oxidation. Fumed silica nanoparticles have interesting potential as support material for laccase immobilization via sorption-assisted immobilization in the perspective of applications such as the elimination of micropollutants in aqueous phases. Based on these facts, the present work aimed to formulate laccase-nanoparticle conjugates with defined laccase combinations in order to obtain nanobiocatalysts, which are active over a broad range of pH values and possess a large substrate spectrum to suitably address pollution by multiple contaminants. A multi-enzymatic approach was investigated by immobilizing five different types of laccases originating from a Thielavia genus, Coriolopsis polyzona, Cerrena unicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Trametes versicolor onto fumed silica nanoparticles, separately and in combinations. The laccases differed concerning their pH optima and substrate affinity. Exploiting their differences allowed the formulation of tailor-made nanobiocatalysts. In particular, the production of a nanobiocatalyst could be achieved that retained a higher percentage of its relative activity over the tested pH range (3-7) compared to the dissolved or separately immobilized enzymes. Furthermore, a nanobiocatalyst could be formulated able to oxidize a broader substrate range than the dissolved or separately immobilized enzymes. Thereby, the potential of the nanobiocatalyst for application in biochemical oxidation applications such as the elimination of multiple target pollutants in biologically treated wastewater has been illustrated. PMID:23812279

  5. Laccase-Prussian blue film-graphene doped carbon paste modified electrode for carbamate pesticides quantification.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Thiago M B F; Fátima Barroso, M; Morais, Simone; Araújo, Mariana; Freire, Cristina; de Lima-Neto, Pedro; Correia, Adriana N; Oliveira, Maria B P P; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2013-09-15

    A novel enzymatic biosensor for carbamate pesticides detection was developed through the direct immobilization of Trametes versicolor laccase on graphene doped carbon paste electrode functionalized with Prussian blue films (LACC/PB/GPE). Graphene was prepared by graphite sonication-assisted exfoliation and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The Prussian blue film electrodeposited onto graphene doped carbon paste electrode allowed considerable reduction of the charge transfer resistance and of the capacitance of the device. The combined effects of pH, enzyme concentration and incubation time on biosensor response were optimized using a 2(3) full-factorial statistical design and response surface methodology. Based on the inhibition of laccase activity and using 4-aminophenol as redox mediator at pH 5.0, LACC/PB/GPE exhibited suitable characteristics in terms of sensitivity, intra- and inter-day repeatability (1.8-3.8% RSD), reproducibility (4.1 and 6.3% RSD), selectivity (13.2% bias at the higher interference:substrate ratios tested), accuracy and stability (ca. twenty days) for quantification of five carbamates widely applied on tomato and potato crops. The attained detection limits ranged between 5.2×10(-9)molL(-1) (0.002mgkg(-1) w/w for ziram) and 1.0×10(-7)molL(-1) (0.022mgkg(-1) w/w for carbofuran). Recovery values for the two tested spiking levels ranged from 90.2±0.1 (carbofuran) to 101.1±0.3% (ziram) for tomato and from 91.0±0.1% (formetanate) to 100.8±0.1% (ziram) for potato samples. The proposed methodology is appropriate to enable testing pesticide levels in food samples to fit with regulations and food inspections. PMID:23587791

  6. Laccase catalyzed synthesis of iodinated phenolic compounds with antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Ihssen, Julian; Schubert, Mark; Thöny-Meyer, Linda; Richter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is a well known antimicrobial compound. Laccase, an oxidoreductase which couples the one electron oxidation of diverse phenolic and non-phenolic substrates to the reduction of oxygen to water, is capable of oxidizing unreactive iodide to reactive iodine. We have shown previously that laccase-iodide treatment of spruce wood results in a wash-out resistant antimicrobial surface. In this study, we investigated whether phenolic compounds such as vanillin, which resembles sub-structures of softwood lignin, can be directly iodinated by reacting with laccase and iodide, resulting in compounds with antifungal activity. HPLC-MS analysis showed that vanillin was converted to iodovanillin by laccase catalysis at an excess of potassium iodide. No conversion of vanillin occurred in the absence of enzyme. The addition of redox mediators in catalytic concentrations increased the rate of iodide oxidation ten-fold and the yield of iodovanillin by 50%. Iodinated phenolic products were also detected when o-vanillin, ethyl vanillin, acetovanillone and methyl vanillate were incubated with laccase and iodide. At an increased educt concentration of 0.1 M an almost one to one molar ratio of iodide to vanillin could be used without compromising conversion rate, and the insoluble iodovanillin product could be recovered by simple centrifugation. The novel enzymatic synthesis procedure fulfills key criteria of green chemistry. Biocatalytically produced iodovanillin and iodo-ethyl vanillin had significant growth inhibitory effects on several wood degrading fungal species. For Trametes versicolor, a species causing white rot of wood, almost complete growth inhibition and a partial biocidal effect was observed on agar plates. Enzymatic tests indicated that the iodinated compounds acted as enzyme responsive, antimicrobial materials. PMID:24594755

  7. Plasma functionalized carbon electrode for laccase-catalyzed oxygen reduction by direct electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Ardhaoui, Malika; Zheng, Meihui; Pulpytel, Jerome; Dowling, Denis; Jolivalt, Claude; Khonsari, Farzaneh Arefi

    2013-06-01

    For the first time, a fast and versatile technique, an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), has been used to functionalise graphite carbon electrodes for biofuel cell applications. The bioelectrode was functionalized by an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) system using air, oxygen (O2) and nitrogen (N2) plasmas applied for only a few seconds. XPS analysis showed that carboxylic groups were created on the carbon substrates using both air and O2 plasmas, while mainly carbonyl and amine/amide functionalities were generated using N2 plasmas. A purified laccase from Trametes versicolor was both adsorbed and covalently bound (NHS/EDC method) to the plasma modified carbon. Higher laccase activity was obtained for the covalently grafted laccase compared to the physically adsorbed one: 13.2 (±2) 10(-3)U of laccase on air treated graphite and two-fold less (5.3 (±1.1) 10(-3)U) were obtained on N2 plasma treated surfaces (1mM ABTS as a substrate, 30°C, pH=3.0), one unit (U) being the quantity of ABTS (?mole) oxidized by laccase per minute. Dioxygen reduction was performed by direct electron transfer (DET). The highest current density, 108?A/cm(2) (at 0.2V (vs. SCE), pH 4.2, room temperature), was recorded for covalently immobilized laccase on N2 plasma treated surfaces (geometric surface=0.38cm(2)). This could be explained by the fact that the highly conductive graphite structure was retained in the case of this surface treatment and could also suggest a preferential orientation of the T1 Cu center of the laccase toward the surface of the N2 plasma treated electrode. PMID:23416361

  8. EPR study of polyaniline synthesized enzymatically in the presence of submicrometer-sized AOT vesicles.

    PubMed

    Rakvin, Boris; Cari?, Dejana; Andreis, Mladen; Junker, Katja; Walde, Peter

    2014-02-27

    EPR spectroscopy was used to examine the magnetic properties of two enzymatically synthesized polyaniline (PANI) samples obtained in the presence of submicrometer-sized vesicles formed from sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) as templates. PANI-HRPC-AOT was synthesized with horseradish peroxidase isoenzyme C (HRPC) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as oxidant while PANI-TvL-AOT was prepared with Trametes versicolor laccase (TvL) and dioxygen (O2) as oxidant. A commercial conductive sample of the emeraldine salt form of polyaniline (PANI-ES) was also used for comparison in order to correlate the experimental data obtained for PANI-HRPC-AOT and PANI-TvL-AOT with the properties of the well-characterized PANI-ES. It was shown that a model based on the concept of correlated polaronic bands could be applied for the interpretation of the EPR spectra of all three examined samples, although PANI-HRPC-AOT and PANI-TvL-AOT were significantly less conductive than PANI-ES. The magnetic properties of the PANI samples could be related to their conductivities, whereby a low conductivity was ascribed to decreased interchain spin interactions which were detectable from a splitting of the triplet spectrum at low temperatures (5-10 K). The obtained effective distance between the polyaniline chains is larger for enzymatically synthesized PANI than for PANI-ES, most likely mainly due to the presence of AOT which could not be removed completely during the work-up. AOT influences the chain conformation and the average chain-chain distance. PMID:24484357

  9. [Physiology and molecular biology of extracellular peroxidases, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-generating system and deregulated mutants of Phanerochaete chrysosporium]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    We have expanded the work on the LIP genes to Trametes versicolor, the second most studied white-rot fungus after P. chrysosporium. Six LIP genes have been cloned from this organism and one of these has been completely sequenced and compared to the known LIP genes that have been described to date. Our studies gave us further insights into the novel non-integrative transformation system of P. chrysosporium. Our recombinant plasmid pUGLGl-kan, which contains a LIP gene disrupted by the insertion of kan{sup r} determinant, also failed to integrate into the chromosome. Instead, it was maintained as a circular extrachromosomal element and was recoverable as a plasmid both from the meiotic and mitotic progeny. Basic characterization of the lignin peroxidase-negative mutant (lip mutant) and nitrogen-deregulated mutant has been completed. We also investigated the question whether carbon, nitrogen, and Mn(II) regulate LIP expression coordinately or independently. Results indicate that these three environmental controls independently regulate LIP and MNP gene expression. Furthermore, an idiophasic protease has been shown to be responsible for the sharp decline in LIP activity after day 6 of incubation in low nitrogen cultures and addition of glucose to these day 6 cultures has been shown to suppress the protease levels and maintain high levels of LIP. The results further indicated that this protease is synthesized de novo during the idiophase. Additional studies showed that MNPs play a dominant role in the decolorization of chlorolignols in bleached kraft pulp effluents and that LIPs play a relatively minor role in this process. These studies have since been confirmed independently by an Austrian group.

