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We report six typical cases with pityriasis versicolor (PV) rubra, with a background of collagen diseases in five cases and none in one case. Two cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and one case of systemic scleroderma (SSc) had both PV rubra and nigra on the trunk. Diagnosis of superficial infections of PV was made by microscopic examination of skin scrapings following KOH, and many small whitish colonies were obtained in Sabouraud's slant agar medium culture containing cycloheximide with olive oil in all cases. Malassezia sympodialis was isolated from the scales of two different lesions at a 6 week-interval in a same person (a 32 year-old male without SLE nor SSc) by the method of Makimura et al. , although the other five cases were not examined for the isolation. Histopathological features of the lesion on the dorsum of the trunk showed no epidermal hyperplasia without elongation of rete ridges and no inflammatory cell infiltration in the dermis, however there was only dilatation of small blood vessels in the dermis, which was reconfirmed capillaroscopically. In the horny layers, several yeastlike and fine filamentous structures were seen which were positive with PAS and Grocott stains. Both clinical and histological features led us to speculate PV rubra. All the patients were treated with anti-fungal ointment, and the lesions diminished in less than 2 weeks. No recurrence has been seen in any of the cases. This PV rubra may be independent from PV nigra, although Horiuchi  suggested the earlier lesion occurs in advance of PV alba or nigra. PMID:11872414
Pityriasis (tinea) versicolor and seborrheic dermatitis are two very common skin diseases. Pityriasis versicolor is a chronic superficial fungal disease usually located on the upper trunk, neck, or upper arms. In pityriasis versicolor, the lipophilic yeast Malassezia (also know as Pityrosporum ovale or P. orbiculare) changes from the blastospore form to the mycelial form under the influence of predisposing factors. The most important exogenous factors are high temperatures and a high relative humidity which probably explain why pityriasis versicolor is more common in the tropics. The most important endogenous factors are greasy skin, hyperhidrosis, hereditary factors, corticosteroid treatment and immunodeficiency. There are many ways of treating pityriasis versicolor topically. Options include propylene glycol, ketoconazole shampoo, zinc pyrithione shampoo, ciclopiroxamine, selenium sulfide, and topical antifungals. In difficult cases, short term treatment with fluconazole or itraconazole is effective and well tolerated. To avoid recurrence a prophylactic treatment regimen is mandatory. Seborrheic dermatitis is characterized by red scaly lesions predominantly located on the scalp, face and upper trunk. There are now many studies indicating that Malassezia plays an important role in this condition. Even a normal number of Malassezia will start an inflammatory reaction. Mild corticosteroids are effective in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. However, the disease recurs quickly, often within just a few days. Antifungal therapy is effective in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis and, because it reduces the number of Malassezia, the time to recurrence is increased compared with treatment with corticosteroids. Antifungal therapy should be the primary treatment of this disease. PMID:11702314
Background: The new antifungal triazoles itraconazole and fluconazole have revolutionized the treatment of pityriasis versicolor. Both drugs have shown promising results in different dose schedules. Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of single oral dose treatment with fluconazole versus itraconazole in patients with pityriasis versicolor. Methods: A total of 40 patients with pityriasis versicolor were allocated randomly to group
Recently 11 Malassezia species were isolated. Attention has focused on the relationship between Malassezia species and Malassezia-related disease. The causal fungus of Pityriasis versicolor is M. globosa. The conditions of mycelial form induction are not clear for M. globosa.
We investigated the ability of Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporous cinnabarinus to metabolize triclosan. T. versicolor produced three metabolites, 2-O-(2,4,4?-trichlorodiphenyl ether)-?-d-xylopyranoside, 2-O-(2,4,4?-trichlorodiphenyl ether)-?-d-glucopyranoside, and 2,4-dichlorophenol. P. cinnabarinus converted triclosan to 2,4,4?-trichloro-2?-methoxydiphenyl ether and the glucoside conjugate known from T. versicolor. The conjugates showed a distinctly lower cytotoxic and microbicidal activity than triclosan did.
Pityriasis versicolor is a common superficial mycoses of the skin. It is now recognized that the causative organisms of this infection are different species of Malassezia. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of Malassezia species in patients with pityriasis versicolor in Adana, Turkey. In total, 97 patients positive for Malassezia elements, namely, yeast cells and short hyphae in microscopic examination, were included in the study. All samples were inoculated in plates containing modified Dixon's medium. However, only 44 of the patients (45.4%) showed Malassezia spp. in culture. Malassezia globosa (47.7%) was the most commonly isolated species followed by Malassezia furfur (36.4%) and Malassezia slooffiae (15.9%). Mixed Malassezia species were not isolated. In conclusion, M. globosa was found to be the predominant PV isolate in Adana, Turkey. PMID:19583685
Although pityriasis versicolor is the only human disease for which Malassezia yeasts have been fully established as pathogens, it is still not clear which species are implicated. Most studies carried out in recent years support our hypothesis —proposed in 1999— that Malassezia globosa is the predominant species in pityriasis versicolor lesions, at least in temperate climates. Confirmation of this hypothesis
Although pityriasis versicolor is the only human disease for which Malassezia yeasts have been fully established as pathogens, it is still not clear which species are implicated. Most studies carried out in recent years support our hypothesis —proposed in 1999— that Malassezia globosa is the predominant species in pityriasis versicolor lesions, at least in temperate climates. Confirmation of this hypothesis
A grey tree frog (Hyla versicolor). Amphibian species are declining globally, and pesticides may play a role, but their concentrations are often low in nature. Carbaryl is a common pesticide that can become more lethal for frogs under certain environmental conditions. A recent study has found that predatory stress, a common pressure for most amphibians, can make carbaryl exposure much more deadly to gray tree frogs. This suggests that apparently safe concentrations of pesticides can become more deadly to some amphibian species when combined with predator cues. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecological Applications (13:4) in December of 2003.
Improving the availability of oxygen by adding polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS) oxygen carriers to Trametes versicolor cultures increased pulp brightening. The presence of the oxygen carriers in cultures of T. versicolor with hardwood kraft pulp increased the growth rate of the fungus, but not the ultimate biomass yield. The PDMS also stimulated brightening of hardwood kraft pulp by it T. versicolor immobilized
Background: Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a superficial infection of the stratum corneum caused by Malassezia species. Eleven species have been identified within this genus, namely M. globosa, M. restricta, M. sympodialis, M. furfur, M. obtusa, M. slooffiae, M. pachydermatis, M. dermatis, M. japonica, \\u0009M. yamatoensis, M. nana. M. furfur has long been identified as the causative fungus of PV. However,
Degradation and decolorization of monosodium glutamate wastewater (MSGW) with Coriolus versicolor were firstly carried out. The effects of various operation parameters namely wastewater concentrations, pH, culture time and incidence of sterilization on maximum percentage of degradation and decolorization of wastewater were investigated. Studies of mycelium and enzyme for C. versicolor degradation and decolorization were estimated in this study. Ten percentage of wastewater concentration and pH = 5.0 were found to be the most suitable ones among the other experiments. The highest degradation and decolorization efficiency of wastewater was obtained at the fifth day of cultivation, which was displayed with more than 70% chemical oxygen demand removal, 83% total sugar removal and 55% color removal, respectively. Sterile operation had no remarkable effect on the degradation and decolorization efficiency for C. versicolor. Mycelium and the extra cellular fungal enzyme were both necessary for the degradation and decolorization of MSGW. C. versicolor possesses great potential and economic advantages in MSGW treatment. PMID:17146613
Dermatophytes have the ability to form molecular attachments to keratin and use it as a source of nutrients, colonizing keratinized tissues, including the stratum corneum of the skin. Malassezia species also affect the stratum corneum of the skin. Therefore, dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor of the skin are thought to be important factors of profound changes in skin barrier structure and function. We aimed to describe the changes in transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum hydration, and skin pH in the lesions of the dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor. Thirty-six patients with dermatophytosis (14 with tinea cruris, 13 with tinea corporis and nine with tinea pedis or tinea manus) and 11 patients with pityriasis versicolor were included in this study. TEWL, stratum corneum conductance and skin pH were determined by biophysical methods to examine whether our patients exhibited changes in barrier function. Dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor except tinea pedis and tinea manus showed highly significant increase in TEWL compared with adjacent infection-free skin. Hydration was significantly reduced in lesional skin compared with adjacent infection-free skin. From this study, infections with dermatophytes and Malassezia species on the body can alter biophysical properties of the skin, especially the function of stratum corneum as a barrier to water loss. On the contrary, infections with dermatophytes on the palms and soles little affect the barrier function of the skin. PMID:21950511
Lee, Weon Ju; Kim, Jun Young; Song, Chang Hyun; Jung, Hong Dae; Lee, Su Hyun; Lee, Seok-Jong; Kim, Do Won
Pityriasis versicolor is common among young active duty members with overactive sweat glands working in humid environments and results in pigmentary changes that can be profound in those with darker skin. This article addresses several issues related to making the correct diagnosis and providing appropriate treatment, as well as the specific challenges military providers may face in these cases. PMID:23929053
Trametes versicolor is a mushroom used as a traditional Chinese medicine (Yun-zhi) for a wide array of seemingly disparate conditions. We hypothesized that many of its multiple purported activities could be mediated through stimulation of beneficial mutualist components of the microbiota. Human fecal microbiota was cultured anaerobically to determine its ability to ferment a common extract of T. versicolor, designated polysaccharide peptide (PSP), and the ability of PSP to alter the composition of the microbial community. The presence of PSP and fructooligosaccharides (FOS, a common prebiotic) in the medium, but not cellulose, significantly increased levels of Bifidobacterium spp. PSP also elevated Lactobacillus spp., while reducing Clostridium spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. Levels of Streptococcus spp., Bacteroides spp. and Escherichia did not significantly change. Fermentation of PSP increased the concentration of organic acids (lactate and short-chain fatty acids), decreased the pH, and induced ?-galactosidase and ?-glucosidase activities. The genera of the human microbiota that are promoted by FOS and other prebiotics are also stimulated by the Trametes versicolor extract, PSP. Thus, Trametes versicolor, a common East Asian botanical, contains putative prebiotic agents that alter human gut microbiota and pH. This prebiotic-like activity may help explain some of the plethora of the health benefits attributed to this traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23435630
Yu, Zhuo-Teng; Liu, Bo; Mukherjee, Purna; Newburg, David S
Background Aims One of the classic examples of an allopolyploid is Iris versicolor, ‘Blue Flag’ (2n = 108), first studied by Edgar Anderson and later popularized by George Ledyard Stebbins in cytogenetics and evolutionary text-books. It is revisited here using modern molecular and cytogenetic tools to investigate its putative allopolyploid origin involving progenitors of I. virginica (2n = 70) and I. setosa (2n = 38). Methods Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and Southern hybridization with 5S and 18–26S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) probes were used to identify the parental origin of chromosomes, and to study the unit structure, relative abundance and chromosomal location of rDNA sequences. Key Results GISH shows that I. versicolor has inherited the sum of the chromosome complement from the two progenitor species. In I. versicolor all the 18–26S rDNA units and loci are inherited from the progenitor of I. virginica, those loci from the I. setosa progenitor are absent. In contrast 5S rDNA loci and units from both progenitors are found, although one of the two 5S loci expected from the I. setosa progenitor is absent. Conclusions These data confirm Anderson's hypothesis that I. versicolor is an allopolyploid involving progenitors of I. virginica and I. setosa. The number of 18–26S rDNA loci in I. versicolor is similar to that of progenitor I. virginica, suggestive of a first stage in genome diploidization. The locus loss is targeted at the I. setosa-origin subgenome, and this is discussed in relation to other polyploidy systems.
Lim, K. Yoong; Matyasek, Roman; Kovarik, Ales; Leitch, Andrew
The objectives of this study were to investigate the frequency of pityriasis versicolor occurrence and to identify yeasts of the genus Malassezia in patients at the mycology laboratory of the Federal University of Goiás, in Goiânia, State of Goiás. Ninety-five cases of pityriasis versicolor were diagnosed, and four species of Malassezia were identified: Malassezia furfur, Malassezia sympodialis, Malassezia globosa and
Karla Carvalho Miranda; Crystiane Rodrigues de Araujo; Ailton José Soares; Janine de Aquino Lemos; Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto; Maria do Rosário; Rodrigues Silva
Coriolus versicolor, is one of the most popular medicinal mushrooms due its various biologically active components. This study was conducted to obtain basic information regarding the mycelial culture conditions of C. versicolor. Based on the culture, and MCM media were suitable for the mycelial growth of the mushroom. The optimum carbon and nitrogen sources were dextrin and yeast extract, respectively, and the optimum C/N ratio was 10 to 2 when 2% glucose was used. Other minor components required for optimal growth included thiamine-HCl and biotin as vitamins, succinic acid, lactic acid and citric acid as organic acids, as well as MgSO4·7H2O as mineral salts. PMID:23956654
Although pityriasis versicolor is the only human disease for which Malassezia yeasts have been fully established as pathogens, it is still not clear which species are implicated. Most studies carried out in recent years support our hypothesis - proposed in 1999 - that Malassezia globosa is the predominant species in pityriasis versicolor lesions, at least in temperate climates. Confirmation of this hypothesis could help us understand the conditions, as yet unclear, that induce transformation of this yeast from the saprophytic form present in healthy skin to the parasitic form, characterized by the formation of pseudomycelium, and could also guide therapy. In addition, isolation of another species, Malassezia furfur, which seems to be predominant in the tropics, raises the possibility of a second etiologic agent confined to certain areas, as occurs with some other human mycoses. PMID:19091214
Solid-state fermentation (SSF) refers to the fermentation process on solid substrate without the presence of free liquid. It is found to be ideal when the organism is a fungus and the substrate is insoluble, like cellulose. Production of cellulase by SSF has been studied in detail by Toyama and Ogawa. It has been found that more concentrated enzyme preparations can be obtained by SSF than in liquid type since the enzyme gets diluted in the whole medium in liquid culture. In the present study, a plant pathogenic fungus Pestalotiopsis versicolor has been grown on various solid cultures of cellulosic substances and production of cellulase has been studied. Earlier, we had studied the production of cellulase by P. versicolor in liquid culture. (Refs. 7).
Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial infection of the stratum corneum, which is caused by the Malassezia species. Tge Malassezia species consist of 12 subspecies, including M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. symphodialis and M. globasa. The Malassezia species are classified as a normal flora, particularly in the sebum rich areas of the skin, and they convert from saprophytic yeast to parasitic mycelial morpholgic form to cause clinical disease. But majorities of their distributions are in the upper back, the neck, the thighs, and the forearm, and not in the penis. It is well known that the renal transplant patients, who take immunosuppressive agents, have impairment in the protective cell mediated immunity. Thus, they are more susceptible to infectious diseases, such as a fungal infection. Therefore, clinical manifestations show higher incidence of disease, but they mostly occur in an expected distribution. We here report a case of pityriasis versicolor in a renal transplant recipient on penile shaft, which is an unusual area.
Laccase, purified from Coriolus versicolor, removed pentachlorophenol (PCP) from solution at pH 5, depending on initial PCP concentration and amount of laccase. With\\u000a 100 units of laccase, 100% of 25??g?ml?1 PCP and 60% of 200??g?ml?1 PCP were removed respectively over 72?h. No free chloride was released in the reaction. In reaction with 100??g PCP, products\\u000a were primarily polymers (about 80,000?MW)
Pretreatment by a white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor B1 under different conditions and saccharification of bamboo were investigated. The saccharification rate was significantly enhanced and a maximum saccharification rate of 37.0% was achieved after pretreatment. Reducing sugars yield was 223.2 mg/g of bamboo residues, which was 2.34 times that of the raw material. It was feasible to treat bamboo residues with B1 for the saccharification of bamboo. PMID:17884661
Coriolus versicolor, a white-rot basidiomycete, secretes ligno-celluloytic enzymes. Because these are valuable to paper-pulp agricultural industries, trials are in progress to substrate induce these enzymes enhance their secretions. Reported are attempts to develop an extracellular PPO (o-diphenols to 0-diquinones) purification protocol applicable to [open quote]batch-cultured[close quote] C. versicolor. Whereas dialysis (MW [open quote]cut-off[close quote], 14,000) of 13 day growth medium (GM) resulted in 2.17 fold PPO spc. act. increase, dialysis plus a 0-30% (NH[sub 4])[sub 2]SO[sub 4] [open quote]cut[close quote] yielded a 3.27 fold enhancement. Subsequent GM chromatography on DEAE CM-Sephadexes revealed that PPO exchanged with DEAE's counterion without enhancing spc. act. Gel filtration of GM commercial PPOs on G-150 resulted in similar elutions indicating a substitute for ion exchange chromatography. Time-dependent fungal growth in liquid medium followed by viscometry utilizing CMC revealed a GM endocellulase 2 days after inoculation an activity rise to day 12. Filteration of Onozuka cellulase on G-150 yielded an elution profile similar to those of GM authentic PPO's compounding C. versicolor's PPO purification. SDS-PAGE of dialyzed GM revealed 4 proteins, one of which was removed by the (NH[sub 4])[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. The m[sub TS] of commercial Sigma's PPO Onozuka cellulase were 0.76 0.59, respectively, for comparison to C. versicolor's PPO. Affinity, hydroxylapatite hydrophobic interaction chromatographies may yield a single SDS-PAGE PPO band.
Moore, N.L.; Dashek, W.V. (Clark Atlanta Univ., GA (United States))
Introduction: Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a superficial fungal infection caused by Malassezia species; a yeast that naturally colonizes on the skins surface. High efficacy rates are generally obtained with both topical and systemic treatments. However, recurrence rates following successful treatment remain high and there are no dosage guidelines available for administration of systemic antifungal agents that carry risks of adverse events. Areas covered: This review focused on providing an overview of existing treatments for PV and an introduction to new treatments. A literature search was conducted using the search strategy, pityriasis versicolor OR tinea versicolor. Over the past decade, few new treatments have been introduced, but the efficacy and the dosing regimens of existing treatments have been systematically reviewed. The results of these reviews are discussed. Expert opinion: Existing topical and systemic agents are both effective treatments against PV. Previous dosage recommendations for systemic agents have been modified based on recent evidence elucidated in systematic reviews. However, the absence of standardized collection and reporting practices in clinical trials precludes any conclusions to be drawn regarding the efficacy and safety of topical and systemic agents in comparison or in concert with each other. PMID:24991691
En este trabajo se describe el funcionamiento del mercado secundario de los bonos de largo plazo soberanos locales. Más específicamente, se describen en profundidad los agentes involucrados, los instrumentos transados y los tipos de plataformas existentes. A partir de este trabajo es posible obtener las siguientes conclusiones. Primero, existe un alto grado de segmentación en el mercado secundario de renta
The ability of Trametes versicolor ATCC 20869 to colonize several natural and synthetic materials (wheat straw, jute, hemp, maple woodchips, and nylon and polyethylene teraphthalate fibers) and to subsequently decolorize amaranth was evaluated. Jute was found to be the best support material as T. versicolor grew well on it without color leaching from the support and without loss of the
Incubation of hardwood kraft pulp (HWKP) in agitated aerated cultures of the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor increases pulp brightness and decreases its residual lignin content. A consequence of this biobleaching with whole cultures is that the resulting pulp also contains fungal biomass (up to ca. 10% (w\\/w)). In this report culture conditions for the immobilization of T. versicolor on polyurethane
Neil Kirkpatrick; Ian D. Reid; Edmund Ziomek; Michael G. Paice
Trametes versicolor is an important white rot fungus of both industrial and ecological interest. Saprotrophic basidiomycetes are the major decomposition agents in woodland ecosystems, and rarely form monospecific populations, therefore interspecific mycelial interactions continually occur. Interactions have different outcomes including replacement of one species by the other or deadlock. We have made subtractive cDNA libraries to enrich for genes that are expressed when T. versicolor interacts with another saprotrophic basidiomycete, Stereum gausapatum, an interaction that results in the replacement of the latter. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) (1920) were used for microarray analysis, and their expression compared during interaction with three different fungi: S. gausapatum (replaced by T. versicolor), Bjerkandera adusta (deadlock) and Hypholoma fasciculare (replaced T. versicolor). Expression of significantly more probes changed in the interaction between T. versicolor and S. gausapatum or B. adusta compared to H. fasciculare, suggesting a relationship between interaction outcome and changes in gene expression. PMID:20943176
Biodegradation and decolorization of monosodium glutamate wastewater were carried out by using an acidophilus yeast strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Coriolus versicolor. For the yeast treatment, the highest COD removal and reducing sugar removal efficiency were 76.6% and 80.2%, respectively. The color removal was only 2%. For C. versicolor treatment, the highest COD removal, color removal and reducing sugar removal efficiencies were 78.7%, 56.5% and 90.9%, respectively. The synergic treatment process, in which the yeast and C. versicolor were successively applied,exhibited great advantage over the individual process. PMID:16624556
The project seeks to understand the biological and chemical processes involved in the secretion of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) by the hyphae, the basic unit of the filamentous fungus Coriolus versicolor. These studies are made to determine rationa...
Coriolus-MRL is a nutrient adjuvant, which contains biomass of the fungus Coriolus versicolor and is studied to reverse early stages of cervical cancer and to reduce risk factors of reoccurring HPV virus. PMID:19449722
Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a superficial infection of the stratum corneum caused by Malassezia. Eleven species have been recognized within this genus, namely M. globosa, M. restricta, M. sympodiasis, M. furfur, M. obtusa, M. slooffiae, M. pachydermatis, M. dermatis, M. japonica, M. yamatoensis, M. nana. To examine the distribution of the microorganism in the skin of patients with PV, we detected Malassezia species without M. pachydermatis and M. nana using a non-culture-based method that consisted of nested PCR with specific primers. The most frequently isolated species were M. globosa and M. restricta (both 93.9%). M. globosa was detected in scales in which only the mycelial form (yeast cells, < 10/sample) were observed microscopically; M. restricta was not found. We suggest that M. globosa is the causative agent of PV. PMID:16094290
Two new compounds, asperversin A (1) and 9?-O-2(2,3-dimethylbut-3-enyl)brevianamide Q (2), and nine known compounds, brevianamide K (3), brevianamide M (4), aversin (5), 6,8-di-O-methylnidurufin (6), 6,8-di-O-methylaverufin (7), 6-O-methylaverufin (8), 5?,8?-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3?-ol (9), ergosta-7,22-diene-3?,5?,6?-triol (10), and 6?-methoxyergosta-7,22-diene-3?,5?-diol (11), were obtained from the culture of Aspergillus versicolor, an endophytic fungus isolated from the marine brown alga Sargassum thunbergii. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic techniques. Compounds 4, 7 and 8 exhibited antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphyloccocus aureus, and 7 also showed lethality against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) with an LC50 value of 0.5 ?g/mL.
Miao, Feng-Ping; Li, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Xiang-Hong; Cichewicz, Robert H.; Ji, Nai-Yun
The white-rot fungi Panus tigrinus, Funalia trogii and Trametes versicolor have been tested in shake flasks for the reduction of olive washing wastewater (OWW) pollutants and production of oxidases on OWW-based media. P. tigrinus was rejected for its scarce performance. F. trogii showed best production of laccase (27000Ug?1), while T. versicolor appeared a good pollutant degrader reducing colour, COD and
Biotransformation of paeonol (1) with the white-rot basidiomycete Coriolus versicolor afforded two metabolites, 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone (2) and 2,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone (3), which were identified by spectroscopic methods. Compound 3 showed higher antioxidative, antibacterial, antifungal activities than 1 or 2. The results demonstrate for the first time that C. versicolor has the capacities to catalyze hydroxylation and demethylation reactions on the aromatic compound. PMID:21922916
The effect of zinc pyrithione 1 percent, incorporated in a shampoo, has been tested in an open trial of twenty patients with tinea versicolor. The period of treatment was two weeks, and eighteen patients returned for follow-up visits two weeks after the last day of treatment. All of these patients were cured of tinea versicolor clinically, under Wood's light, and microscopically. No side effects were noticed in any of the patients and the patients found the shampoo cosmetically acceptable. PMID:6991220
The therapeutic efficacy of Cassia alata leaf extract against Pityriasis versicolor has been reported for the first time involving humans. For the collection of clinically effective antifungal compounds from the leaves of Cassia alata, a simple procedure has been devised. A 10-year human study indicates that the leaf extract can be reliably used as a herbal medicine to treat Pityriasis versicolor. The leaf extract has no side-effects. PMID:8046939
The induction of laccase isoforms in Trametes versicolor HEMIM-9 by aqueous extracts (AE) from softwood and hardwood was studied. Samples of sawdust of Pinus sp., Cedrela sp., and Quercus sp. were boiled in water to obtain AE. Different volumes of each AE were added to fungal cultures to determine the amount of AE needed for the induction experiments. Laccase activity was assayed every 24 h for 15 days. The addition of each AE (50 to 150 ?l) to the fungal cultures increased laccase production compared to the control (0.42 ± 0.01 U ml(-1)). The highest laccase activities detected were 1.92 ± 0.15 U ml(-1) (pine), 1.87 ± 0.26 U ml(-1) (cedar), and 1.56 ± 0.34 U ml(-1) (oak); laccase productivities were also significantly increased. Larger volumes of any AE inhibited mycelial growth. Electrophoretic analysis revealed two laccase bands (lcc1 and lcc2) for all the treatments. However, when lcc2 was analyzed by isoelectric focusing, inducer-dependent isoform patterns composed of three (pine AE), four (oak AE), and six laccase bands (cedar AE) were observed. Thus, AE from softwood and hardwood had induction effects in T. versicolor HEMIM-9, as indicated by the increase in laccase activity and different isoform patterns. All of the enzymatic extracts were able to decolorize the dye Orange II. Dye decolorization was mainly influenced by pH. The optimum pH for decolorization was pH 5 (85%), followed by pH 7 (50%) and pH 3 (15%). No significant differences in the dye decolorizing capacity were detected between the control and the differentially induced laccase extracts (oak, pine and cedar). This could be due to the catalytic activities of isoforms with pI 5.4 and 5.8, which were detected under all induction conditions. PMID:23861040
Bertrand, Brandt; Martínez-Morales, Fernando; Tinoco, Raunel; Rojas-Trejo, Sonia; Serrano-Carreón, Leobardo; Trejo-Hernández, María R
The white rot fungus Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor can delignify and brighten unbleached hardwood kraft pulp within a few days, but softwood kraft pulps require longer treatment. To determine the contributions of higher residual lignin contents (kappa numbers) and structural differences in lignins to the recalcitrance of softwood kraft pulps to biobleaching, we tested softwood and hardwood pulps cooked to the same kappa numbers, 26 and 12. A low-lignin-content (overcooked) softwood pulp resisted delignification by T. versicolor, but a high-lignin-content (lightly cooked) hardwood pulp was delignified at the same rate as a normal softwood pulp. Thus, the longer time taken by T. versicolor to brighten softwood kraft pulp than hardwood pulp results from the higher residual lignin content of the softwood pulp; possible differences in the structures of the residual lignins are important only when the lignin becomes highly condensed. Under the conditions used in this study, when an improved fungal inoculum was used, six different softwood pulps were all substantially brightened by T. versicolor. Softwood pulps whose lignin contents were decreased by extended modified continuous cooking or oxygen delignification to kappa numbers as low as 15 were delignified by T. versicolor at the same rate as normal softwood pulp. More intensive O(2) delignification, like overcooking, decreased the susceptibility of the residual lignin in the pulps to degradation by T. versicolor. PMID:16349246
Background Skin pigmentary changes of pityriasis versicolor may occur as either hyperpigmented or hypopigmented lesions, depending on the outcome of interactions between Malassezia yeasts and the skin, such as lipoperoxidation process, stimulus of inflammatory cell to melanocytes, and increased thickness of keratin layer. Objective To investigate skin characteristic factors that enhance the susceptibility to Malassezia yeasts and provoke different color changes of pityriasis versicolor patients. Methods To clarify these factors, we investigated the skin characteristics of pityriasis versicolor patients, using a non-invasive method known as MPA 5® (Courage and Khazaka, Germany). A total of 90 normal healthy subjects and 30 pityriasis versicolor patients were included in this study. Results Both hyperpigmented and hypopigmented pityriasis versicolor skin lesions showed higher humidity, increased sebum excretion rate and increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL) values than normal healthy subjects. But no significant difference of specific Malassezia yeasts species between hyperpigmented and hypopigmented skin lesions was evident. Conclusion These results indicate that higher humidity and increased sebum level provide a better growing environment of Malassezia yeasts in the skin, leading to the assumption that interaction between Malassezia yeasts and skin barrier materials makes disruption of skin barrier causing increased TEWL.
The laccase of Trametes versicolor was immobilized on the functionalized nanoparticles SBA-15 with the average diameter less than 10 nm. Laccase mediated oxidations of anthracene (ANT) were investigated in the presence of two mediators, 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT). Oxidation of ANT was more efficiently enhanced by adding 1 mM of HBT than that by adding ABTS. After 48 h oxidation HBT group significantly oxidized ANT with residue 58% relative to 88% in the ABTS group. HPLC and GC/MS analyses indicated the main product of ANT oxidation was anthraquinone (ANQ). The fluorescein diacetate (FDA) uptake of two human cell lines was used to assess the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of ANT and ANQ. Treatments with ANT and ANQ at 5 and 10 microM exhibited significant cytotoxicity to the HaCaT cells and the A3 lymphocytes and no significant genotoxicity was observed. The results illustrated that ANQ is less toxic than ANT as well. PMID:19564104
The influence of a laccase from Trametes versicolor on the removal of phenolic monomers in liquid hot water pretreated wheat straw supernatants (LHW-S) was examined. Beside the total phenol content derived by Folin-Ciocalteu (FC-) assay, phenolic monomers were measured via headspace-solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME)/GC-MS. A notable decrease of the phenols was achieved using 0.2 and 0.5 U/mL laccase whilst higher dosage showed no improvement. Nearly all kind of monomer phenolic compounds identified in the LHW-S were found to be removed after 24h. However, acetophenone and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (HBA) were obviously not affected by laccase. Summarizing, three laccase reaction groups (LRG) of phenolic monomers could be classified: immediate removal (LRG-A), degradation after 1 day (LRG-B), no effect of laccase (LRG-C). Additionally, HS-SPME/GC was found to be a powerful tool to study the reaction of laccase and phenolic monomers in complex lignocellulose derived solutions. PMID:22176974
BACKGROUND: Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial infection of the stratum corneum which caused by a group of yeasts formerly named pityrosporium. The taxonomy of these lipophilic yeasts has recently been modified and includes seven species referred as Malassezia. The aim of this study is to compare the distribution of Malassezia species isolated from pityriasis versicolor lesions and those isolated from
A zinc pyrithione shampoo was compared with its shampoo base in the treatment of tinea versicolor. Forty patients with tinea versicolor were included in the study. The condition in twenty patients treated with the zinc pyrithione shampoo cleared; the condition in the remaining twenty patients treated with the shampoo base did not. No side effects were noted in any of the patients. PMID:6342980
?-tubulin, calmodulin, internal transcribed spacer and partial lsu-rDNA, RNA polymerase 2, DNA replication licensing factor Mcm7, and pre-rRNA processing protein Tsr1 were amplified and sequenced from numerous isolates belonging to Aspergillus sect. versicolor. The isolates were analyzed phylogenetically using the concordance model to establish species boundaries. Aspergillus austroafricanus, A. creber, A. cvjetkovicii, A. fructus, A. jensenii, A. puulaauensis, A. subversicolor, A. tennesseensis and A. venenatus are described as new species and A. amoenus, A. protuberus,A. sydowii, A. tabacinus and A. versicolor are accepted as distinct species on the basis of molecular and phenotypic differences. PCR primer pairs used to detect A. versicolor in sick building syndrome studies have a positive reaction for all of the newly described species except A. subversicolor. PMID:23155501
Jurjevic, Zeljko; Peterson, Stephen W; Horn, Bruce W
The objective of the study was to investigate the antioxidant effect of Chinese medicine Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide on brain tissue and its mechanism in rats. SOD, MDA and GSH-Px levels in rat brain tissues were determined with SD rats as the animal model. The results showed that Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide can reduce the lipid peroxidation level in brain tissues during exhaustive exercise in rats, and can accelerate the removal of free radicals. The study concluded that its antioxidant effect is relatively apparent. PMID:24311873
This study describes an outbreak of Simarouba versicolor intoxication in cattle from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and reproduces it experimentally. Clinical signs of the affected animals were weakness, tremors, hind limbs incoordination, reluctance to move, sternal and lateral recumbency and death. The main necropsy findings, observed in the abomasum and in segments of the small and large intestines, were diffuse redness and mucosal and serosal swelling. Histological examination revealed necrosis of lymphoid tissues and necrotizing enterocolitis. One experiment was carried out using 3 male calves to test the toxicity of a single dose of S. versicolor leaves at 15 g/kg, 5 g/kg and 2.5 g/kg. Clinical signs, necropsy findings and histological examination of calves receiving 15 g/kg and 5 g/kg leaves were similar to those of cattle from the intoxication outbreak. The calf fed 2.5 g/kg leaves developed clinical symptoms of poisoning and recovered naturally. In a second experiment, two male calves received daily administration of S. versicolor leaves at 1.5 g/kg and 2.5 g/kg for 10 days. They developed clinical signs of intoxication within 24 h and recovered eight to nine days after the leaves were administered. These findings suggest that S. versicolor was responsible for the outbreak studied, although this plant does not have cumulative intoxication effects on cattle. PMID:23319076
Carvalho, Nilton M; Bacha, Flavia B; Santos, Ariany C; Carvalho, Amanda Q; Faccin, Tatiane C; Pott, Arnildo; Lemos, Ricardo A A
In this work, the ability of Trametes versicolor to decolorize the effluents from the alkaline cooking of cereal straw produced at a paper and paper pulp making plant is studied. Enzymatic activities related to the metabolism of lignin during fungal treatment have also been evaluated. The results that have been attained show the necessity of a carbon source for the
Objective: Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a chronic superficial fungal disease caused by Malassezia spp. The incidence is as high as 30-40% in tropical climates. Epidemiological data suggest geographical variations in the rate of the isolated species from PV. Our aim was to identify Malassezia spp. from PV patients in Kashan, Iran. Methodology: Isolates of Malassezia were collected from 118 PV
Rezvan Moniri; Mehdi Nazeri; Shokouh Amiri; Babak Asghari
Carbon and nitrogen budgets for the leaf-eating crab, Neoepisesarma versicolor, were established for individuals living on pure leaf diets. Crabs were fed fresh (green), senescent (yellow) and partly degraded (brown) leaves of the mangrove tree Rhizophora apiculata. Ingestion, egestion and metabolic loss of carbon and nitrogen were determined from laboratory experiments. In addition, bacterial abundance in various compartments of the
Immobilized Trametes versicolor BCC 8725 was evaluated for the biodegradation of the organic components of four different types of landfill leachate collected at different time periods and locations from the Nonthaburi landfill site of Thailand in batch treatment. The effects of carbon source, ammonia and organic loading on colour, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, and
Aspergillus versicolor, which has been isolated from several mould affected houses was shown by laboratory studies under axenic conditions to produce several specific volatile compounds on water agar. These compounds were not produced by the fungus when grown on a rich malt extract medium or on several synthetic media. The volatile compounds were analysed by GC-MS. The majority of the
Polistes versicolor (Olivier) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) colonies are easily found in anthropic environments; however there is little information available on biological, ecological and behavioral interactions of this species under these environmental conditions. The objective of this work was to characterize the foundation pattern, the productivity, and the success of colonies of P. versicolor in anthropic environments. From August 2003 to December 2004, several colonies were studied in the municipal district of Juiz de Fora, Southeastern Brazil. It was possible to determine that before the beginning of nest construction the foundress accomplishes recognition flights in the selected area, and later begins the construction of the peduncle and the first cell. As soon as new cells are built, the hexagonal outlines appear and the peduncle is reinforced. Foundation of nests on gypsum plaster was significantly larger (p < 0.0001; ?2 test) in relation to the other types of substrate, revealing the synantropism of the species. On average, the P. versicolor nest presents 244.2 ± 89.5 (100–493) cells and a medium production of 171.67 ± 109.94 (37–660) adults. Cells that produced six individuals were verified. Usually, new colonies were founded by an association of females, responsible for the success of 51.5%. Although these results enlarge knowledge on the foundation pattern of P. versicolor in anthropic environments, other aspects of the foundation process require further investigation.