  10. Characterization of combined cross-linked enzyme aggregates from laccase, versatile peroxidase and glucose oxidase, and their utilization for the elimination of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Touahar, Imad E; Haroune, Lounès; Ba, Sidy; Bellenger, Jean-Phillipe; Cabana, Hubert

    2014-05-15

    In order to transform a wide range of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), the three oxidative enzymes laccase (Lac) from Trametes versicolor, versatile peroxidase (VP) from Bjerkandera adusta and glucose oxidase (GOD) from Aspergillus niger were concomitantly cross-linked after aggregation, thus, making a combined cross-linked enzyme aggregate (combi-CLEA) that was versatile and involved in an enzymatic cascade reaction. From the initial enzymes about 30% of initial laccase activity was recovered along with 40% for each of VP and GOD. The combi-CLEA showed good results in conditions close to those of real wastewater (neutral pH and medium temperature) as well as a good ability to resist to denaturing conditions such as high temperature (60°C) and low pH (3). Batch experiments were realized to test the free enzyme's ability to degrade, a PhACs cocktail, mainly in a synthetic wastewater containing acetaminophen, naproxen, mefenamic acid, indometacin, diclofenac, ketoprofen, caffeine, diazepam, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim, fenofibrate and bezafibrate, carbamazepine and its by-product 10-11 epoxy-carbamazepine. High removal was achieved (more than 80%) for the five first compounds. Then, the elimination ability of the combi-CLEA with or without hydrogen peroxide, glucose or manganese sulfate was determined. Globally, our results demonstrated that VP has a wider removal spectrum than Lac. These removal features are enhanced under more specific conditions, whereas the combi-CLEA combined advantages of both VP and laccase. Finally, the elimination of PhACs in a municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent using the combi-CLEA was marginally investigated. Concentrations of most of the selected PhACs were below the limit of quantification (lower than 20 ng/L) except for acetaminophen. Its combi-CLEA-mediated removal reached up to 25%. PMID:24589758

  11. Use of stable isotope probing to assess the fate of emerging contaminants degraded by white-rot fungus.

    PubMed

    Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Rosell, Mònica; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa; Marco-Urrea, Ernest

    2014-05-01

    The widespread of emerging contaminants in the environment and their potential impact on humans is a matter of concern. White-rot fungi are cosmopolitan organisms able to remove a wide range of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) through cometabolism (i.e. laccases and peroxidases) or detoxification mechanisms (i.e. cytochrome P450 system). However, the use of PPCP as carbon source for these organisms is largely unexplored. Here, we used carbon stable isotope tracer experiments to assess the fate of anti-inflammatory diclofenac (DCF) and UV filter benzophenone-3 (BP3) during degradation by Trametes versicolor. The comparison between carbon isotopic composition of emitted carbon dioxide from 13C-labelled DCF ([acetophenyl ring-13C6]-DCF) and 13C-BP3 ([phenyl-13C6]-BP3) versus their 12C-homologue compounds showed mineralization of about 45% and 10% of the 13C contained in their respective molecules after 9 days of incubation. The carbon isotopic composition of the bulk biomass and the application of amino acid-stable isotope probing (SIP) allowed distinguishing between incorporation of 13C from BP3 into amino acids, which implies the use of this emerging contaminant as carbon source, and major intracellular accumulation of 13C from DCF without implying the transformation of its labelled phenyl ring into anabolic products. A mass balance of 13C in different compartments over time provided a comprehensive picture of the fate of DCF and BP3 across their different transformation processes. This is the first report assessing biodegradation of PPCP by SIP techniques and the use of emerging contaminants as carbon source for amino acid biosynthesis. PMID:24393565

  12. (Physiology and molecular biology of extracellular peroxidases, H sub 2 O sub 2 -generating system and deregulated mutants of Phanerochaete chrysosporium)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    We have expanded the work on the LIP genes to Trametes versicolor, the second most studied white-rot fungus after P. chrysosporium. Six LIP genes have been cloned from this organism and one of these has been completely sequenced and compared to the known LIP genes that have been described to date. Our studies gave us further insights into the novel non-integrative transformation system of P. chrysosporium. Our recombinant plasmid pUGLGl-kan, which contains a LIP gene disrupted by the insertion of kan{sup r} determinant, also failed to integrate into the chromosome. Instead, it was maintained as a circular extrachromosomal element and was recoverable as a plasmid both from the meiotic and mitotic progeny. Basic characterization of the lignin peroxidase-negative mutant (lip mutant) and nitrogen-deregulated mutant has been completed. We also investigated the question whether carbon, nitrogen, and Mn(II) regulate LIP expression coordinately or independently. Results indicate that these three environmental controls independently regulate LIP and MNP gene expression. Furthermore, an idiophasic protease has been shown to be responsible for the sharp decline in LIP activity after day 6 of incubation in low nitrogen cultures and addition of glucose to these day 6 cultures has been shown to suppress the protease levels and maintain high levels of LIP. The results further indicated that this protease is synthesized de novo during the idiophase. Additional studies showed that MNPs play a dominant role in the decolorization of chlorolignols in bleached kraft pulp effluents and that LIPs play a relatively minor role in this process. These studies have since been confirmed independently by an Austrian group.

  13. Biologically active compounds from Aphyllophorales (polypore) fungi.

    PubMed

    Zjawiony, Jordan K

    2004-02-01

    This review describes biologically active natural products isolated from Aphyllophorales, many of which are known as polypores. Polypores are a large group of terrestrial fungi of the phylum Basdiomycota (basidiomycetes), and they along with certain Ascomycota are a major source of pharmacologically active substances. There are about 25 000 species of basidiomycetes, of which about 500 are members of the Aphyllophorales, a polyphyletic group that contains the polypores. Many of these fungi have circumboreal distributions in North America, Europe, and Asia and broad distributions on all inhabited continents and Africa; only a small number of the most common species with the most obvious fruiting bodies (basidiocarps) have been evaluated for biological activity. An estimated 75% of polypore fungi that have been tested show strong antimicrobial activity, and these may constitute a good source for developing new antibiotics. Numerous compounds from these fungi also display antiviral, cytotoxic, and/or antineoplastic activities. Additional important components of this vast arsenal of compounds are polysaccharides derived from the fungal cell walls. These compounds have attracted significant attention in recent years because of their immunomodulatory activities, resulting in antitumor effects. These high molecular weight compounds, often called biological response modifiers (BRM), or immunopotentiators, prevent carcinogenesis, show direct anticancer effects, and prevent tumor metastasis. Some of the protein-bound polysaccharides from polypores and other basidiomycetes have found their way to the market in Japan as anticancer drugs. Finally, numerous compounds with cardiovascular, phytotoxic, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antidiabetic, antioxidant, insecticidal, and nematocidal activities, isolated from polypores, are also presented. In fact many of the fungi mentioned in this paper have long been used in herbal medicine, including polypores such as Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi or Ling Zhi), Laetiporus sulphureus (Chicken-of-the-Woods), Trametes versicolor (Yun Zhi), Grifola umbellata (Zhu Lin), Inonotus obliquus (Chaga), and Wolfiporia cocos (Hoelen). PMID:14987072

  14. Swimming with predators and pesticides: how environmental stressors affect the thermal physiology of tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Katzenberger, Marco; Hammond, John; Duarte, Helder; Tejedo, Miguel; Calabuig, Cecilia; Relyea, Rick A

    2014-01-01

    To forecast biological responses to changing environments, we need to understand how a species's physiology varies through space and time and assess how changes in physiological function due to environmental changes may interact with phenotypic changes caused by other types of environmental variation. Amphibian larvae are well known for expressing environmentally induced phenotypes, but relatively little is known about how these responses might interact with changing temperatures and their thermal physiology. To address this question, we studied the thermal physiology of grey treefrog tadpoles (Hyla versicolor) by determining whether exposures to predator cues and an herbicide (Roundup) can alter their critical maximum temperature (CTmax) and their swimming speed across a range of temperatures, which provides estimates of optimal temperature (Topt) for swimming speed and the shape of the thermal performance curve (TPC). We discovered that predator cues induced a 0.4°C higher CTmax value, whereas the herbicide had no effect. Tadpoles exposed to predator cues or the herbicide swam faster than control tadpoles and the increase in burst speed was higher near Topt. In regard to the shape of the TPC, exposure to predator cues increased Topt by 1.5°C, while exposure to the herbicide marginally lowered Topt by 0.4°C. Combining predator cues and the herbicide produced an intermediate Topt that was 0.5°C higher than the control. To our knowledge this is the first study to demonstrate a predator altering the thermal physiology of amphibian larvae (prey) by increasing CTmax, increasing the optimum temperature, and producing changes in the thermal performance curves. Furthermore, these plastic responses of CTmax and TPC to different inducing environments should be considered when forecasting biological responses to global warming. PMID:24869960

  15. Molecular and microscopic analysis of the gut contents of abundant rove beetle species (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Morency, Marie-Josee; Labrie, Philippe; Séguin, Armand; Langor, David; Work, Timothy; Bourdon, Caroline; Thiffault, Evelyne; Paré, David; Newton, Alfred F.; Thayer, Margaret K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Experimental research on beetle responses to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec revealed several abundant rove beetle (Staphylinidae) species potentially important for long-term monitoring. To understand the trophic affiliations of these species in forest ecosystems, it was necessary to analyze their gut contents. We used microscopic and molecular (DNA) methods to identify the gut contents of the following rove beetles: Atheta capsularis Klimaszewski, Atheta klagesi Bernhauer, Oxypoda grandipennis (Casey), Bryophacis smetanai Campbell, Ischnosoma longicorne (Mäklin), Mycetoporus montanus Luze, Tachinus frigidus Erichson, Tachinus fumipennis (Say), Tachinus quebecensis Robert, and Pseudopsis subulata Herman. We found no apparent arthropod fragments within the guts; however, a number of fungi were identified by DNA sequences, including filamentous fungi and budding yeasts [Ascomycota: Candida derodonti Suh & Blackwell (accession number FJ623605), Candida mesenterica (Geiger) Diddens & Lodder (accession number FM178362), Candida railenensis Ramirez and Gonzáles (accession number JX455763), Candida sophie-reginae Ramirez & González (accession number HQ652073), Candida sp. (accession number AY498864), Pichia delftensis Beech (accession number AY923246), Pichia membranifaciens Hansen (accession number JQ26345), Pichia misumaiensis Y. Sasaki and Tak. Yoshida ex Kurtzman 2000 (accession number U73581), Pichia sp. (accession number AM261630), Cladosporium sp. (accession number KF367501), Acremoniumpsammosporum W. Gams (accession number GU566287), Alternaria sp. (accession number GU584946), Aspergillus versicolor Bubak (accession number AJ937750), and Aspergillusamstelodami (L. Mangin) Thom and Church (accession number HQ728257)]. In addition, two species of bacteria [Bradyrhizobium japonicum (Kirchner) Jordan (accession number BA000040) and Serratia marcescens Bizio accession number CP003942] were found in the guts. These results not only provide evidence of the consumer-resource relations of these beetles but also clarify the relationship between rove beetles, woody debris and fungi. Predominance of yeast-feeding by abundant rove beetles suggests that it may play an important role in their dietary requirements. PMID:24294095

  16. Comparison of Gas Chromatography and Mineralization Experiments for Measuring Loss of Selected Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congeners in Cultures of White Rot Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Beaudette, Lee A.; Davies, Stephen; Fedorak, Phillip M.; Ward, Owen P.; Pickard, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Two methods were used to compare the biodegradation of six polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners by 12 white rot fungi. Four fungi were found to be more active than Phanerochaete chrysosporium ATCC 24725. Biodegradation of the following congeners was monitored by gas chromatography: 2,3-dichlorobiphenyl, 4,4?-dichlorobiphenyl, 2,4?,5-trichlorobiphenyl (2,4?,5-TCB), 2,2?,4,4?-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,2?,5,5?-tetrachlorobiphenyl, and 2,2?,4,4?,5,5?-hexachlorobiphenyl. The congener tested for mineralization was 2,4?,5-[U-14C]TCB. Culture supernatants were also assayed for lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase activities. Of the fungi tested, two strains of Bjerkandera adusta (UAMH 8258 and UAMH 7308), one strain of Pleurotus ostreatus (UAMH 7964), and Trametes versicolor UAMH 8272 gave the highest biodegradation and mineralization. P. chrysosporium ATCC 24725, a strain frequently used in studies of PCB degradation, gave the lowest mineralization and biodegradation activities of the 12 fungi reported here. Low but detectable levels of lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase activity were present in culture supernatants, but no correlation was observed among any combination of PCB congener biodegradation, mineralization, and lignin peroxidase or manganese peroxidase activity. With the exception of P. chrysosporium, congener loss ranged from 40 to 96%; however, these values varied due to nonspecific congener binding to fungal biomass and glassware. Mineralization was much lower, ?11%, because it measures a complete oxidation of at least part of the congener molecule but the results were more consistent and therefore more reliable in assessment of PCB biodegradation. PMID:9603809

  17. BreastDefend™ prevents breast-to-lung cancer metastases in an orthotopic animal model of triple-negative human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiahua; Thyagarajan-Sahu, Anita; Loganathan, Jagadish; Eliaz, Isaac; Terry, Colin; Sandusky, George E; Sliva, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    We have recently demonstrated that a natural dietary supplement BreastDefend (BD), which contains extracts from medicinal mushrooms (Coriolus versicolor, Ganoderma lucidum, Phellinus linteus), medicinal herbs (Scutellaria barbata, Astragalus membranaceus, Curcuma longa), and purified biologically active nutritional compounds (diindolylmethane and quercetin), inhibits proliferation and metastatic behavior of MDA-MB-231 invasive human breast cancer cells in vitro. In the present study, we evaluated whether BD suppresses growth and breast-to lung cancer metastasis in an orthotopic model of human breast cancer cells implanted in mice. Oral application of BD (100 mg/kg of body weight for 4 weeks) by intragastric gavage did not affect body weight or activity of liver enzymes and did not show any sign of toxicity in liver, spleen, kidney, lung and heart tissues in mice. Moreover, BD significantly decreased the change in tumor volume over time compared to the control group (p=0.002). BD treatment also markedly decreased the incidence of breast-to-lung cancer metastasis from 67% (control) to 20% (BD) (p<0.05) and the number of metastases from 2.8 (0.0, 48.0) in the control group to 0.0 (0.0, 14.2) in the BD treatment group (p<0.05). Finally, anti-metastatic activity of BD in vivo was further confirmed by the downregulation of expression of PLAU (urokinase plasminogen activator, uPA) and CXCR4 (C-X-C chemokine receptor-4) genes in breast tumors. In conclusion, BD may be considered as a biological therapeutic agent against invasive breast cancers. PMID:22842551

  18. Potential non-phytopathogenic filamentous fungi for bioconversion of domestic wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Molla, Abul Hossain; Fakhru'l-Razi, Ahmadun; Hanafi, Mohamed Musa; Abd-Aziz, Suraini; Alam, Md Zahangir

    2002-09-01

    Ten filamentous fungi adapted to domestic wastewater sludge (DWS) were further studied to evaluate their potential in terms of adaptation to higher sludge supplemented growing media and phytopathogenicity (induction of diseases to plants) to three germinating crop (Corn: Zea mays, Mung bean: Phaseolus aureus and Mustard: Brassica napus) seeds. The performances of the fungi in seed germination were evaluated based on percent germination index (GI) and infected/spotted seeds on direct fungal biomass (FBM) and fungal metabolite (FM). Significantly the highest biomass production was achieved with RW-P1 512 and Penicillium corylophilum (WW-P1003) at the highest (25%) sludge supplemented growing media that implied its excellent potentiality of adaptation and multiplication to domestic wastewater sludge. Significantly encouraging results of percent GI and spotted/infected seedlings were observed in FM than FBM by all fungi except the strain Aspergillus niger. A. niger gave the poorest percent of GI (24.30, 26.98 and 00.00%) and the highest percent of infected/spotted seeds (70, 100, and 100%) using FBM for corn, mung bean and mustard, respectively. On the other hand, comparatively the highest percent of GI (107.99, 106.25 and 117.67%) and the lowest percent of spotted/infected seedlings (3.3, 3.3 and 3.3%) were achieved with the isolate RW-P1 512 using FM. In FBM, the superior results of percent GI (86.61, 95.92 and 83.87%) and spotted/infected seedlings (3.3, 63.3 and 43.3%) were obtained by A. versicolor. Several crop seeds were responded differently for different fungal treatments. Hundred percent infected/spotted seeds in FM were recorded only for mustard with Trichoderma family that implied its strong sensitiveness to its metabolites. PMID:12369641