Alves de Oliveira, Simone; Monteiro de Castro, Mariana; Prezoto, Fabio
Background: Malassezia is a lipid-dependent yeast known to cause Pityriasis versicolor, a chronic, recurrent superficial infection of skin and present as hypopigmented or hyperpigmented lesions on areas of skin. If not diagnosed and treated, it may lead to disfigurement of the areas involved and also result in deep invasive infections. Aim: The aim of the present study was to identify and speciate Malassezia in patients clinically suspected of having Pityriasis versicolor. Materials and Methods: Total 139 patients suspected of having Pityriasis versicolor were evaluated clinically and diagnosis was done by Wood's lamp examination, confirmed mycologically by using KOH, cultivation on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and modified Dixon agar at a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai. The total duration of study was 12 months. Results: Majority of the patients were males (59.71%) in the age group of 21-30 years (33.81%) who were students (30.21%) by profession. The incidence of Malassezia in Pityriasis versicolor was 50.35%. The most common isolate was M. globosa (48.57%), followed by M. furfur (34.28%). Majority of the patients had hypopigmented lesions, with M. globosa as the predominant isolate. Neck was the most common site affected; 88.48% were Wood's lamp positive of which 56.91% of Malassezia isolates grew on culture. KOH mount was positive in 82.01% of which 61.40% Malassezia isolates grew on culture. Conclusions: The procedure of culture and antifungal testing is required to be performed as different species of Malassezia are involved in Pityriasis versicolor and susceptibility is different among different species. Thus, it would help to prevent recurrences and any systemic complications.
Pityriasis versicolor is a common superficial mycotic disease of the skin which is caused by different species of Malassezia genus. The aim of this study was to contribute to the knowledge of the aetiology of pityriasis versicolor (PV) with a mycological study made according to the new species and additionally, the success of the different sampling techniques, duration and recurrence history of the disease, distribution of infecting strains according to the affected body sites were also investigated. In total, 146 patients with pityriasis versicolor were included in this study. Fungal elements could only be visualized by potassium hydroxide examination in 36.4% of the samples. Specimens obtained by scraping skin surface by a sterile scalpel and/or sterile sticky plaster (OpSite) were inoculated in plates containing modified Dixon's medium. Out of 146 samples, 109 (74.7%) yielded a growth which was considered to be Malassezia spp. in culture. Species level identification of suspicious Malassezia yeasts was made according to their macroscopic and microscopic features, and their physiological characteristics. Among the identified species, Malassezia globosa (65.1%) was the most commonly isolated species, followed by Malassezia obtusa (17.4%). However, four Malassezia isolates could not be identified at species level with conventional methods. While most of the patients suffered their first episode of pityriasis versicolor (76%), back of the trunk was the mostly affected body site (39%). In conclusion, Malassezia globosa was found to be the predominant species in pityriasis versicolor patients in our region, and culture of the specimen is necessary for the epidemiologic purposes. PMID:24746716
Rodoplu, G; Saracli, M A; Gümral, R; Taner Yildiran, S
NADPH-cytochrome c reductase, benzo(s)pyrene hydroxylase and aminopyrine demethylase activities in hepatic microsomes from the marine fish scup (Stenotomus versicolor) were characterized according to dependence of pH, temperature, ionic strength and Mg2+....
The survival of aqueous suspensions of Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Cladosporium cladosporioides spores was evaluated using various combinations of hydrogen peroxide and iron (II) as catalyst. Spores were suspended in water and trea...
Chlorinated lignin derivatives in a combined bleach plant effluent from sulphite pulping were degraded by several white-rot fungi among which Trametes versicolor (Coriolus versicolor) strains were the most efficient. With glucose as co-substrate, about 90% colour reduction was achieved within 3 days. Simultaneously, the concentration of chloro-organic compounds measured as adsorbable organic halogens decreased by about 45%. As shown by
Biologic agar-block method was developed that allowed wood samples to be evaluated and monitored in terms of colonization and development of the decay by Basidiomycetes fungi (Coriolus versicolor) and to be directly classified based on mean mass loss. In this research, the in vitro decay of five commercial woods by Coriolus versicolor was studied by the agar-block method. The selected wood samples were Abies alba, Populus alba, Fagus orientalis, Platanus orientalis and Ulmus glabra. The results demonstrated the strong resistance of Ulmus glabra and the lowest resistance in Fagus orientalis. The mass losses (%) were 16.8 and 42.4%, respectively. There were also a high correlation between the mass loss and apparent damage. Therefore biological evaluation of wood regarding biodegradation and the selection of wood types for various application respects will be of high priority. PMID:19070053
The observation of two distinct, well-defined oviposition areas in nests of the primitively eusocial wasp Polistes versicolor suggests the presence of multiple egg-layers and territorial behaviors. Electrophoretic analysis of enzyme loci in pupae from 35 colonies revealed an average observed heterozygosity of 0.10 and the existence of private polymorphisms, thereby indicating a low dispersion in this species. No evidence of diploid males was found. Phenotypic segregation analysis revealed the presence of more than one egg-laying female in 15 out of 35 colonies, as well as spatially preferential oviposition in 2 out of 13 nests, with distinct oviposition areas. Genetic relatedness estimates for brood were lower than expected for haplodiploid species under monogynous conditions (r = 0.75 for female broods and r = 0.5 for male) in 4 of those 13 nests, thereby inferring complex sociogenetic structuring in Polistes versicolor colonies.
The studies regarding decolorization of dyes by laccase may not only inform about the possible application of this enzyme for environmental purposes, but also may provide important information about its reaction mechanism and the influence of several factors that could be involved. In this paper, decolorization of crystal violet and phenol red was carried out with different fractions of extracellular liquids from Trametes versicolor cultures, in order to describe the role of laccase in this reaction. Moreover, the possible role of the low molecular weight metabolites (LMWMs) also produced by the fungus was evaluated. The results confirm the existence of a nonenzymatic decolorization factor, since the nonprotein fraction of the extracellular liquids from cultures of T. versicolor has shown decolorization capability. Several experiments were performed in order to identify the main compounds related to this ability, which are probably low molecular weight peroxide compounds. PMID:22566767
Moldes, Diego; Fernández-Fernández, María; Sanromán, M Ángeles
The project seeks to understand the biological and chemical processes involved in the secretion of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) by the hyphae, the basic unit of the filamentous fungus Coriolus versicolor. These studies are made to determine rational strategies for enhanced secretion of PPO, both with the use of recombinant DNA techniques and without. This effort focuses on recombinant DNA techniques to enhance enzyme production. The major thrust of this project was two-fold: to mass produce C. versicolor tyrosinase (polyphenol oxidase) by genetic engineering as well as cultural manipulations; and to utilize PPO as a biocatalyst in the processing of lignocellulose as a renewable energy resource. In this study, the assessment of genomic and cDNA recombinant clones with regards to the overproduction of PPO continued. Further, immunocytochemical techniques were employed to assess the mechanism(s) involved in the secretion of PPO by the hyphae. Also, factors influencing PPO secretion were examined.
The biotechnologically important enzyme laccase (benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductase; EC 22.214.171.124) is secreted by white rot fungi. However, these organisms produce insufficient amount of laccase for use in various biotechnological areas. The main aim of this study is to enhance the laccase production in the repeated-batch cultures of Funalia trogii ATCC 200800 and Trametes versicolor ATCC 200801 isolated in Turkey. In
The bagasse-based paper mill effluent employed for a decolourization study by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor contained 2840 colour units and was of pH 7·8. Colour reduction was observed in all the media tested. A high degree of decolourization (40%) by the native effluent microflora was noted on the second day in effluent supplemented with ammonium nitrate and glucose but
1.The significance of particular acoustic properties of advertisement calls for selective phonotaxis by the gray treefrog, Hyla versicolor (= HV), was studied behaviorally and neurophysiologically. Most stimuli were played back at 85 dB SPL, a level typically measured at 1–2 m from a calling male.2.Females preferred stimuli with conspecific pulse shapes at 20° and 24°C, but not at 16°C. Tests
A new dibenzo[1,4]dioxin 1, and two new prenylated diphenyl ethers, 2 and 3, together with six known compounds, 4-9, were isolated from a sponge-associated fungus Aspergillus versicolor Hmp-F48 by bioactivity-guided fractionation. Their structures were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR, and MS analyses. The compounds showed potent cell growth inhibitory activities against HL-60 cell line. PMID:24443433
Parasitic plants in the Orobanchaceae invade roots of neighboring plants to rob them of water and nutrients. Triphysaria is facultative parasite that parasitizes a broad range of plant species including maize and Arabidopsis. In this paper we describe transient and stable transformation systems for Triphysaria\\u000a versicolor Fischer and C. Meyer. Agrobacterium\\u000a tumefaciens and Agrobacterium\\u000a rhizogenes were both able to transiently
Laccase of Trametes versicolor was able to oxidize in vitro most of the 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) tested. Acenaphthylene was removed by 37% followed by anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene which were oxidized by 18 and 19%, respectively. Lower but significant oxidation of about 10% was found for eight additional PAH: acenaphthene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, and perylene. Naphthalene,
Andrzej Majcherczyk; Christian Johannes; Aloys Hüttermann
Continuous decolorization of bleach plant effluents was studied using white?rot fungus, Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor. The experiments were carried out using free and immobilized fungus. In the free cell system, 56–77% continuous decolorization and 41–69% AOX reduction were achieved with a retention time of 24 hours. Treatment of bleach plant effluents with the same fungus encapsulated in calcium alginate polymer beads
Effects of environmental conditions such as pH, media composition, carbon and nitrogen sources, TOC\\/N ratio, and dyestuff concentrations on decolorization of reactive phytalocyanin type textile dyestuff Everzol Turquoise Blue G by white rot fungi, Coriolus versicolor MUCL were investigated. pH = 4.5 and the media III were found to be the most suitable ones among the others tested. Compared to
Ilgi Karapinar Kapdan; Fikret Kargia; Geoffrey McMullan; Roger Marchant
The white-rot fungi Panus tigrinus, Funalia trogii and Trametes versicolor have been tested in shake flasks for the reduction of olive washing wastewater (OWW) pollutants and production of oxidases on OWW-based media. P. tigrinus was rejected for its scarce performance. F. trogii showed best production of laccase (27 000 Ug(-1)), while T. versicolor appeared a good pollutant degrader reducing colour, COD and phenols by 60, 72 and 87%, respectively. Only T. versicolor grew well in bubble-column bioreactor: its OWW depollution, in continuous process, led to colour, COD and phenols reduction by 65%, 73% and 89%, respectively. Optimal dilution rate was 0.225d(-1) (0.225 m(3) of effluent treated daily per m(3) of bioreactor). Thus, a small bioreactor (10 m(3)) could treat daily the amount of OWW produced by a standard olive washing machine (2m(3)d(-1)). For these reasons, this process could be proposed as a simple, efficient and low-cost OWW treatment. PMID:21524782
Sequential batch and continuous operation of a rotating biological contacting (RBC) reactor and the effects of dissolved oxygen on the decoloration of amaranth by Trametes versicolor were evaluated. Amaranth belongs to the group of azo dyes which are potential carcinogens and/or mutagens that can be transformed into toxic aryl amines under anaerobic conditions. Cultivation of T. versicolor in a stirred tank reactor was found to be unsuitable for amaranth decoloration due to significant biomass fouling and increase in medium viscosity. Assuming that decoloration follows first-order kinetics, amaranth was decolorized more rapidly when T. versicolor was immobilized on jute twine in a RBC reactor operated either in a sequential batch (k=0.25 h(-1)) or in a continuous (0.051 h(-1)) mode compared to a stirred tank reactor (0.015 h(-1)). Oxygen was found to be essential for decoloration with the highest decoloration rates occurring at oxygen saturation. Although longer retention times resulted in more decoloration when the RBC was operated in the continuous mode (about 33% amaranth decoloration), sequential batch operation gave better results (>95%) under similar nutrient conditions. Our data indicate that the fastest decoloration should occur in the RBC using nitrogen-free Kirk's medium with 1 g/l glucose in sequential batch operation at rotational speeds and/or aeration rates which maintain oxygen saturation in the liquid phase. PMID:16607512
Ramsay, Juliana; Shin, Maria; Wong, Sunny; Goode, Christopher
The laccase of the fungus Trametes versicolor was able to polymerize various halogen-, alkyl-, and alkoxy-substituted anilines, showing substrate specificity similar to that of horseradish peroxidase, whereas the laccase of Rhizoctonia praticola was active only with p-methoxyaniline. The substrate specificities of the enzymes were determined by using gas chromatography to measure the decrease in substrate concentration during incubation. With p-chloroaniline as the substrate, the peroxidase and the Trametes laccase showed maximum activity near pH 4.2. The transformation of this substrate gave rise to a number of oligomers, ranging from dimers to pentamers, as determined by mass spectrometry. The product profiles obtained by high-pressure liquid chromatography were similar for the two enzymes. A chemical reaction was observed between p-chloroaniline and an enzymatically formed dimer, resulting in the formation of a trimer. All three enzymes oxidized p-methoxyaniline to 2-amino-5-p-anisidinobenzoquinone di-p-methoxyphenylimine, but only the T. versicolor laccase and the peroxidase caused the formation of a pentamer (2,5-di-p-anisidinobenzoquinone di-p-methoxyphenylimine). Our results demonstrate that in addition to horseradish peroxidase, a T. versicolor laccase can also polymerize aniline derivatives.
The fungus Trametes versicolor can delignify and brighten kraft pulps. To better understand the mechanism of this biological bleaching and the by-products formed, I traced the transformation of pulp lignin during treatment with the fungus. Hardwood and softwood kraft pulps containing 14C-labelled residual lignin were prepared by laboratory pulping of lignin-labelled aspen and spruce wood and then incubated with T. versicolor. After initially polymerizing the lignin, the fungus depolymerized it to alkali-extractable forms and then to soluble forms. Most of the labelled carbon accumulated in the water-soluble pool. The extractable and soluble products were oligomeric; single-ring aromatic products were not detected. The mineralization of the lignin carbon to CO2 varied between experiments, up to 22% in the most vigorous cultures. The activities of the known enzymes laccase and manganese peroxidase did not account for all of the lignin degradation that took place in the T. versicolor cultures. This fungus may produce additional enzymes that could be useful in enzyme bleaching systems. PMID:9603823
The high diversity of phytophagous insects has been explained by the tendency of the group towards specialization; however, generalism may be advantageous in some environments. The cerambycid Apagomerella versicolor exhibits intraspecific geographical variation in host use. In northern Argentina it is highly specialized on the herb Pluchea sagittalis (Asteraceae), while in central and southern areas it uses seven Asteraceae species. To study host species geographical variation from ecological and evolutionary perspectives, we investigated field host availability and use across a wide latitudinal range, and performed laboratory studies on insect oviposition preference and larval performance and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in a phylogeographical framework. Geographic variation in host use was unrelated to host availability but was highly associated with laboratory oviposition preference, larval performance, and mtDNA variation. Genetic studies revealed three geographic races of A. versicolor with gene flow restriction and recent geographic expansion. Trophic generalism and oligophagy within A. versicolor seem to have evolved as adaptations to seasonal and spatial unavailability of the preferred host P. sagittalis in cooler areas of the species' geographic range. No single genotype is successful in all environments; specialization may be advantageous in environments with uniform temporal and spatial host availability, while being a trophic generalist may provide an adaptive advantage in host-constrained environments. PMID:20931235
Laccase can be used for enzymatic detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with enhanced resistance to phenolic inhibitors and thereby improved ability to ferment lignocellulosic hydrolysates would presumably be obtained by heterologous expression of laccase. Sequencing of the cDNA for the novel laccase gene lcc2 from the lignin-degrading basidiomycete Trametes versicolor showed that it encodes an isoenzyme of 499 amino-acid residues preceded by a 21-residue signal peptide. By comparison with Edman degradation data, it was concluded that lcc2 encodes an isoenzyme corresponding to laccase A. The gene product of lcc2 displays 71% identity with the previously characterized T. versicolor lcc1 gene product. An alignment of laccase sequences revealed that the T. versicolor isoenzymes in general are more closely related to corresponding isoenzymes from other white-rot fungi than to the other T. versicolor isoenzymes. The multiplicity of laccase is thus a conserved feature of T. versicolor and related species of white-rot fungi. When the T. versicolor lcc2 cDNA was expressed in S. cerevisiae, the production of active enzyme was strongly dependent on the temperature. After 3 days of incubation, a 16-fold higher laccase activity was found when a positive transformant was kept at 19 degrees C instead of 28 degrees C. Similar experiments with Pichia pastoris expressing the T. versicolor laccase gene lcc1 also showed that the expression level was favoured considerably by lower cultivation temperature, indicating that the observation made for the S. cerevisiae expression system is of general significance. PMID:10531652
Background Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial infection of the stratum corneum which caused by a group of yeasts formerly named pityrosporium. The taxonomy of these lipophilic yeasts has recently been modified and includes seven species referred as Malassezia. The aim of this study is to compare the distribution of Malassezia species isolated from pityriasis versicolor lesions and those isolated from healthy skins. Methods Differentiation of all malassezia species performed using morphological features and physiological test including catalase reaction, Tween assimilation test and splitting of esculin. Results In pityriasis versicolor lesions, the most frequently isolated species was M. globosa (53.3%), followed by M. furfur (25.3%), M. sympodialis(9.3%), M. obtusa (8.1%) and M. slooffiae (4.0%). The most frequently isolated species in the skin of healthy individuals were M. globosa, M. sympodialis, M. furfur, M. sloofiae and M. restricta which respectively made up 41.7%, 25.0%, 23.3%, 6.7% and 3.3% of the isolated species. Conclusions According to our data, M. globosa was the most prevalent species in the skin of healthy individuals which recovered only in the yeast form. However, the Mycelial form of M. globosa was isolated as the dominant species from pityriasis versicolor lesions. Therefore, the role of predisposing factors in the conversion of this yeast to mycelium and its subsequent involvement in pityriasis versicolor pathogenicity should be considered.
The present study reports the pretreatment of paddy straw by Trichoderma reesei MTCC 164 and Coriolus versicolor MTCC 138 to observe the changes in chemical composition and its correlation with change of surface structure, morphology and porosity of paddy straw. Compared with untreated straw, cellulose decreased by 15.9 and 19.3 % in T. reesei MTCC 164 and C. versicolor MTCC 138 pretreated paddy straw respectively. Lignin content increased by 41.4 % in T. reesei pretreated paddy straw whereas decreased by 19.1 % in C. versicolor pretreated straw. The microscopic structural changes were examined by scanning electron microscopy under reasonable conditions. Results showed that digestibility of paddy straw are increased by treating paddy straw with both the cultures. Both surface area and pore size of treated straw were increased partially due to solubilization of silica components. PMID:24426113
The discovery in 1983 of fungal lignin peroxidases able to catalyze the oxidation of nonphenolic aromatic lignin model compounds and release some CO2 from lignin has been seen as a major advance in understanding how fungi degrade lignin. Recently, the fungus Trametes versicolor was shown to be capable of substantial decolorization and delignification of unbleached industrial kraft pulps over 2 to 5 days. The role, if any, of lignin peroxidase in this biobleaching was therefore examined. Several different assays indicated that T. versicolor can produce and secrete peroxidase proteins, but only under certain culture conditions. However, work employing a new lignin peroxidase inhibitor (metavanadate ions) and a new lignin peroxidase assay using the dye azure B indicated that secreted lignin peroxidases do not play a role in the T. versicolor pulp-bleaching system. Oxidative activity capable of degrading 2-keto-4-methiolbutyric acid (KMB) appeared unique to ligninolytic fungi and always accompanied pulp biobleaching.
Carbon and nitrogen budgets for the leaf-eating crab, Neoepisesarma versicolor, were established for individuals living on pure leaf diets. Crabs were fed fresh (green), senescent (yellow) and partly degraded (brown) leaves of the mangrove tree Rhizophora apiculata. Ingestion, egestion and metabolic loss of carbon and nitrogen were determined from laboratory experiments. In addition, bacterial abundance in various compartments of the crabs' digestive tract was enumerated after dissection of live individuals. Ingestion and egestion rates (in terms of dry weight) were highest, while the assimilation efficiency was poorest for crabs fed on brown leaves. The low assimilation efficiency was more than counteracted by the high ingestion rate providing more carbon for growth than for crabs fed green and yellow leaves. In any case, the results show that all types of leaves can provide adequate carbon while nitrogen was insufficient to support both maintenance (yellow leaves) and growth (green, yellow and brown leaves). Leaf-eating crabs must therefore obtain supplementary nitrogen by other means in order to meet their nitrogen requirement. Three hypotheses were evaluated: (1) crabs supplement their diet with bacteria and benthic microalgae by ingesting own faeces and/or selective grazing at the sediment surface; (2) assimilation of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the crabs' own intestinal system; and (3) nitrogen storage following occasional feeding on animal tissues (e.g. meiofauna and carcasses). It appears that hypothesis 1 is of limited importance for N. versicolor since faeces and sediment can only supply a minor fraction of the missing nitrogen due to physical constraints on the amount of material the crabs can consume. Hypothesis 2 can be ruled out because tests showed no nitrogen fixation activity in the intestinal system of N. versicolor. It is therefore likely that leaf-eating crabs provide most of their nitrogen requirement from intracellular deposits following occasionally ingestion of animal tissue (hypothesis 3).
Econazole nitrate 1.0 percent cream was compared with placebo for safety and efficacy in the treatment of 126 patients with tinea versicolor. Overall results showed that 97 percent of the patients who were treated with econazole nitrate 1.0 percent cream once a day achieved excellent or partial responses, while 62 percent of those patients applying the placebo cream attained similar responses. This difference is statistically significant (p = 0.001). The study results show that econazole nitrate cream is a valuable drug for the treatment of tinea versicolor. PMID:6744948
Vicik, G J; Mendiones, M; Quinones, C A; Thorne, E G
Coriolus versicolor has been known to be an immune stimulator effects. For further understanding of the phagocytic activity and the intracellular mechanisms of ?-glucan from C. versicolor (CVG), we examined the phagocytic activity, phosphorylation of Akt and CK2, nucleus translocation of p65 and Ikaros activity in ?-glucan-treated macrophages using RT-PCR, western blotting, and IP assay. The role of Ikaros in regulating phagocytic effects of CVG was also determined using Ikaros dominant negative isoform cells. This study suggests that CK2/Ikaros are positive regulators and novel signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis and contributes to elucidating the mechanism underlying phagocytic activity induced by ?-glucan. PMID:23500440
Kang, Se Chan; Koo, Hyun Jung; Park, Sulkyung; Lim, Jung Dae; Kim, Ye-Jin; Kim, Taeseong; Namkoong, Seung; Jang, Ki-Hyo; Pyo, Suhkneung; Jang, Seon-A; Sohn, Eun-Hwa
There is considerable evidence supporting a role for mold exposure in the pathogenesis and expression of childhood asthma. Aspergillus versicolor and Cladosporium cladosporioides are common molds that have been implicated in asthma. In a model of mold-induced asthma, mice were repeatedly exposed to either A. versicolor or C. cladosporioides spores. The two molds induced distinct phenotypes, and this effect was observed in both BALB/c and C57BL/6 strains. C. cladosporioides induced robust airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), eosinophilia, and a predominately Th2 response, whereas A. versicolor induced a strong Th17 response and neutrophilic inflammation, but very mild AHR. Neutralization of IL-17A resulted in strong AHR and eosinophilic inflammation following A. versicolor exposure. In Dectin-1-deficient mice, A. versicolor exposure resulted in markedly attenuated IL-17A and robust AHR compared with wild-type mice. In contrast, C. cladosporioides induced AHR and eosinophilic inflammation independent of IL-17A and Dectin-1. A. versicolor, but not C. cladosporioides, spores had increased exposure of ?-glucans on their surface and were able to bind Dectin-1. Thus, the host response to C. cladosporioides was IL-17A- and Dectin-1-independent, whereas Dectin-1- and IL-17A-dependent pathways were protective against the development of asthma after exposure to A. versicolor. PMID:22962686
Mintz-Cole, Rachael A; Gibson, Aaron M; Bass, Stacey A; Budelsky, Alison L; Reponen, Tiina; Hershey, Gurjit K Khurana
Very little is known about the mechanisms which occur in human cells upon exposure to fungi as well as their mycotoxins. A better understanding of toxin-regulated gene expression would be helpful to identify safe levels of exposure and could eventually be the basis for establishing guidelines for remediation scenarios following a water intrusion event. In this research, cytokine mRNA expression patterns were investigated in the human monocytic THP-1 cell line exposed to fungal extracts of various fragment sizes obtained from Stachybotrys chartarum RTI 5802 and/or Aspergillus versicolor RTI 3843, two common and well studied mycotoxin producing fungi. Cytokine mRNA expression was generally upregulated 2 to 10 times following a 24-hour exposure to fungal extracts. Expression of the proinflammatory interleukin-1? (IL-1?), Interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) genes increased while the anti-inflammatory gene Interleukin-10 (IL-10) also increased albeit at very low level, suggesting that negative feedback regulation mechanism of production of pro-inflammatory cytokines initiated upon 24 hours of incubation. In addition, submicron size extracts of A. versicolor caused significant death of THP-1 cells whereas extracts of S. chartarum caused no cell death while the mixture of the two fungi had an intermediate effect. There was no general correlation between gene expression and fragment sizes, which suggests that all submicron fragments may contribute to inflammatory response.
Plackett and Burman design criterion and central composite design were applied successfully for enhanced production of laccase by Coriolus versicolor NCIM 996 for the first time. Plackett and Burman design criterion was applied to screen the significance of ten nutrients on laccase production by C. versicolor NCIM 996. Out of the ten nutrients tested, starch, yeast extract, MnSO(4), MgSO(4) x 7H(2)O, and phenol were found to have significant effect on laccase production. A central composite design was applied to determine the optimum concentrations of the significant variables obtained from Plackett-Burman design. The optimized medium composition for production of laccase was (g/l): starch, 30.0; yeast extract, 4.53; MnSO(4), 0.002; MgSO(4) x 7H(2)O, 0.755; and phenol, 0.026, and the optimum laccase production was 6,590.26 (U/l), which was 7.6 times greater than the control. PMID:18459071
An ultrafiltered low-molecular-weight preparation of chelating compounds was isolated from a wood-containing culture of the white-rot basidiomycete Coriolus versicolor. This preparation could chelate Fe3+ and reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+, demonstrating that the substance may serve as a ferric chelator, oxygen-reducing agent, and redox-cycling molecule, which would include functioning as the electron transport carrier in Fenton reaction. Lignin was treated with the iron-binding chelator and the changes in structure were investigated by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, difference spectrum caused by ionization under alkaline conditions and nitrobenzene oxidation. The results indicated that the iron-binding chelator could destroy the beta-O-4 bonds in etherified lignin units and insert phenolic hydroxyl groups. The low-molecular-weight chelator secreted by C. versicolor resulted in new phenolic substructures in the lignin polymer, making it susceptible to attack by laccase or manganese peroxidase. Thus, the synergic action of the iron-binding chelator and the lignocellulolytic enzymes made the substrate more accessible to degradation. PMID:18246309
Convenient expression systems for efficient heterologous production of different laccases are needed for their characterization and application. The laccase cDNAs lcc1 and lcc2 from Trametes versicolor were expressed in Pichia pastoris and Aspergillus niger under control of their respective glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoters and with the native secretion signal directing catalytically active laccase to the medium. P. pastoris batch cultures in shake-flasks gave higher volumetric activity (1.3 U/L) and a better activity to biomass ratio with glucose than with glycerol or maltose as carbon source. Preliminary experiments with fed-batch cultures of P. pastoris in bioreactors yielded higher activity (2.8 U/L) than the shake-flask experiments, although the levels remained moderate and useful primarily for screening purposes. With A. niger, high levels of laccase (2700 U/L) were produced using a minimal medium containing sucrose and yeast extract. Recombinant laccase from A. niger harboring the lcc2 cDNA was purified to homogeneity and it was found to be a 70-kDa homogeneous enzyme with biochemical and catalytic properties similar to those of native T. versicolor laccase A. PMID:16915640
Bohlin, Christina; Jönsson, Leif J; Roth, Robyn; van Zyl, Willem H
The in vitro oxidation of the two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene, which have ionization potentials of <=7.45 eV, is catalyzed by laccases from Trametes versicolor. Crude laccase preparations were able to oxidize both anthracene and the potent carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene. Oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene was enhanced by the addition of the cooxidant 2,2(prm1)-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), while an increased anthracene oxidizing ability was observed in the presence of the low-molecular-weight culture fluid ultrafiltrate. Two purified laccase isozymes from T. versicolor were found to have similar oxidative activities towards anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene. Oxidation of anthracene by the purified isozymes was enhanced in the presence of ABTS, while ABTS was essential for the oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene. In all cases anthraquinone was identified as the major end product of anthracene oxidation. These findings indicate that laccases may have a role in the oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by white rot fungi.
Collins, P. J.; Kotterman, M.; Field, J. A.; Dobson, A.
Hormonal levels fluctuate during the breeding season in many anurans, but the identity of the hormones that modulate breeding behavior and their effects remain unclear. We tested the influence of a combined treatment of progesterone and prostaglandin on phonotaxis, the key proceptive reproductive behavior of female anurans. First, we found that female gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor) treated with progesterone and prostaglandin exhibited phonotaxis to synthetic male advertisement signals significantly more often than animals treated with ringers vehicle or uninjected controls. Responsive females had greater levels of plasma progesterone and estradiol compared to both control groups, suggesting that these steroids may be promoting phonotaxis. Second, we found that the selectivity of hormonally-induced phonotaxis in H. versicolor was similar to that observed in freshly captured breeding animals. Females made the same choices between acoustic signals after hormone treatments in tests of frequency, call rate and pulse rate, compared to their responses without treatment immediately after collection from the breeding chorus. The preference for a longer call was, however, significantly weaker after hormone induction of phonotaxis. Hormonally primed females were also less likely to respond in any test and took longer to respond than did freshly collected females. Consequently, our study shows how progesterone-prostaglandin induced phonotaxis in female treefrogs influences both the quality and quantity of phonotaxis, relative to that exhibited by naturally breeding females.
Advanced oxidation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-, m-, and p-xylene (BTEX) by the extracellular hydroxyl radicals (*OH) generated by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor is for the first time demonstrated. The production of *OH was induced by incubating the fungus with 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (DBQ) and Fe3+-EDTA. Under these conditions, *OH were generated through DBQ redox cycling catalyzed by quinone reductase and laccase. The capability of T. versicolor growing in malt extract medium to produce *OH by this mechanism was shown during primary and secondary metabolism, and was quantitatively modulated by the replacement of EDTA by oxalate and Mn2+ addition to DBQ incubations. Oxidation of BTEX was observed only under *OH induction conditions. *OH involvement was inferred from the high correlation observed between the rates at which they were produced under different DBQ redox cycling conditions and those of benzene removal, and the production of phenol as a typical hydroxylation product of *OH attack on benzene. All the BTEX compounds (500 microM) were oxidized at a similar rate, reaching an average of 71% degradation in 6 h samples. After this time oxidation stopped due to O2 depletion in the closed vials used in the incubations. PMID:20627409
Aranda, Elisabet; Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Caminal, Gloria; Arias, María E; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Guillén, Francisco
The study was conducted to evaluate effect of Coriolus versicolor mycelia on degrading starch and improving nutrition value in corn grits through solid state fermentation technique. The results showed that using soybean meal as a nitrogen source, ?-amylase secreted from C. versicolor expressed 407.25U/g of activity, leading to 45.15% of starch degraded. The activity grew with fermentation time until the 15(th) day, after that the amylase was deactivated rapidly. An orthogonal experiment designed for the study illustrated that degradation rate of starch in corn grits attained to maximum, 50.51%, when 100g of corn grits, added 16g of soybean meal, were fermented by C. versicolor for 12 days, in an initial pH 5.5. After fermenting, compared to the nonfermented control, contents of amino acids, total sugar, crude fat and crude protein were increased by 21.00%, 38.45%, 55.56%, 69.15% respectively. The significant improvement of nutrition value in corn grits is probably attributed to the intense metabolism of C. versicolor. PMID:24031762
The study was conducted to evaluate effect of Coriolus versicolor mycelia on degrading starch and improving nutrition value in corn grits through solid state fermentation technique. The results showed that using soybean meal as a nitrogen source, ?-amylase secreted from C. versicolor expressed 407.25U/g of activity, leading to 45.15% of starch degraded. The activity grew with fermentation time until the 15th day, after that the amylase was deactivated rapidly. An orthogonal experiment designed for the study illustrated that degradation rate of starch in corn grits attained to maximum, 50.51%, when 100g of corn grits, added 16g of soybean meal, were fermented by C. versicolor for 12 days, in an initial pH 5.5. After fermenting, compared to the nonfermented control, contents of amino acids, total sugar, crude fat and crude protein were increased by 21.00%, 38.45%, 55.56%, 69.15% respectively. The significant improvement of nutrition value in corn grits is probably attributed to the intense metabolism of C. versicolor.