  19. Cebus phylogenetic relationships: a preliminary reassessment of the diversity of the untufted capuchin monkeys.

    PubMed

    Boubli, Jean P; Rylands, Anthony B; Farias, Izeni P; Alfaro, Michael E; Alfaro, Jessica Lynch

    2012-04-01

    The untufted, or gracile, capuchin monkeys are currently classified in four species, Cebus albifrons, C. capucinus, C. olivaceus, and C. kaapori, with all but C. kaapori having numerous described subspecies. The taxonomy is controversial and their geographic distributions are poorly known. Cebus albifrons is unusual in its disjunct distribution, with a western and central Amazonian range, a separate range in the northern Andes in Colombia, and isolated populations in Trinidad and west of the Andes in Ecuador and northern Peru. Here we examine previous morphological and molecular hypotheses of the taxonomy and phylogeny of Cebus. We construct a time-calibrated phylogeny based upon mitochondrial DNA sequences from 50 Cebus samples from across their range. Our data indicate that untufted capuchins underwent a radiation at about 2 Ma, and quickly diversified in both the Andes and the Amazon. We provide a provisional reassessment for the taxonomy of untufted capuchins in the Amazon, the Llanos, the Andes, Trinidad, and Central America, splitting currently paraphyletic taxa into several species, including: at least two Amazonian species (C. yuracus and C. unicolor); a species from the Guiana Shield (most likely the same as Humboldt's C. albifrons); two northern Andean species, C. versicolor, C. cesarae; C. brunneus (with trinitatis a junior synonym) on the Venezuelan coast, and C. adustus in the region of Lake Maracaibo; C. capucinus in northwestern Ecuador and Colombia, and Panama; C. imitator in Central America; C. olivaceus and C. castaneus occupying a large part of the Guiana Shield; and C. kaapori in the eastern Amazon, south of the Rio Amazonas. More intensive and extensive geographic sampling is needed, including that for some subspecies not represented here. Taxa from the southwestern Amazon (yuracus, cuscinus, and unicolor) and the phylogenetic position of Humboldt's Simia albifrons from the Orinoco remain particularly poorly defined. PMID:22311697

  20. Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes Relevant to Variegation in Peach Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Faxin; Li, Shuxian; Yin, Tongming

    2014-01-01

    Background Variegation in flower color is commonly observed in many plant species and also occurs on ornamental peaches (Prunus persica f. versicolor [Sieb.] Voss). Variegated plants are highly valuable in the floricultural market. To gain a global perspective on genes differentially expressed in variegated peach flowers, we performed large-scale transcriptome sequencing of white and red petals separately collected from a variegated peach tree. Results A total of 1,556,597 high-quality reads were obtained, with an average read length of 445 bp. The ESTs were assembled into 16,530 contigs and 42,050 singletons. The resulting unigenes covered about 60% of total predicted genes in the peach genome. These unigenes were further subjected to functional annotation and biochemical pathway analysis. Digital expression analysis identified a total of 514 genes differentially expressed between red and white flower petals. Since peach flower coloration is determined by the expression and regulation of structural genes relevant to flavonoid biosynthesis, a detailed examination detected four key structural genes, including C4H, CHS, CHI and F3H, expressed at a significantly higher level in red than in white petal. Except for the structural genes, we also detected 11 differentially expressed regulatory genes relating to flavonoid biosynthesis. Using the differentially expressed structural genes as the test objects, we validated the digital expression results by using quantitative real-time PCR, and the differential expression of C4H, CHS and F3H were confirmed. Conclusion In this study, we generated a large EST collection from flower petals of a variegated peach. By digital expression analysis, we identified an informative list of candidate genes associated with variegation in peach flowers, which offered a unique opportunity to uncover the genetic mechanisms underlying flower color variegation. PMID:24603808

  1. Associations between fungal species and water-damaged building materials.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Birgitte; Frisvad, Jens C; Søndergaard, Ib; Rasmussen, Ib S; Larsen, Lisbeth S

    2011-06-01

    Fungal growth in damp or water-damaged buildings worldwide is an increasing problem, which has adverse effects on both the occupants and the buildings. Air sampling alone in moldy buildings does not reveal the full diversity of fungal species growing on building materials. One aim of this study was to estimate the qualitative and quantitative diversity of fungi growing on damp or water-damaged building materials. Another was to determine if associations exist between the most commonly found fungal species and different types of materials. More than 5,300 surface samples were taken by means of V8 contact plates from materials with visible fungal growth. Fungal identifications and information on building material components were analyzed using multivariate statistic methods to determine associations between fungi and material components. The results confirmed that Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus versicolor are the most common fungal species in water-damaged buildings. The results also showed Chaetomium spp., Acremonium spp., and Ulocladium spp. to be very common on damp building materials. Analyses show that associated mycobiotas exist on different building materials. Associations were found between (i) Acremonium spp., Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys spp., Ulocladium spp., and gypsum and wallpaper, (ii) Arthrinium phaeospermum, Aureobasidium pullulans, Cladosporium herbarum, Trichoderma spp., yeasts, and different types of wood and plywood, and (iii) Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus melleus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus, Chaetomium spp., Mucor racemosus, Mucor spinosus, and concrete and other floor-related materials. These results can be used to develop new and resistant building materials and relevant allergen extracts and to help focus research on relevant mycotoxins, microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs), and microparticles released into the indoor environment. PMID:21531835

  2. Protein-templated biomimetic silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Erienne; Ferrari, Mariana; Cuestas-Ayllon, Carlos; Fernández-Pacheco, Rodrigo; Perez-Carvajal, Javier; de la Fuente, Jesús M; Grazú, Valeria; Betancor, Lorena

    2015-03-31

    Biomimetic silica particles can be synthesized as a nanosized material within minutes in a process mimicked from living organisms such as diatoms and sponges. In this work, we have studied the effect of bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a template to direct the synthesis of silica nanoparticles (NPs) with the potential to associate proteins on its surface. Our approach enables the formation of spheres with different physicochemical properties. Particles using BSA as a protein template were smaller (?250-380 nm) and were more monodisperse than those lacking the proteic core (?700-1000 nm) as seen by dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) analysis. The absence of BSA during synthesis produced silica nanoparticles without any porosity that was detectable by nitrogen adsorption, whereas particles containing BSA developed porosity in the range of 4 to 5 nm which collapsed on the removal of BSA, thus producing smaller pores. These results were in accordance with the pore size calculated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HTEM). The reproducibility of the BSA-templated nanoparticle properties was determined by analyzing four batches of independent synthesizing experiments that maintained their properties. The high positive superficial charge of the nanoparticles facilitated adsorption under mild conditions of a range of proteins from an E. coli extract and a commercial preparation of laccase from Trametes versicolor. All of the proteins were quantitatively desorbed. Experiments conducted showed the reusability of the particles as supports for the ionic adsorption of the biomolecules. The protein loading capacity of the BSA-based biomimetic particles was determined using laccase as 98.7 ± 6.6 mg·g(-1) of particles. PMID:25741589

  3. Comparison of techniques to examine the diversity of fungi in adult patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Yuriko; Elborn, J Stuart; Millar, B Cherie; Walker, James M; Goldsmith, Colin E; Rendall, Jackie; Moore, John E

    2010-02-01

    This study compares conventional and molecular techniques for the detection of fungi in 77 adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Three different methods were investigated, i.e., (1) conventional microbiological culture (including yeasts and filamentous fungi), (2) mycological culture with CF-derived fungal specific culture media, and (3) Non-culture and direct DNA extraction from patient sputa. Fungi isolated from environmental air samples of the CF unit were compared to fungi in sputa from CF patients. Fungi (n = 107) were detected in 14/77(18%) of patients by method 1, in 60/77 (78%) of patients by method 2 and with method 3, in 77/77(100%) of the patients. The majority of yeasts isolated were Candida albicans and C. dubliniensis. Exophiala (Wangiella) dermatitidis, Scedosporium apiospermum, Penicillium spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, and Aspergillus versicolor were also identified by sequence analysis of the rDNA short internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region. Conventional laboratory analysis failed to detect fungi in 63 patients mainly due to overgrowth by Gram-negative organisms. Mycological culture with antibiotics dramatically increased the number of fungi that could be detected. Molecular techniques detected fungi such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Malassezia spp., Fuscoporia ferrea, Fusarium culmorum, Acremonium strictum, Thanatephorus cucumeris and Cladosporium spp. which were not found with other methods. This study demonstrates that several potentially important fungi may not be detected if mycological culture methods alone are used. A polyphasic approach employing both enhanced mycological culture with molecular detection will help determine the presence of fungi in the sputa of patients with CF and their healthcare environment. PMID:19672783

  4. Characterization of the coal biosolubilization process using gel permeation chromatography and CPMAS NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Linehan, J.C.; Bean, R.M.; Franz, J.A.; Campbell, J.A.

    1990-05-01

    Leonardite, an oxidized lignite, and Illinois {number sign}6 coal were treated with Trametes versicolor and Penicillium sp., respectively, and separately with aqueous base to yield soluble and insoluble products. The products and starting materials were analyzed by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), using both aqueous and organic eluents, and by high-field, high-speed-pinning (>10.0 kHz) {sup 13}C cross polarization/magic angle spinning (CPMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The weight average molecular weights (M{sub w}) of the fungal-and base-solubilized products determined by GPC using acidic tetrahydrofuran (THF) eluent were found to be consistently lower than the M{sub w} determined using basic aqueous eluents. The M{sub w} of the leonardite product was measured to be 1800 and 6100 daltons using the THF and aqueous eluents, respectively. The aqueous eluent (phosphate buffered at pH 11.5) was found to be superior to the THF eluent in its solubilizing power, with 10% more material analyzed with the basic eluent. The solubility of the biotreated products in aqueous base was greater than either the starting coal or the chemically solubilized product. The Trametes-solubilized leonardite was found to contain a higher percentage of aliphatic carbon than the raw lignite; the Penicillium- solubilized Illinois {number sign}6 contained more aromatic carbon than before fungal treatment as determined by {sup 13}C CPMAS NMR. Pre-oxidation of Illinois {number sign}6 decreases the relative amount of aliphatic carbon. The high-field, high-speed-spinning CPMAS NMR technique was quantitatively evaluated using Argonne premium coals,International Humic Society Standards, and model compounds at various temperatures. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Polyphenoloxidases immobilized in organic gels: Properties and applications in the detoxification of aromatic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Crecchio, C.; Ruggiero, P.; Pizzigallo, M.D.R. [Univ. di Bari (Italy). Ist. di Chimica Agraria

    1995-12-20

    Gelatine gels originate from water in oil microemulsions in which the ternary system consists of isooctane/sulfosuccinic acid bis [2-ethyl hexyl] ester/water; the solubilization of gelatin in the water pool of these microemulsions transforms them into viscous gels in which it is possible to cosolubilize various reactive molecules. These gels were used to immobilize two phenoloxidases, a laccase from Trametes versicolor and a tyrosinase from mushroom. The best balance between gel retention and catalytic activity was reached at a gelatine concentration of 2.5% (w/v) in the case of tyrosinase, while laccase immobilization was independent of gelatine concentration. Both enzymes kept the same optimum pH as the corresponding soluble controls, while a partial loss of activity was observed when they were immobilized. Immobilized enzymes showed an increased stability when incubated for several days at 4 C with a very low release from the gels in the incubation solutions. The immobilization of tyrosinase and of laccase enhanced stability to thermal inactivation. Furthermore, gel-entrapped tyrosinase was almost completely preserved from proteolysis: more than 80% of the activity was maintained, while only 25% of the soluble control activity was detected after the same proteolytic treatments. A column packed with gel-immobilized tyrosinase was used to demonstrate that enzymes immobilized with this technique may be reused several times in the same reaction without loosing their efficiency. Finally, gel-entrapped tyrosinase and laccase were capable of removing naturally occurring and xenobiotic aromatic compounds from aqueous suspensions with different degrees of efficiency.

  6. The TLR2 agonist in polysaccharide-K is a structurally distinct lipid which acts synergistically with the protein-bound ?-glucan.

    PubMed

    Quayle, Kenneth; Coy, Catherine; Standish, Leanna; Lu, Hailing

    2015-04-01

    Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (Krestin; PSK) is a hot-water extract of Trametes versicolor with immune stimulatory activity. It has been used for the past 30 years and has demonstrated anti-tumor efficacy in multiple types of cancer. The ability of PSK to activate dendritic cells and T cells is dependent on its ability to stimulate Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), yet it remains unknown which structural component within PSK activates TLR2. The purpose of this study was to identify the TLR2 agonist within PSK and understand its role in the overall mechanism of PSK's immunogenic activity. TLR2 activity was eliminated by treatment with lipoprotein lipase but not by trypsin or lyticase. Rapid centrifugation of PSK can separate the fraction with TLR2 agonist activity from the soluble ?-glucan fraction. To study the potential interaction between the ?-glucan component and the lipid component, we labeled the soluble ?-glucan with fluorescein. Uptake of the labeled ?-glucan by J774A macrophages and JAWSII dendritic cells was inhibited by anti-Dectin-1 antibody but not by anti-TLR2 antibody, confirming that Dectin-1 is the receptor for ?-glucan. Interestingly, pre-treatment of JAWSII cells with the TLR2-active lipid fraction significantly enhanced the uptake of the soluble ?-glucan, indicating the synergy between the TLR2 agonist component and the ?-glucan component. Altogether, these results present evidence that PSK has two active components-the well-characterized protein-bound ?-glucan and a previously unreported lipid-which work synergistically via the Dectin-1 and TLR2 receptors. PMID:25510899

  7. Laccase Catalyzed Synthesis of Iodinated Phenolic Compounds with Antifungal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ihssen, Julian; Schubert, Mark; Thöny-Meyer, Linda; Richter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is a well known antimicrobial compound. Laccase, an oxidoreductase which couples the one electron oxidation of diverse phenolic and non-phenolic substrates to the reduction of oxygen to water, is capable of oxidizing unreactive iodide to reactive iodine. We have shown previously that laccase-iodide treatment of spruce wood results in a wash-out resistant antimicrobial surface. In this study, we investigated whether phenolic compounds such as vanillin, which resembles sub-structures of softwood lignin, can be directly iodinated by reacting with laccase and iodide, resulting in compounds with antifungal activity. HPLC-MS analysis showed that vanillin was converted to iodovanillin by laccase catalysis at an excess of potassium iodide. No conversion of vanillin occurred in the absence of enzyme. The addition of redox mediators in catalytic concentrations increased the rate of iodide oxidation ten-fold and the yield of iodovanillin by 50%. Iodinated phenolic products were also detected when o-vanillin, ethyl vanillin, acetovanillone and methyl vanillate were incubated with laccase and iodide. At an increased educt concentration of 0.1 M an almost one to one molar ratio of iodide to vanillin could be used without compromising conversion rate, and the insoluble iodovanillin product could be recovered by simple centrifugation. The novel enzymatic synthesis procedure fulfills key criteria of green chemistry. Biocatalytically produced iodovanillin and iodo-ethyl vanillin had significant growth inhibitory effects on several wood degrading fungal species. For Trametes versicolor, a species causing white rot of wood, almost complete growth inhibition and a partial biocidal effect was observed on agar plates. Enzymatic tests indicated that the iodinated compounds acted as enzyme responsive, antimicrobial materials. PMID:24594755

  8. International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF): mantenimiento y extensión

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C.; Arias, E. F.; Eubanks, T.; Fey, A. L.; Gontier, A.-M.; Jacobs, C. S.; Sovers, O. J.; Archinal, B. A.; Charlot, P.

    A partir de enero de 1998 el sistema de referencia celeste convencional está representado por el International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) y materializado a través de las coordenadas VLBI del conjunto de radiofuentes extragalácticas que conforman el International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). La primera realización del ICRF, fue elaborada en 1995 por un grupo de expertos designado por la IAU, la que encomendó al International Earth Rotation Service el mantenimiento del ICRS, del ICRF y del vínculo con marcos de referencia en otras frecuencias. Una primera extensión del ICRF se realizó entre abril y junio de 1999, con el objetivo primario de proveer posiciones de radiofuentes extragalácticas observadas a partir de julio de 1995 y de mejorar las posiciones de las fuentes ``candidatas" con la inclusión de observaciones adicionales. Objetivos secundarios fueron monitorear a las radiofuentes para verificar que siguen siendo adecuadas para realizar al ICRF y mejorar las técnicas de análisis de datos. Como resultado del nuevo análisis se obtuvo una solución a partir de la cual se construyó la primera extensión del ICRF, denominada ICRF - Ext.1. Ella representa al ICRS, sus fuentes de definición se mantienen con las mismas posiciones y errores que en la primera realización del ICRF; las demás radiofuentes tienen coordenadas mejor determinadas que en ICRF; el marco de referencia se densificó con el agregado de 59 nuevas radiofuentes.