Histological and histochemical studies carried out on the male reproductive organs of the lizard, Calotes versicolor, after treating it with Ovine FSH (50 ?g), LH (50 ?g), FSH + LH (50 ?g each) and testosterone (200 ?g) on alternate days for 15 days during the regression and regeneration phases of its testicular cycle, showed a significant increase in the testis
Age related changes in the digestibility of tendon collagen of the garden lizard, Calotes versicolor, were traced using type I collagenase from Clostridium histolyticum. Collagen from older lizards showed less susceptibility for collagenase digestion than the younger lizards suggesting increased number of cross-linkages comparable with mammals. PMID:186668
Field measurements on leaf removal by populations of sesarmid crabs at different locations in the Bangrong mangrove forest, Phuket, Thailand, indicated that crabs on average can remove 87% of the daily leaf litter fall by ingestion or burial. The removal rate is correlated positively with the number of crab burrows and negatively with tidal inundation time. The results from the field were supplemented with observations on the behavior of Neoepisesarma versicolor in laboratory microcosms and a mangrove mesocosm. N. versicolor feeds primarily at night and total time spent feeding was up to an order of magnitude higher in the artificial microcosms than under simulated in situ conditions in the mesocosm. Most of the time during both day and night was spent resting near the entrance or inside burrows. N. versicolor mainly feeds on mangrove leaves and scraps of food material from the sediment surface. This is supported by examinations of stomach content, which showed that 62% is composed of higher plant material and 38% of detritus and mineral particles from the sediment. The nutritive value of leaves and detritus is insufficient to maintain crab growth. Sesarmid crabs may instead obtain the needed nutrients by occasional consumption of nitrogen-rich animal tissues, such as carcasses of fish and crustaceans, as indicated by the presence of animal remains in the stomach and the willingness of crabs to consume fish meat. Laboratory experiments on leaf consumption and leaf preferences of N. versicolor indicate that they preferentially feed on brown leaves, if available, followed by green and yellow leaves. If all species of sesarmid crabs in the Bangrong mangrove forest consume leaves at the same rate as N. versicolor, they could potentially ingest 52% of the total litter fall.
A highly efficient strategy for laccase production by Trametes versicolor was developed using corn steep liquor (CSL) as both a nitrogen source and a laccase inducer. At the optimal CSL concentration of 20gL(-1), an extracellular laccase activity of 633.3UL(-1) was produced after a culture period of only 5days. This represented a 1.96-fold increase relative to control medium lacking CSL. The addition of crude phenolic extracts from CSL improved laccase production to 91.8% greater than the control. Sinapinic acid, present in CSL, caused a reduction in laccase production, vanillic acid and ferulic acid (also present in CSL) synergistically induced laccase production by more than 100% greater than the control medium. Vanillic acid and ferulic acid provided the main contribution to the enhancement of laccase production. This study provides a basis for understanding the induction mechanism of CSL for laccase production. PMID:24951276
A cDNA encoding for laccase (Lcc1) was isolated from the ligninolytic fungus Trametes versicolor by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The Lcc1 gene was subcloned into the Pichia methanolica expression vector pMETalphaA and transformed into the P. methanolica strains PMAD11 and PMAD16. The extracellular laccase activity of the PMAD11 recombinants was found to be 1.3-fold higher than that of the PMAD16 recombinants. The identity of the recombinant protein was further confirmed by immunodetection using the Western blot analysis. As expected, the molecular mass of the mature laccase was 64.0 kDa, similar to that of the native form. The effects of copper concentration, cultivation temperature, pH and methanol concentration in the BMMY on laccase expression were investigated. The laccase activity in the PMAD11 recombinant was up to 12.6 U ml(-1) by optimization. PMID:16292528
Guo, Mei; Lu, Fuping; Du, Lianxiang; Pu, Jun; Bai, Dongqing
Kraft pulp was delignified using laccase produced by the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor immobilized in solid support under specific conditions. The stability tests showed that this enzyme was stable for 6 h at 55 degrees C and pH 8.0, allowing its use under pH and temperature conditions very close to those used in industrial bleaching. In this work, unbleached hardwood Kraft pulp was submitted to prebleaching using 2 U laccase/g pulp basis. Reaction time, temperature, and pH of the enzymatic treatment were investigated. Good results regarding Kappa number reduction, selectivities, and high viscosities were obtained when prebleaching was performed for 1 h at temperature of 55 degrees C and pH 8.0 followed by alkaline extraction and ECF bleaching sequences. PMID:18576061
Peculiarities of growth of the strains of two species of microscopic fungi Aspergillus versicolor and Paecilomyces lilacinus were analyzed under exposure to chronic irradiation. It was shown that the rate of radial growth increased nonuniformly in the range of doses from 0 to 250 mGy but with maximums at a certain dose of radiation. It was shown that the absorbed dose of radiation to 2 Gy did not influence the survival of investigated strains in comparison with the control ones without irradiation. It was shown that the doses of irradiation to 2 Gy (at capacity exposure dose 0.955 microC/kg) are small for these species of microscopic fungi. PMID:24006782
Tuga?, T I; Tuga?, A V; Zheltonozhskaia, M V; Sadovnikov, L V
Stability and kinetic behavior of laccase from Trametes versicolor in the presence of several ionic liquids from the methylimidazolium family have been investigated. In general laccase stability diminished as the size of the alkylic substitute in the methylimidazolium ring increased. Higher concentrations of ionic liquids caused more destabilization than lower ones. Thus, low concentrations of [C(2)mim(+)][EtSO(4)(-)] allowed maintaining enzymatic stability. [C(4)mim(+)][Cl(-)] appeared to have a stabilizing effect on laccase, as little activity decay was observed within three weeks. Kinetic studies indicated that both [C(2)mim(+)][EtSO(4)(-)] and [C(4)mim(+)][Cl(-)] inhibited laccase activity, although 10-fold more [C(2)mim(+)][EtSO(4)(-)] than [C(4)mim(+)][Cl(-)] was required to cause the same degree of inhibition. A kinetic model was developed to represent the experimental data. PMID:21669518
Domínguez, Alberto; Rodríguez, Oscar; Tavares, Ana Paula M; Macedo, Eugenia A; Longo, María Asunción; Sanromán, María Angeles
We report that two species of basidiomycete fungi (Polyporus versicolor and Poria monticola) grow in minimal liquid or solid medium when supplemented with crushed lignite coal. The fungi also grow directly on crushed lignite coal. The growth of both fungi was observed qualitatively as the production and extension of hyphae. No fungal growth occurred in minimal agar medium without coal. The fungi degraded solid lignite coal to a black liquid product which never appeared in cultures unless fungi and coal were present together. Apparently, lignite coal can serve as the principal substrate for the growth of the fungi. Infrared analyses of the liquid products of lignite degradation showed both similarities to and differences from the original lignite. PMID:16346060
The white rot basidiomycete Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor can substantially increase the brightness and decrease the lignin content of washed, unbleached hardwood kraft pulp (HWKP). Monokaryotic strain 52J was used to study how HWKP and the lignin in HWKP affect the carbon metabolism and secretions of T. versicolor. Earlier work indicated that a biobleaching culture supernatant contained all components necessary for HWKP biobleaching and delignification, but the supernatant needed frequent contact with the fungus to maintain these activities. Thus, labile small fungal metabolites may be the vital biobleaching system components renewed or replaced by the fungus. Nearly all of the CO(2) evolved by HWKP-containing cultures came from the added glucose, indicating that HWKP is not an important source of carbon or energy during biobleaching. Carbon dioxide appeared somewhat earlier in the absence of HWKP, but the culture partial O(2) pressure was little affected by the presence of pulp. The presence of HWKP in a culture markedly increased the culture's production of a number of acidic metabolites, including 2-phenyllactate, oxalate, adipate, glyoxylate, fumarate, mandelate, and glycolate. Although the total concentration of these pulp-induced metabolites was only 4.3 mM, these compounds functioned as effective manganese-complexing agents for the manganese peroxidase-mediated oxidation of phenol red, propelling the reaction at 2.4 times the rate of 50 mM sodium malonate, the standard chelator-buffer. The presence of HWKP in a culture also markedly stimulated fungal secretion of the enzymes manganese peroxidase, cellulase, and cellobiose-quinone oxidoreductase, but not laccase (phenol oxidase) or lignin peroxidase. PMID:16348963
The white rot basidiomycete Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor can substantially increase the brightness and decrease the lignin content of washed, unbleached hardwood kraft pulp (HWKP). Monokaryotic strain 52J was used to study how HWKP and the lignin in HWKP affect the carbon metabolism and secretions of T. versicolor. Earlier work indicated that a biobleaching culture supernatant contained all components necessary for HWKP biobleaching and delignification, but the supernatant needed frequent contact with the fungus to maintain these activities. Thus, labile small fungal metabolites may be the vital biobleaching system components renewed or replaced by the fungus. Nearly all of the CO2 evolved by HWKP-containing cultures came from the added glucose, indicating that HWKP is not an important source of carbon or energy during biobleaching. Carbon dioxide appeared somewhat earlier in the absence of HWKP, but the culture partial O2 pressure was little affected by the presence of pulp. The presence of HWKP in a culture markedly increased the culture's production of a number of acidic metabolites, including 2-phenyllactate, oxalate, adipate, glyoxylate, fumarate, mandelate, and glycolate. Although the total concentration of these pulp-induced metabolites was only 4.3 mM, these compounds functioned as effective manganese-complexing agents for the manganese peroxidase-mediated oxidation of phenol red, propelling the reaction at 2.4 times the rate of 50 mM sodium malonate, the standard chelator-buffer. The presence of HWKP in a culture also markedly stimulated fungal secretion of the enzymes manganese peroxidase, cellulase, and cellobiose-quinone oxidoreductase, but not laccase (phenol oxidase) or lignin peroxidase.
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Malassezia furfur is lypophilic yeast commonly associate with dermatological disorders. In the present work, we described the isolation of\\u000a 47 M. furfur strains from three groups of patients: pityriasis versicolor (21 isolates), seborrhoeic dermatitis (15 isolates) and seborrhoeic\\u000a dermatitis of the HIV positive patients (11 isolates). To investigate the identity of the strains at molecular level, DNA\\u000a genomic of M.
Rinaldo F. Gandra; Rita C. G. Simão; Flávia E. Matsumoto; Bosco C. M. da Silva; Luciana S. Ruiz; Eriques G. da Silva; Walderez Gambale; Claudete R. Paula
A new native feather-degrading bacterium has been isolated from the faeces of the agamid lizard Calotes versicolor, collected from the Beijing Zoo in China. The isolate, which has been identified as Bacillus sp. 50-3 based on morphological and biochemical and 16S rDNA tests, was shown to degrade native feather completely at 37°C\\u000a and pH 7.0 within 36 h when using chicken
Bin Zhang; DanDan Jiang; WenWen Zhou; HuaKun Hao; TianGui Niu
Summary Coriolus versicolor, a white-rot Basidiomycete, secretes cellulolytic and ligninolytic enzymes as well as polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Whereas the former degrade wood polymers, the latter can convert diphenols to diquinones and oligomerize syringic acid, a lignin derivative. Certain phenolic compounds can serve as disease-resistance factors controlling the proliferation of wood-decay fungi within host tissues. BecauseC. vesicolor can be ‘batch-cultured’, overproduction
N. L. Moore; D. H. Mariam; A. L. Williams; W. V. Dashek
A plant polysaccharide, Aloe gel extract, was reported to have an inhibitory effect on benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P)-DNA adduct formation in vitro and in vivo. Hence, chemopreven- tive effects of plant polysaccharides (Aloe barbadensis Miller (APS), Lentinus edodes (LPS), Ganoderma lucidum (GPS) and Coriolus versicolor (CPS)) were compared using in vitro short-term screening methods associated with both initi- ation and promotion processes
The effects of propiconazole on extra-cellular enzyme levels in Trametes versicolor have been investigated during wood colonization and degradation. The working hypothesis was that the biocide could alter\\u000a metabolic pathways, which could lead to an alteration of extra-cellular enzyme production. In the presence of a propiconazole\\u000a sub-lethal concentration, the wood degradation rate decrease concomitantly with the lag phase of fungal
Serge Lekounougou; Jean-Pierre Jacquot; Philippe Gérardin; Eric Gelhaye
Tomato pomace and pectin were used as the sole carbon sources for the production of polygalacturonase from a strain of Coriolus versicolor in submerged culture. The culture of C. versicolor grown on tomato pomace exhibited a peak of polygalacturonase activity (1,427 U/l) on the third day of culture with a specific activity of 14.5 U/mg protein. The production of polygalacturonase by C. versicolor grown on pectin as a sole carbon source increased with the time of cultivation, reaching a maximum activity of 3,207 U/l of fermentation broth with a specific activity of 248 U/mg protein. The levels of different isoenzymes of polygalacturonase produced during the culture growth were analysed by native PAGE. Differential chromatographic behaviour of lignocellulosic enzymes produced by C. versicolor (i.e. polygalacturonase, xylanase and laccase) was studied on immobilized metal chelates. The effect of ligand concentration, pH, the length of spacer arm and the nature of metal ion were studied for enzyme adsorption on immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). The adsorption of these lignocellulosic enzymes onto immobilized metal chelates was pH-dependent since an increase in protein adsorption was observed as the pH was increased from 6.0 to 8.0. The adsorption of polygalacturonase as well as other enzymes to immobilized metal chelates was due to coordination of histidine residues which are available at the protein surface since the presence of imidazole in the equilibration buffer abolished the adsorption of the enzyme to immobilized metal chelates. A one-step purification of polygalacturonase from C. versicolor was devised by using a column of Sepharose 6B-EPI 30-IDA-Cu(II) and purified enzyme exhibited a specific activity of about 150 U/mg protein, final recovery of enzyme activity of 100% and a purification factor of about 10. The use of short spacer arm and the presence of imidazole in equilibration buffer exhibited a higher selectivity for purification of polygalacturonase on this column with a high purification factor. The purified enzyme preparation was analysed by SDS-PAGE as well as by "in situ" detection of enzyme activity. PMID:18253772
do Rosário Freixo, Maria; Karmali, Amin; Arteiro, José Maria
In the present study the effects of individual and combined essential oils (EOs) extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.) bulb and garlic (Allium sativum L.) clove on the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and sterigmatocystin (STC) production were investigated. The EOs obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed by GC/MS. Twenty one compounds were identified in onion EO. The major components were: dimethyl-trisulfide (16.64%), methyl-propyl-trisulfide (14.21%), dietil-1,2,4-tritiolan (3R,5S-, 3S,5S- and 3R,5R- isomers) (13.71%), methyl-(1-propenyl)-disulfide (13.14%), and methyl-(1-propenyl)-trisulfide (13.02%). The major components of garlic EO were diallyl-trisulfide (33.55%), and diallyl-disulfide (28.05%). The mycelial growth and the STC production were recorded after 7, 14, and 21 d of the A. versicolor growth in Yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth containing different EOs concentrations. Compared to the garlic EO, the onion EO showed a stronger inhibitory effect on the A. versicolor mycelial growth and STC production. After a 21-d incubation of fungi 0.05 and 0.11 ?g/mL of onion EO and 0.11 ?g/mL of garlic EO completely inhibited the A. versicolor mycelial growth and mycotoxins biosynthesis. The combination of EOs of onion (75%) and garlic (25%) had a synergistic effect on growth inhibition of A. versicolor and STC production. PMID:22497489
The lcc1 gene coding for the laccase from Trametes versicolor DSM11269 was cloned into the genome of Yarrowia lipolytica using either single or multiple integration sites. The levels of the recombinant laccase activity secreted in the culture media were 0.25 and 1 U ml(-1) for single and multiple integrations, respectively. The strain with a single integration was successfully used to express variant libraries which were screened on ABTS substrate. The strain encoding the double mutant L185P/Q214K (rM4A) showed a sixfold enhancement in secreted enzyme activity. The catalytic efficiency of the purified rM-4A laccase was respectively increased 2.4- and 2.8-fold towards ABTS and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, compared to the rWT. Culture supernatants containing either rWT or rM-4A catalyzed the almost complete decolorization of an Amaranth solution (70 nMs(-1)). Taken together, our results open new perspectives for the use of Y. lipolytica as a molecular evolution platform to engineer laccases with improved properties. PMID:23026343
Introduction. Orally administered preparations from the Trametes versicolor (Tv) mushroom have been hypothesized to improve immune response in women with breast cancer after standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Methods. A phase I, two-center, dose escalation study was done to determine the maximum tolerated dose of a Tv preparation when taken daily in divided doses for 6 weeks after recent completion of radiotherapy. Eleven participants were recruited and nine women completed the study. Each cohort was comprised of three participants given one of three doses of Tv (3, 6, or 9?grams). Immune data was collected pre- and postradiation, at 3 on-treatment time points and after a 3-week washout. Results. Nine adverse events were reported (7 mild, 1 moderate, and 1 severe), suggesting that Tv was well tolerated. Immunological results indicated trends in (1) increased lymphocyte counts at 6 and 9?grams/day; (2) increased natural killer cell functional activity at 6?grams/day; (3) dose-related increases in CD8+ T cells and CD19+ B cells , but not CD4+ T cells or CD16+56+ NK cells. Conclusion. These findings show that up to 9?grams/day of a Tv preparation is safe and tolerable in women with breast cancer in the postprimary treatment setting. This Tv preparation may improve immune status in immunocompromised breast cancer patients following standard primary oncologic treatment.
Torkelson, Carolyn J.; Sweet, Erin; Martzen, Mark R.; Sasagawa, Masa; Wenner, Cynthia A.; Gay, Juliette; Putiri, Amy; Standish, Leanna J.
Microbial transformation of diosgenin (3?-hydroxy-5-spirostene) using white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor afforded four previously unreported polyhydroxylated steroids, 25(R)-spirost-5-en-3?,7?,15?,21-tetraol (5), 25(R)-spirost-5-en-3?,7?,12?,21-tetrol (6), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3?,7?,12?,21-tetraol (7), and (25R)-spirost-5-en-3?,7?,11?,21-tetraol (8), along with three known congeners, 25(R)-spirost-5-en-3?,7?-diol (2), 25(R)-spirost-5-en-3?,7?,21-triol (3), and 25(R)-spirost-5-en-3?,7?,12?-triol (4). These structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR as well as HR-ESIMS analysis. In addition, we provide evidence for two new microbial hydroxylations of diosgenin: C-21 primary carbon hydroxylation and C-15 hydroxylation. The 3?-hydroxyl group and double bond in the B-ring of diosgenin were found to be important structural determinants for their activity. PMID:21985022
A novel pepsin inhibitor was isolated from Coriolus versicolor. The purification was carried out by a 2-step ultrafiltration followed by DEAE-52 and Mono Q ion-exchange chromatography. SDS-PAGE and gel filtration chromatography analysis showed that the isolated inhibitor was a 22.3 kDa protein with a single subunit. Heat stability of this inhibitor was estimated and only 7% of its inhibitory activity lost after treatment at 98 °C. The inhibitor was more specific against pepsin than several other proteases. The dissociation constant (K(i)) and concentration required for 50% pepsin inhibition (IC50) were 5.84 × 10(-5) M and 26.26 ?g/mL, respectively. Apparent decrease of ?-helix and increase of random coil were observed in the circular dichroism spectra of pepsin when an equimolar amount of the inhibitor was added. The inhibition mechanism of this inhibitor differs from the reported aspartic protease inhibitors, according to the secondary structure and the kinetic studies of this inhibitor. PMID:22384953
Intracellular polysaccharides (iPs) were separated and purified from Coriolus versicolor LH1 mycelia and characterized for their ?-glucosidase inhibitory properties. Three iP fractions (iPL-F5-2-1, iPL-F5-4-1, and iPL-F5-5-1) were extracted, separated, and purified from LH1 mycelia using microwave extraction technology, a DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B column, a Diaion HP20 macroporous adsorption column, and a Sephadex™ G-50 gel-permeation column. The principal constituents of iPL-F5-2-1, iPL-F5-4-1, and iPL-F5-5-1 were saponins and polyphenoic compound mixtures. The enzyme inhibition activity, IC(50) values, of these three fractions were 1.7, 1.8, and 0.8 mg/mL, respectively. The ?-glucosidase inhibitory properties were related to the presence of ?-(1,4) glycosidic linkages in the polysaccharide structure and the total relative percentage of d-glucose and d-galactose in the structure of polysaccharides, other than triterpenoids. PMID:23218298
The separation and purification of extracellular polysaccharides from Coriolus versicolor LH1 were investigated along with their ?-glucosidase inhibition properties. Three polysaccharide fractions (ePS-F2-1, ePS-F3-1, and ePS-F4-1) were separated from the culture medium of LH1 using a DEAE anion-exchange column and a Sephadex™ G-50 gel filtration column. Their chemical compositions was determined. On the basis of an ?-glucosidase inhibition assay, the enzyme inhibition activities of ePS-F2-1, ePS-F3-1, and ePS-F4-1 were investigated. Among these, ePS-F4-1 had the highest enzyme inhibition effects on ?-glucosidase. According to the results of the chemical component analysis, ePS-F3-1 and ePS-F4-1 are the polysaccharides which are combined with triterpenoides, and ePS-F2-1 is complexed with proteins and triterpenoides. PMID:24751027
Trametes versicolor ATCC 200801 secretes 4.1 g L(-1) of exopolysaccharide (EPS) when synthetic minimal medium and low-shear bioreactor cultivation technique are used. Structural and compositional analyses by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy yielded predominantly glucose and small amounts of galactose, mannose, arabinose, and xylose. The main EPS is composed of beta-1,3/beta-1,6-linked D-glucose molecules which is identical with Schizophyllan but does not possess a triple helical arrangement as secondary structure. Two molar mass fractions were detected by size exclusion chromatography yielding weight-average molecular weights of 4,100 and 2.6 kDa. Protein content varies between 2-3.6% (w/w). The exopolysaccharide is different in the nature of the glycosidic linkage, composition of monosaccharides, protein content, and weight-average molecular weight compared to the well-known polysaccharopeptide (PSP) and polysaccharopeptide Krestin (PSK). PMID:18800181
The temporal relationship between signals often has strong and repeatable influences on receiver behaviour. While several studies have shown that receivers prefer temporally leading signals, we show that the relative timing of signal elements within overlapping signals can also have repeatable influences on receiver responses. Female grey treefrogs, Hyla versicolor, preferred overlapping conspecific advertisement call alternatives in which pulses were in the leading position relative to pulses in an alternative. The preference was maintained even when the first pulse of the stimulus with leading pulses began after that of the call with following pulses. To rule out the possibility of masking interference of the pulse pattern, we used a split-pulse design in which the playback of two nonoverlapping pulse elements were synchronized from spatially separated speakers. Females were attracted to the source of the short (6 ms) leading pulse element, which did not attract females in isolation even though its amplitude was 24 dB lower than the long (24 ms) following element, which did attract females in isolation. Taken together, our results fall within a range of phenomena that have been classified as precedence effects. However, to our knowledge, showing localization based on successive leading pulses rather than the very first-arriving pulse is a novel discovery for nonhuman animals.
A cDNA encoding a laccase enzyme was isolated from a Trametes versicolor cDNA library. The gene was subcloned into the Pichia pastoris expression vector pPIC3.5 and transformed into the P. pastoris strains KM71 and GS115. Laccase-secreting transformants were selected by their ability to oxidise the substrate ABTS. No difference in laccase activity was observed between culture supernatants from GS115 (proteolytic) and KM71 (nonproteolytic) strains. The presence of at least 200 microM copper was necessary for optimal laccase activity in the culture supernatants. During growth of P. pastoris on minimal medium the pH of the medium was reduced to <3.0. If alanine was added to the medium the pH reduction was not as pronounced and at alanine concentrations >0.6% w/v the pH was kept constant for >7 days. Cultures in which the pH was maintained by alanine metabolism produced higher levels of laccase activity than those grown in the absence of alanine. This study describes the development of a medium that allows convenient pH control of P. pastoris without the need for continuous neutralisation. PMID:12161771
O'Callaghan, J; O'Brien, M M; McClean, K; Dobson, A D W
Protoplasts of the monokaryotic strain 52J of Trametes versicolor were treated with UV light and screened for the inability to produce a colored precipitate on guaiacol-containing agar plates. Mutants unable to oxidize guaiacol had absent or very low secretion of laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) proteins. All isolates unable to secrete MnP were also unable to bleach or delignify kraft pulp. One mutant strain, M49, which grew normally but did not oxidize guaiacol, was tested further with a number of other substrates whose degradation has been associated with delignification by white rot fungi. Compared with the parent, 52J, mutant M49, secreting no MnP and low laccase, could not brighten or delignify kraft pulp, produced less ethylene from 2-keto methiolbutyric acid, released much less (sup14)CO(inf2) from [(sup14)C]DHP (a synthetic lignin-like polymerizate), and produced much less methanol from pulp. This mutant also displayed decreased abilities to oxidize the dyes poly B-411, poly R-478, and phenol red compared with the wild-type strain and was also unable to decolorize kraft bleachery effluent or mineralize its organochlorine. Addition of purified MnP in conjunction with H(inf2)O(inf2), MnSO(inf4), and an Mn(III) chelator to M49 cultures partially restored methanol production, pulp delignification, and biobleaching in some cases.
Addleman, K.; Dumonceaux, T.; Paice, M. G.; Bourbonnais, R.; Archibald, F. S.
In this study, a two-stage pH-shift fermentation process was developed for the coproduction of laccase and exopolysaccharides (EPS) by Coriolus versicolor. At the same time, laccase and EPS were purified and characterised in detail. The results showed that the highest laccase and EPS production reached 7680 U l(-1) and 8.2 g l(-1). Furthermore, the flow behaviour of fermentation broth was Newtonian and the maximum ?(ap) was 2.7×10(-3) Pa s. The MW of laccase was 64 kDa and it showed a pI value of 4.2. The CD analysis showed that laccase had a high ?-helical content (68%). The MW of the purified EPS was determined to be 1.8×10(6) Da, consisting of carbohydrates (87.6%) and proteins (12.4%). The EPS consisted of 17 amino acids, mainly serine (11.3%), glutamic acid (12.60%), leucine (13.3%) and phenylalanine (9.4%) in protein moiety, and three monosaccharides (galactose, mannose and xylose). PMID:24767046
Que, Youxiong; Sun, Shujing; Xu, Liping; Zhang, Yuye; Zhu, Hu
Protoplasts of the monokaryotic strain 52J of Trametes versicolor were treated with UV light and screened for the inability to produce a colored precipitate on guaiacol-containing agar plates. Mutants unable to oxidize guaiacol had absent or very low secretion of laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) proteins. All isolates unable to secrete MnP were also unable to bleach or delignify kraft pulp. One mutant strain, M49, which grew normally but did not oxidize guaiacol, was tested further with a number of other substrates whose degradation has been associated with delignification by white rot fungi. Compared with the parent, 52J, mutant M49, secreting no MnP and low laccase, could not brighten or delignify kraft pulp, produced less ethylene from 2-keto methiolbutyric acid, released much less (sup14)CO(inf2) from [(sup14)C]DHP (a synthetic lignin-like polymerizate), and produced much less methanol from pulp. This mutant also displayed decreased abilities to oxidize the dyes poly B-411, poly R-478, and phenol red compared with the wild-type strain and was also unable to decolorize kraft bleachery effluent or mineralize its organochlorine. Addition of purified MnP in conjunction with H(inf2)O(inf2), MnSO(inf4), and an Mn(III) chelator to M49 cultures partially restored methanol production, pulp delignification, and biobleaching in some cases. PMID:16535150
Addleman, K; Dumonceaux, T; Paice, M G; Bourbonnais, R; Archibald, F S
The white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor increased the brightness of hardwood kraft pulp by two mechanisms depending on the concentration of available nitrogen. In low-nitrogen conditions, the brightening process was a chemical effect mediated by the fungus, associated with the removal of residual lignin in the pulp; kappa number was used as an indicator of lignin concentration. A five-day treatment in low-nitrogen conditions increased the brightness of hardwood kraft pulp from 36.2 to 54.5%, with a corresponding decrease in kappa number from 12.0 to 8.5, equivalent to a reduction in the lignin concentration from ca. 2.0% (wt/wt) to ca. 1.4% (wt/wt). Under these conditions, we concluded that the brightening of the pulp was a secondary metabolic event initiated after the depletion of available nitrogen. This method of brightening has been described as bleaching or biobleaching. By contrast, in high-nitrogen conditions, the brightening was a physical effect associated with the dilution of the dark pulp fibers by the relatively high levels of brighter fungal mycelium produced. Since this method of brightening was not evidently associated with lignin removal, it cannot be described as bleaching. In pulp samples brightened in high-nitrogen conditions, as brightness increased, there was a corresponding increase in kappa number. This observation was explained by the consumption of potassium permanganate by the fungal mycelium, which interfered with kappa number determinations at high fungal biomass levels. PMID:16347907
Kirkpatrick, N; Reid, I D; Ziomek, E; Ho, C; Paice, M G
Trametes versicolor (Tv) fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in the presence or absence of Kirk's medium, glucose, and fungus, with an addition of 50% (v v-1) of nonsterilized effluent were performed. Physicochemical characterization was performed at the start and end of the treatment. Degradation kinetics were determined. A direct relationship was found between the dry weight of fungi, pH, and the decolorization system, with higher decolorization at lower pH levels (pH ~4.3). High decolorization (81% ± 0.09; 88% ± 0.17; and 99% ± 0.04) for three of the eight treatments (Kirk's medium without glucose, Kirk's medium with glucose, and without medium with glucose, respectively) was found. Toxicity tests determined an increase in the initial effluent toxicity (7.33 TU) compared with the final treatment (47.73 TU) in a period of 11 days. For this system, a degradation sequence of the carminic acid structure present in the effluent by the Tv fungus is suggested, in which it is seen that metabolites still containing aromatic structures are generated. PMID:21552764
Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a chronic superficial fungal disease caused by Malassezia spp. The incidence is as high as 30-40% in tropical climates. Previous studies indicate that the geographic factor has influence on the main species isolated from PV. Our aim was to identify Malassezia spp. from PV patients in Indonesia and their correlation to clinical characteristics. Isolates of Malassezia were collected from 98 PV patients (62 males and 36 females). Identification was based on morphological observation and biochemical evaluation. Leeming Notman agar was used as isolation culture medium. The biochemical evaluation consisted of specimen culture onto Sabouraud dextrose agar, Cremophor EL, Esculin, Dixon's agar at 37 degrees C and catalase reaction. The isolates found were Malasseziafurfur (42.9%), M. sympodialis (27.5%), M. globosa (13.3%), M. slooffiae (7.7%), M. obtusa (7.7%) and M. restricta (2.2%), and 7.14% specimens were unidentified. There was no statistically significant association between Malassezia spp. and demographic characteristics and clinical characteristics of the patients. Unlike reports from temperate climate countries, this study in Indonesia found M. furfur as the most frequently isolated Malassezia spp. in PV patients. PMID:18643886
Krisanty, Roro Inge Ade; Bramono, Kusmarinah; Made Wisnu, I
Trametes versicolor laccase was encapsulated into onion-type, lipid-based multilamellar vesicles (MLVs). When encapsulated, laccase was isolated from the assay medium but was still active once freed from its capsule. The encapsulation efficiency was larger than 65% at 25 °C and 37 °C and decreased to 55% by introducing 140 mM NaCl into the buffered medium (pH = 4.5). MLVs were shown to drastically improve both laccase stability and activity. At 25 °C, laccase activity was doubled in the presence of MLVs. At 37 °C in the salt-free medium, the half-life time of laccase was increased from 2 hr 30-65 h without and with MLVs, respectively. This effect was even more pronounced in the salted medium where laccase activity was unchanged for 6 days in the presence of MLVs. These beneficial effects were attributed to the immobilization of laccase onto MLV surface. Laccase activity as well as stability was notably shown to be directly correlated to MLV stability. PMID:22051377
Genetic variation in sexual displays is crucial for an evolutionary response to sexual selection, but can be eroded by strong selection. Identifying the magnitude and sources of additive genetic variance underlying sexually selected traits is thus an important issue in evolutionary biology. We conducted a quantitative genetics experiment with gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor) to investigate genetic variances and covariances among features of the male advertisement call. Two energetically expensive traits showed significant genetic variation: call duration, expressed as number of pulses per call, and call rate, represented by its inverse, call period. These two properties also showed significant genetic covariance, consistent with an energetic constraint to call production. Combining the genetic variance-covariance matrix with previous estimates of directional sexual selection imposed by female preferences predicts a limited increase in call duration but no change in call rate despite significant selection on both traits. In addition to constraints imposed by the genetic covariance structure, an evolutionary response to sexual selection may also be limited by high energetic costs of long-duration calls and by preferences that act most strongly against very short-duration calls. Meanwhile, the persistence of these preferences could be explained by costs of mating with males with especially unattractive calls. PMID:24621402
Welch, Allison M; Smith, Michael J; Gerhardt, H Carl
BACKGROUND Pityriasis versicolor is a fungal infection caused by Malassezia spp. that has frequent relapses. OBJECTIVES The main objective of this research was to perform phase I and II clinical studies, using formulations containing essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus in patients with pityriasis versicolor. METHODS Phase I study included twenty volunteers to ascertain the safety of the formulations. In phase II, 47 volunteers randomly received essential oil formulations at 1.25 ?L/mL concentration, for forty days. The shampoo should be applied three times a week and the cream twice a day. A control group in phase II, consisting of 29 volunteers, received the same formulations but with 2% ketoconazole as the active ingredient. RESULTS No significant adverse events were observed in volunteers during Phase I. In Phase II, 30 (63.83%) volunteers using essential oil and 18 (62.07%) using ketoconazole remained until the end of the study. We observed a predominance of lesions in disseminated form, with M. sympodialis detected as the predominant agent identified in cultures. After 40 days of treatment, the rate of mycological cure was 60% (p <0.05) for the group treated with essential oil of C. citratus and over 80% (p <0.05) for the group treated with ketoconazole formulations. CONCLUSIONS Notwithstanding the safety and antifungal effects observed in this study after application of formulations containing the essential oil of C. citratus, further studies with larger populations should be performed to confirm the actual potential of these formulations in the treatment of patients with Pityriasis versicolor.