  9. Leaf hydraulic conductance, measured in situ, declines and recovers daily: leaf hydraulics, water potential and stomatal conductance in four temperate and three tropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D M; Woodruff, D R; McCulloh, K A; Meinzer, F C

    2009-07-01

    Adequate leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) is critical for preventing transpiration-induced desiccation and subsequent stomatal closure that would restrict carbon gain. A few studies have reported midday depression of Kleaf (or petiole conductivity) and its subsequent recovery in situ, but the extent to which this phenomenon is universal is not known. The objectives of this study were to measure Kleaf, using a rehydration kinetics method, (1) in the laboratory (under controlled conditions) across a range of water potentials to construct vulnerability curves (VC) and (2) over the course of the day in the field along with leaf water potential and stomatal conductance (gs). Two broadleaf (one evergreen, Arbutus menziesii Pursh., and one deciduous, Quercus garryana Dougl.) and two coniferous species (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. and Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirbel]) were chosen as representative of different plant types. In addition, Kleaf in the laboratory and leaf water potential in the field were measured for three tropical evergreen species (Protium panamense (Rose), Tachigalia versicolor Standley and L.O. Williams and Vochysia ferruginea Mart) to predict their daily changes in field Kleaf in situ. It was hypothesized that in the field, leaves would close their stomata at water potential thresholds at which Kleaf begins to decline sharply in laboratory-generated VC, thus preventing substantial losses of Kleaf. The temperate species showed a 15-66% decline in Kleaf by midday, before stomatal closure. Although there were substantial midday declines in Kleaf, recovery was nearly complete by late afternoon. Stomatal conductance began to decrease in Pseudotsuga, Pinus and Quercus once Kleaf began to decline; however, there was no detectable reduction in gs in Arbutus. Predicted Kleaf in the tropical species, based on laboratory-generated VC, decreased by 74% of maximum Kleaf in Tachigalia, but only 22-32% in Vochysia and Protium. The results presented here, from the previous work of the authors and from other published studies, were consistent with two different strategies regarding daily maintenance of Kleaf: (1) substantial loss and subsequent recovery or (2) a more conservative strategy of loss avoidance. PMID:19429900

  10. Human infections due to Malassezia spp.

    PubMed Central

    Marcon, M J; Powell, D A

    1992-01-01

    The genus Malassezia contains three member species: Malassezia furfur and Malassezia sympodialis, both obligatory lipophilic, skin flora yeasts of humans, and Malassezia pachydermatis, a nonobligatory lipophilic, skin flora yeast of other warm-blooded animals. Several characteristics suggest the basidiomycetous nature of these yeasts, although a perfect stage has not been identified. Classically, these organisms are associated with superficial infections of the skin and associated structures, including pityriasis versicolor and folliculitis. Recently, however, they have been reported as agents of more invasive human diseases including deep-line catheter-associated sepsis. The latter infection occurs in patients, primarily infants, receiving parenteral nutrition (including lipid emulsions) through the catheter. The lipids presumably provide growth factors required for replication of the organisms. It is unclear how deep-line catheters become colonized with Malassezia spp. Skin colonization with M. furfur is common in infants hospitalized in neonatal intensive care units, whereas colonization of newborns hospitalized in well-baby nurseries and of older infants is rarely observed. Catheter colonization, which may occur without overt clinical symptoms, probably occurs secondary to skin colonization, with the organism gaining access either via the catheter insertion site on the skin or through the external catheter hub (connecting port). There is little information on the colonization of hospitalized patients by M. sympodialis or M. pachydermatis. Diagnosis of superficial infections is best made by microscopic examination of skin scrapings following KOH, calcofluor white, or histologic staining. Treatment of these infections involves the use of topical or oral antifungal agents, and it may be prolonged. Diagnosis of Malassezia catheter-associated sepsis requires detection of the organism in whole blood smears or in buffy coat smears of blood drawn through the infected catheter or isolation of the organism from catheter or peripheral blood or the catheter tip. Culture of M. furfur from blood is best achieved with Isolator tubes and plating onto a solid medium supplemented with a lipid source. Appropriate treatment of patients requires removal of the infected catheter with or without temporary stoppage of lipid emulsions; administration of antifungal therapeutic agents does not appear to be necessary. Because many patients who develop Malassezia catheter-associated sepsis have severe underlying illnesses, caution must be exercised in attributing all clinical deterioration to Malassezia infection. Our better understanding of how these organisms cause disease awaits the development of a useful typing scheme for epidemiologic studies and further studies on microbial virulence factors and the role of the immune response in pathogenesis. Images PMID:1576583

  11. Distribution of Malassezia species on the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and healthy volunteers assessed by conventional and molecular identification methods

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Malassezia yeasts which belong to the physiological microflora of human skin have also been implicated in several dermatological disorders, including pityriasis versicolor (PV), atopic dermatitis (AD), and psoriasis (PS). The Malassezia genus has repeatedly been revised and it now accommodates 14 species, all but one being lipid-dependent species. The traditional, phenotype-based identification schemes of Malassezia species are fraught with interpretative ambiguities and inconsistencies, and are thus increasingly being supplemented or replaced by DNA typing methods. The aim of this study was to explore the species composition of Malassezia microflora on the skin of healthy volunteers and patients with AD and PS. Methods Species characterization was performed by conventional, culture-based methods and subsequently molecular techniques: PCR-RFLP and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1/2 regions and the D1/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene. The Chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test were used for statistical analysis. Results Malassezia sympodialis was the predominant species, having been cultured from 29 (82.9%) skin samples collected from 17 out of 18 subjects under the study. Whereas AD patients yielded exclusively M. sympodialis isolates, M. furfur isolates were observed only in PS patients. The isolation of M. sympodialis was statistically more frequent among AD patients and healthy volunteers than among PS patients (P

  12. German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV)--first results.

    PubMed

    Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Becker, Kerstin; Conrad, André; Lüdecke, Anja; Riedel, Stefan; Seiwert, Margarete; Schulz, Christine; Szewzyk, Regine

    2007-10-01

    German Environmental Surveys (GerESs) are large scale population studies which have been carried out on adults in 1985/86, 1990/92 and 1998 and on children aged 6-14 years in 1990/92. GerES IV is the first survey focussing exclusively on children [Becker, K., Schulz, C., Babisch, W., Dürkop, J., Roskamp, E., Seiwert, M., Szewzyk, R., Ullrich, D., Seifert, B., 2005. German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV) 2003-2006. Pullut. Atmos. 188, 475-479]. GerES IV included a representative sample of 1790 children aged 3-14 of the participants of the National Health Interview and Examination Survey on Children and Adolescents. The primary goal of GerES IV is not only to analyse and document the extent, distribution and determinants of German children's exposure to environmental pollutants but to discover links between environmental exposure and health. Results will help develop preventive measures and advance further research. They might provide the basis for environmental and public health policy decisions. Precondition to achieve this task is a description of the data on exposures and the data on health outcomes. This work is currently performed at the Federal Environment Agency. First results show a remarkable decrease of the blood lead level of German children aged 6-14 years from 32.3 microg/l in 1990/92 (GerES II) to 16.3 microg/l in GerES IV which is the lowest mean lead concentration determined in German studies so far. None of the children had a value exceeding 100 microg/l. In GerES IV, the following health-related issues will be primarily examined: the relationship between sensitisation against mould spores and the occurrence of mould in households, irritation of eyes and respiratory system caused by formaldehyde, other aldehydes, or total volatile organic compounds (TVOC); the impact of non-occupational noise on hearing loss, stress and sleep disturbances, and the connection between contact allergies, nickel and scents. 9.5% of the children showed a sensitisation to at least one of the moulds examined (Penicillium (notatum) chrysogenum, Aspergillus versicolor, Wallemia sebi, Eurotium spp., Alternaria alternata). The most frequent sensitisation was against Penicillium chrysogenum. GerES IV might broaden the knowledge in terms of environmental causes of health outcomes. Children of smoking mothers showed higher mean cotinine concentrations than children living with a smoking father, regardless whether they smoked daily or occasionally. Results from the GerES IV pilot study showed a relation between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and an increased susceptibility to infections and inflammations of the middle ear. PMID:17870665

  13. [Genetic methods for the reintroduction of primates Saguinus, Aotus and Cebus (Primates: Cebidae) seized in Bogota, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-García, Manuel; Leguizamón, Norberto; Vásquez, Catalina; Rodríguez, Karen; Castillo, María Ignacia

    2010-09-01

    Primates are one of more confiscated taxa by the environmental authorities in Bogota, Colombia. During 2008, 133 monkeys were confiscated; samples from 115 of them were sequenced by the mitochondrial cythocrome oxidase II gene (mtCOII) and 112 sequences obtained were of high quality. These sequences were compared with those obtained by our research group from individuals directly sampled in the field, with precise geographic origin. So, a more specific geographic area of the Colombian territory could be considered for a correct rehabilitation treatment during the reintroduction of these confiscated animals. The main results with five primate species were: 1--For all the specimens analyzed of Saguinus leucopus, they could be liberated in any geographical area of its distribution range, since only one gene pool was found. 2--For the 14 Aotus sp. individuals sequenced from the SDA (Environmental District Secretariat), one of them (A. vociferans) was coming from the Amazon, seven exemplars belonged to A. griseimembra from the Magdalena Valley and the Colombian Caribbean coasts, four individuals represented to A. brumbacki from the Colombian Eastern Llanos, and two were associated to A. azarae azarae from Northern Argentina and Paraguay (which means that illegal traffic of animals is arriving to Colombia from other South-American countries). 3--Out 14 Cebus albifrons sequenced, two belonged to the geographical area of C. a. versicolor, one to C. a. pleei, 10 to C a. leucocephalus and one could be not assigned because its sequence yielded a great genetic divergence with respect to the other specimens sequenced of this species. 4--The two Cebus capucinus sequenced showed to be associated to a gene pool found in the Northern of Chocó, Sucre and Córdoba Departments. 5--Out 11 Cebus apella sequenced, 10 showed to belong to the gene pool presented in the Colombian Eastern Llanos and highly related (but differentiable) to Cebus apella apella from the French Guyana. It could be named C. a. fatuellus sensu Groves (2001). One exemplar sequenced could be not related with the other C. apella analyzed, nor the related taxa to the aforementioned species (C. a. paraguayanus = C. cay; C. xanthosternos; C. nigritus). PMID:20737854

  14. Cloning, sequence analysis, expression of Cyathus bulleri laccase in Pichia pastoris and characterization of recombinant laccase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Laccases are blue multi-copper oxidases and catalyze the oxidation of phenolic and non-phenolic compounds. There is considerable interest in using these enzymes for dye degradation as well as for synthesis of aromatic compounds. Laccases are produced at relatively low levels and, sometimes, as isozymes in the native fungi. The investigation of properties of individual enzymes therefore becomes difficult. The goal of this study was to over-produce a previously reported laccase from Cyathus bulleri using the well-established expression system of Pichia pastoris and examine and compare the properties of the recombinant enzyme with that of the native laccase. Results In this study, complete cDNA encoding laccase (Lac) from white rot fungus Cyathus bulleri was amplified by RACE-PCR, cloned and expressed in the culture supernatant of Pichia pastoris under the control of the alcohol oxidase (AOX)1 promoter. The coding region consisted of 1,542 bp and encodes a protein of 513 amino acids with a signal peptide of 16 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of the matured protein displayed high homology with laccases from Trametes versicolor and Coprinus cinereus. The sequence analysis indicated the presence of Glu 460 and Ser 113 and LEL tripeptide at the position known to influence redox potential of laccases placing this enzyme as a high redox enzyme. Addition of copper sulfate to the production medium enhanced the level of laccase by about 12-fold to a final activity of 7200 U L-1. The recombinant laccase (rLac) was purified by ~4-fold to a specific activity of ~85 U mg-1 protein. A detailed study of thermostability, chloride and solvent tolerance of the rLac indicated improvement in the first two properties when compared to the native laccase (nLac). Altered glycosylation pattern, identified by peptide mass finger printing, was proposed to contribute to altered properties of the rLac. Conclusion Laccase of C. bulleri was successfully produced extra-cellularly to a high level of 7200 U L-1 in P. pastoris under the control of the AOX1 promoter and purified by a simple three-step procedure to homogeneity. The kinetic parameters against ABTS, Guaiacol and Pyrogallol were similar with the nLac and the rLac. Tryptic finger print analysis of the nLac and the rLac indicated altered glycosylation patterns. Increased thermo-stability and salt tolerance of the rLac was attributed to this changed pattern of glycosylation. PMID:23092193

  15. Allergic sensitization in Canadian chronic rhinosinusitis patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a societal burden and cause of morbidity in Canada; however, the prevalence of allergic sensitization in Canadian CRS patients has remained poorly characterized. Objective In this study, we used skin prick test (SPT) and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) and G (sIgG) titers to regionally relevant allergen sources in order to determine whether allergic sensitization is more prevalent in CRS patients compared to chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) control patients. Methods One hundred and fifty eight subjects (19–70 years of age) were recruited into the study. 101 subjects had a confirmed diagnostic history of CRS and 57 subjects with a clinical diagnosis of CIU were recruited as controls. Enrolled subjects underwent SPT to a panel of perennial and seasonal allergens and sIgE titers were quantified to selected environmental allergen mixes (grass, mold, and tree species) using Phadia ImmunoCAP. sIgG was additionally quantified to Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium herbarum, and Stachybotrys atra. Differences between CRS and control CIU patient SPT and serological data were examined by chi-squared analysis and analysis of variance. Results Reactivity to at least one SPT extract occurred in 73% of CRS patients. Positive SPT reactivity to A. alternata (odds ratio (OR): 4.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.57, 12.02), cat (OR: 3.23, 95% CI: 1.16, 9.02), and ragweed (OR: 2.31, 95% CI: 1.02, 5.19) extracts were more prevalent in patients with CRS (p?

  16. Annotated type catalogue of the Chrysididae (Insecta, Hymenoptera) deposited in the collection of Maximilian Spinola (1780–1857), Turin

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Paolo; Xu, Zai-fu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A critical and annotated catalogue of the ninety-six type specimens of Chrysididae (Hymenoptera), belonging to sixty-seven species, housed in the insect collection of Maximilian Spinola is given. The neotypes of six species are designated: Chrysis bicolor Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysis comparata Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysis dives Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis pumila Klug, 1845; Chrysis succincta Linnaeus, 1767; Hedychrum bidentulum Lepeletier, 1806. The lectotypes of twenty-four species are designated: Chrysis aequinoctialis Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis analis Spinola, 1808; Chrysis assimilis Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis bihamata Spinola, 1838; Chrysis chilensis Spinola, 1851; Chrysis dichroa Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis distinguenda Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis episcopalis Spinola, 1838; Chrysis grohmanni Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis incrassata Spinola, 1838; Chrysis pallidicornis Spinola, 1838; Chrysis pulchella Spinola, 1808; Chrysis ramburi Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis refulgens Spinola, 1806; Chrysis splendens Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis succinctula Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis versicolor Spinola, 1808; Elampus gayi Spinola, 1851; Hedychrum caerulescens Lepeletier, 1806; Hedychrum chloroideum Dahlbom, 1854; Hedychrum difficile Spinola, 1851; Hedychrum virens Dahlbom, 1854; Holopyga janthina Dahlbom, 1854; Holopyga luzulina Dahlbom, 1854. Previous lectotype designations of five species are set aside: Chrysis bicolor Lepeletier, 1806 (designated by Morgan 1984); Chrysis calimorpha Mocsáry, 1882 (designated by Móczár 1965); Chrysis elegans Lepeletier, 1806 (designated by Bohart (in Kimsey and Bohart 1991)); Hedychrum chloroideum Dahlbom, 1854 (designated by Kimsey 1986); Hedychrum rutilans Dahlbom, 1854 (designated by Morgan 1984). Three new synonymies are proposed: Hedychrum intermedium Dahlbom, 1845, syn. n. of Holopyga fervida (Fabricius, 1781); Chrysis sicula Dahlbom, 1854, syn. n. of Chrysis elegans Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysis succinctula Dahlbom, 1854, syn. n. of Chrysis germari Wesmael, 1839. Chrysis distinguenda Spinola, 1838, and Chrysis coronata Spinola, 1808, are considered nomina dubia. Hedychrum alterum Lepeletier, 1806, and Hedychrum aulicum Spinola, 1843, are considered nomina oblita. Hedychrum rutilans Dahlbom, 1854, and Hedychrum niemelai Linsenmaier, 1959, are retained as nomina protecta. The first available name for Chrysis succinctula sensu Linsenmaier is Chrysis tristicula Linsenmaier, 1959, (stat. n.) The current status and validity of some types in the Spinola collection are discussed. Photographs of fifty-three types are given. PMID:25632245

  17. Computational Analysis and Low-Scale Constitutive Expression of Laccases Synthetic Genes GlLCC1 from Ganoderma lucidum and POXA 1B from Pleurotus ostreatus in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Guzmán, Edwin Alfredo; Poutou-Piñales, Raúl A.; Reyes-Montaño, Edgar Antonio; Pedroza-Rodríguez, Aura Marina; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio; Cardozo-Bernal, Ángela M.