Carmo, Egberto Santos; Pereira, Fillipe de Oliveira; Cavalcante, Neuza Maria; Gayoso, Carla Wanderley; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira
The ability of 10 dikaryotic and 20 monokaryotic strains of Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor to bleach and delignify hardwood and softwood kraft pulps was assessed. A dikaryon (52P) and two of its mating-compatible monokaryons (52J and 52D) derived via protoplasting were compared. All three regularly bleached hardwood kraft pulp more than 20 brightness points (International Standards Organization) in 5 days and softwood kraft pulp the same amount in 12 days. Delignification (kappa number reduction) by the dikaryon and the monokaryons was similar, but the growth of the monokaryons was slower. Insoluble dark pigments were commonly found in the mycelium, medium, and pulp of the dikaryon only. Laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) but not lignin peroxidase activities were secreted during bleaching by all three strains. Their laccase and MnP isozyme patterns were compared on native gels. No segregation of isozyme bands between the monokaryons was found. Hardwood kraft pulp appeared to adsorb several laccase isozyme bands. One MnP isozyme (pI, 3.2) was secreted in the presence of pulp by all three strains, but a second (pI, 4.9) was produced only by 52P. A lower level of soluble MnP activity in one monokaryon (52D) was associated with reduced bleaching ability and a lower level of methanol production. Since monokaryon 52J bleached pulp better than its parent dikaryon 52P, especially per unit of biomass, this genetically simpler monokaryon will be the preferred subject for further genetic manipulation and improvement of fungal pulp biological bleaching. PMID:16348851
The ability of 10 dikaryotic and 20 monokaryotic strains of Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor to bleach and delignify hardwood and softwood kraft pulps was assessed. A dikaryon (52P) and two of its mating-compatible monokaryons (52J and 52D) derived via protoplasting were compared. All three regularly bleached hardwood kraft pulp more than 20 brightness points (International Standards Organization) in 5 days and softwood kraft pulp the same amount in 12 days. Delignification (kappa number reduction) by the dikaryon and the monokaryons was similar, but the growth of the monokaryons was slower. Insoluble dark pigments were commonly found in the mycelium, medium, and pulp of the dikaryon only. Laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) but not lignin peroxidase activities were secreted during bleaching by all three strains. Their laccase and MnP isozyme patterns were compared on native gels. No segregation of isozyme bands between the monokaryons was found. Hardwood kraft pulp appeared to adsorb several laccase isozyme bands. One MnP isozyme (pI, 3.2) was secreted in the presence of pulp by all three strains, but a second (pI, 4.9) was produced only by 52P. A lower level of soluble MnP activity in one monokaryon (52D) was associated with reduced bleaching ability and a lower level of methanol production. Since monokaryon 52J bleached pulp better than its parent dikaryon 52P, especially per unit of biomass, this genetically simpler monokaryon will be the preferred subject for further genetic manipulation and improvement of fungal pulp biological bleaching. Images
Despite the fact that a range of molecular methods have been developed as tools for the diagnosis of Malassezia species, there are several drawbacks associated with them, such as inefficiency of differentiating all the species, high cost, and questionable reproducibility. In addition, most of the molecular methods require cultivation to enhance sensitivity. Therefore, alternative methods eliminating cultivation and capable of identifying species with high accuracy and reliability are needed. Herein, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method was especially developed for the detection of eleven Malassezia species. The multiplex PCR was standardized by incorporating a consensus forward primer, along with Malassezia species-specific reverse primers considering the sizes of the PCR products. In the method, the multiplex-PCR primer content is divided into three parts to circumvent the problem of increased nonspecific background resulting from the use of a large number of primers. DNA extraction protocol described by Harju and colleagues was modified using liquid nitrogen instead of -80 °C to break down the yeast membrane. By a modified extraction procedure followed by multiplex PCR and electrophoresis, the method enables identification and differentiation of Malassezia species from both of the samples obtained directly from skin and yeast colonies grown in culture. Fifty-five patients who were confirmed with pityriasis versicolor were enrolled in the study. Multiplex PCR detected and differentiated all 55 samples obtained directly from the patients' skin. However, 50 out of 55 samples yielded Malassezia colony in the culture. In addition, eight of 50 colonies were misdiagnosed or not completely differentiated by conventional methods based on the sequence analysis of eight colonies. The method is capable of identifying species with high accuracy and reliability. In addition, it is simple, quick, and cost-effective. More importantly, the method works efficiently for the diagnosis of Malassezia species obtained directly from patient samples. PMID:24190515
Many organic compounds present at low concentrations in municipal wastewater, such as various pharmaceuticals and biocides, are recalcitrant in conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). To improve their biodegradation, oxidoreductase enzymes such as laccases were tested. The goal was to find optimal conditions for the transformation of two anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals (diclofenac (DFC) and mefenamic acid (MFA)), one biocide (triclosan (TCN)) and one plastic additive (bisphenol A (BPA)) by Trametes versicolor laccase. Experiments were conducted in spiked solutions at different pH values (from 3 to 9), enzyme concentrations (70-1400 Ul(-1)), reaction times (0-26 hours) and temperatures (10, 25 and 40°C) following a Doehlert experimental design. A semi-empirical model was developed to understand better the combined effects of the four factors and to determine optimal values. This model was able to fit well the experimental data (R(2)>0.97) and showed good predictive ability. All four factors had a significant effect on the micropollutant oxidation with the greatest influence shown by pH. Results for single compounds were different from those obtained for mixtures of micropollutants. For instance, DFC transformation occurred at much higher rates in mixtures under alkaline conditions. Optimal conditions were compound-dependent, but were found to be between pH 4.5 to 6.5 and between 25°C to more than 40°C. A laccase concentration of 730 Ul(-1) was sufficient to obtain a high removal rate (>90%) of the four individual compounds (range of times: 40 min to 5 hours), showing the potential of laccases to improve biodegradation of environmentally persistent compounds. PMID:23831273
Aquatic organisms are often exposed to a wide variety of perturbations in nature, including pathogens and chemical contaminants. Despite the co-occurrence of these 2 stressors, few studies have examined the effects of chemical contaminants on host-pathogen dynamics. The authors tested the individual and combined effects on gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles of 2 commonly used pesticides (Roundup® and Sevin®) and the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). A fully factorial design was used, and tadpoles were exposed to Bd, Roundup, or Sevin alone, or a combination of Bd and either pesticide at 3 points during larval development (early, mid, late). It was predicted that pesticides would mediate the effect of Bd on tadpoles and reduce the likelihood of negative consequences of infection and that timing of exposure would influence these effects. Tadpoles exposed to Bd at the mid point experienced higher survival through metamorphosis than those exposed to Bd at the early or late points, while tadpoles exposed to Sevin at the early point experienced reduced survival compared with those exposed to Roundup or no-pesticide control at the same exposure point. Roundup ameliorated the effects of Bd on survival compared with tadpoles exposed to Bd alone, while there was no interactive effect of Sevin on survival. In addition, Sevin reduced mass of new metamorphs compared with Roundup and reduced snout-vent length compared with all other treatments. The present study supports the hypothesis that pesticides can mitigate the effects of Bd on amphibian hosts and that such effects may depend on the timing of exposure. PMID:24259231
For safe biosolid-land-applying, sludge should be contaminant-free. However, it may contain important amounts of micropollutants, not removed in the wastewater-treatment-processes. An alternative treatment with the fungus Trametes versicolor was applied in sterile solid-phase systems consisting of sludge and a lignocellulosic substrate. Fungal colonization and activity were demonstrated during the process, according to monitoring of ergosterol, laccase activity and the naproxen-degradation test (ND24). Fourteen out of 43 analyzed pharmaceuticals were found in the raw sludge. After treatment, phenazone, bezafibrate, fenofibrate, cimetidine, clarithromycin, sulfamethazine and atenolol were completely removed, while removals between 42% and 80% were obtained for the remaining pharmaceuticals. Toxicological analyses (Daphnia magna, Vibrio fischeri and seed germination) showed an important reduction in sludge toxicity after treatment. Results suggest that a solid-phase treatment with T. versicolor may reduce the ecotoxicological impact of micropollutants present in sewage sludge. This is the first report of a fungal-approach for elimination of emerging pollutants from biosolids. PMID:21376580
Iodinated X-ray contrast agents are considered to be nondegradable by microorganisms. The decomposition of the ionic X-ray contrast agents Diatrizoate (3,5-di(acetamido)-2,4,6-triiodobenzoic acid) and Iodipamide (3,3?-adipoyl-diimino-di(2,4,6-triiodobenzoic acid) and related triiodinated benzoates (Acetrizoate [3-acetylamino-2,4,6-triiodobenzoic acid] and Aminotrizoate [3-amino-2,4,6-triiodobenzoic acid]) by Trametes versicolor has been investigated. The fungus was able to transform all tested triiodinated benzoates cometabolically. During transformation of these compounds, iodide was released, but deiodination was not complete. T. versicolor liberated traces of 14CO2 from uniformly ring-14C-labeled Diatrizoate (3,5-di(acetamido)-2,4,6-triiodobenzoate). Various extracellular metabolites were detected during transformation of the different substances. In the transformation of Diatrizoate, the three main metabolites were identified as 3,5-di(acetamido)-2,6-diiodobenzoic acid, 3,5-di(acetamido)-2,4-diiodobenzoic acid, and 3,5-di(acetamido)-2-iodobenzoic acid, suggesting reductive deiodinations in steps as initial transformation steps.
It has been previously demonstrated that laccases exhibit great potential for use in several industrial and environmental applications. In this paper, two laccase isoenzyme genes, lccB and lccC, were cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The sequence analysis indicated that the lccB and lccC genes consisted of 1,563 and 1,584 bp, and their open reading frames encoded 520 and 527 amino acids, respectively. They had 72.7% degree of identity in nucleotides and 86.7% in amino acids. The expression levels of LccB and LccC were up to 32,479 and 34,231 U/l, respectively. The recombinant laccases were purified by ultrafiltration and (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, showing a single band on SDS-PAGE, which had a molecular mass of 58 kDa. The optimal pH and temperature for LccB were 2.0 and 55°C with 2,2'-azino-bis-[3-ethylbenzthiazolinesulfonic acid (ABTS) as a substrate, whereas LccC exhibited optimal pH and temperature at 3.0 and 60°C. The apparent kinetic parameters of LccB were 0.43 mM for ABTS with a Vmax value of 51.28 U/mg, and the Km and Vmax values for LccC were 0.29 mM and 62.89 U/mg. The recombinant laccases were able to decolorize five types of dyes. Acid Violet 43 (100 g/ml) was completely decolorized by LccB or LccC (2 U/ml), and the decolorization of Reactive Blue KN-R (100 g/ml) was 91.6% by LccC (2 U/ml). Thus, the study characterizes useful laccase isoenzymes from T. versicolor that have the capability of being incorporated into the treatment of similar azo and anthraquinone dyes from dyeing industries. PMID:24448164
The laccase genes lccalpha, lccbeta, lccgamma and lccdelta encoding four isoenzymes from Trametes versicolor have been cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris. Biochemical characterization allowed classification of these laccases into two distinct groups: Lccalpha and Lccbeta possessed higher thermal stability, but lower catalytic activity towards 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) compared to Lccgamma and Lccdelta. Activities of the laccases were quite different as well. Laccase Lccdelta showed highest phenolic C-C coupling activity with sinapic acid, but lowest oxidizing activity towards polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Highest activity towards PAHs was observed with Lccbeta. After 72h, more than 80% of fluorene, anthracene, acenaphthene and acenaphthylene were oxidized by Lccbeta in the presence of ABTS. Investigation of the structural basis of the different activities of the laccases demonstrated the impact of positions 164 and 265 in the substrate binding site on oxidation of PAHs. PMID:18367094
Koschorreck, Katja; Richter, Sven M; Swierczek, André; Beifuss, Uwe; Schmid, Rolf D; Urlacher, Vlada B
Image analysis technique was applied to identify morphological changes of pellets from white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor on agitated submerged cultures during the production of exopolysaccharide (EPS) or ligninolytic enzymes. Batch tests with four different experimental conditions were carried out. Two different culture media were used, namely yeast medium or Trametes defined medium and the addition of lignolytic inducers as xylidine or pulp and paper industrial effluent were evaluated. Laccase activity, EPS production, and final biomass contents were determined for batch assays and the pellets morphology was assessed by image analysis techniques. The obtained data allowed establishing the choice of the metabolic pathways according to the experimental conditions, either for laccase enzymatic production in the Trametes defined medium, or for EPS production in the rich Yeast Medium experiments. Furthermore, the image processing and analysis methodology allowed for a better comprehension of the physiological phenomena with respect to the corresponding pellets morphological stages. PMID:24338251
Tavares, Ana P M; Silva, Rui P; Amaral, António L; Ferreira, Eugénio C; Xavier, Ana M R B
Nevi, or moles, are localized nevocytic tumors. The American Cancer Society's "ABCD" rules are useful for differentiating a benign nevus from malignant melanoma. While acanthosis nigricans may signal an underlying malignancy (e.g., gastrointestinal tumor), it more often is associated with insulin resistance (type 2 diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome) or obesity. Melasma is a facial hyperpigmentation resulting from the stimulation of melanocytes by endogenous or exogenous estrogen. Treatments for melasma include bleaching agents, laser therapy, and a new medication that combines hydroquinone, tretinoin, and fluocinolone acetonide. Lesions that develop on the shins of patients with diabetic dermopathy often resolve spontaneously; no treatment is effective or recommended. Tinea versicolor responds to treatment with selenium sulfide shampoo and topical or oral antifungal agents. Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation can occur in persons of any age after trauma, skin irritation, or dermatoses. PMID:14655805
Plasma progesterone (P) levels and luteal and adrenal activities were studied during normal gestation and unusual prolonged period of oviductal egg retention in a polyautochronic, multiclutched lizard, Calotes versicolor. The normal gestation period (approximately 15 days) was categorized into four stages: stage I--a few hours following ovulation, stage II--eggs with shell and embryo at primitive streak, stage III--embryonic stages 16-20, and stage IV--prior to ovipostion (stages 26-27). The gravid lizards maintained in captivity retained eggs in their oviducts for 45 days. Plasma P levels were low in stage I, increased significantly during stage II, declined in stage III, and reached their lowest in stage IV of gestation. 3Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSDH) activity was greater in lutein cells at stage II and was present in traces in stage IV gestation. Interestingly, plasma P titers that were high in lizards with eggs retained longer though the corpora lutea (CL) showed a trace 3beta-HSDH activity. However, 3beta-HSDH activity was greater in the adrenocortical cells in these lizards than that in lizards during a normal gestation period. The present study on C. versicolor shows that the CL remains active and secretes P only during the early part of the gestation. The drop in P level during the later part of gestation might facilitate growth of a second set of vitellogenic follicles. During unfavorable conditions when the lizards are forced to retain eggs in the oviduct, the adrenal glands seem to secrete progesterone to help in egg retention and in inhibition of oviposition. PMID:11551119
The presence of high levels of Cu in soil decreases the shoot and root dry weights of Eucalyptus globulus. However, higher plant tolerance of Cu has been observed in the presence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus deserticola. The hyphal length of G. deserticola was sensitive to low Cu concentrations, and the percentage of AM root colonisation and the metabolic activity of the AM fungus were also decreased by Cu. Therefore, a direct effect of Cu on the development of the AM fungus inside and outside the root cannot be ruled out. E. globulus colonised by G. deserticola had higher metal concentrations in the roots and shoots than do non-mycorrhizal plants; however, the absence of a higher root to shoot metal ratio in the mycorrhizal plants (1.70+/-0.11) indicated that G. deserticola did not play a filtering/sequestering role against Cu. The saprobe fungi Coriolopsis rigida and Trametes versicolor were able to remove Cu ions from the asparagine-glucose growth media. However, plants inoculated with C. rigida and T. versicolor did not accumulate more Cu than non-inoculated controls, and the growth of the plant was not increased in the presence of these fungi. However, C. rigida increased the shoot dry weight, AM root length colonisation, and metabolic mycelial activity of plants colonised with G. deserticola in the presence of Cu; only this saprobe-AM fungus combination increased the tolerance of E. globulus to Cu. Inoculation with G. deserticola and C. rigida increased the E. globulus Cu uptake to levels reached by hyperaccumulative plants. PMID:19692112
Ultraviolet (UV) filters are xenobiotic compounds that can enter the environment through the liquid effluent of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and through adsorption in the sludge by-product because of their high hydrophobicity, as the sludge is subsequently applied as a fertiliser. A solid-state treatment of WWTP sludge with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor is reported in the present work as a feasible method for UV filter degradation, with reductions ranging from 87% in the case of 3-(4'-methylbenzylidene) camphor (4-MBC) to 100% for benzophenone-3 (BP3) and its metabolite 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone (4DHB). This study represents a first step in the development of a future fungal treatment for UV filters; thus, it is essential to prove that elimination is due only to the action of the fungus and not that of other microorganisms. To this end, the sludge was sterilised prior to fungal treatment. Biological assays indicate that T. versicolor readily eliminates oestrogenic activity, although it may be inefficient at eliminating other compounds, including some with dioxin-like activity. Degradation studies of 4-MBC in liquid media were also performed, and complete removal was achieved in less than 24 h. The main metabolites were identified, and the first steps of the transformation pathway were elucidated: a mono- or di-hydroxylation by cytochrome P450 and a subsequent conjugation with a pentose. None of 4-MBC transformation products was found to be responsible for increased dioxin-like activity in the sludge. PMID:22487399
Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Olivares, Alba; Piña, Benjamí; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Vicent, Teresa; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria
Background Due to its complex, dynamic and well-known paleogeography, the Mediterranean region provides an ideal framework to study the colonization history of plant lineages. The genus Linaria has its diversity centre in the Mediterranean region, both in Europe and Africa. The last land connection between both continental plates occurred during the Messinian Salinity Crisis, in the late Miocene (5.96 to 5.33 Ma). Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the colonization history of Linaria sect. Versicolores (bifid toadflaxes), which includes c. 22 species distributed across the Mediterranean, including Europe and Africa. Two cpDNA regions (rpl32-trnLUAG and trnK-matK) were sequenced from 66 samples of Linaria. We conducted phylogenetic, dating, biogeographic and phylogeographic analyses to reconstruct colonization patterns in space and time. Four major clades were found: two of them exclusively contain Iberian samples, while the other two include northern African samples together with some European samples. The bifid toadflaxes have been split in African and European clades since the late Miocene, and most lineage and speciation differentiation occurred during the Pliocene and Quaternary. We have strongly inferred four events of post-Messinian colonization following long-distance dispersal from northern Africa to the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Greece. Conclusions/Significance The current distribution of Linaria sect. Versicolores lineages is explained by both ancient isolation between African and European populations and recent events of long-distance dispersal over sea barriers. This result provides new evidence for the biogeographic complexity of the Mediterranean region.
Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive free radical and a messenger molecule in many physiological functions. However, excessive NO is believed to be a mediator of neurotoxicity. The medicinal plant Coriolus versicolor is known to possess anti-tumor and immune-potentiating activities. In this study, we investigated whether Coriolus versicolor possesses a protective effect against NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced apoptosis in the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-MC. We utilized 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, DNA fragmentation assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot analysis, and caspase-3 enzyme activity assay in SK-N-MC cells. MTT assay showed that SNP treatment significantly reduces the viability of cells, and the viabilities of cells pre-treated with the aqueous extract of Coriolus versicolor cultivated in citrus extract (CVEcitrus) was increased. However, aqueous extract of Coriolus versicolor cultivated in synthetic medium (CVEsynthetic) showed no protective effect and aqueous citrus extract (CE) had a little protective effect. The cell treated with SNP exhibited several apoptotic features, while those pre-treated for 1 h with CVEcitrus prior to SNP expose showed reduced apoptotic features. The cells pre-treated for 1 h with CVEcitrus prior to SNP expose inhibited p53 and Bax expressions and caspase-3 enzyme activity up-regulated by SNP. We showed that CVEcitrus exerts a protective effect against SNP-induced apoptosis in SK-N-MC cells. Our study suggests that CVEcitrus has therapeutic value in the treatment of a variety of NO-induced brain diseases.
Kim, Byung-Chul; Kim, Youn-Sub; Lee, Jin-Woo; Seo, Jin-Hee; Ji, Eun-Sang; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Yong-Il
In this study, cDNA and genomic clones encoding a homologue of the yeast gene anti-oxidant 1 (ATX1) from the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor ,a basidiomycete known to produce several laccase isoenzymes involved in lignin degradation, were identified. This gene, named Trametes ATX homologue (tahA), encodes a protein of 7<9 kDa with 56% identity to the yeast Atx1p sequence. Two different
Andreas Uldschmid; Michael Engel; Renate Dombi; Karin Marbach; Ludwig Maximilians; Universitaet Muenchen
Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive free radical and a messenger molecule in many physiological functions. However, excessive NO is believed to be a mediator of neurotoxicity. The medicinal plant Coriolus versicolor is known to possess anti-tumor and immune-potentiating activities. In this study, we investigated whether Coriolus versicolor possesses a protective effect against NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced apoptosis in the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-MC. We utilized 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, DNA fragmentation assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot analysis, and caspase-3 enzyme activity assay in SK-N-MC cells. MTT assay showed that SNP treatment significantly reduces the viability of cells, and the viabilities of cells pre-treated with the aqueous extract of Coriolus versicolor cultivated in citrus extract (CVE(citrus)) was increased. However, aqueous extract of Coriolus versicolor cultivated in synthetic medium (CVE(synthetic)) showed no protective effect and aqueous citrus extract (CE) had a little protective effect. The cell treated with SNP exhibited several apoptotic features, while those pre-treated for 1 h with CVE(citrus) prior to SNP expose showed reduced apoptotic features. The cells pre-treated for 1 h with CVE(citrus) prior to SNP expose inhibited p53 and Bax expressions and caspase-3 enzyme activity up-regulated by SNP. We showed that CVE(citrus) exerts a protective effect against SNP-induced apoptosis in SK-N-MC cells. Our study suggests that CVE(citrus) has therapeutic value in the treatment of a variety of NO-induced brain diseases. PMID:22110367
Kim, Byung-Chul; Kim, Youn-Sub; Lee, Jin-Woo; Seo, Jin-Hee; Ji, Eun-Sang; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Yong-Il; Kim, Chang-Ju
Bjerkandera sp. BOL 13 removed 95% of nonylphenol (at 9.7 mg nonylphenol L(-1) day(-1)) from aqueous medium after 5 days of incubation in agitated cultures. This removal rate decreased 2.5-fold in static cultures. By comparison, Trametes versicolor removed nonylphenol at 2.8 mg L(-1) day(-1) under conditions of static incubation, probably due to the action of laccase, but no growth was recorded in the agitated bottles. PMID:16489489
BACKGROUND: Polysaccharopeptide (PSP) from Coriolus versicolor (Yunzhi) is used as a supplementary cancer treatment in Asia. The present study aims to investigate whether PSP pre-treatment can increase the response of the human leukemia HL-60 cells to apoptosis induction by Camptothecin (CPT). METHODS: We used bivariate bromodeoxyuridine\\/propidium iodide (BrdUrd\\/PI) flow cytometry analysis to measure the relative movement (RM) of the BrdUrd
Jennifer Man-Fan Wan; Wai-Hung Sit; Xiaotong Yang; Pingping Jiang; Leo Lap-Yan Wong
The capacities and mechanisms of native and heat-treated white rot fungus “Trametes versicolor” biomass in removing of two different benzidine based dyes (i.e., Direct Blue 1, DB-1 and Direct Red 128, DR-128) from aqueous solution was investigated with different parameters, such as molecular weight of dye, adsorbent dosage, pH, temperature and ionic strength. In the batch system, the biosorption equilibrium
Background Trametes versicolor (Yun-Zhi) is a medicinal fungus used as a chemotherapy co-treatment to enhance anti-tumor immunity. Although the efficacies of T. versicolor extracts have been documented, the active ingredients and mechanisms underlying the actions of these extracts remain uncharacterized. Results We purified a new protein, YZP, from the fruiting bodies of T. versicolor and identified the gene encoding YZP using RNA-seq and de novo assembly technologies. YZP is a 12-kDa non-glycosylated protein comprising 139 amino acids, including an 18-amino acids signal peptide. YZP induced a greater than 60-fold increase in IL-10 secretion in mice B lymphocytes; moreover, YZP specifically triggered the differentiation of CD1d+ B cells into IL-10-producing regulatory B cells (Bregs) and enhanced the expression of CD1d. YZP-induced B cells suppressed approximately 40% of the LPS-activated macrophage production of inflammatory cytokines in a mixed leukocyte reaction and significantly alleviated the disease activity and colonic inflammation in a DSS-induced acute colitis murine model. Furthermore, YZP activated Breg function via interaction with TLR2 and TLR4 and up-regulation of the TLR-mediated signaling pathway. Conclusions We purified a novel Breg-stimulating protein, YZP, from T. versicolor and developed an advanced approach combining RNA-seq and de novo assembly technologies.to clone its gene. We demonstrated that YZP activated CD1d+ Breg differentiation through TLR2/4-mediated signaling pathway, and the YZP-stimulated B cells exhibited anti-inflammatory efficacies in vitro and in murine acute colitis models.
The effect of Coriolus versicolor extract supplemented diets on innate immune response and disease resistance in kelp grouper, Epinephelus bruneus against Listonella anguillarum, is reported. Kelp grouper were divided into four groups of 25 each and fed with C. versicolor enriched diets at 0% (control), 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1.0% level. After 30 days of feeding, all fish were injected interaperitoneally (i.p.) with 50 ?l of L. anguillarum (4.7 × 10(7) CFU) to investigate the immune parameters at weeks 1, 2, and 4. The reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species production were significantly enhanced in fish fed with 0.1% and 1.0% supplementation diets from weeks 1-4 when compared to the non enriched diet fed and infected control. The phagocytic activity significantly increased with 0.1% and 1.0% diets on weeks 2 and 4. The leucocyte myeloperoxidase content, lysozyme activity, and total protein level significantly increased when fed with 0.1% and 1.0% supplementation diets from weeks 1-4. The cumulative mortality was 35% and 45% in 1.0% and 0.1% enriched diet fed groups whereas it was 55% and 80% in 0.01% and 0% groups respectively. The present results suggest that diets enriched with C. versicolor at 0.1% or 1.0% level positively enhance the innate immune system and affords protection from L. anguillarum. PMID:22155010
Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Kim, Man-Chul; Kim, Ju-Sang; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo
Numerous studies have shown immunostimulatory and anti-tumor effects of water and standardized aqueous ethanol extracts derived from the medicinal mushroom, Coriolus versicolor, but the biological activity of methanol extracts has not been examined so far. In the present study we investigated the anti-tumor effect of C. versicolor methanol extract (which contains terpenoids and polyphenols) on B16 mouse melanoma cells both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro treatment of the cells with the methanol extract (25-1600 microg/ml) reduced melanoma cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, in the presence of the methanol extract (200 microg/ml, concentration IC(50)) the proliferation of B16 cells was arrested in the G(0)/G(1) phase of the cell cycle, followed by both apoptotic and secondary necrotic cell death. In vivo methanol extract treatment (i.p. 50 mg/kg, for 14 days) inhibited tumor growth in C57BL/6 mice inoculated with syngeneic B16 tumor cells. Moreover, peritoneal macrophages collected 21 days after tumor implantation from methanol extract-treated animals exerted stronger tumoristatic activity ex vivo than macrophages from control melanoma-bearing mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate that C. versicolor methanol extract exerts pronounced anti-melanoma activity, both directly through antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects on tumor cells and indirectly through promotion of macrophage anti-tumor activity. PMID:18313195
Harhaji, Lj; Mijatovi?, S; Maksimovi?-Ivani?, D; Stojanovi?, I; Momcilovi?, M; Maksimovi?, V; Tufegdzi?, S; Marjanovi?, Z; Mostarica-Stojkovi?, M; Vucini?, Z; Stosi?-Grujici?, S
Genista versicolor is an endemic legume from Sierra Nevada National Park which constitutes one of the UNESCO-recognized Biosphere Reserves. In the present study, a collection of strains nodulating this legume was analysed in characteristic soils of this ecosystem. Most strains nodulating G. versicolor belonged to rrs group I within the genus Bradyrhizobium and only one strain, named GV137, belonged to rrs group II from which only a single species, B. retamae, has been described in Europe to date. Strain GV137, and some strains from rrs group I, belonged to putative new species of Bradyrhizobium, although most strains from group I belonged to B. canariense, according to the ITS fragment and atpD gene analysis. This result contrasted with those obtained in Genista tinctoria in Northeast Europe whose endosymbionts were identified as B. japonicum. The analysis of the symbiotic nodC and nifH genes carried by G. versicolor-nodulating strains showed that most of them belonged to symbiovar genistearum, as did those isolated from G. tinctoria. Nevertheless, strain GV137, belonging to rrs group II, formed a divergent lineage that constituted a novel symbiovar within the genus Bradyrhizobium for which the name sierranevadense is proposed. This finding showed that the Genisteae are not restrictive legumes only nodulated by symbiovar genistearum, since Genista is a promiscuous legume nodulated by at least two symbiovars of Bradyrhizobium, as occurs in Retama species. PMID:24268094
Cobo-Díaz, José F; Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Fernández-González, Antonio J; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Toro, Nicolás; Velázquez, Encarna; Fernández-López, Manuel
Glucose 2-oxidase (pyranose oxidase, pyranose:oxygen-2-oxidoreductase, EC 126.96.36.199) from Coriolus versicolor catalyses the oxidation of D-glucose at carbon 2 in the presence of molecular O? producing D-glucosone (2-keto-glucose and D-arabino-2-hexosulose) and H?O?. It was used to convert D-glucose into D-glucosone at moderate pressures (i.e. up to 150 bar) with compressed air in a modified commercial batch reactor. Several parameters affecting biocatalysis at moderate pressures were investigated as follows: pressure, [enzyme], [glucose], pH, temperature, nature of fluid and the presence of catalase. Glucose 2-oxidase was purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography on epoxy-activated Sepharose 6B-IDA-Cu(II) column at pH 6.0. The rate of bioconversion of D-glucose increased with the pressure since an increase in the pressure with compressed air resulted in higher rates of conversion. On the other hand, the presence of catalase increased the rate of reaction which strongly suggests that H?O? acted as inhibitor for this reaction. The rate of bioconversion of D-glucose by glucose 2-oxidase in the presence of either nitrogen or supercritical CO? at 110 bar was very low compared with the use of compressed air at the same pressure. The optimum temperature (55 °C) and pH (5.0) of D-glucose bioconversion as well as kinetic parameters for this enzyme were determined under moderate pressure. The activation energy (E (a)) was 32.08 kJ?mol?¹ and kinetic parameters (V(max), K(m), K(cat) and K(cat)/K(m)) for this bioconversion were 8.8 U?mg?¹ protein, 2.95 mM, 30.81 s?¹ and 10,444.06 s?¹?M?¹, respectively. The biomass of C. versicolor as well as the cell-free extract containing glucose 2-oxidase activity were also useful for bioconversion of D-glucose at moderate pressures. The enzyme was apparently stable at moderate pressures since such pressures did not affect significantly the enzyme activity. PMID:20872184
The resistance of certain anthropogenic trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) to conventional wastewater treatment and their potential adverse effects on human and ecological health raise significant concerns and have prompted research on their bioremediation by white-rot fungi. This study compared the removal efficiencies of four widespread TrOCs: carbamazepine (CBZ), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), bisphenol A (BPA) and diclofenac (DCF), by nitrifying activated sludge as well as whole-cell and extracellular enzyme (laccase) extract of the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Fungal whole-cell culture removed only BPA and DCF but with high efficiencies (>90%) while the mixed nitrifying culture removed all compounds, although by levels of only 5-40%. Rapid initial sorption on fungal mycelium (44 ± 13% for DCF) was observed; however, biodegradation governed the overall removal. Performance comparison between fungal whole-cell and extracellular extract revealed that, unlike BPA, a catalytic pathway independent of extracellular laccase was responsible for DCF removal. Addition of mediator (1-hydroxybenzotriazole) to extracellular extract improved the removal of SMX which bears an electron donor group, but not that of the resistant compound CBZ. PMID:23508144
Yang, Shufan; Hai, Faisal I; Nghiem, Long D; Roddick, Felicity; Price, William E
A cDNA encoding for laccase was isolated from the ligninolytic fungus Trametes versicolor by RNA-PCR. The cDNA corresponds to the gene Lcc1, which encodes a laccase isoenzyme of 498 amino acid residues preceded by a 22-residue signal peptide. The Lcc1 cDNA was cloned into the vectors pMETA and pMETalphaA and expressed in Pichia methanolica. The laccase activity obtained with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-factor signal peptide was found to be twofold higher than that obtained with the native secretion signal peptide. The extracellular laccase activity in recombinants with the alpha-factor signal peptide was 9.79 U ml(-1). The presence of 0.2 mM copper was necessary for optimal activity of laccase. The expression level was favoured by lower cultivation temperature. The identity of the recombinant protein was further confirmed by immunodetection using Western blot analysis. As expected, the molecular mass of the mature laccase was 64.0 kDa, similar to that of the native form. PMID:15834713
Guo, Mei; Lu, Fuping; Pu, Jun; Bai, Dongqing; Du, Lianxiang
The enzyme laccase was produced by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor in repeated batches cultures with immobilized mycelium. Two different culture conditions were used. Enzymes produced were evaluated regarding their stability at high temperatures (55 degrees C and 65 degrees C) and at alkaline conditions (pH 7.0 and pH 8.0) having in view the application of these enzymes in biobleaching of hardwood Kraft pulp. Biobleaching experiments were divided in two parts, enzymatic prebleaching followed by chemical bleaching. In the enzymatic prebleaching the enzyme laccase was used at two conditions of pH and temperature, whereas the reaction time was fixed at 1 h in all pretreatments. In the chemical bleaching the DEDED and DEpDED sequences were used. The enzyme action was evaluated by Kappa number, viscosity, and brightness at the end of bleaching sequences. There were obtained values of Kappa numbers lower than control assays, viscosities compatible with industrial pulps, and brightness higher than controls, when pulps were pretreated for 1 h with laccase at pH 8.0 and 55 degrees C. PMID:15304692
A plant polysaccharide, Aloe gel extract, was reported to have an inhibitory effect on benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-DNA adduct formation in vitro and in vivo. Hence, chemopreventive effects of plant polysaccharides [Aloe barbadensis Miller (APS), Lentinus edodes (LPS), Ganoderma lucidum (GPS) and Coriolus versicolor (CPS)] were compared using in vitro short-term screening methods associated with both initiation and promotion processes in carcinogenesis. In B[a]P-DNA adduct formation, APS (180 micrograms/ml) was the most effective in inhibition of B[a]P binding to DNA in mouse liver cells. Oxidative DNA damage (by 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine) was significantly decreased by APS (180 micrograms/ml) and CPS (180 micrograms/ml). In induction of glutathione S-transferase activity, GPS was found to be the most effective among plant polysaccharides. In screening anti-tumor promoting effects, APS (180 micrograms/ml) significantly inhibited phorbol myristic acetate (PMA)-induced ornithine decarboxylase activity in Balb/3T3 cells. In addition, APS significantly inhibited PMA-induced tyrosine kinase activity in human leukemic cells. APS and CPS significantly inhibited superoxide anion formation. These results suggest that some plant polysaccharides produced both anti-genotoxic and anti-tumor promoting activities in in vitro models and, therefore, might be considered as potential agents for cancer chemoprevention. PMID:10426820
NvCI is a novel exogenous proteinaceous inhibitor of metallocarboxypeptidases from the marine snail Nerita versicolor. The complex between human carboxypeptidase A4 and NvCI has been crystallized and determined at 1.7 ? resolution. The NvCI structure defines a distinctive protein fold basically composed of a two-stranded antiparallel ?-sheet connected by three loops and the inhibitory C-terminal tail and stabilized by three disulfide bridges. NvCI is a tight-binding inhibitor that interacts with the active site of the enzyme in a substrate-like manner. NvCI displays an extended and novel interface with human carboxypeptidase A4, responsible for inhibitory constants in the picomolar range for some members of the M14A subfamily of carboxypeptidases. This makes NvCI the strongest inhibitor reported so far for this family. The structural homology displayed by the C-terminal tails of different carboxypeptidase inhibitors represents a relevant example of convergent evolution.
Covaleda, Giovanni; Alonso del Rivero, Maday; Chavez, Maria A.; Aviles, Francesc X.; Reverter, David
The paper describes the aerobic degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ), an anti-epileptic drug widely found in aquatic environment, from Erlenmeyer flask to bioreactor by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. In Erlenmeyer flask, CBZ at approximately 9 mg L(-1) was almost completely eliminated (94%) after 6 d, while at near environmentally relevant concentrations of 50 ?g L(-1), 61% of the contaminant was degraded in 7 d. Acridone, acridine, 10,11-dihydro-10,11-dihydroxy-CBZ, and 10, 11-epoxy-CBZ were identified as major metabolites, confirming the degradation of CBZ. The degradation process was then carried out in an air pulsed fluidized bioreactor operated in batch and continuous mode. Around 96% of CBZ was removed after 2 days in batch mode operation, and 10,11-dihydro-10,11-epoxycarbamazepine was found as unique metabolite. In bioreactor operated in continuous mode with a hydraulic retention time of 3 d, 54% of the inflow concentration (approx. 200 ?g L(-1)) was reduced at the steady state (25 d) with a CBZ degradation rate of 11.9 ?g CBZ g(-1) dry weight d(-1). No metabolite was detected in the culture broth. Acute toxicity tests (Microtox) indicated that the final culture broth in both batch and continuous mode operation were non toxic, with 15 min EC50 values of 24% and 77%, respectively. PMID:22178304
Chlorinated compounds constitute an important class of xenobiotics. Crude laccase was produced using Trametes versicolor ATCC (200801) in potato dextrose broth, with wheat bran as an inducing medium, and its ability to dechlorinate eight compounds was determined. The compounds were 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,6-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, heptachlor and pentachlorophenol. A range of parameters for the dechlorination of some compounds was tested, including incubation period, pH, initial substrate concentration, temperature, and enzyme quantity. The oxygen consumption was determined during each dechlorination process, under pre-determined optimum conditions. The changes in chemical structure of the compounds were also determined, by using FTIR analysis, following dechlorination of test chlorophenolics. Strong interactions were found to lead to the reactivity of hydroxyl groups in some cases and chlorine atoms were released from the benzene ring. The changes in compound toxicity were monitored before and after enzymatic treatment, using Microtox. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for the toxicity of the chlorinated compounds were developed. Consequently, the toxic activity of the test compounds was controlled by electrophilic index and electronic properties. PMID:22755541
Limited studies have been published in the literature about white rot fungal pellets for producing laccase enzyme during repeated-batch mode. The highest laccase activity of growing cells of F. trogii in copper-supplemented agitated and static batch cultures was 4.61±0.88 and 3.12±0.79U\\/ml, respectively. These values were 2.96±0.34 and 2.34±0.46U\\/ml for T. versicolor, in that respect. However, in copper-supplemented repeated-batch cultures of
Polysaccharide peptide (PSP), isolated from COV-1 strain of Coriolus versicolor, is commonly used as an adjunct in cancer chemotherapy or health supplement in China. Previous studies have shown that PSP decreased antipyrine clearance and inhibited rat CYP2C11-mediated tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation and in human CYP2C9. In this study, the effects of the water extractable fraction of PSP on the metabolism of model CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 probe substrates were investigated in pooled human liver microsomes. PSP (1.25-20?M) dose-dependently decreased CYP1A2-mediated metabolism of phenacetin to paracetamol (IC(50) 19.7?M) and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of testosterone to 6?-hydroxytestosterone (IC(20) 7.06?M). Enzyme kinetics studies showed the inhibition of CYP1A2 activity was competitive and concentration-dependent (K(i)=18.4?M). Inhibition of testosterone to 6?-hydroxytestosterone was also competitive and concentration-dependent (K(i)=31.8?M). Metabolism of dextromethorphan to dextrorphan (CYP2D6-mediated) and chlorzoxazone to 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone (CYP2E1-mediated) was only minimally inhibited by PSP, with IC(20) values at 15.6?M and 11.9?M, respectively. This study demonstrated that PSP competitively inhibited the CYP1A2- and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of model probe substrates in human liver microsomes in vitro. The relatively high K(i) values for CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 would suggest a low potential for PSP to cause herb-drug interaction related to these CYP isoforms. PMID:22305191
BACKGROUND: Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a cutaneous pigmentation disorder caused by a lipophilic yeast of the genus Malassezia sp. It is a superficial mycosis characterized by well-defined, slightly scaly skin lesions of variable color. In Brazil, the number of reported cases is small, and there are few epidemiological studies. OBJECTIVES: to assess incidence, characteristics of the lesions, effectiveness of the Zileri's Sign procedure, and the epidemiological profile of PV in the urban area of Buerarema - Bahia. METHODS: Biological samples were collected on pre-established days at Basic Health Care Units from July to September 2010. Sample collection was followed by laboratory diagnosis using Porto's Method. RESULTS: Of the 158 patients with suspected PV participating in the study, 105 (66.5%) were positive; 72 (68.6%) were female and 33 (31.4%) were male. Sex and location of lesions showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05). The region with the highest rate of cases of PV was found to be the center of the city, with 40.9% of diagnosed cases. The most affected age group was between 10 and 19 years. There was a significant association between the results produced through Zileri's Sign and Porto's Method in relation to positive and negative results (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results showed a higher prevalence of PV among individuals at puberty. The Zileri's Sign method proved to be counterproductive, because it showed low efficacy as a method for clinical diagnosis, yielding negative results for 36 (34.3%) patients who had been diagnosed with PV through laboratory examination.
Santana, Juliano Oliveira; de Azevedo, Fernanda Luiza Andrade; Campos, Pedro Costa
The potential of brewer's spent grain (BSG), a common waste from the brewing industry, as a support-substrate for laccase production by the well-known laccase producer Trametes versicolor ATCC 20869 under solid-state fermentation conditions was assessed. An attempt was made to improve the laccase production by T. versicolor through supplementing the cultures with inducers, such as 2,2-azino bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), copper sulfate, ethanol, gallic acid, veratryl alcohol, and phenol. A higher laccase activity of 13506.2 ± 138.2 IU/gds (gram dry substrate) was obtained with a phenol concentration of 10 mg/kg substrate in a tray bioreactor after 12 days of incubation time. The flocculation properties of the laccase treated crude beer samples have been studied by using various parameters, such as viscosity, turbidity, ? potential, total polyphenols, and total protein content. The present results indicated that laccase (25 IU/L) showed promising results as a good flocculating agent. The laccase treatment showed better flocculation capacity compared to the industrial flocculation process using stabifix as a flocculant. The laccase treatments (25 IU/L) at 4 ± 1 °C and room temperature have shown almost similar flocculation properties without much variability. The study demonstrated the potential of in-house produced laccase using brewer's spent grain for the clarification and flocculation of crude beer as a sustainable alternative to traditional flocculants, such as stabifix and bentonite. PMID:22866699
A PCR-based method for the quantitative detection of Lentinus edodes and Trametes versicolor, two ligninolytic fungi applied for wastewater treatment and bioremediation, was developed. Genomic DNA was used to optimize a PCR method targeting the conserved copper-binding sequence of laccase genes. The method allowed the quantitative detection and differentiation of these fungi in single and defined-mixed cultures after fractionation of the PCR products by electrophoresis in agarose gels. Amplified products of about 150 bp for L. edodes, and about 200 bp for T. versicolor were purified and cloned. The PCR method showed a linear detection response in the 1.0 microg-1 ng range. The same method was tested with genomic DNA from a third fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium), yielding a fragment of about 400 bp. Southern-blot and DNA sequence analysis indicated that a specific PCR product was amplified from each genome, and that these corresponded to sequences of laccase genes. This PCR protocol permits the detection and differentiation of three ligninolytic fungi by amplifying DNA fragments of different sizes using a single pair of primers, without further enzymatic restriction of the PCR products. This method has potential use in the monitoring, evaluation, and improvement of fungal cultures used in wastewater treatment processes. PMID:15586279
Various glucosylamines were synthesized from glucose and different alkyl amine compounds. These amino compounds are beta-D-glucopyranosylamine (GPA), N-ethyl-beta-D-glucopyranosylamine (EtGPA), N-butyl-beta-D-glucopyranosylamine (BuGPA), N-hexyl-beta-D-glucopyranosylamine (HeGPA), N-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranosylamine (OcGPA), N-dodecyl-beta-D-glucopyranosylamine (DoGPA), N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosylamine (HEtGPA) and N,N-di(2-hydroxyethyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosylamine (DHEtGPA). They were tested for their antifungal activity against the growth of Coriolus versicolor and Poria placenta. An improvement of the antifungal activity with the increase of alkyl chain length was observed. DoGPA exhibited the best antifungal activity against both strains. It completely inhibited the fungal growth at 0.01x10(-3)molmL(-1) and 0.0075x10(-3)molmL(-1) for C. versicolor and P. placenta, respectively. For other glucosylamines higher concentrations were needed for complete inhibition of fungi. PMID:18694571
To investigate the effects of Coriolus versicolor extract (CVE) on infl?ammatory bowel disease (IBD), ulcerative colitis was induced in male BALb/c mice by administering drinking water containing dextran-sulfate sodium (DSS). The mice were divided into the following four experimental groups: control, DSS-induced colitis, CVE treatment and CVE treatment + DSS-induced colitis. Mice receiving DSS treatment developed clinical and macroscopic signs of ulcerative colitis. However, treatment with CVE relieved the symptoms of IBD, including the decrease in body and organ weight. The levels of serum, spleen and mesenteric lymph node IgE in the CVE-treated groups was lower compared with the untreated groups. The antiinfl?ammatory response upon CVE treatment correlated with the reduced expression of TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6. Also, there was a significant reduction in the expression of STAT1 and STAT6 molecules, thereby leading to lower IFN-? and IL-4 expression. Therefore, the antiinfl?ammatory effects of Coriolus versicolor can be explained by its ability to inhibit certain proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:21796702
Degradation of the sulfonamide sulfamethazine (SMZ) by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor was assessed. Elimination was achieved to nearly undetectable levels after 20 h in liquid medium when SMZ was added at 9 mg L(-1). Experiments with purified laccase and laccase-mediators resulted in almost complete removal. On the other hand, inhibition of SMZ degradation was observed when piperonilbutoxide, a cytochrome P450-inhibitor, was added to the fungal cultures. UPLC-QqTOF-MS analysis allowed the identification and confirmation of 4 different SMZ degradation intermediates produced by fungal cultures or purified laccase: desulfo-SMZ, N4-formyl-SMZ, N4-hydroxy-SMZ and desamino-SMZ; nonetheless SMZ mineralization was not demonstrated with the isotopically labeled sulfamethazine-phenyl-13C6 after 7 days. Inoculation of T. versicolor to sterilized sewage sludge in solid-phase systems showed complete elimination of SMZ and also of other sulfonamides (sulfapyridine, sulfathiazole) at real environmental concentrations, making this fungus an interesting candidate for further remediation research. PMID:21944200
García-Galán, Ma Jesús; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Vicent, Teresa; Caminal, Gloria; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià
Background Cost-effective production of industrially important enzymes is a key for their successful exploitation on industrial scale. Keeping in view the extensive industrial applications of lignin peroxidase (LiP), this study was performed to purify and characterize the LiP from an indigenous strain of Trametes versicolor IBL-04. Xerogel matrix enzyme immobilization technique was applied to improve the kinetic and thermo-stability characteristics of LiP to fulfil the requirements of the modern enzyme consumer sector of biotechnology. Results A novel LiP was isolated from an indigenous T. versicolor IBL-04 strain. T. versicolor IBL-04 was cultured in solid state fermentation (SSF) medium of corn cobs and maximum LiP activity of 592?±?6 U/mL was recorded after five days of incubation under optimum culture conditions. The crude LiP was 3.3-fold purified with specific activity of 553 U/mg after passing through the DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex-G-100 chromatography columns. The purified LiP exhibited a relatively low molecular weight (30?kDa) homogenous single band on native and SDS-PAGE. The LiP was immobilized by entrapping in xerogel matrix of trimethoxysilane (TMOS) and proplytetramethoxysilane (PTMS) and maximum immobilization efficiency of 88.6% was achieved. The free and immobilized LiPs were characterized and the results showed that the free and immobilized LiPs had optimum pH 6 and 5 while optimum temperatures were 60°C and 80°C, respectively. Immobilization was found to enhance the activity and thermo-stability potential of LiP significantly and immobilized LiP remained stable over broad pH and temperature range as compare to free enzyme. Kinetic constants Km and Vmax were 70 and 56??M and 588 and 417 U/mg for the free and immobilized LiPs, respectively. Activity of this novel extra thermo-stable LiP was stimulated to variable extents by Cu2+, Mn2+ and Fe2+ whereas, Cystein, EDTA and Ag+ showed inhibitory effects. Conclusions The indigenously isolated white rot fungal strain T. versicolor IBL-04 showed tremendous potential for LiP synthesis in SSF of corncobs in high titters (592 U/mL) than other reported Trametes (Coriolus, Polyporus) species. The results obtained after dual phase characterization suggested xerogel matrix entrapment a promising tool for enzyme immobilization, hyper-activation and stabilization against high temperature and inactivating agents. The pH and temperature optima, extra thermo-stability features and kinetic characteristics of this novel LiP of T. versicolor IBL-04 make it a versatile enzyme for various industrial and biotechnological applications.
Objective To investigate the effect of Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide-B (CVPs-B) on the biological characteristics of human esophageal carcinoma cell line Eca109 in vitro. Methods The cells of experimental group (EG) were cultured in DMEM with 10% FCS and 150µg/mL CVPs-B, the cells of control group (CG) were cultured in DMEM with 10% FCS without CVPs-B. MTT reduction assay was performed to detect the effect of CVPs-B on the proliferation of Eca109 cells after the compound was administrated in varying concentrations. The living conditions of the Eca109 cells were determined using trypan blue exclusion. Then, cell growth curves were drawn. Flow cytometry was performed to detect the effect of CVPs-B on the apoptosis and cell cycle of Eca109. Results In comparison with the CG, a marked decrease in the proliferation of Eca09 cells was observed in the EG, after incubation with CVPs-B. The survival rate of Eca09 cells decreased as the time of CVPs-B incubation prolonged. Comparing the cell cycles and apoptotic rates between the two groups, the proportions of cells in the G0/G1, S, and G2/M phases in the EG were found to be (68.4±3.7)%, (13.9±2.1)%, and (17.7±1.4)%, respectively, after 24 h incubation with CVPs-B. The cells had an apoptotic rate of (9.7±0.7)%. On the other hand, the proportions of the G0/G1, S, and G2/M cells of the CG were found to be (53.9±3.6)%, (26.6±2.8)%, and (19.5±2.3)%, respectively, with an apoptotic rate of (5.7±1.4)%. In comparison with the CG cells, significant cell growth in the G0/G1 phase was observed in the EG (P<0.05). Furthermore, a significant decrease in the number of cells in the S phase was observed (P<0.05) in the EG. Conclusions CVPs-B can inhibit proliferation and enhance apoptosis of Eca109 cells and may be useful in the treatment of esophageal carcinoma.
In a clinical study from October 1985 to July 1987, we tested the efficacy of 3 different imidazole compounds in 112 male patients suffering from pityriasis versicolor. The diagnosis was made according to clinical criteria and confirmed by microscopical investigation. Our results prove the necessity of daily treatment over a period of at least 2 weeks. After 2 weeks, the microscopical examination should be repeated. Sprays and shampoos seemed equally effective. The relapse rate turned out to be rather high. The symptom-free interval between therapy and relapse could not be correlated to any of the forms of treatment. Those patients who had to be treated for more than 2 weeks were most likely to develop a relapse within a shorter period. PMID:3218286
The effect of dietary intake of Coriolus versicolor Polysaccharides (CVP) on the hematological and biochemical indices of Allogynogenetic crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) was investigated. Fish were fed CVP supplemented diets (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 g CVP kg(-1)) for 56 days. The RBC, WBC counts, hemoglobin content, ESR in blood and TP, ALT, AST, ALP, GLU, CHO, TG, and BUN in serum were measured on day 0, 14, 28, 42, and 56. After feeding of 56 days, fish were infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortalities were recorded. The results indicated that feeding crucian carp with suitable dose of CVP enhanced the RBC, WBC counts, hemoglobin and TP content, ALP activity, and decreased the ESR, ALT, AST, GLU, CHO, TG and BUN. There was no effect in fish at low dose (0.25 g kg(-1)). Unexpectedly, the higher CVP dose used here (2.0 and 4.0 g kg(-1)) has a negative effect in fish. The results of challenge experiment indicated that a moderate level of CVP in the diet (1.0 g kg(-1)) was the most effective to enhance the survival of fish after infected with A. hydrophila. In summary, the use of CVP, as dietary supplements, can improve the innate defense of crucian carp providing resistance to pathogens. PMID:22791194
A cDNA coding for laccase was isolated from the ligninolytic fungus Trametes versicolor by RNA-PCR. The cDNA corresponds to the gene lcc1, which encodes a laccase isoenzyme of 498 amino-acid residues preceded by a 22-residue signal peptide. The lcc1 cDNA was cloned into the vector pHIL-D2 for expression in Pichia pastoris under the control of the AOX1 promoter. Transformants were found to secrete active recombinant enzyme after induction with methanol. The use of growth medium buffered to pH 6.0 and control of pH during cultivation were found to be important, or even necessary, for obtaining activity in liquid cultures. The effect of exchanging the native secretion signal for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-factor pre-pro secretion signal was studied by cloning the portion encoding the mature enzyme into the vector pPIC9. The activity obtained for the construct encoding the native laccase signal sequence was found to be seven-fold higher than for the construct encoding the alpha-factor secretion signal. Utilisation of the P. pastoris pep4 mutant strain SMD1168 was found to provide a two-fold higher level of activity compared with P. pastoris GS115. PMID:9388299
Two laccase isozymes (I and II) produced by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor were purified, and their reactivities towards various substrates and lignins were studied. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of these enzymes were determined and compared to other known laccase sequences. Laccase II showed a very high sequence similarity to a laccase which was previously reported to depolymerize lignin. The reactivities of the two isozymes on most of the substrates tested were similar, but there were some differences in the oxidation rate of polymeric substrates. We found that the two laccases produced similar qualitative effects on kraft lignin and residual lignin in kraft pulp, with no evidence of a marked preference for depolymerization by either enzyme. However, the presence of the mediator 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) prevented and reversed the polymerization of kraft lignin by either laccase. The delignification of hardwood and softwood kraft pulps with the two isozymes and the mediator was compared; either laccase was able to reduce the kappa number of pulp, but only in the presence of 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate). PMID:7646025
Bourbonnais, R; Paice, M G; Reid, I D; Lanthier, P; Yaguchi, M
Biological advanced oxidation of the pharmaceuticals clofibric acid (CA), carbamazepine (CBZP), atenolol (ATL) and propranolol (PPL) is reported for the first time. Extracellular oxidizing species were produced through a quinone redox cycling mechanism catalyzed by an intracellular quinone reductase and any of the ligninolytic enzymes of Trametes versicolor after addition of the lignin-derived quinone 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (DBQ) and Fe(3+)-oxalate in the medium. Time-course experiments with approximately 10mg L(-1) of initial pharmaceutical concentration resulted in percent degradations above 80% after 6h of incubation. Oxidation of pharmaceuticals was only observed under DBQ redox cycling conditions. A similar degradation pattern was observed when CBZP was added at the environmentally relevant concentration of 50 microg L(-1). Depletion of DBQ due to the attack of oxidizing agents was assumed to be the main limiting factor of pharmaceutical degradation. The main degradation products, that resulted to be pharmaceutical hydroxylated derivatives, were structurally elucidated. The detected 4- and 7-hydroxycarbamazepine intermediates of CBZP degradation were not reported to date. Total disappearance of intermediates was observed in all the experiments at the end of the incubation period. PMID:19850317
The present study is concerned with the microbiological transformation of L-tyrosine to L-dopa by a newly isolated turkey tail mushroom Coriolus versicolor DOB-4. As tyrosinase (catechol oxidase, EC 188.8.131.52) is an extracellular enzyme, therefore biomass was used as an enzyme source in the reaction mixture. Biomass particles were pretreated with methanol and oven dried at 105 °C for 2 h. The optimal L-dopa production was achieved when 1.5 mg/ml L-tyrosine was used as the basal substrate. Thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis depicted that citric acid supports higher substrate conversion and product formation rates. A noticeable enhancement was observed when process parameters viz. L-tyrosine concentration (1.5 mg/ml), citric acid (1.5 mg/ml), time of incubation (50 min), and reaction temperature (60 °C) were optimized using Plackett-Burman design. The maximum production of L-dopa was found to be 0.872 mg/ml with L-tyrosine consumption of 1.002 mg/ml. The model terms were found highly significant (HS, p ? 0.05), suggesting the potential commercial utility of the culture (df = 3, LSD = 0.342). PMID:24326681
Polysaccharide peptide (PSP), isolated from COV-1 strain of Coriolus versicolor, is commonly used as an adjunct in cancer chemotherapy in China. Previous studies have shown that PSP decreased antipyrine clearance and inhibited CYP2C11-mediated tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation in the rat both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, the effects of water extractable fraction of PSP on tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation was investigated in pooled human liver microsomes and in specific human CYP2C9 isoform. PSP (2.5-20?M) dose-dependently decreased the biotransformation of tolbutamide to 4-hydroxy-tolbutamide. Enzyme kinetics studies showed inhibition of tolbutamide 4-hydroxylase activity was competitive and concentration-dependent. In pooled human liver microsomes, PSP had a K(i) value of 14.2?M compared to sulfaphenazole, a human CYP2C9 inhibitor, showed a K(i) value of 0.32?M. In human CYP2C9 isoform, the K(i) value of PSP was 29.5?M and the K(i) value of sulfaphenazole was 0.04?M. This study demonstrated that PSP can competitively inhibit tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation in both pooled human liver microsomes and specific human CYP2C9 in vitro. This study compliments previous findings in the rat that PSP can inhibit human tolbutamide 4-hydroxylase, but the relatively high K(i) values in human CYP2C9 would suggest a low potential for PSP to cause herb-drug interaction. PMID:21757329
The effects of polysaccharide peptide (PSP), an immunomodulator isolated from Coriolus versicolor COV-1, on glutathione (GSH) and GSH-related enzymes was investigated in C57 mouse. Administration of PSP (1-4 micromole/kg, i.p.) produced a transient, dose-dependent depletion (10-37%) of hepatic GSH, with no effect on serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) activity. Blood GSH was depleted (6-25%) at 3 h, followed by a rebound increase above the control GSH level (20%) at 18 h. The GSSG/GSH ratio, a measure of oxidative stress, was increased 3 h after PSP treatment but returned to normal levels at 24 h. Sub-chronic treatment of PSP (1-4 micromole/kg/day, i.p.) for seven days did not produce any significant changes in hepatic GSH levels and the GSSG/GSH ratio when measured 24 h after the final dose of PSP. PSP had little effect on glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GSSG reductase) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities in the liver. However, a dose-dependent increase in blood GPX activity (30-48%) was observed at 3h, which coincided with the increase in the GSSG/GSH ratio. The increase in blood GPX activity may be a responsive measure to deal with the transient oxidative stress induced by PSP treatment. The results showed that PSP only caused a transient perturbation on hepatic glutathione without affecting the GSH-related enzymes such as GST, GSSG reductase and GPX. The observed changes in blood GSH simply reflected the intra-organ translocation of glutathione, as the glutathione-related enzymes were not significantly affected by PSP treatment. PMID:17240508
Background Polysaccharopeptide (PSP) from Coriolus versicolor (Yunzhi) is used as a supplementary cancer treatment in Asia. The present study aims to investigate whether PSP pre-treatment can increase the response of the human leukemia HL-60 cells to apoptosis induction by Camptothecin (CPT). Methods We used bivariate bromodeoxyuridine/propidium iodide (BrdUrd/PI) flow cytometry analysis to measure the relative movement (RM) of the BrdUrd positively labeled cells and DNA synthesis time (Ts) on the HL-60 cell line. We used annexin V/PI flow cytometry analysis to quantify the viable, necrotic and apoptotic cells. The expression of cyclin E and cyclin B1 was determined with annexin V/PI flow cytometry and western blotting. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used to test the cytotoxicity of PSP and CPT. Results PSP reduced cellular proliferation; inhibited cells progression through both S and G2 phase, reduced 3H-thymidine uptake and prolonged DNA synthesis time (Ts) in HL-60 cells. PSP-pretreated cells enhanced the cytotoxicity of CPT. The sensitivity of cells to the cytotoxic effects of CPT was seen to be the highest in the S-phase and to a small extent of the G2 phase of the cell cycle. On the other hand, no cell death (measured by annexin V/PI) was evident with the normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with treatment of either PSP or CPT. Conclusion The present study shows that PSP increases the sensitization of the HL-60 cells to undergo effective apoptotic cell death induced by CPT. The pattern of sensitivity of cancer cells is similar to that of HL-60 cells. PSP rapidly arrests and/or kills cells in S-phase and did not interfere with the anticancer action of CPT. PSP is a potential adjuvant to treat human leukemia as rapidly proliferating tumors is characterized by a high proportion of S-phase cells.
Medicinal mushrooms have served as the mainstay of treatment for a variety of human illnesses in Asian countries, mostly as supplements by cancer patients. Extracts prepared from Trametes versicolor under the trade name of I'm-Yunity exhibit anti-tumorigenic activities, as supported by inhibition of the proliferation and induction of apoptosis in malignant cells. Similar effects have also been observed for the Reishi mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. The two mushrooms exert their medicinal activities primarily through a family of polysaccharo-peptides. Despite the common identity in their bioactive ingredients, whether their combination might elicit an expanded efficacy and mechanism has not been investigated. In the present study, we investigated similarities and differences between extracts prepared from I'm-Yunity and from a formulation denoted I'm-Yunity-Too combining I'm-Yunity and Ganoderma lucidum. By assaying their anti-proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects using human promyelocytic HL-60 cells, we found that the ethanolic extract of I'm-Yunity-Too was more active in inducing cell death compared to I'm-Yunity, based on measured changes in the expression of caspase 3 and Bax. Moreover, ethanolic extracts of I'm-Yunity-Too exhibited more potent activity compared to its aqueous extracts with regard to suppression of the growth and induction of apoptosis, as assayed by the more pronounced downregulation of phosphorylation of Rb and increased cleavage of poly(ADP?ribose) polymerase (PARP) from its native 112-kDa form to the inactive 89-kDa product. These results suggested that the chemopreventive potential of I'm-Yunity may be enhanced by adding Ganoderma lucidum and that their bioactive ingre-dients potentially exhibit mechanistic synergism suggesting a more efficacious adjunct in chemotherapy. PMID:23670292
Coriolus versicolor (CV), a medicinal mushroom widely consumed in Asian countries, has been demonstrated to be effective in stimulation of immune system and inhibition of tumor growth. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-tumor and anti-metastasis effects of CV aqueous extract in mouse mammary carcinoma 4T1 cells and in 4T1-tumor bearing mouse model. Our results showed that CV aqueous extract (0.125-2mg/ml) did not inhibit 4T1 cell proliferation while the non-cytotoxic dose of CV extract (1-2mg/ml) significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion (p<0.05). Besides, the enzyme activities and protein levels of MMP-9 were suppressed by CV extract significantly. Animal studies showed that CV aqueous extract (1g/kg, orally-fed daily for 4 weeks) was effective in decreasing the tumor weight by 36%, and decreased the lung metastasis by 70.8% against untreated control. Besides, micro-CT analysis of the tumor-bearing mice tibias indicated that CV extract was effective in bone protection against breast cancer-induced bone destruction as the bone volume was significantly increased. On the other hand, CV aqueous extract treatments resulted in remarkable immunomodulatory effects, which was reflected by the augmentation of IL-2, 6, 12, TNF-? and IFN-? productions from the spleen lymphocytes of CV-treated tumor-bearing mice. In conclusion, our results demonstrated for the first time that the CV aqueous extract exhibited anti-tumor, anti-metastasis and immunomodulation effects in metastatic breast cancer mouse model, and could protect the bone from breast cancer-induced bone destruction. These findings provided scientific evidences for the clinical application of CV aqueous extract in breast cancer patients. PMID:24856767
This paper describes the degradation of the X-ray contrast agent iopromide (IOP) and the antibiotic ofloxacin (OFLOX) by the white-rot-fungus Trametes versicolor. Batch studies in synthetic medium revealed that between 60 and 80% of IOP and OFLOX were removed when spiked at approximately 12 mg L(-1) and 10 mg L(-1), respectively. A significant number of transformation products (TPs) were identified for both pharmaceuticals, confirming their degradation. IOP TPs were attributed to two principal reactions: (i) sequential deiodination of the aromatic ring and (ii) N-dealkylation of the amide at the hydroxylated side chain of the molecule. On the other hand, OFLOX transformation products were attributed mainly to the oxidation, hydroxylation and cleavage of the piperazine ring. Experiments in 10 L-bioreactor with fungal biomass fluidized by air pulses operated in batch achieved high percentage of degradation of IOP and OFLOX when load with sterile (87% IOP, 98.5% OFLOX) and unsterile (65.4% IOP, 99% OFLOX) hospital wastewater (HWW) at their real concentration (?g L(-1) level). Some of the most relevant IOP and OFLOX TPs identified in synthetic medium were also detected in bioreactor samples. Acute toxicity tests indicated a reduction of the toxicity in the final culture broth from both experiments in synthetic medium and in batch bioreactor. PMID:24867600
A dermal sinus is a congenital defect arising from a closure failure of the neural tube that results in different degrees of communication between the skin and the central nervous system. A dermal sinus can occur anywhere from the root of the nose to the conus medullaris, and the occipital location is the second most common. Dermal sinuses are often
A. García Galera; M. I. Martínez León; S. Pérez da Rosa; B. Ros López
Growth and metabolite production of the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. (Chroococcales) in function to irradiance. Changes in salinity, temperature and irradiance during wet and dry seasons have induced metabolic versatility in cyanobacteria from saline environments. Cyanobacteria from these environments have biotechnological potential for the production of metabolites with pharmaceutical and indus- trial interest. We studied the growth, dry mass and
Néstor Rosales-Loaiza; Miguel Guevara; César Lodeiros; Ever Morales
Giraldo-Cañas, D. 2001. Floristic and phytogeographical analysis of the Andean secondary wet forest, Central Cordillera (Antioquia, Colombia). Darwiniana 39(3-4): 187-199. A detailed floristic inventory as well as a preliminary phytogeographical analysis was conducted in an Andean secondary wet forest of NW of Colombia, in order to know the vascular species richness and the phytogeographical relationships. The floristic inventory revealed the
Stevia rebaudiana is a shrub widely in Paraguay and Brazil, belonging to the compositae family. The leaves of this plant contain large amounts of stevioside. Since the use of stevioside as sugar substitute continues to increase, the purpose of this study ...