    2015-01-01

    Lacasses are multicopper oxidases that can catalyze aromatic and non-aromatic compounds concomitantly with reduction of molecular oxygen to water. Fungal laccases have generated a growing interest due to their biotechnological potential applications, such as lignocellulosic material delignification, biopulping and biobleaching, wastewater treatment, and transformation of toxic organic pollutants. In this work we selected fungal genes encoding for laccase enzymes GlLCC1 in Ganoderma lucidum and POXA 1B in Pleurotus ostreatus. These genes were optimized for codon use, GC content, and regions generating secondary structures. Laccase proposed computational models, and their interaction with ABTS [2, 2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] substrate was evaluated by molecular docking. Synthetic genes were cloned under the control of Pichia pastoris glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) constitutive promoter. P. pastoris X-33 was transformed with pGAPZ?A-LaccGluc-Stop and pGAPZ?A-LaccPost-Stop constructs. Optimization reduced GC content by 47 and 49% for LaccGluc-Stop and LaccPost-Stop genes, respectively. A codon adaptation index of 0.84 was obtained for both genes. 3D structure analysis using SuperPose revealed LaccGluc-Stop is similar to the laccase crystallographic structure 1GYC of Trametes versicolor. Interaction analysis of the 3D models validated through ABTS, demonstrated higher substrate affinity for LaccPost-Stop, in agreement with our experimental results with enzymatic activities of 451.08 ± 6.46 UL-1 compared to activities of 0.13 ± 0.028 UL-1 for LaccGluc-Stop. This study demonstrated that G. lucidum GlLCC1 and P. ostreatus POXA 1B gene optimization resulted in constitutive gene expression under GAP promoter and ?-factor leader in P. pastoris. These are important findings in light of recombinant enzyme expression system utility for environmentally friendly designed expression systems, because of the wide range of substrates that laccases can transform. This contributes to a great gamut of products in diverse settings: industry, clinical and chemical use, and environmental applications. PMID:25611746

  18. Biotechnological strategies to overcome inhibitors in lignocellulose hydrolysates for ethanol production: review.

    PubMed

    Parawira, W; Tekere, M

    2011-03-01

    One of the major challenges faced in commercial production of lignocellulosic bioethanol is the inhibitory compounds generated during the thermo-chemical pre-treatment step of biomass. These inhibitory compounds are toxic to fermenting micro-organisms. The ethanol yield and productivity obtained during fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates is decreased due to the presence of inhibiting compounds, such as weak acids, furans and phenolic compounds formed or released during thermo-chemical pre-treatment step such as acid and steam explosion. This review describes the application and/or effect of biological detoxification (removal of inhibitors before fermentation) or use of bioreduction capability of fermenting yeasts on the fermentability of the hydrolysates. Inhibition of yeast fermentation by the inhibitor compounds in the lignocellulosic hydrolysates can be reduced by treatment with enzymes such as the lignolytic enzymes, for example, laccase and micro-organisms such as Trichoderma reesei, Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616, Trametes versicolor, Pseudomonas putida Fu1, Candida guilliermondii, and Ureibacillus thermosphaericus. Microbial and enzymatic detoxifications of lignocellulosic hydrolysate are mild and more specific in their action. The efficiency of enzymatic process is quite comparable to other physical and chemical methods. Adaptation of the fermentation yeasts to the lignocellulosic hydrolysate prior to fermentation is suggested as an alternative approach to detoxification. Increases in fermentation rate and ethanol yield by adapted micro-organisms to acid pre-treated lignocellulosic hydrolysates have been reported in some studies. Another approach to alleviate the inhibition problem is to use genetic engineering to introduce increased tolerance by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for example, by overexpressing genes encoding enzymes for resistance against specific inhibitors and altering co-factor balance. Cloning of the laccase gene followed by heterologous expression in yeasts was shown to provide higher enzyme yields and permit production of laccases with desired properties for detoxification of lignocellulose hydrolysates. A combination of more inhibitor-tolerant yeast strains with efficient feed strategies such as fed-batch will likely improve lignocellulose-to-ethanol process robustness. PMID:20513164

  19. Computational analysis and low-scale constitutive expression of laccases synthetic genes GlLCC1 from Ganoderma lucidum and POXA 1B from Pleurotus ostreatus in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Hoyos, Claudia M; Morales-Álvarez, Edwin David; Poveda-Cuevas, Sergio Alejandro; Reyes-Guzmán, Edwin Alfredo; Poutou-Piñales, Raúl A; Reyes-Montaño, Edgar Antonio; Pedroza-Rodríguez, Aura Marina; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio; Cardozo-Bernal, Ángela M

    2015-01-01

    Lacasses are multicopper oxidases that can catalyze aromatic and non-aromatic compounds concomitantly with reduction of molecular oxygen to water. Fungal laccases have generated a growing interest due to their biotechnological potential applications, such as lignocellulosic material delignification, biopulping and biobleaching, wastewater treatment, and transformation of toxic organic pollutants. In this work we selected fungal genes encoding for laccase enzymes GlLCC1 in Ganoderma lucidum and POXA 1B in Pleurotus ostreatus. These genes were optimized for codon use, GC content, and regions generating secondary structures. Laccase proposed computational models, and their interaction with ABTS [2, 2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] substrate was evaluated by molecular docking. Synthetic genes were cloned under the control of Pichia pastoris glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) constitutive promoter. P. pastoris X-33 was transformed with pGAPZ?A-LaccGluc-Stop and pGAPZ?A-LaccPost-Stop constructs. Optimization reduced GC content by 47 and 49% for LaccGluc-Stop and LaccPost-Stop genes, respectively. A codon adaptation index of 0.84 was obtained for both genes. 3D structure analysis using SuperPose revealed LaccGluc-Stop is similar to the laccase crystallographic structure 1GYC of Trametes versicolor. Interaction analysis of the 3D models validated through ABTS, demonstrated higher substrate affinity for LaccPost-Stop, in agreement with our experimental results with enzymatic activities of 451.08 ± 6.46 UL-1 compared to activities of 0.13 ± 0.028 UL-1 for LaccGluc-Stop. This study demonstrated that G. lucidum GlLCC1 and P. ostreatus POXA 1B gene optimization resulted in constitutive gene expression under GAP promoter and ?-factor leader in P. pastoris. These are important findings in light of recombinant enzyme expression system utility for environmentally friendly designed expression systems, because of the wide range of substrates that laccases can transform. This contributes to a great gamut of products in diverse settings: industry, clinical and chemical use, and environmental applications. PMID:25611746

  20. White-rot fungal response to fresh and photolytically-weathered pyrogenic organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, C. D.; Berry, T. D.; Wang, R.; Bird, J. A.; Filley, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM or biochar) is the product of the incomplete combustion of biomass. A better understanding of the microbial-mediated degradation of PyOM is critical to assess its role in soil C sequestration and to serve as an agricultural amendment. Recent studies have shown that PyOM additions can prime native soil C but results have been inconsistent, with studies reporting no effect, an increase, or decrease in C mineralization. This study investigated the ability of saprotrophic white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor, to decompose an unaltered 'fresh' PyOM and a photo-oxidized PyOM. In addition, we measured PyOM-induced priming effects on the mineralization of malt extract agar media (MEA). Enriched (13C) Pinus banksiana-derived PyOM, produced at 450oC under N2, was added fresh and after 4 weeks exposure to 254 nm light to MEA. Vials containing the various types of media were then monitored for CO2 evolution and oxidative enzyme activity. We found that MEA C respired was stimulated (positive priming) by photolyzed PyOM and was inhibited with fresh PyOM addition (negative priming) relative to controls. Vetryl alcohol addition, a laccase production stimulant, resulted in less activity in the presence of PyOM compared with a control, indicating PyOM may disrupt enzyme induction processes. Loss of PyOM-13CO2 was 0.2% (× 0.001) for fresh PyOM and 1.2% (×0.001) for photolyzed PyOM C during 10 weeks averaged across media treatments. While MEA C mineralization decreased after fresh PyOM addition, both oxidative (laccase and manganese peroxidase) and hydrolytic (? glucosidase) enzyme production increased with fresh PyOM in the absence of veratryl alcohol. However, there was a decrease in its presence. These results suggest that the physiological response of this common wood decay fungus to PyOM is complex and responsive to enzymatic triggers but that PyOM itself can act to promote or suppress overall litter or soil decay by fungi.