The oxidative modification of proteins measured as carbonyl derivatives increased with advancing age in the liver of male garden lizard. The same parameter did not show a significant change in other organs (brain, heart and kidney). Based on the observations in both homeotherms (mammals) and poikilotherms (insect and reptile), the in vivo oxidative modification of cellular proteins appears to be
The present study is designed to evaluate the application of a simple method for rapid identification of Malassezia furfur among other Malassezia spp. based on production of a brownish-red pigment and its diffusion into the medium contain- ing L-tryptophan as a sigle source of nitrogen. 91 strains of Malassezia (20% M. furfur, 2% M. sympodialis, 5% M. obtosa and 73%
Even simple biological signals vary in several measurable dimensions. Understanding their evolution requires, therefore, a multivariate understanding of selection, including how different properties interact to determine the effectiveness of the signal. We combined experimental manipulation with multivariate selection analysis to assess female mate choice on the simple trilled calls of male gray treefrogs. We independently and randomly varied five behaviorally relevant acoustic properties in 154 synthetic calls. We compared response times of each of 154 females to one of these calls with its response to a standard call that had mean values of the five properties. We found directional and quadratic selection on two properties indicative of the amount of signaling, pulse number and call rate. Canonical rotation of the fitness surface showed that these properties, along with pulse rate, contributed heavily to a major axis of stabilizing selection, a result consistent with univariate studies showing diminishing effects of increasing pulse number well beyond the mean. Spectral properties contributed to a second major axis of stabilizing selection. The single major axis of disruptive selection suggested that a combination of two temporal and two spectral properties with values differing from the mean should be especially attractive.
1.The effect of light and of colour of the background on the secretory activity of the pars intermedia of the garden lizard has been investigated.2.Absence of light, as well as black illuminated background, produces increased acticity of the pars intermedia, proportional to the duration of the experiment.3.Pale illuminated background has no effect on the secretory activity of the pars intermedia.4.The
Many ligninolytic basidiomycete fungi have been shown to secrete a group of peroxidase isozymes whose sole function appears to be the peroxide-dependent oxidation of manganous [Mn(II)] to manganic [Mn(III)] ions. Manganic chelates and these Mn peroxidases have been implicated as central to the degradation of various natural and synthetic lignins and lignin-containing effluents by white rot (ligninolytic) fungi. Another group of enzymes, the laccases, are commonly secreted by wood-rotting fungi, but are generally regarded as being able to oxidize (and usually polymerize) only phenolic substrates. In this report it is shown that in the presence of appropriate oxidizable phenolic accessory substances or primary substrates, a variety of laccases and peroxidases catalyzing one-electron oxidations can also produce Mn(III) chelates from Mn(II).
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, particularly benzene homologs, are highly toxic organic pollutants. One of the three major groups of extracellular oxidative enzymes involved in the white rot fungal lignin degradative process are laccases. This study presents evidence indicating that laccase has a role in PAH oxidation by white rot fungi. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.
The constant detection of pharmaceuticals (PhACs) in the environment demonstrates the inefficiency of conventional wastewater treatment plants to completely remove them from wastewaters. So far, many studies have shown the feasibility of using white rot fungi to remove these contaminants. However, none of them have studied the degradation of several PhACs in real urban wastewater under non-sterile conditions, where mixtures of contaminants presents at low concentrations (ng L(-1) to ?g L(-1)) as well as other active microorganisms are present. In this work, a batch fluidized bed bioreactor was used to study, for the first time, the degradation of PhACs present in urban wastewaters at their pre-existent concentrations under non-sterile conditions. Glucose and ammonium tartrate were continuously supplied as carbon and nitrogen source, respectively, and pH was maintained at 4.5. Complete removal of 7 out of the 10 initially detected PhACs was achieved in non-sterile treatment, while only 2 were partially removed and 1 of the PhACs analyzed increased its concentration. In addition, Microtox test showed an important reduction of toxicity in the wastewater after the treatment. PMID:23866144
Palabras clave: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Burkholderia cepacia, AIA, sideróforos, ácido salicílico. ABSTRACT ABSTRACT ABSTRACT ABSTRACT ABSTRACT It has been demonstrated that rhizobacteria are able to produce metabolites having agricultural interest, including salicylic acid, the siderophores and phytohormones. Indol acetic acid (IAA) is the most well-known and studied auxin, playing a governing role in culture growth. The object of this work was
Annia Hernández; Narovis Rives; Alberto Caballero; Ana N. Hernández; Mayra Heydrich
Woody fungi and yeast preparations show promise in cancer treatment by activating anti-tumor immune responses. Macrophages (J774A.1) were treated with PSK, Reishi extract, scleroglucan or vehicle control. Pre-incubation with TLR4 blocking antibody inhibited TNF-alpha secretion by both J774A.1 cells and primary splenocytes but had inconclusive effect on scleroglucan-induced secretion of TNF-alpha. PSK induced TNF-alpha and IL-6 secretion by wild type
Lisa A. Price; Cynthia A. Wenner; Daniel T. Sloper; Joel W. Slaton; Jeffrey P. Novack
Woody fungi and yeast preparations show promise in cancer treatment by activating anti-tumor immune responses. Macrophages (J774A.1) were treated with PSK, Reishi extract, scleroglucan or vehicle control. Pre-incubation with TLR4 blocking antibody inhibited TNF-alpha secretion by both J774A.1 cells and primary splenocytes but had inconclusive effect on scleroglucan-induced secretion of TNF-alpha. PSK induced TNF-alpha and IL-6 secretion by wild type but not by TLR4-deficient peritoneal macrophages. We conclude that constituents from PSK act as ligands for TLR4 receptors leading to induction of TNF-alpha and IL-6 inflammatory cytokines. Receptor-mediated differences may be due to structural differences in beta glucans or non-glucan constituents. PMID:20550956
Price, Lisa A; Wenner, Cynthia A; Sloper, Daniel T; Slaton, Joel W; Novack, Jeffrey P
Laccase immobilization onto a hydrophilic PVDF microfiltration membrane and its application for removing a herbicide derivative, N?,N?-(dimethyl)-N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)urea (2-HF), from waste water were studied. 2-HF was transformed via an oxidation reaction catalyzed by laccase mostly into an insoluble product, which was simultaneously separated by filtration through the membrane. The microfiltration membrane used to graft laccase was treated with hydrazine to form
C. Jolivalt; S. Brenon; E. Caminade; C. Mougin; M. Pontié
The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...
Fluorene is one of the most common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in the environment and it is listed as a priority pollutant by EPA. In this present work, the biodegradation of fluorene (a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) by Trametes versicolor (T. versicolor), Trametes trogii (T. trogii), Ganoderma carnasum (G. carnasum) and Pleurotus ostreatus (P. ostreatus) was investigated. While T. versicolor, T.
Background: Pityriasis versicolor (tinea versicolor) is a common skin disorder due to Malassezia usually affecting adolescents and young adults, more frequently in the tropics. Facial involvement, isolated or not, is not frequent in white adults. Objective: Here, we report a possible atypical hyperkeratotic form of dermatosis of the face, in two young immunocompetent Caucasian patients, particularly recalcitrant to therapy. Results:
A screening using several fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes versicolor and Aureobasidium pullulans) was performed on the degradation of syringol derivatives of azo dyes possessing either carboxylic or sulphonic groups, under optimized conditions previously established by us. T. versicolor showed the best biodegradation performance and its potential was confirmed by the degradation of differently substituted fungal bioaccessible dyes. Enzymatic
M. Adosinda M. Martins; Nelson Lima; Armando J. D. Silvestre; M. João Queiroz
The abilities of the white-rot fungi Chrysosporium lignorum, Trametes versicolor, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Stereum hirsutum to mineralize 3,4-dichloroaniline, dieldrin and phenanthrene were investigated. S. hirsutum did not mineralize any of the test compounds but the other strains partly mineralized them all to varying degrees. The relative degradation rates per unit biomass were T. versicolor > C. lignorum > P. chrysosporium.
Philip Morgan; Stephen T. Lewis; Robert J. Watkinson
Post-infection changes in ascorbic acid, sugars, proteins and phenols were studied in guava fruits infected by major post-harvest pathogens which in order of importance were Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, (Penz.), Botryodiplodia theobromae, Pat., Rhizopus arrhizus Fischer., Phomopsis psidii Nag Raj and Ponnappa apud Ponnappa and Nag Raj, and Pestalotiopsis versicolor (Speg.) Steyaert. Contents of ascorbic acid, sugars and proteins declined in the fruits infected by Botryodiplodia theobromae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Pestalotiopsis versicolor, Phomopsis psidii and Rhizopus arrhizus. Total phenols increased in fruits infected by Pestalotiopsis versicolor and Rhizopus arrhizus while reverse was observed in fruits infected by other pathogens. PMID:2631087
Research on the biological approaches to the utilization of lignin is discussed. Results of a series of shake-flask experiments with Coriolus versicolor, in which the fermentation mixture was continuously assayed for the presence of hydrogen peroxide and ...
Pityriasis versicolor is the most common skin mycosis in humans worldwide. Yeasts of the genus Malassezia, particularly M. furfur, a saprophyte occurring widely on human skin, are generally regarded as the causative agents. Pityriasis versicolor is often accompanied by a long-lasting depigmentation that persists even after successful antimycotic therapy. M. furfur is able to convert tryptophan into a variety of indole alkaloids, some of them showing biological properties that correlate well with certain clinical features of pityriasis versicolor. This suggests a possible role for these compounds in the depigmentation process. We now report that human melanocytes undergo apoptosis when exposed to the crude mixture of tryptophan metabolites from M. furfur. The active compound was identified as malassezin, previously isolated by us from the same source and characterized as an agonist of the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. The compound could, therefore, contribute to the marked depigmentation observed during the course of pityriasis versicolor. PMID:15812864
Potassium permanganate and sodium hypochlorite oxidation of lignitic coal were performed. Ion chromatography of low molecular weight carboxylic acids - oxalic acid, formic acid, and acetic acid - produced by potassium permanganate and sodium hypochlorite oxidation was executed. Oxalic acid was found to be the most predominant low molecular weight species. It was estimated that about 10% of the carbon present in the chemical structure of lignite was converted to oxalic acid by sodium hypochlorite oxidation. Ion chromatography analysis showed that about 43% of the lignite carbon was converted to carbon dioxide in all experiments. Biological degradation of lignite by P. versicolor, a white-rot fungus, on lignite/agar and lignite slurry was attempted. Apparently, P. versicolor is capable of growing on lignite slurry. Acclimation of P. versicolor to lignite was proceeded. Biochemical reaction test for laccase production of P. versicolor was performed and found to be positive. 15 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.
Nine fungal strains related to: Trametes versicolor, Nigrospora oryzae, Inonotus radiatus, Crumenulopsis sororia, Coryneum betulinum, Cryptosporiopsis radicicola, Fusarium equiseti, Rhodotorula glutinis and Candida parapsilosis were tested for their ability to degrade humulones and lupulones. The best results were obtained for T. versicolor culture, in which humulones and lupulones were fully degraded after 4 days of incubation in the dark or after 36 h in the light. The experiments were performed on a commercial hop extract and on sterilized spent hops.
Huszcza, Ewa [Department of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Norwida 25, 50-375 Wroclaw (Poland)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Bartmanska, Agnieszka; Aniol, Miroslaw; Maczka, Wanda; Zolnierczyk, Anna; Wawrzenczyk, Czeslaw [Department of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Norwida 25, 50-375 Wroclaw (Poland)
High-quality flax pulp was bleached in a totally-chlorine-free (TCF) sequence using a laccase-mediator system. Three fungal laccases (from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus eryngii) and two mediators, 2,2?-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT), were compared. P. cinnabarinus and T. versicolor laccases in the presence of HBT gave the best results in terms of high brightness and low lignin content (kappa
Susana Camarero; Olga Garc??a; Teresa Vidal; José Colom; José C del R??o; Ana Gutiérrez; José M Gras; Rebeca Monje; Mar??a J Mart??nez; Ángel T Mart??nez
Epidermodysplasia verruciformis is a rare inherited skin disorder spread by HPV, with cases linked to chromosome X. It is characterized by hypo- or hyper-pigmented macular lesions, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions and an early tendency to develop skin malignancies. We present a case of epidermodysplasia verruciformis with a variety of lesions such as multiple plane warts, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions and aggressive squamous cell carcinoma on the face. PMID:22068772
Sá, Naiana Bittencourt de; Guerini, Marina Besen; Barbato, Mariana Tremel; Di Giunta, Gabriella; Nunes, Daniel Holthausen
Effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during interspecific mycelial interactions were examined by measuring extension rate of ‘target’ fungi growing in agar plates taped above two interacting mycelia –Bjerkandera adusta, Hypholoma fasciculare, Stereum gausapatum and Trametes versicolor in all combinations. Extension rates of T. versicolor, S. gausapatum and H. fasciculare above self-pairings were not significantly different (P>0.05) to growth
Jennifer A. Evans; Catherine A. Eyre; Hilary J. Rogers; Lynne Boddy; C. T. Müller
Resistance of wood reacted in situ with phosphorus pentoxide-amine to the brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum and white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor was examined. Wood reacted with either octyl, tribromo, or nitro derivatives were more resistant to both fungi. Threshold retention values of phosphoramide-reacted wood to white-rot fungus T. versicolor ranged from 2.9 to 13.3 mmol, while these for brown-rot fungus G.
Background Orobanchaceae is the only plant family with members representing the full range of parasitic lifestyles plus a free-living lineage sister to all parasitic lineages, Lindenbergia. A generalist member of this family, and an important parasitic plant model, Triphysaria versicolor regularly feeds upon a wide range of host plants. Here, we compare de novo assembled transcriptomes generated from laser micro-dissected tissues at the host-parasite interface to uncover details of the largely uncharacterized interaction between parasitic plants and their hosts. Results The interaction of Triphysaria with the distantly related hosts Zea mays and Medicago truncatula reveals dramatic host-specific gene expression patterns. Relative to above ground tissues, gene families are disproportionally represented at the interface including enrichment for transcription factors and genes of unknown function. Quantitative Real-Time PCR of a T. versicolor ?-expansin shows strong differential (120x) upregulation in response to the monocot host Z. mays; a result that is concordant with our read count estimates. Pathogenesis-related proteins, other cell wall modifying enzymes, and orthologs of genes with unknown function (annotated as such in sequenced plant genomes) are among the parasite genes highly expressed by T. versicolor at the parasite-host interface. Conclusions Laser capture microdissection makes it possible to sample the small region of cells at the epicenter of parasite host interactions. The results of our analysis suggest that T. versicolor’s generalist strategy involves a reliance on overlapping but distinct gene sets, depending upon the host plant it is parasitizing. The massive upregulation of a T. versicolor ?-expansin is suggestive of a mechanism for parasite success on grass hosts. In this preliminary study of the interface transcriptomes, we have shown that T. versicolor, and the Orobanchaceae in general, provide excellent opportunities for the characterization of plant genes with unknown functions.
Una serie de 11 páginas individuales que ofrece consejos sobre cómo controlar los efectos secundarios de la radioterapia. Cada página incluye el punto de vista de personas con cancer sobre la radioterapia.
Publicación para personas que van a recibir o que ya están recibiendo quimioterapia contra el cáncer. Contiene información sobre la quimioterapia y sus efectos secundarios y describe cómo puede cuidarse durante y después del tratamiento.
E-book para personas que van a recibir o que ya están recibiendo radioterapia contra el cáncer. Contiene información sobre la radioterapia y sus efectos secundarios y describe cómo puede cuidarse durante y después del tratamiento.
Hoja informativa que describe la terapia hormonal y su función en la prevención y tratamiento del cáncer de seno. Incluye información acerca de los efectos secundarios posibles y de los fármacos que pueden interferir con la terapia hormonal.
Hoja informativa que describe la terapia hormonal y su función en el tratamiento del cáncer de próstata. Incluye información acerca de los tipos diferentes de terapia hormonal, cómo se usan y los efectos secundarios posibles.
Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera sp. BOL13 were tested for their ability to degrade the endocrine-disrupting compound nonylphenol at an initial concentration of 100 mg l-1. The highest removals were achieved with T. versicolor and Bjerkandera sp. BOL13, which were able to degrade 97 mg l-1 and 99 mg l-1 of nonylphenol in 25 days of incubation, respectively. Nonylphenol removal was associated with the production of laccase by T. versicolor, but the levels of laccase, manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase produced by Bjerkandera sp. BOL13 were very low. At 14 degrees C, T. versicolor and Bjerkandera sp. BOL13 sustained the removal of 88 mg l-1 and 79 mg l-1 of nonylphenol, respectively. No pollutant removal was recorded at 4 degrees C, although both fungi could grow at this temperature in the absence of nonylphenol. A microtoxicity assay showed that the fungi produced compounds that were toxic to Vibrio fischerii; and thus a reduction in toxicity could not be correlated with nonylphenol metabolism. T. versicolor and Bjerkandera sp. BOL13 were capable of colonizing soil artificially contaminated with 430 mg kg-1 of nonylphenol. Only 1.3+/-0.1% of nonylphenol remained in the soil after 5 weeks of incubation. PMID:15735968
Soares, Ana; Jonasson, Karin; Terrazas, Enrique; Guieysse, Benoit; Mattiasson, Bo
Hypoglycemic effects of exo-biopolymers (EBP) produced by submerged mycelial cultures of Coriolus versicolor, Cordyceps sinensis, Paecilomyces japonica, Armillariella mellea, and Fomes fomentarius were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The rats from each experimental group were orally administered with EBPs (100 mg/kg BW) daily for 2 weeks. Though the hypoglycemic effect was achieved in all the cases, however, C. versicolor EBP proved as the most potent one. The administration of the C. versicolor EBP substantially reduced (29.9%) the plasma glucose level as compared to the saline administered group (control). It also reduced the plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels by 9.22, 23.83, 16.93, and 27.31%, respectively. The sugar and amino acid compositions of this EBP were also analyzed in detail. PMID:23997607
The feasibility of mangrove leaves as a full diet for sesarmid crabs has been questioned for decades. Since these leaves are nitrogen-poor, sesarmids probably obtain nitrogen from other sources to sustain growth. The aim of this study was to assess the food partitioning of the sesarmid species Neoepisesarma versicolor with emphasis on nitrogen allocation. The preference for animal tissue when crabs were pre-fed diets of different nitrogen content was determined in the laboratory. Furthermore, the possible in situ diet composition of N. versicolor was established from carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signature ( ?13C and ?15N) of freshly caught individuals and their potential food sources, using a concentration-dependent mixing model. N. versicolor showed significantly higher feeding preferences for fish meat when pre-fed leaf material without than with access to meat, indicating that this crab species can meet its nitrogen demand by ingesting animal tissue. The stable isotope mixing model based on in situ materials suggests that the diet of N. versicolor consists of ˜60% leaves in terms of biomass, leaving ˜40% for other sources such as animal tissue and benthic microorganisms. The biomass contribution from animal tissues, in form of e.g. other crustaceans and fish carcasses, was found to account for ˜15%. Despite the relative low biomass fraction, animal food sources may contribute with up to half of the nitrogen in the diet of N. versicolor. The quantity of ingested sediment most likely exceeds that of animal tissues. However, due to the low concentration of assimilable microalgae and other microorganism, we propose that sediment associated sources are less important as a nitrogen source for N. versicolor than hitherto presumed.
Systematic analysis of possible dermatophyte and candidal skin infections leads to an accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment with a specific regimen. The first steps are thorough skin examination and evaluation with a potassium hydroxide preparation. Tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea pedis, cutaneous candidiasis, and tinea versicolor can be treated with many topical antifungal agents, whereas tinea capitis requires oral griseofulvin therapy. Frequently used topical medications for tinea and candidal infections include clotrimazole (Lotrimin, Mycelex), econazole nitrate (Spectazole), ketoconazole (Nizoral), miconazole nitrate (Monistat-Derm, Micatin), oxiconazole nitrate (Oxistat), and ciclopirox olamine (Loprox). Topical selenium sulfide lotion can also be used for tinea versicolor, which is often a recalcitrant problem. PMID:7501581
A 27-year-old mixed-raced (pardo) female patient presented with flat ovate hypochromic plaques with a rough surface on the back and upper limbs, with an aspect resembling pityriasis versicolor. She reports family history involving a brother with similar lesions. Lab tests, including anti-HIV, showed no alterations and a histopathological examination showed enlarged keratinocytes with basophilic and microvacuolated cytoplasm occupying the upper portion of the spinous layer and the granulous layer. After anatomic-clinical correlation, the diagnosis of epidermodysplasia verruciformis pityriasis versicolor like was confirmed. PMID:21603836
Ribas, Jonas; Corrêa, Clarisse de Albuquerque; Cavalcante, Melissa de Souza Melo
The original plant of Herba Dianthi in Shandong are divided into 4 species and 2 varieties by investigation and classified identification. Of them Dianthus shandongensis J. X. Li et F. Q. Zhou is a new species and D. chinensis L. var. versicolor (Fich. ex Link) Y. C. Ma is a new recorder in Shandong. D. chinensis L. is the most important source of Herba Dianthi in Shandong and the D. chinensis L. var. versicolor and D. chinensis L. var. liaotungensis Y. C. Chu, occasionally is D. shandongensis, D. superbus L. and D. longicalyx Miq. Haven't grown into commercial medicinal materials. PMID:12572471
The aerosolization process of fungal propagules of three species (Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium melinii, and Cladosporium cladosporioides) was studied by using a newly designed and constructed aerosolization chamber. We discovered that fungal fragments are aerosolized simultaneously with spores from contaminated agar and ceiling tile surfaces. Concentration measurements with an optical particle counter showed that the fragments are released in higher numbers
Rafaø L. Gorny; Tiina Reponen; Klaus Willeke; Detlef Schmechel; Enric Robine; Marjorie Boissier; Sergey A. Grinshpun
In this study, olive oil mill and alcohol factory wastewaters have been tested as growth media for the production of plant growth hormones. Funalia trogii ATCC 200800 and Trametes versicolor ATCC 200801 have been tested. Gibberellic acid (GA3), abscisic acid (ABA), indole acetic acid (IAA), and cytokinin were determined in the culture media of these fungi. Both organisms produced enhanced
F. Yürekli; O. Yesilada; M. Yürekli; S. F. Topcuoglu
The effect of amino acids, complex nitrogen sources and vitamin addition on Trametes trogii, Trametes villosa and Coriolus versicolor var. antarcticus ligninolytic enzyme production, was evaluated. Dye decolorization by their culture filtrates was compared. Glutamic acid followed by peptone, were the best N sources for laccase and manganese peroxidase production. The three fungi produced two laccase isoenzymes (molecular weights from
Laura Levin; Eliana Melignani; Araceli Marcela Ramos
Trametes trogii (BAFC 463), Coriolus versicolor var. antarcticus (BAFC 266) and Trametes villosa (BAFC 2755) are Argentinean white-rot fungi that proved to be efficient ligninolytic enzyme producers in previous studies. The aim of the present work was investigating the ability of their crude extracellular extracts for the biobleaching of loblolly pine Kraft pulp. The production of laccase, manganese peroxidase, endoxylanase
Verónica Da Re; Leandro Papinutti; Laura Villalba; Flavia Forchiassin; Laura Levin
3 Abstract: Yeasts of the genus Malassezia are known as the microflora of human skin and that of many warm- blooded animals; but the different Malassezia species can induce superficial skin infections. Best known and most frequent is pityriasis versicolor (PV), a chronic and recurrent skin disease occurring primarily in hot and humid climates. The purpose of the present study
A. R. Khosravi; S. Eidi; F. Katiraee; T. Ziglari; M. Bayat; M. Nissiani
Melanin-like pigment produced in vitro and in vivo by Malassezia yeasts has not been described before. Masson-Fontana staining confirmed accumulation of black pigment on the cell walls of l-dihydroxyphenylalaline (l-DOPA)-cultured Malassezia species. Black pigment was also observed in cells and hyphae from hyperpigmented patient lesions with culture-confirmed pityriasis versicolor and seborrheic dermatitis.
6 Hymenomyceten (Merulius lacrymans, Polyporus sulfureus, Daedalea quercina, Pholiota mutabilis, Panus conchatus und Lepiota cepaestipes) und I Ascomycet (Xylaria polymorpha) wurden auf Biomalzlösung kultiviert; im Zeitpunkt des maximalen Hemmstoffgehaltes der Nährlösung (je nach Art nach 12 Tagen bis 5 Wochen) wurde deren Wirkung auf Wachstum und Atmung von 5 anderen Hymenomyceten (Coniophora cerebella, Polystictus versicolor, Fomes fomentarius, Trametes radiciperda und
The effects of exudates from uncolonized and from partly decayed beech wood on the extension rates of 16 later stage decay fungi were investigated. The partly decayed wood had been colonized by the pyrenomycete Eutypa spinosa, or the basidiomycetes Fomes fomentarius, Stereum hirsutum, and Trametes versicolor, all known as common early decay agents in European beech forests. Sterilized wood pieces
The lipophilic fungus Malassezia furfur (M. furfur) is a commensal microbe associated with several chronic diseases such as pityriasis versicolor, folliculitis, and seborrheic dermatitis. Because M. furfur-related diseases are difficult to treat and require prolonged use of medications, the treatment for M. furfur-related skin diseases is supposed to gain control over M. furfur growth and the inflammation associated with it,
Sunhyo Ryu; Soon-Yong Choi; Samudra Acharya; Young-Jin Chun; Catherine Gurley; Cheryl A Armstrong; Peter I Song; Beom-Joon Kim
The mycoflora of a range of mixed ruminant feed and forage samples collected in Eastern India and Bangladesh were determined. Most fungi isolated from the samples were those associated with low moisture contents. Several potentially mycotoxigenic fungi and thermotolerant species were present particularly in the rice straw. The most frequently isolated fungi were: Aspergillus versicolor (Vuill.) Tiraboschi, Penicillium citrinum Thorn,
Sarah I. Phillips; Peter W. Wareing; Ambika Dutta; Shantanu Panigrahi; Victor Medlock
Initially sixteen fungi were screened for potential ligninolytic activity using decolourisation of a polymeric dye Poly R-478. From this, four fungi were selected, Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Collybia sp., and an isolate (identified as Rhizoctonia solani) isolated from a grassland soil. Differences in the ligninolytic enzyme profiles of each of the fungi were observed. All of the four fungi tested
A screen of fungi for insecticidal activity revealed the ability of Aspergillus versicolor to make versimide, methyl-alpha-(methylsuccinimido)acrylate, a novel contact insecticide. The larvicidal activities of Alternaria tenuis and Fusarium lateritium were found to be due to tenuazonic acid and diacetoxyscirpenol, respectively. Thiolutin, cycloheximide, rubratoxin, patulin, trichothecin, an actinomycin, and scirpene-producing fungi also had insecticidal activity. PMID:4628800
The oxidation of polycyclic aromatic compounds was studied in systems consisting of laccase from Trametes versicolor and so-called mediator compounds. The enzymatic oxidation of acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, and fluorene was mediated by various laccase substrates (phenols and aromatic amines) or compounds produced and secreted by white rot fungi. The best natural mediators, such as phenol, aniline, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and 4-hydroxybenzyl
This experiment was conducted to evaluate inhibitory effects against lung metastasis and promotion of splenocytes by water extracts from various mushrooms including Armillaria mellea, Grifola frondosa, Garnoderma frondosa, Codyceps militaris, Hericium erinaceus, Coriolus versicolor, Agaricus Blazei with Lycium Chinense Miller (known as M8). Analysis of carbohydrate using HPTLC showed that ?-glucan and pachyman were some of the major components of
Sung-Soo Ronald Han; Chong-Kwan Cho; Yeon-Weol Lee; Hwa-Seung Yoo
When grown on lignocellulosic materials, cellobiose-oxidizing enzyme activities were detected in Coriolus versicolor, Flammalina velutipes, Ganoderma gibbasum, Hericium erinaceus, Neurospora crassa and Schizophyllum commune. No cellobiose-oxidizing enzyme activities were detected in 14 other cellulolytic fungi which are recognized as having no or very low lignin-degrading ability.
The activity of trypsin-like proteinases and trypsin inhibitors was measured in fruiting bodies of various species of basidial fungi (Basidiomycetes). Fruiting bodies of all fungi contained these enzymes, with the exceptions of polypore (Coriolus versicolor (Fr.) Karst) and hedgehog fungus (Hericium erinaceus (Fr.) Quel), belonging to the families Polyporaceae and Hericiaceae, respectively, in which the enzyme activities were barely detectable.
L. A. Gzogyan; M. T. Proskuryakov; E. V. Ievleva; T. A. Valueva
Thirteen airborne fungal species frequently isolated in composting plants were screened for microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOC), i.e., Aspergillus candidus, A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, Emericella nidulans, Paecilomyces variotii, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium clavigerum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium cyclopium, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium glabrum, Penicillium verruculosum, and Tritirachium oryzae. Air samples from pure cultures were sorbed on Tenax GR and analyzed by thermal desorption
Guido Fischer; Regina Schwalbe; Manfred Möller; Rene Ostrowski; Wolfgang Dott
Adult females of Xestobium rufovillosum de Geer demonstrated anemotactic orientation when exposed to an odor plume containing volatiles generated by wood-decaying fungi (Coriolus versicolor, Donkioporia expansa) and decayed oak wood (Quercus petraea, Quercus robur). They did not orient towards undecayed oak wood, beech (Fagus sylvatica), or pine wood (Pinus sylvestris). Although all insects tested showed anemotactic orientation, responses were nonlinear
Steven R. Belmain; Monique S. J. Simmonds; Wally M. Blaney
The antifungal activity of molecular identified Chilean saprobiontic fungi, Trichoderma viride, Schizophyllum commune and Trametes versicolor, on the fungal plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum, and the saprotrophic mould Mucor miehei was investigated using two types of inhibition bioassay: (1) bi-compartmented Petri dishes and (2) two Erlenmeyer flasks connected by their upper parts. The chemical composition of volatile organic
Heidi Schalchli; Emilio Hormazabal; Jose Becerra; Michael Birkett; Marysol Alvear; Jorge Vidal; Andrés Quiroz
Updated diagnostic generic characters for the neotropical anthidiine genera Anthidulum and Ctenanthidium are presented. Ctenanthidium versicolor sp. nov. from Argentina and Anthidulum rozeni sp. nov. from Peru are described, illustrated and distinguished from their congeners. A key to the species of Ctenanthidium is provided. The male of Ctenanthidium nigripes Urban, 1993 is described for the first time. PMID:24699593
The potential to produce mycotoxins and non-volatile secondary metabolites was investigated for approximately 250 freshly isolated fungal strains. Among the eleven most relevant species, viz. Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. parasiticus, A. versicolor, Emericella nidulans, Paecilomyces variotii, Penicillium brevicompactum, P. clavigerum, P. crustosum, and P. polonicum, a wide range of metabolites partly of toxicological relevance was identified. Several
Guido Fischer; Thomas Müller; Regina Schwalbe; René Ostrowski; Wolfgang Dott
Fungal metabolites were extracted from two isolates of Penicillium commune and two isolates of Aspergillus versicolor grown on yeast extract agar (YES) and Czapek yeast extract agar (CYA). Optimized conditions for analysing the extracts by high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) were obtained by experimental designs. The following nine factors were examined by a two-level fractional factorial design: concentration of the buffer
Marianne S. Nielsen; Per V. Nielsen; Jens C. Frisvad
Recent field work in the Early Cretaceous succession of the Ulyanovsk - Syzran - Saratov region, Volga River, Russia has shown that the belemnite species Aulacoteuthis absolutiformis occurs in the lower part of the Upper Hauterivian Speetoniceras versicolor ammonite Zone. These findings are in accordance with the original species assignment by Sinzow (1875, 1877). A. absolutiformis was lateron misidentified by
Of the five species of white rot fungi evaluated for their ability to decolorize Amaranth, Remazol Black B, Remazol Orange, Remazol Brilliant Blue, Reactive Blue, and Tropaeolin O in agar plates, Bjerkandera sp. BOS55, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Trametes versicolor displayed the greatest extent of decoloration. In static aqueous culture, the three cultures formed fungal mats which did not decolorize any
Four ligninolytic fungi, Trametes modesta, Trametes hirsuta, Trametes versicolor and Sclerotium rolfsii, were compared for their ability to produce laccases. The fungal laccases were screened for their ability to decolorize eight synthetic dyes (anthraquinone, azo, indigo and triarylmethane). The decolorization rate depended both on the source of the enzyme preparation and on the structure of the dye. Based on laccase
G. S Nyanhongo; J Gomes; G. M Gübitz; R Zvauya; J Read; W Steiner
The effect of gallic acid, vanillic acid, and molasses spent wash (MSW) concentration on growth and decolourizing capability of four fungi (Geotrichum candidum, Coriolus versicolor, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Mycelia sterilia) was studied. Fungal growth was inhibited to a varying extent in the presence of gallic and vanillic acid, except for G. candidum, which was unaffected by gallic acid. G. candidum
Francis FitzGibbon; Dalel Singh; Geoff McMullan; Roger Marchant
A Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic study of changes in chemistry of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) decayed by Coniophora puteana ((Schumacher) Karsten), Coriolus versicolor ((L.) Quelet) and Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Burdsall) is presented. Wood was exposed to fungi for different durations up to 12 weeks, with decay assessed through weight loss and FTIR. The
Six fast growing ligninolytic white-rot fungi were compared with Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The results showed that the fungi have similar ligninolytic systems, although minor differences exist. Like in P. chrysosporium the ligninolytic system could be induced by veratryl alcohol in Coriolus versicolor and Chrysosporium pruinosum. These three lignin peroxidase producing fungi were the fastest lignin degraders in stationary cultures, whereas in
Roland Waldner; Matti S. A. Leisola; Armin Fiechter
Summary The capability of seven basidiomycetes (Trametes versicolor, Poria placenta, Pleurotus florida, P. ostreatus, P. sajor-caju, P. eryngii, Stropharia sp.), one ascomycete (Chaetomium globosum) and five hyphomycetes and moulds (Humicola grisea, Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus terreus, Paecilomyces varioti, Papulaspora immersa) to solubilize medium and high volatile bituminous coals (types A and B) as well as four types of lignite B from
The yeasts of the genus Malassezia have been associated with a number of diseases affecting the human skin, such as pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia (Pityrosporum) folliculitis, seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and—less commonly—with other dermatologic disorders such as confluent and reticulated papillomatosis, onychomycosis, and transient acantholytic dermatosis. Although Malassezia yeasts are a part of the normal microflora, under certain
Aditya K. Gupta; Roma Batra; Robyn Bluhm; Teun Boekhout; Thomas L. Dawson
The purpose of this study was to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of fungal fragments and to estimate their respiratory deposition. Fragments and spores of three different fungal species ( Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium melinii, and Stachybotrys chartarum) were aerosolized by the fungal spore source strength tester (FSSST). An electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) measured the size distribution in real-time and collected the aerosolized fungal particles simultaneously onto 12 impactor stages in the size range of 0.3-10 ?m utilizing water-soluble ZEF-X10 coating of the impaction stages to prevent spore bounce. For S. chartarum, the average concentration of released fungal fragments was 380 particles cm -3, which was about 514 times higher than that of spores. A. versicolor was found to release comparable amount of spores and fragments. Microscopic analysis confirmed that S. chartarum and A. versicolor did not show any significant spore bounce, whereas the size distribution of P. melinii fragments was masked by spore bounce. Respiratory deposition was calculated using a computer-based model, LUDEP 2.07, for an adult male and a 3-month-old infant utilizing the database on the concentration and size distribution of S. chartarum and A. versicolor aerosols measured by the ELPI. Total deposition fractions for fragments and spores were 27-46% and 84-95%, respectively, showing slightly higher values in an infant than in an adult. For S. chartarum, fragments demonstrated 230-250 fold higher respiratory deposition than spores, while the number of deposited fragments and spores of A. versicolor were comparable. It was revealed that the deposition ratio (the number of deposited fragments divided by that of deposited spores) in the lower airways for an infant was 4-5 times higher than that for an adult. As fungal fragments have been shown to contain mycotoxins and antigens, further exposure assessment should include the measurement of fungal fragments for evaluating mold exposures in damp buildings.
Cho, Seung-Hyun; Seo, Sung-Chul; Schmechel, Detlef; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Reponen, Tiina
Background Plant parasitism represents an extraordinary interaction among flowering plants: parasitic plants use a specialized organ, the haustorium, to invade the host vascular system to deprive host plants of water and nutrients. Various compounds present in exudates of host plants trigger haustorium development. The two most effective haustorium inducing factors (HIFs) known for the parasitic plant Triphysaria versicolor (T. versicolor) are peonidin, an antioxidant flavonoid, and 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone (DMBQ), an oxidative stress agent. To date, two genes involved in haustorium initiation in T. versicolor have been identified: TvQR1, a quinone oxidoreductase that generates the active HIF from DMBQ, and TvPirin, a transcription co-factor that regulates several other DMBQ- responsive and –non-responsive genes. While the expression of these genes in response to DMBQ is well characterized, their expression in response to peonidin is not. In addition, the pattern of polymorphisms in these genes is unknown, even though nucleotide changes in TvQR1 and TvPirin may have contributed to the ability of T. versicolor to develop haustoria. To gain insights into these aspects, we investigated their transcriptional responses to HIFs and non-HIF and their natural nucleotide diversity. Results Here we show that TvQR1 and TvPirin are transcriptionally upregulated by both DMBQ and peonidin in T. versicolor roots. Yet, while TvQR1 also responded to juglone, a non-HIF quinone with toxicity comparable to that of DMBQ, TvPirin did not. We further demonstrate that TvPirin encodes a protein shorter than the one previously reported. In the T. versicolor natural population of Northern California, TvQR1 exhibited remarkably higher molecular diversity and more recombination events than TvPirin, with the highest non-synonymous substitution rate in the substrate recognition and catalytic domain of the TvQR1 protein. Conclusion Our results suggest that TvQR1 and TvPirin have most likely evolved highly distinct roles for haustorium formation. Unlike TvPirin, TvQR1 might have been under diversifying selection to maintain a diverse collection of polymorphisms, which might be related to the recognition of an assortment of HIF and non-HIF quinones as substrates for successful haustorial establishment in a wide range of host plants.
[spa] Especificidades de las grandes ciudades de provincias . El cruce entre la actividad econômica y la cualificaciôn individual (funciôn) permite describir el empleo ofrecido por las areas urbanas con toda la precision deseable : se toman en cuenta, entre otras, las interferencias entre sectores secundario y terciario (empleos terciarios de la industria). Doce de dichas funciones, llamadas funciones estratégicas,
Hoja informativa que explica las terapias adyuvantes (tratamiento que se administra además de la terapia primaria para aumentar la posibilidad de supervivencia a largo plazo) y las neoadyuvantes (terapia que se administra antes de la terapia principal). Contiene información sobre los efectos secundarios y sobre los riesgos y beneficios de estas terapias.
Three white rot fungi were compared for their ability to attack polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in the presence and absence of the non-ionic Triton X-100 or the anionic Dowfax 8390 surfactants at half their critical micelle concentrations. Neither surfactant affected PCB biodegradation monitored by gas chromatography but the release of 14CO2 from 2,4',5-[U-14C]trichlorobiphenyl by Trametes versicolor was stimulated 12% by Triton X-100. Since mineralization is the complete metabolism of the congener and biodegradation was measured as substrate disappearance, Triton X-100 is proposed to aid intracellular solubilization of 2,4',5-trichlorobiphenyl for complete oxidation by T. versicolor. PMID:10736020
Beaudette, L A; Ward, O P; Pickard, M A; Fedorak, P M
A protein with strong removal activity against the natural estrogen estriol was purified from a culture supernatant of Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis C.J. Mou. The protein was characterized as a laccase and had a molecular mass of 60kDa on SDS-PAGE. The enzyme was most active at pH 7.0 and 50°C. The partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme showed homology with laccases from mushrooms, such as Pleurotus ostreatus, Coriolus versicolor (current name: Trametes versicolor), Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, and P. eryngii. A recombinant yeast assay confirmed that laccase treatment was very efficient for removing the estrogenic activity of steroid estrogens. Our results suggest that the enzyme may be applicable as a potential factor for removing natural steroid hormones. PMID:23040398
Pityriasis versicolor is the most common skin mycosis in humans worldwide. Yeasts of the genus Malassezia, particularly M. furfur, a saprophyte occurring widely on human skin, are generally regarded as the causative agents. M. furfur is able to convert tryptophan into a variety of indole alkaloids, some of them showing biological properties that correlate well with certain clinical features of pityriasis versicolor. This suggests a possible role for these compounds in the pathophysiology of the disease. We here report that the novel pityriarubins A, B and C, isolated from cultures of the yeast, inhibit respiratory burst in human neutrophils, activated by various agents, in a highly selective, unexpected manner. The release of 5-lipoxygenase products after challenge of neutrophils with the calcium ionophore A23187 is also inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. These activities reflect the close structural relationship of pityriarubins to bisindolylmaleimides, which have recently gained great interest as protein kinase inhibitors. PMID:16252297
Since volatile mold metabolites are used for the detection of mold growth in buildings, it was interesting to determine whether different indoor mold species show different affinity for the major components of wood, a common building material. Growth and volatile metabolites were studied when Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium chrysogenum, and P. palitans were grown on laboratory substrates containing the major wood constituents cellulose, xylan and lignin. Microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) were characterized by thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Growth and volatile metabolites varied considerably and there appeared to be complementary substrate specificities for P. chrysogenum, and P. palitans grown on cellulose and xylan. The failure of A. versicolor to produce characteristic MVOCs when grown on media containing wood constituents suggests that systems using volatile metabolites to detect microbial growth in buildings may be fundamentally unreliable for the detection of this species. PMID:12943002
This study shows the effect of two fungicides on the production of extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) in two wood-rotting basidiomycetes and identifies a mechanism that might be responsible for the variation observed. Increasing concentrations of the fungicides copper sulphate (CuSO4) and cyproconazole in the growth medium increased the proportion of ECMM in the biomass of Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum. These fungicides also caused a reduction in the length of the peripheral growth unit (PGU) of the mycelia leading to a more highly branched morphology and a larger number of hyphal tips, the sites for active secretion of ECMM, per unit length of mycelium. It is postulated that both in T. versicolor and G. trabeum this change in growth leads to the increases observed in the proportion of ECMM in the total biomass. The implications of these results are discussed with a view to a potential protective role of ECMM against stress and toxic environments. PMID:17008083
Vesentini, Damiano; Dickinson, David J; Murphy, Richard J
This study was undertaken for the possibility of application of pre-grown pellets for biotechnological treatment of dyes and\\u000a textile industry waste waters. Mycelial pellets of five different white rot fungi were tested for their dye decolorization\\u000a activity. The pellets of Funalia trogii, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor were determined as the most effective ones. The decolorization ability of viable pellets
Surface treatment of wood was carried out using acryl-silicon type resin including didecyl dimethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DBF), boron-containing quaternary ammonia compound. Surface-treated wood specimens were exposed laboratory decay resistance tests after completing a 10-cyle severe weathering process. In laboratory decay resistance tests, one brown-rot decay fungus, Fomitopsis palustris and one white-rot decay fungus, Trametes versicolor were used. The specimens were
White Rot Fungi (WRF) are able to decolorize dyes through the use of relatively non-specific extracellular oxidative enzymes.\\u000a Nevertheless, decolorization does not imply that the resulting metabolites are less toxic than the parent molecules. The aim\\u000a of the present study was to evaluate the detoxification potential of six strains (Pycnoporus sanguineus, Perenniporia tephropora, Perenniporia ochroleuca, Trametes versicolor, Coriolopsis polyzona and
Sophie Vanhulle; Marie Trovaslet; Estelle Enaud; Mathias Lucas; Marc Sonveaux; Cony Decock; Rob Onderwater; Yves-Jacques Schneider; Anne-Marie Corbisier
A series of in vitro experiments were completed to evaluate the potential of enzyme extracts, obtained from the white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor (TV1, TV2), Bjerkandera adusta (BA) and Fomes fomentarius (FF), to increase degradation of cell wall components of wheat straw. The studies were conducted as a completely randomized design and analysed using one-way ANOVA. Enzyme activities of the extracts,
M. A. M. Rodrigues; P. Pinto; R. M. F. Bezerra; A. A. Dias; C. V. M. Guedes; V. M. G. Cardoso; J. W. Cone; L. M. M. Ferreira; J. Colaço; C. A. Sequeira
A rapid and convenient method for graduation, isolation, and purification of laccase from Trametes versicolor and Fomes fomentarius culture fluids was developed. For purification affinity chromatography on syringyl- and vanillyl-controlled porosity glass (CPG) columns was applied. The purified laccase of F. fomentarius was immobilized on porous glass. Some properties of the immobilized enzyme in comparison to the free one are discussed. PMID:18600674
Rogalski, J; Wojtas-Wasilewska, M; Apalovic, R; Leonowicz, A
In this paper, the growth rate of five wood-rotting fungi, i.e., Coriolus versicolor, Irpex lacteus, Fomes fomentarius, Piptoporus betulinus and Pholiota adiposa, in solid medium and their biomass in liquid culture medium were compared by measuring mycelium length and dry mass. The\\u000a activity of three main ligninolytic enzymes in those fungi, namely LiP, MnP and Lac, were also tested by
Summary The simultaneous quantitation of acids and sugars as their trimethyl silyl (TMS) derivatives has been extended in order to\\u000a identify and quantitate the simple acid and sugar constituents in the hydrolyzates of various immunostimulant, water-soluble\\u000a polysaccharides obtained from various Basidiomycetes, such as Armillariella mellea, Auricularia auricula-judae, Coriolus versicolor,\\u000a Flammulina velutipes, Fomes fomentarius, Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Pleurotus ostreatus, Schizophyllum commune,
I. Boldizsár; K. Horváth; Gy. Szedlay; I. Molnár-Perl
phenyl, and 2,2*,4,4*,5,5*-hexachlorobiphenyl. The congener tested for mineralization was 2,4*,5-(U-14C)TCB. Culture supernatants were also assayed for lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase activities. Of the fungi tested, two strains of Bjerkandera adusta (UAMH 8258 and UAMH 7308), one strain of Pleurotus ostreatus (UAMH 7964), and Trametes versicolor UAMH 8272 gave the highest biodegradation and mineralization. P. chry- sosporium ATCC 24725, a
LEE A. BEAUDETTE; STEPHEN DAVIES; PHILLIP M. FEDORAK; OWEN P. WARD; MICHAEL A. PICKARD
Thyroid glands from 167 pheasants (Korea.n-Phasianus colchicus karpowi, Persian- Phasianus colchicus persicus, green-Phasianus versicolor, and R.eeves-Syrmaticus reevesii) were examined to determine if there were a seasonal or sexual variation in (1) the weight of the thyroid gland and (2) thyroid activity as determined by histological techniques. A Thyroid Activity Index, which histologically rates thyroid activity from 1 to 5 (inactive
A functionalized copper-containing ordered mesoporous carbon (Cu-OMC) which shows good electrical properties was synthesized by carbonization of sucrose in the presence of cupric acetate inside SBA-15 mesoporous silica template. Based on this, a facilely fabricated amperometric biosensor by entrapping laccase into the Cu-OMC\\/chitosan (CS) film was developed. Laccase from Trametes versicolor was assembled on a composite film of Cu-OMC\\/chitosan (CS)
Co-founding queens ('co-foundresses') of the obligate desert fungus garden ant Acromyrmex versicolor exhibit a forager specialist who subsumes all foraging risk prior to first worker eclosion (Rissing et al., 1989); laboratory observations suggest a 'coordination' mechanism (sensu Aumann, 1974; Rosenthal, 1974; cf. Pollock, 1994b, 1996) that assigns task-specific risk without contention among (unrelated) co-foundresses (Rissing et al., 1989, 1996). In
Gregory B. Pollock; Antonio Cabrales; Steven W. Rissing
The present study examined the effects of plant growth hormones, incubation period, biotic (Trametes versicolor, Mucor sp., Penicillium notatum, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Fusarium oxysporum) and abiotic (NaCl, MgSO4, FeSO4, ZnSO4, and FeCl3) elicitors on cell growth and ?-tocopherol and pigment (red and yellow) productions in Carthamus tinctorius cell cultures. The cell growth and ?-tocopherol and pigment contents improved significantly on
Smita P. Chavan; Vinayak H. Lokhande; Kirti M. Nitnaware; Tukaram D. Nikam
The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation potential of the five basidiomycetes' fungal monocultures and their cocultures was compared with that of a Pseudomonas isolate recovered from oil-spilled soil. As utilization of hydrocarbons by the microorganisms is associated with biosurfactant production, the level of biosurfactant production and its composition by the selected microorganisms was also investigated. The Pseudomonas isolate showed higher ability to degrade three of the five PAHs but the isolate did not produce biosurfactant higher than C. versicolor and P. ostreatus. Among the PAHs, the most effective biodegradation of PAH--pyrene (42%)--was obtained with the fungus C. versicolor. Cocultures involving the fungi and Pseudomonas could not significantly degrade the selected PAHs compounds above that degraded by the most efficient monoculture. A slight increase in pyrene degradation was observed in cocultures of C. versicolor and F. palustris (93.7% pyrene). The crude biosurfactant was biochemically characterized as a multicomponent surfactant consisting of protein and polysaccharides. The PAH biodegradation potential of the basidiomycetes fungi positively correlated with their potential to express ligninolytic enzymes such as lignin peroxidase (Lip), manganese peroxidase (Mnp), and laccase. The present study utilized in silico method such as protein-ligand docking using the FRED in Open Eye software as a tool to assess the level of ligninolytic enzymes and PAHs interactions. The in silico analysis using FRED revealed that of the five PAHs, maximum interaction occurred between pyrene and all the three ligninolytic enzymes. The results of the in silico analysis corroborated with our experimental results showing that pyrene was degraded to the maximum extent by species such as C. versicolor and P. ostreatus. PMID:18975143
Arun, A; Raja, P Praveen; Arthi, R; Ananthi, M; Kumar, K Sathish; Eyini, M
Background, aim, and scope Olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW) environmental impacts minimization have been attempted by developing more effective processes,\\u000a but no chemical or biological treatments were found to be totally effective to mitigate their impact on receiving systems.\\u000a This work is the first that reports simultaneously the efficiency of three different approaches: biological treatment by two\\u000a fungal species (Trametes versicolor
Celine Justino; Ana Gabriela Marques; Kátia Reis Duarte; Armando Costa Duarte; Ruth Pereira; Teresa Rocha-Santos; Ana Cristina Freitas
In order to improve the digestibility and nutrient availability in rumen, wheat straw was subjected to solid state fermentation\\u000a (SSF) with white-rot fungi (i.e. Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor) and the fermented biomass (called myco-straw) was evaluated for biochemical, enzymatic and nutritional parameters. The fungal\\u000a treatment after 30 days led to significant decrease (P < 0.05) in cell wall constituents viz, acid detergent
Zusammenfassung Die natrliche Dauerhaftigkeit von je 5 Schwellenabschnitten der malaysischen Handelshlzer Kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) und Keruing (Dipterocarpus spp.) gegenber Braun-, Wei- und Moderfulepilzen (Daedalea quercina, Polystictus versicolor, Chaetomium globosum, Paecilomyces spec.) wurde im 4monatigen Kolleschalenversuch geprft. Hierbei ergaben sich gesicherte Unterschiede in Abhngigkeit von\\u000a der Pilzart und der Vorbehandlung des Holzes. Im allgemeinen besa die Holzarten eine geringe bis mittlere Dauerhaftigkeit.
Four white-rot fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium IMI 232175, Pleurotus ostreatus from the University of Alberta Microfungus Collection IMI 341687, Coriolus versicolor IMI 210866 and Wye isolate #7) and all possible combinations of two or more of these fungi, were incubated in microcosms containing wheat straw and non-sterile coal-tar contaminated soil to determine their potential to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Biotic
R Canet; J. G Birnstingl; D. G Malcolm; J. M Lopez-Real; A. J Beck
It is widely known that white-rot fungi are suitable for treating a broad range of textile dye effluents because of their non-specific extracellular enzyme system. Three strains of white-rot fungi isolated in Singapore were screened for their ability to decolourise three azo dyes relative to the extensively studied species, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The local isolate Trametes versicolor CNPR 8107 exhibited the
Yi-Chin Toh; Jocelyn Jia Lin Yen; Jeffrey Philip Obbard; Yen-Peng Ting
Malassezia species colonize the skin of normal and various pathological conditions including pityriasis versicolor (PV), seborrhoeic dermatitis (SD) and atopic dermatitis (AD). To elucidate the pathogenic role of Malassezia species in SD, Malassezia microflora of 31 Japanese SD patients was analyzed using a PCR-based, culture-independent method. Nested PCR assay using the primers in the rRNA gene indicated that the major
Five fungal species, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium commune, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Paecilomyces variotii,andPhialophorafastigiata,werecultivatedontwomedia,maltextractagaranddichloranglycerolagar. Cultureflasks provided with inlet and outlet tubes were used and purified, and humidified air was constantly led through the flasks. Air samples from the cultures were sorbed on Tenax GR and analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography. The produced volatile metabolites were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Various hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones,
ANNA-LENA SUNESSON; WOUTER H. J. VAES; CARL-AXEL NILSSON; GORAN BLOMQUIST; BARBRO ANDERSSON; ANDROLF CARLSON
A total of 28 basidiomycetes and 16 substrates were investigated to detect extracellular peptidases for the hydrolysis of\\u000a wheat gluten as a complex Koji substrate. In a first screening, basidiomycetes were grown in submerged cultures containing\\u000a gluten as only carbon and nitrogen source. Growth rate, protein concentration and peptidase activity were monitored. Flammulina velutipes, Armillaria mellea, Trametes versicolor, Meripilus giganteus,
A. Grimrath; P. Berends; S. Rabe; R. G. Berger; D. Linke
Bacillus subtilis (isolate B246), Bacillus cereus (isolate B247 and B249) and Bacillus licheniformis (isolate B248) were inhibitory to avocado post-harvest pathogens Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Phomopsis perseae, Drechslera setariae, Pestalotiopsis versicolor and Fusarium solani; when tested with the dual culture technique. In vitro growth of Thyronectria pseudotrichia was not suppressed by any of the antagonists, while B. cereus isolate B247 did not
The short-term toxicity of PAI-N002, a mixture of Schizandra chinensis, Astragalus membranaceus, Artemisia capillaris, and Coriolus versicolor extracts (1 : 1 : 1 : 1), was evaluated in rats. This study also investigated the protective effect of PAI-N002 on liver injury induced\\u000a by the co-administration of ethanol and carbon tetrachloride (EC) in rats. PAI-N002 was virtually non-toxic to rats after
Selected strains of three species of white rot fungi, Pleurotus ostreatus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor,\\u000a were grown in sterilized soil from straw inocula. The respective colonization rates and mycelium density values decreased\\u000a in the above mentioned order. Three- and four-ringed PAHs at 50 ppm inhibited growth of fungi in soil to some extent. The\\u000a activities of fungal MnP and
?en?k Novotný; Pavla Erbanová; Václav Šašek; Alena Kubátová; Tomáš Cajthaml; Elke Lang; Jürgen Krahl; František Zadražil
We have observed 2 immunosuppressed renal allograft recipients with skin lesions induced by human papillomavirus type 5 (HPV-5). One recipient had multiple pityriasis versicolor-like (PV-like) skin lesions on his arms and trunk, and multiple Bowenoid in-situ skin cancers. The other had 2 warty lesions on the back of her fingers. Structural antigens of human papillomavirus type 5 (HPV-5) were identified
Marvin Lutzner; Odile Croissant; Marie-Françoise Ducasse; Henri Kreis; Jean Crosnier; Gérard Orth
Several chemical and physical anti-browning agents are studied in different model systems in which caffeic acid (as substrate)\\u000a and laccase from Trametes versicolor (LAC) and polyphenoloxidase from sunflower seeds (PPO) (as enzymes) are used to emulate the browning reaction. Temperature\\u000a and low electric current were the tested physical agents, while acetic acid, sodium acetate, sodium chloride and, finally,\\u000a sodium bisulfite
Antonella De Leonardis; Giuseppe Lustrato; Vincenzo Macciola; Giancarlo Ranalli
In this paper we studied the ability of four Tunisian-isolated fungi (i.e. Coriolopsis gallica, Bjerkandera adusta, Trametes versicolor and Trametes trogii) immobilized into Ca-alginate beads to decolorize the metal textile dye Lanaset Grey G (LG). The effect of different operational conditions, such as initial dye concentration, temperature, pH, beads/medium ratio and agitation, on dye decolorization by the immobilized fungi was investigated. Maximal decolorization percentages of 88.7%, 89.3%, 82.1% and 81.3% for C. gallica, B. adusta, T. versicolor and T. trogii were attained, respectively, when operating at an initial LG concentration of 150 mg/L, pH values of 5.0-6.0, temperatures of 40-45 °C and a beads/medium ratio of 20% (w/v) in static conditions after 72 h of incubation. Subsequently, the re-usability of the immobilized fungi was evaluated. After three decolorization cycles, the decolorization percentage of free cell cultures dropped to values below 36%, while decolorization percentages of about 75%, 70%, 60% and 68% were obtained by the immobilized cultures of C. gallica, B. adusta, T. versicolor and T. trogii, respectively. PMID:23978620
Solid state and submerged fermentations in the presence of white-rot basidiomycetes (Bjerkandera adusta, Fomes fomentarius, Ganoderma resinaceum, Irpex lacteus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor and basidiomycete Euc-1) and the litter-decomposing basidiomycete Lepista nuda were evaluated as a pretreatment to increase enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw. Enzymatic hydrolysis of holocellulose after solid state pretreatment showed a significant (P<0.05) increase of saccharification process for T. versicolor, Euc-1, G. resinaceum and I. lacteus, being T. versicolor (strain Tv2) the best one with a sugar yield increase of 91% compared with untreated straw. In submerged medium the pretreatment with I. lacteus, Euc-1 and P. chrysosporium enhanced saccharification but at a lesser extent. Covariance analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between ligninolytic enzymes (lignin peroxidase, manganese-dependent peroxidase and laccase) and saccharification increase. Results showed that only the presence of lignin peroxidase during pretreatment can lead to a significant (P<0.05) increase in the saccharification yield. PMID:22406100
Pinto, Paula A; Dias, Albino A; Fraga, Irene; Marques, Guilhermina; Rodrigues, Miguel A M; Colaço, Jorge; Sampaio, Ana; Bezerra, Rui M F
Approximately 60 fungal isolates from Zijin Mountain (Nanjing, China) were screened to determine their algicidal ability. The results show that 8 fungi belonging to Ascomycota and 5 belonging to Basidiomycota have algicidal ability. Of these fungi, Irpex lacteus T2b, Trametes hirsuta T24, Trametes versicolor F21a, and Bjerkandera adusta T1 showed strong algicidal ability. The order of fungal chlorophyll-a removal efficiency was as follows: T. versicolor F21a > I. lacteus T2b > B. adusta T1 > T. hirsuta T24. In particular, T. versicolor F21a completely removed algal cells within 30 h, showing the strongest algicidal ability. The results also show that all 4 fungal species degraded algal cells through direct attack. In addition, most of the tested fungi from the order Polyporales of Basidiomycota exhibited strong algicidal activity, suggesting that most fungi that belong to this order have algicidal ability. The findings of this work could direct the search for terrestrial fungi for bloom control. PMID:21887638
Biobleaching of hardwood unbleached kraft pulp (UKP) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor was studied in the solid-state fermentation system with different culture media. In this fermentation system with low-nitrogen and high-carbon culture medium, pulp brightness increased by 15 and 30 points after 5 days of treatment with T. versicolor and P. chrysosporium, respectively, and the pulp kappa number decreased with increasing brightness. A comparison of manganese peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP), and laccase activities assayed by using fungus-treated pulp and the filtrate after homogenizing the fungus-treated pulp in buffer solution indicated that enzymes secreted from fungi were adsorbed onto the UKP and that assays of these enzyme activities should be carried out with the treated pulp. Time course studies of brightness increase and MnP activity during treatment with P. chrysosporium suggested that it was difficult to correlate them on the basis of data obtained on a certain day of incubation, because the MnP activity fluctuated dramatically during the treatment time. When brightness increase and cumulative MnP, LiP, and laccase activities were determined, a linear relationship between brightness increase and cumulative MnP activity was found in the solid-state fermentation system with both P. chrysosporium and T. versicolor. This result suggests that MnP is involved in brightening of UKP by white rot fungi. PMID:7574600
Summary The two main spectral components of the advertisement calls of two species of North American gray treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis and H. versicolor) overlap broadly in frequency, and each matches the sensitivity of one of the two different auditory inner ear organs. The calls of the two species differ in the shape and repetition-rate (pulse rate) of sound pulses within trills. A standard synthetic call with one of these spectral peaks and the pulse rate typical of conspecific calls was tested against synthetic alternatives that had the same spectral peak but a different pulse rate. The results were generalized over a wide range of playback levels. Selectivity based on differences in pulse rate depended on which spectral peak was used in some tests, and greater pulse-rate selectivity was usually observed when the low-frequency rather than the high-frequency peak was used. This effect was more pronounced and occurred over a wider range of playback levels in H. versicolor than in H. chrysoscelis when the pulse rate of the alternative was higher than that of the standard call. In tests using the high-frequency peak at high playback levels, however, females of H. versicolor showed greater selectivity for the standard call than did H. chrysoscelis when the pulse rate of the alternative was modestly lower than that of the standard call. This last result may reflect the different ways in which females of the two species assess trains of pulses.
Five lignans (secoisolariciresinol, pinoresinol, eudesmin, lariciresinol, and lariciresinol-4-methyl ether) were isolated from an MeOH extract from Araucaria araucana (Mol.) K. Koch wood for the first time in this species and their structures determined with spectroscopic methods. The antimicrobial activities of these compounds were determined for the bacteria Citrobacter sp., Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and for the white rooting and staining fungi Mucor miehei, Paecilomyces variotii, Ceratocystis pilifera, Trametes versicolor, and Penicillium notatum, and in addition, the MeOH extract was evaluated against Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Fusarium moniliforme, F. sporotrichum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The most sensitive bacteria against pinoresinol were the Gram-positive. However, secoisolariciresinol exhibited a significant antifungal activity on fungi of white rooting and wood staining and this compound completely inhibited the mycelial growth of T. versicolor and C. pilifera at 300 and 400 microg per disc, respectively, whereas pinoresinol showed a moderate inhibitory activity. On the other hand, the MeOH extract had the highest activity against rooting and staining and pathogenic fungi as well as T. versicolor, Fusarium spp. and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, inhibiting completely the growth at 400 microg per disc. PMID:16610214
Céspedes, Carlos L; Avila, J Guillermo; García, Ana M; Becerra, José; Flores, Cristian; Aqueveque, Pedro; Bittner, Magalis; Hoeneisen, Maritza; Martinez, Miguel; Silva, Mario
Los oficiales encargados de la politica comercial de cada pais requieren informacion clara y precisa sobre el recurso del carbon mineral, particularmente sobre sus propiedades y caracteristicas, para tomar decisiones bien fundamentadas con respecto al mejor uso de los recursos naturales, necesidades de importacion y oportunidades de exportacion, objetivos de politica interna y externa, oportunidades de transferencia tecnologica, posibilidades de inversion externa, estudios ambientales y de salud, y asuntos relacionados con el uso de productos secundarios y su disposicion.
Hable con su doctor y enfermera sobre lo que puede esperar durante la quimioterapia. Es posible que le sugieran que lea ciertas secciones de este libro. También podrían sugerirle que siga algunos consejos que se dan en este libro para controlar los efectos secundarios. No lea este libro de principio a fin. Lea sólo aquellas secciones que necesita ahora. Consulte el índice para ver una lista de los temas que se tratan en este libro.
1. The establishment of polyploid populations involves the persistence and growth of the polyploid in the presence of the progenitor species. Although there have been a number of animal polyploid species documented, relatively few inquiries have been made into the large-scale mechanisms of polyploid establishment in animal groups. Herein we investigate the influence of regional climatic conditions on the distributional patterns of a diploid-tetraploid species pair of gray treefrogs, Hyla chrysoscelis and H. versicolor (Anura: Hylidae) in the mid-Atlantic region of eastern North America. 2. Calling surveys at breeding sites were used to document the distribution of each species. Twelve climatic models and one elevation model were generated to predict climatic and elevation values for gray treefrog breeding sites. A canonical analysis of discriminants was used to describe relationships between climatic variables, elevation and the distribution of H. chrysoscelis and H. versicolor. 3. There was a strong correlation between several climatic variables, elevation and the distribution of the gray treefrog complex. Specifically, the tetraploid species almost exclusively occupied areas of higher elevation, where climatic conditions were relatively severe (colder, drier, greater annual variation). In contrast, the diploid species was restricted to lower elevations, where climatic conditions were warmer, wetter and exhibited less annual variation. 4. Clusters of syntopic sites were associated with areas of high variation in annual temperature and precipitation during the breeding season. 5. Our data suggest that large-scale climatic conditions have played a role in the establishment of the polyploid H. versicolor in at least some portions of its range. The occurrence of the polyploid and absence of the progenitor in colder, drier and more varied environments suggests the polyploid may posses a tolerance of severe environmental conditions that is not possessed by the diploid progenitor. 6. Our findings support the hypothesis that increased tolerance to severe environmental conditions is a plausible mechanism of polyploid establishment.
Amylases and cellulases are important enzymes that can be utilized for various biological activities. Ten different wild Nigerian mushrooms (Agaricus blazei, Agaricus sp., Corilopsis occidentalis, Coriolus versicolor, Termitomyces clypeatus, Termitomyces globulus, Pleurotus tuber-regium, Podoscypha bolleana, Pogonomyces hydnoides, and Nothopanus hygrophanus) were assayed for production of these secondary metabolites. The results revealed that most of the tested wild fungi demonstrated very good amylase and cellulase activities. With the incorporation of carboxymethyl-cellulose (a carbon source) into the culture medium, Agaricus blazei had the highest amylolytic activity of 0.60 unit/mL (at 25?, pH 6.8). This was followed in order by P. tuber-regium and Agaricus sp. with 0.42 and 0.39 unit/mL, respectively (p ? 0.05). Maltose and sucrose supplementation into the submerged liquid medium made N. hygrophanus and P. hydnoides to exhibit very low amylase activities of 0.09 and 0.11 unit/mL, respectively. Introducing peptone (an organic nitrogen source) into the basal medium enhanced the ability of C. versicolor to produce a cellulase value of 0.74 unit/mL. Other organic nitrogen sources that supported good cellulase activities were yeast extract and urea. Sodium nitrate (inorganic nitrogen source) generally inhibited cellulase production in all mushrooms. The best carbon source was carboxymethyl-cellulose, which promoted very high cellulase activity of 0.67 unit/mL in C. versicolor, which was followed in order by P. tuber-regium, T. chypeatus, and C. occidentalis (p ? 0.05). Sucrose was the poorest carbon compound, supporting the lowest values of 0.01, 0.01, and 0.14 unit/mL in P. hydnoides, A. blazei, and Agaricus sp., respectively. PMID:22783085
Jonathan, Segun Gbolagade; Adeoyo, Olusegun Richard
Amylases and cellulases are important enzymes that can be utilized for various biological activities. Ten different wild Nigerian mushrooms (Agaricus blazei, Agaricus sp., Corilopsis occidentalis, Coriolus versicolor, Termitomyces clypeatus, Termitomyces globulus, Pleurotus tuber-regium, Podoscypha bolleana, Pogonomyces hydnoides, and Nothopanus hygrophanus) were assayed for production of these secondary metabolites. The results revealed that most of the tested wild fungi demonstrated very good amylase and cellulase activities. With the incorporation of carboxymethyl-cellulose (a carbon source) into the culture medium, Agaricus blazei had the highest amylolytic activity of 0.60 unit/mL (at 25?, pH 6.8). This was followed in order by P. tuber-regium and Agaricus sp. with 0.42 and 0.39 unit/mL, respectively (p ? 0.05). Maltose and sucrose supplementation into the submerged liquid medium made N. hygrophanus and P. hydnoides to exhibit very low amylase activities of 0.09 and 0.11 unit/mL, respectively. Introducing peptone (an organic nitrogen source) into the basal medium enhanced the ability of C. versicolor to produce a cellulase value of 0.74 unit/mL. Other organic nitrogen sources that supported good cellulase activities were yeast extract and urea. Sodium nitrate (inorganic nitrogen source) generally inhibited cellulase production in all mushrooms. The best carbon source was carboxymethyl-cellulose, which promoted very high cellulase activity of 0.67 unit/mL in C. versicolor, which was followed in order by P. tuber-regium, T. chypeatus, and C. occidentalis (p ? 0.05). Sucrose was the poorest carbon compound, supporting the lowest values of 0.01, 0.01, and 0.14 unit/mL in P. hydnoides, A. blazei, and Agaricus sp., respectively.
Photodecomposition might be regarded as one of the most important abiotic factors affecting the fate of UV absorbing compounds in the environment and photocatalysis has been suggested as an effective method to degrade organic pollutants. However, UV filters transformation appears to be a complex process, barely addressed to date. The white rot fungus Trametes versicolor is considered as a promising alternative to conventional aerobic bacterial degradation, as it is able to metabolise a wide range of xenobiotics. This study focused on both degradation processes of two widely used UV filters, benzophenone-3 (BP3) and benzophenone-1 (BP1). Fungal treatment resulted in the degradation of more than 99% for both sunscreens in less than 24 h, whereas photodegradation was very inefficient, especially for BP3, which remained unaltered upon 24 h of simulated sunlight irradiation. Analysis of metabolic compounds generated showed BP1 as a minor by-product of BP3 degradation by T. versicolor while the main intermediate metabolites were glycoconjugate derivatives. BP1 and BP3 showed a weak, but significant estrogenic activity (EC50 values of 0.058 mg/L and 12.5 mg/L, respectively) when tested by recombinant yeast assay (RYA), being BP1 200-folds more estrogenic than BP3. Estrogenic activity was eliminated during T. versicolor degradation of both compounds, showing that none of the resulting metabolites possessed significant estrogenic activity at the concentrations produced. These results demonstrate the suitability of this method to degrade both sunscreen agents and to eliminate estrogenic activity. PMID:22542301
Mold-damaged building materials may contain biologically active agents, such as (1?3)-?-d-glucan, allergens, and mycotoxins, which have been associated with adverse health effects. The release of these components from contaminated surfaces into the air is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize the release of particulate (1?3)-?-d-glucan from the surface of artificially mold-contaminated materials. Aspergillus versicolor and Stachybotrys chartarum were grown on malt extract agar (MEA), white ceiling tiles, and a wall-papered gypsum board for 1 and 6 months. The (1?3)-?-d-glucan on the surfaces of moldy materials and in air samples collected from these materials was analyzed by the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. The aerosolization ratio was defined as the amount of (1?3)-?-d-glucan in the air divided by the amount on the surface. The results showed that the aerosolization of particulate (1?3)-?-d-glucan was influenced mainly by the type of material and the fungal species. For A. versicolor, the aerosolization ratios of particulate (1?3)-?-d-glucan released from the three types of material were not significantly different. However, the ratios for S. chartarum released from ceiling tiles and gypsum board were significantly higher than the ratios for this organism released from MEA (P < 0.001) and were comparable to those for A. versicolor. These findings indicate that the use of MEA in aerosolization experiments is likely to underestimate the release of S. chartarum particles from building materials. These results provide important background information for design of future laboratory or animal experiments, as well as for interpretation of field measurement data.
Seo, Sung-Chul; Reponen, Tiina; Levin, Linda; Borchelt, Tiffany; Grinshpun, Sergey A.
The basidiomycetes Ganoderma lucidum, Hericium erinaceus, Lentinus edodes and Trametes versicolor were used for preparation of aqueous extracts. A polysaccharide preparation (VPG) was isolated from the G. lucidum aqueous extracts. The mycelium was grown under submerged conditions according to an original procedure. Preliminary exposure of mice with tumors to cyclosphosphamide in a low dose for prolonged elimination of T-suppressors and rapid recovery of T-killers induced an increase in the efficacy of the H. erinaceus and L. edodes extracts. Investigation of the aqueous extracts and VPG on different tumor strain lines for the potential Modifiers of Biological Response (Ca755, s/c P388, s-180) demonstrated antitumor activity and satisfactory tolerabily after oral administration. Inhibition of the tumor growth by the H. erinaceus and T. versicolor extracts and VPG amounted to 88-99% and that of s-180 treated with the L. edodes aqueous extract amounted to 66-75%. Compositions 1, 2, 4 amd 5 were significantly more active by the duration and value of the effect on the animal tumor nodes as compared to the aqueous extracts and VPG included to the compositions and composition 4. Composition 5 (T. versicolor + H. erinaceus + G. Lucidum) proved to be the most efficient by all the criteria. The results of the design of the technologies for cultivation of the mycelum of the medicinal basidiomycetes, investigation of the antumor properties of the extracts and polysaccharide fraction of the mycelium and development of efficient compositions on their basis are summarized. Composition 5 proved to be the most promising for the clinical trials. PMID:18461802
Bukhman, V M; Treshchalina, E M; Krasnopol'skaia, L M; Isakova, E B; Sedakova, L A; Avtonomova, A V; Leont'eva, M I; Soboleva, N Iu; Belitski?, I V; Bakanov, A V
Based on a differential pre-screening of 44 white-rot fungi on a lignocellulose-supplemented minimal medium, four basidiomycetes were selected for further study: Ganoderma lucidum, Polyporus brumalis, Polyporus ciliatus and Trametes versicolor. Only G. lucidum was able to grow vividly on malt extract or minimal media supplemented with alkali lignin. When grown on malt extract or minimal medium supplemented with lignocellulose (sugar cane bagasse), the crude G. lucidum protein extract exhibited high laccase activity, ?3U/mL toward syringaldazine. This activity was 13-17 fold higher than the corresponding activities of the crude protein extracts of P. brumalis, P. ciliatus and T. versicolor. Native PAGE electrophoresis of the crude G. lucidum extract confirmed the presence of an active laccase. The G. lucidum laccase had a molecular weight of ?62.5kDa, and a Km value of 0.107mM (determined on ABTS). A partial amino acid sequence analysis of four short de novo sequenced peptides, defined after trypsin digest analysis using MALDI-TOF MS/MS analysis, revealed 64-100% homology to sequences in related laccases in the UniProt database, but also indicated that certain sequence stretches had low homology. Addition of the laccase-rich G. lucidum broth to lignocellulosic biomass (pretreated sugar cane bagasse) together with a state-of-the-art cellulase enzyme preparation (Cellic™CTec1) produced significantly increased cellulolytic yields, which were also better than those obtained with a T. versicolor laccase addition, indicating that the laccase from G. lucidum has unique properties that may be momentous in lignocellulosic biomass conversion. PMID:24315640
Sitarz, Anna K; Mikkelsen, Jørn D; Højrup, Peter; Meyer, Anne S
Although Malassezia yeasts are a part of the normal microflora, under certain conditions they can cause superficial skin infection Pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia folliculitis. Lipophilic yeasts are being considered as major opportunistic pathogens for a very long time. Most of the yeasts show an absolute requirement for long fatty acid chains and specific procedures are required for their isolation, conservation and identification. To date, the genus is composed of one non lipid-dependent species M. pachydermatis and lipid-dependent species M. furfur, M. sympodialis, M. globosa, M. obtusa, M. restricta, M. slooffiae, M. dermatis, M. yamatoensis, M. japonica, M. nana, M. caprae, M. equina, M. cuniculi. PMID:22467125
Recent studies suggest that besides the long-known farmer's lung antigen sources Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (Micropolyspora faeni), Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, and Aspergillus fumigatus, additionally the mold Absidia (Lichtheimia) corymbifera as well as the bacteria Erwinia herbicola (Pantoea agglomerans) and Streptomyces albus may cause farmer's lung in Germany. In this study the sera of 64 farmers with a suspicion of farmer's lung were examined for the following further antigens: Wallemia sebi, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Eurotium amstelodami. Our results indicate that these molds are not frequent causes of farmer's lung in Germany. PMID:22477566
Sennekamp, J; Joest, M; Sander, I; Engelhart, S; Raulf-Heimsoth, M
The activity of intracellular glucose-2-oxidase was tested in 40 species of 26 basidiomycete genera. The enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of D-glucose to the dicarbonyl sugar D-arabino-2-hexosulose was demonstrated in mycelial extracts of 9 species of Aphyllophorales and 6 species of Agaricales cultivated in liquid media. In the majority of species exhibiting this activity hexosulose was detected in the cultivation medium. The highest enzyme activity was detected in Oudemansiella mucida, Coriolopsis occidentalis, Fomes fomentarius, Trametes versicolor and a not-yet-classified species of the genus Trametes. PMID:3996982
Protein-bound polysaccharide K (PSK) is extracted and purified from Coriolus versicolor (CM101), and is used as an anti-cancer agent. In this study, focusing on the direct actions of PSK, we investigated whether PSK reaches tumor and immune tissues with its active structure remaining intact, and the direct action of PSK was evaluated by its antitumor effects against MethA fibrosarcomas implanted in immunodeficient NOD/SCID mice. The results obtained suggest that PSK reaches the tumor tissue in its active form and exhibits antitumor effects against MethA cells. PMID:21249323
From among 419 wood-rotting fungi 10 were selected by the Poly R decolorization test, and their ability to bleach hardwood\\u000a kraft pulp was assayed. Of the 10 selected, 6 fungi (i.e.,Phanerochaete crassa WD1694 and F150;Pleurotus pulmonarius PSC-H, PSC-M, and PSC-T;and Pleurotus species A119) showed much higher bleaching ability thanPhanerochaete chrysosponum BKMF1767 orTrametes versicolor WD1670, both of which are well-known high
In an effort to further elucidate the biogenesis of the stephacidin and notoamide families of natural products, notoamide T has been identified as the likely precursor to stephacidin A. The total synthesis of notoamide T is described along with it's C-6-epimer, 6-epi-notoamide T. The chemical conversion of stephacidin A to notoamide T by reductive ring-opening is described as well as the oxidative conversion of notoamide T to stephacidin A. Furthermore, [13C]2-notoamide T was synthesized and provided to Aspergillus versicolor and Aspergillus sp. MF297-2, in which significant incorporation was observed in the advanced metabolite, notoamide B.
Sunderhaus, James D.; McAfoos, Timothy J.; Finefield, Jennifer M.; Kato, Hikaru; Li, Shengying; Tsukamoto, Sachiko; Sherman, David H.; Williams, Robert M.
Vapor phase corrosion inhibitors were used to investigate the antimicrobial activities and anticorrosion of aluminum alloy. Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. versicolor, Chaetomium globosum and Penicillium funiculosum had moderate to abundant growth on the aluminum alloy AA 1100 at Aw 0.901, while there was less growth at Aw 0.842. High humidity stimulated microbial growth and induced microbial corrosion. Dicyclohexylammonium carbonate had a high inhibitory effect on the growth of test fungi and the microbial corrosion of aluminum alloy, dicyclohexylammonium caprate and dicyclohexylammonium stearate were the next. Aluminum alloy coating with vapor phase corrosion inhibitor could prevent microbial growth and retard microbial corrosion. PMID:10592784
Malassezia species of lipophilic yeasts account for most fungal microbiota. Although they colonize healthy skin, they are also associated with several skin diseases, including pityriasis versicolor, seborrheic dermatitis, Malassezia folliculitis, and atopic dermatitis. To date, 14 members of the Malassezia genus have been identified. Of these, both M. globosa and M. restricta predominate, regardless of skin-disease type. Comprehensive analysis of fungal microbiota in the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis using an rRNA clone library method revealed that fungal microbiota cluster according to disease severity. The external ear canal and sole of the foot are colonized by specific Malassezia microbiota. PMID:23470953
Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare, inherited dermatologic condition demonstrating an increased susceptibility to specific HPV genotypes, resulting in both benign and malignant skin lesions. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis lesions are frequently described as pityriasis versicolor-like scaly macules, flat wart-like papules, or verrucous and seborrhic keratosis-like papules and plaques. Acquired EV has been described in patients with HIV and in those who are on immunosuppressive therapy. We discuss a patient with congenital EV who presents with skin lesions associated with HPV 10, a less frequently cited causative subtype, and histological findings that are not classic for EV. PMID:24021362
Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare, life-long heritable disease caused due to a unique susceptibility to human papilloma virus. The disseminated verrucous lesions and pityriasis versicolor-like lesions persist from early childhood and can transform into a cutaneous malignancy in a fourth of patients. Malignant transformation into syringoid eccrine carcinoma (SEC) has been reported only once so far. SEC is an extremely invasive, rare, locally destructive, slowly growing adnexal tumor. We hereby report the association of EV with SEC in a 29-year-old male. PMID:23254737
Epidermodysplasia verruciformis is a rare genodermatosis characterized by inherited susceptibility to infection with certain papillomaviruses, which leads to the development of disseminated plane wart-like lesions. In some patients, lesions resembling pityriasis versicolor appear. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis has also been reported in immunosuppressed patients, most notably those with HIV infection. The affected patients are predisposed to development of skin and mucosal malignancies. We describe the rare occurrence of plasmablastic lymphoma in a patient with long lasting epidermodysplasia verruciformis and hepatitis B virus infection. PMID:23317490
Shayanfar, Nasrin; Babaheidarian, Pegah; Rahmani, Hoda; Azadmanesh, Keyhan; Sohrabi, Amir; Mohammadpour, Masoud; Mirzaie, Ali Zare; Parvaneh, Nima
Glucose 2-oxidase (EC 184.108.40.206) from Coriolus versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium and glucose 1-oxidase (EC 220.127.116.11) from Aspergillus niger bound to a CU(II)-IDA column in the pH range of 6–8. However, glucose 1-oxidase from Penicillium amagasakiense bound only partially to a CU(II)-IDA column at pH 8.0. Metal chelates containing either Ni(II) or Zn(II) were useful in the\\u000a adsorption of glucose 2-oxidase
Superficial fungal infections can involve the hair, skin, and nails. Most affected children are healthy, although immunosuppression is a risk factor for more severe presentation. Causative organisms typically are members of the Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton genera (dermatophytes), can be acquired from other infected humans, animals, or soil, and illicit a host inflammatory response. Nondermatophyte infections include pityriasis versicolor. In this article, the most common clinical presentations, diagnostic recommendations, and treatment algorithms for dermatophyte and nondermatophyte mycoses in children and adolescents are described. PMID:24636655
Four nucleoside derivatives (1-4) were isolated from the fungus Aspergillus versicolor derived from the gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea collected in the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic method of NMR and MS analysis. All isolated metabolites were evaluated for their cytotoxicity, antibacterial activity and lethality towards brine shrimp Artemia salina. Compounds 1/2 exhibited selective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis with an MIC value of 12.5 ?M. It should be noted that 1 and 2, whose structures were listed in SciFinder Scholar, had no associated reference. This is the first report about their isolation, structure elucidation and biological activities. PMID:24670197
The inhibitory effects of 29 commercial powdered spices on the growth and toxin production of three species of toxigenic Aspergillus were observed by introducing these materials into culture media for mycotoxin production. Of the 29 samples tested, cloves, star anise seeds, and allspice completely inhibited the fungal growth, whereas most of the others inhibited only the toxin production. Eugenol extracted from cloves and thymol from thyme caused complete inhibition of the growth of both Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus versicolor at 0.4 mg/ml or less. At a concentration of 2 mg/ml, anethol extracted from star anise seeds inhibited the growth of all the strains.
Hitokoto, H; Morozumi, S; Wauke, T; Sakai, S; Kurata, H
Históricamente, los herbicidas se han descubierto por selección al azar de la actividad sobre malezas de interés, con colecciones de químicos. Aunque totalmente empírico, este enfoque ha sido sorprendentemente exitoso y ha producido esencialmente todos los herbicidas comerciales que hoy se usan. Más recientemente, las compañías de agroquímicos han adoptado estrategias direccionadas, usando ensayos in vitro, relaciones estructura del compuesto/actividad, y ensayos de perfilamiento de mARNs, proteínas y metabolitos. Estos últimos enfoques, en combinación con filtros estrictos, están diseñados para explotar avances recientes en la tecnología y para tomar ventaja de nuestro mejor entendimiento de los sistemas biológicos.
We present an unusual patient who simultaneously had severe renal artery stenosis RAS and Cushing's syndrome. The case highlights the difficulty of reaching a specific diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome and the possible interaction between Cushing's syndrome and some other concurrent illnesses that this patient had. A 37-year old man presented with severe hypertension HTN and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus DM without clear physical signs of Cushing's syndrome. He was found to have severe osteoporosis, proximal myopathy, several cutaneous warts, tinea versicolor, and chronic viral hepatitis. Captopril-stimulated renal scan and renal artery angiogram revealed severe RAS. Partial balloon dilatation of RAS led to improvement in HTN. Unexpectedly, urine free cortisol 24 hour was found extremely high. Serum adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH was also elevated and high dose dexamethasone suppression tests were inconclusive. Several imaging studies failed to localize the source of ACTH. Despite normal MRI of the pituitary gland, bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling IPSS localized the source of ACTH secretion to the right side of the pituitary gland and right anterior hemihypophysectomy resulted in cure of Cushing's disease, HTN, DM, and tinea versicolor with significant improvement in cutaneous warts, osteoporosis, and chronic hepatitis. In conclusion, RAS and Cushing's syndrome may occur together. Significant hypercortisolemia can occur without clear signs of Cushing's syndrome. Controlling hypercortisolemia is of paramount importance when treating chronic infections in patients with Cushing's syndrome. PMID:15900383
Alzahrani, Ali S; Al-Hajjaj, Alya; Al-Watban, Jehad; Kanaan, Imaduddin
Some saprobe fungi (Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, Coriolopsis rigida, Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, Fomes sclerodermus or Pleurotus pulmonarius) were able to bioconvert the ethyl acetate fraction (DEAF) and the corresponding aqueous exhausted fraction (EAF) of dry olive mill residue (DOR), reducing their phytotoxicity on Lepidium sativum seeds. Large amount of hydroxytyrosol together with other eight monomeric phenols were found in the native DEAF fraction, which represents a good source of antioxidants. P. radiata, T. versicolor and F. sclerodermus caused an effective phytotoxicity reduction of EAF in the concentration range of 25-3 gl(-1). In particular, in the range between 12.5 and 3 gl(-1), the EAF samples inoculated with P. radiata and F. sclerodermus surprisingly stimulated the germinability of L. sativum, suggesting their use as a potential biofertilizer. This is the first report which showed the bioconversion of the above fractions in shorter time with respect to the previous findings concerning DOR. The possible implications of laccase in the decrease of DEAF and EAF phytotoxicity was also discussed. PMID:16814842
Aranda, E; García-Romera, I; Ocampo, J A; Carbone, V; Malorni, A; Sannino, F; De Martino, A; Capasso, R
Decolorization of six synthetic dyes using three sources of fungal laccase with the origin of Aspergillus oryzae, Trametes versicolor, and Paraconiothyrium variabile was investigated. Among them, the enzyme from P. variabile was the most efficient which decolorized bromophenol blue (100%), commassie brilliant blue (91%), panseu-S (56%), Rimazol brilliant blue R (RBBR; 47%), Congo red (18.5%), and methylene blue (21.3%) after 3 h incubation in presence of hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT; 5 mM) as the laccase mediator. It was also observed that decolorization efficiency of all dyes was enhanced by increasing of HBT concentration from 0.1 mM to 5 mM. Laccase from A. oryzae was able to remove 53% of methylene blue and 26% of RBBR after 30 min incubation in absence of HBT, but the enzyme could not efficiently decolorize other dyes even in presence of 5 mM of HBT. In the case of laccase from T. versicolor, only RBBR was decolorized (93%) in absence of HBT after 3 h incubation. PMID:23369690
Forootanfar, Hamid; Moezzi, Atefeh; Aghaie-Khozani, Marzieh; Mahmoudjanlou, Yasaman; Ameri, Alieh; Niknejad, Farhad; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali
Laccase-catalyzed oxygen delignification of kraft pulp offers some potential as a replacement for conventional chemical bleaching and has the advantage of requiring much lower pressure and temperature. However, chemical mediators are required for effective delignification by laccase, and their price is currently too high at the dosages required. To date, most studies have employed laccase from Trametes versicolor. We have found significant differences in reactivity between laccases from different fungi when they are tested for pulp delignification in the presence of the mediators 2,2(prm1)-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT). A more detailed study of T. versicolor laccase with ABTS and HBT showed that HBT gave the most extensive delignification over 2 h but deactivated the enzyme, and therefore a higher enzyme dosage was required. Other mediators, including 1-nitroso-2-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-nitroso-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, promazine, chlorpromazine, and Remazol brilliant blue, were also tested for their ability to delignify kraft pulp. Studies with dimeric model compounds indicated that the mechanisms of oxidation by ABTS and HBT are different. In addition, oxygen uptake by laccase is much slower with HBT than with ABTS. It is proposed that the dication of ABTS and the 1-oxide radical of HBT, with redox potentials in the 0.8- to 0.9-V range, are required for pulp delignification.
Bourbonnais, R.; Paice, M. G.; Freiermuth, B.; Bodie, E.; Borneman, S.
In the present study, we determined the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of three Neritas, Nerita versicolor, Nerita tessellata, and Nerita fulgurans. We present an analysis of the features of their gene content and genome organization and compare these within the genus Nerita, and among the main gastropod groups. The new sequences were used in a phylogenetic analysis including all available gastropod mitochondrial genomes. Genomic lengths were quite conserved, being 15,866bp for N. versicolor, 15,741bp for N. tessellata and 15,343bp for N. fulgurans. Intergenic regions were generally short; genes are transcribed from both strands and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T. The high similarity in nucleotide content of the different sequences, gene composition, as well as an identical genomic organization among the Nerita species compared in this study, indicates a high degree of conservation within this diverse genus. Values ??of Ka/Ks of the 13 protein coding genes (PCGs) of Nerita species ranged from 0 to 0.18, and suggested different selection pressures in gene sequences. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses using concatenated DNA sequences of the 13 PCGs and the two rRNAs, and of amino acid sequences strongly supported Neritimorpha and Vetigastropoda as sister groups. PMID:24798873
A bottleneck in recent gene synthesis technologies is the high cost of oligonucleotide synthesis and post-synthesis sequencing. In this article, a simple and rapid method for low-cost gene synthesis technology was developed based on DNAWorks program and an improved single-step overlap extension PCR (OE-PCR). This method enables any DNA sequence to be synthesized with few errors, then any mutated sites could be corrected by site-specific mutagenesis technology or PCR amplification-assembly method, which can amplify different DNA fragments of target gene followed by assembly into an entire gene through their overlapped region. Eventually, full-length DNA sequence without error was obtained via this novel method. Our method is simple, rapid and low-cost, and also easily amenable to automation based on a DNAWorks design program and defined set of OE-PCR reaction conditions suitable for different genes. Using this method, several genes including Manganese peroxidase gene (Mnp) of Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium), Laccase gene (Lac) of Trametes versicolor (T. versicolor) and Cip1 peroxidase gene (cip 1) of Coprinus cinereus (C. cinereus) with sizes ranging from 1.0 kb to 1.5 kb have been synthesized successfully. PMID:17952664
The heterologous expression of the laccase gene from Trametes versicolor and Gaeumannomyces graminis was evaluated in the yeasts Pichia pastoris and Cryptococcus sp. S-2. The expression levels of both laccase genes in Cryptococcus sp. S-2 were considerably higher than those in P. pastoris. The codon usage of Cryptococcus sp. S-2 as well as the GC content were similar to those of T. versicolor and G. graminis. These results suggest that using a host with a similar codon usage for the expressed gene may improve protein expression. The use of Cryptococcus sp. S-2 as a host may be advantageous for the heterologous expression of genes with high GC content. Moreover, this yeast provides the same advantages as P. pastoris for the production of recombinant proteins, such as growth on minimal medium, capacity for high-density growth during fermentation, and capability for post-translational modifications. Therefore, we propose that Cryptococcus sp. S-2 be used as an expression host to improve enzyme production levels when other hosts have not yielded good results. PMID:23200414
Decolorization of six synthetic dyes using three sources of fungal laccase with the origin of Aspergillus oryzae, Trametes versicolor, and Paraconiothyrium variabile was investigated. Among them, the enzyme from P. variabile was the most efficient which decolorized bromophenol blue (100%), commassie brilliant blue (91%), panseu-S (56%), Rimazol brilliant blue R (RBBR; 47%), Congo red (18.5%), and methylene blue (21.3%) after 3 h incubation in presence of hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT; 5 mM) as the laccase mediator. It was also observed that decolorization efficiency of all dyes was enhanced by increasing of HBT concentration from 0.1 mM to 5 mM. Laccase from A. oryzae was able to remove 53% of methylene blue and 26% of RBBR after 30 min incubation in absence of HBT, but the enzyme could not efficiently decolorize other dyes even in presence of 5 mM of HBT. In the case of laccase from T. versicolor, only RBBR was decolorized (93%) in absence of HBT after 3 h incubation.
Stag beetle larvae generally feed on decaying wood; however, it was unknown whether they can use wood-rotting fungi alone as food. Here, to clarify this, newly hatched larvae of Dorcus rectus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) were reared for 14 days on artificial diets containing a fixed amount of freeze-dried mycelia of the following fungi: Bjerkandera adusta, Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Fomitopsis pinicola. The mean incremental gain in larval body mass was greatest on diets containing B. adusta, followed by T. versicolor, P. ostreatus, and F. pinicola. The growth rate of body mass correlated positively with mycelial nitrogen content of the different fungi. It also correlated positively with the mycelial content of B. adusta in the diet. Addition of antibiotics to diets with mycelia nearly halved larval growth, indicating that larvae were able to use fungal mycelia as food without the assistance of associated microbes although the microbes positively affected larval growth. Four newly hatched larvae reared on artificial diets containing B. adusta mycelia developed to the second instar in 21-34 days; and one developed to the third (=final) instar. This study provides evidence that fungi may constitute the bulk of the diet of D. rectus larvae. PMID:19607834
The waters of the Dead Sea currently contain about 348 g/l salts (2 M Mg(2+), 0.5 M Ca(2+), 1.5 M Na(+), 0.2 M K(+), 6.5 M Cl(-), 0.1 M Br(-)). The pH is about 6.0. After rainy winters the surface waters become diluted, triggering development of microbial blooms. The 1980 and 1992 blooms were dominated by the unicellular green alga Dunaliella and red Archaea. At least 70 species (in 26 genera) of Oomycota (Chromista), Mucoromycotina, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota (Fungi) were isolated from near-shore localities and offshore stations, including from deep waters. Aspergillus and Eurotium were most often recovered. Aspergillus terreus, A. sydowii, A. versicolor, Eurotium herbariorum, Penicillium westlingii, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. sphaerospermum, C. ramnotellum, and C. halotolerans probably form the stable core of the community. The species Gymnascella marismortui may be endemic. Mycelia of Dead Sea isolates of A. versicolor and Chaetomium globosum remained viable for up to 8 weeks in Dead Sea water; mycelia of other species survived for many weeks in 50% Dead Sea water. Many isolates showed a very high tolerance to magnesium salts. There is no direct proof that fungi contribute to the heterotrophic activity in the Dead Sea, but fungi may be present at least locally and temporarily, and their enzymatic activities such as amylase, protease, and cellulase may play a role in the lake's ecosystem. PMID:22222829
The use of Trametes versicolor has been partially successful in the removal of some pharmaceuticals from sewage sludge in laboratory-scale biopile systems. The application of two strategies for the re-inoculation of biomass was assessed during the fungal bioaugmentation of non-sterile sludge (42-d treatment) as an approach to improve the elimination of pharmaceuticals and other groups of emerging pollutants. Globally, the re-inoculation of biopiles with blended mycelium exerted a major effect on the removal of pharmaceuticals (86%), brominated-flame-retardants (81%) and UV filters (80%) with respect to the re-inoculation with additional lignocellulosic substrate colonized by the fungus (69-67-22%). The performance was better than that of the analogous non-re-inoculated systems that were assayed previously for the removal of pharmaceuticals. The results demonstrate the ability of T. versicolor to remove a wide spectrum of emerging micropollutants under non-sterile conditions, while re-inoculation appears to be a useful step to improve the fungal treatment of sludge. PMID:24582425
This report describes novel fungal inocula for bioaugmentation of soils contaminated with hazardous organic compounds. The inocula are in the form of pelleted solid substrates coated with a sodium alginate suspension of fungal spores or mycelial fragments and incubated until overgrown with the mycelium of selected lignin-degrading fungi. The organisms evaluated were Phanerochaete chrysosporium (BKM F-1767, ATCC 42725), P. sordida (HHB-8922-Sp), Irpex lacteus (Mad-517, ATCC 11245), Bjerkandera adusta (FP-135160-Sp, ATCC 62023), and Trametes versicolor (MD-277). The pelleted fungal inocula resisted competition and proliferation from indigenous soil microbes, were lower in moisture content than current fungal inocula, and had sufficient mechanical strength to allow handling and introduction into the soil without a change in the mechanical consistency of the pellets. Inoculated at a rate of 3% in artificially contaminated nonsterile soil, I. lacteus, B. adusta, and T. versicolor removed 86, 82, and 90%, respectively, of the pentachlorophenol in 4 weeks. A mathematical model was developed to explain moisture distribution in a hydrogel-coated pelleted substrate.
Although clinical breakpoints have not been established for mold testing, epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) are available for Aspergillus spp. versus the triazoles and caspofungin. Wild-type (WT) MIC distributions (organisms in a species-drug combination with no acquired resistance mechanisms) were defined in order to establish ECVs for six Aspergillus spp. and amphotericin B. Two sets (CLSI/EUCAST broth microdilution) of available MICs were evaluated: those for A. fumigatus (3,988/833), A. flavus (793/194), A. nidulans (184/69), A. niger (673/140), A. terreus (545/266), and A. versicolor (135/22). Three sets of data were analyzed: (i) CLSI data gathered in eight independent laboratories in Canada, Europe, and the United States; (ii) EUCAST data from a single laboratory; and (iii) the combined CLSI and EUCAST data. ECVs, expressed in ?g/ml, that captured 95%, 97.5%, and 99% of the modeled wild-type population (CLSI and combined data) were as follows: for A. fumigatus, 2, 2, and 4; for A. flavus, 2, 4, and 4; for A. nidulans, 4, 4, and 4; for A. niger, 2, 2, and 2; for A. terreus, 4, 4, and 8; and for A. versicolor, 2, 2, and 2. Similar to the case for the triazoles and caspofungin, amphotericin B ECVs may aid in the detection of strains with acquired mechanisms of resistance to this agent.
Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Fothergill, A.; Fuller, J.; Ghannoum, M.; Johnson, E.; Pelaez, T.; Pfaller, M. A.; Turnidge, J.
Epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) were established for the new triazole isavuconazole and Aspergillus species wild-type (WT) MIC distributions (organisms in a species-drug combination with no detectable acquired resistance mechanisms) that were defined with 855 Aspergillus fumigatus, 444 A. flavus, 106 A. nidulans, 207 A. niger, 384 A. terreus, and 75 A. versicolor species complex isolates; 22 Aspergillus section Usti isolates were also included. CLSI broth microdilution MIC data gathered in Europe, India, Mexico, and the United States were aggregated to statistically define ECVs. ECVs were 1 ?g/ml for the A. fumigatus species complex, 1 ?g/ml for the A. flavus species complex, 0.25 ?g/ml for the A. nidulans species complex, 4 ?g/ml for the A. niger species complex, 1 ?g/ml for the A. terreus species complex, and 1 ?g/ml for the A. versicolor species complex; due to the small number of isolates, an ECV was not proposed for Aspergillus section Usti. These ECVs may aid in detecting non-WT isolates with reduced susceptibility to isavuconazole due to cyp51A (an A. fumigatus species complex resistance mechanism among the triazoles) or other mutations.
Chowdhary, A.; Gonzalez, G. M.; Lass-Florl, C.; Martin-Mazuelos, E.; Meis, J.; Pelaez, T.; Pfaller, M. A.; Turnidge, J.
We have found that genomic diversity is generally positively correlated with abiotic and biotic stress levels (1–3). However, beyond a high-threshold level of stress, the diversity declines to a few adapted genotypes. The Dead Sea is the harshest planetary hypersaline environment (340 g·liter–1 total dissolved salts, ?10 times sea water). Hence, the Dead Sea is an excellent natural laboratory for testing the “rise and fall” pattern of genetic diversity with stress proposed in this article. Here, we examined genomic diversity of the ascomycete fungus Aspergillus versicolor from saline, nonsaline, and hypersaline Dead Sea environments. We screened the coding and noncoding genomes of A. versicolor isolates by using >600 AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers (equal to loci). Genomic diversity was positively correlated with stress, culminating in the Dead Sea surface but dropped drastically in 50- to 280-m-deep seawater. The genomic diversity pattern paralleled the pattern of sexual reproduction of fungal species across the same southward gradient of increasing stress in Israel. This parallel may suggest that diversity and sex are intertwined intimately according to the rise and fall pattern and adaptively selected by natural selection in fungal genome evolution. Future large-scale verification in micromycetes will define further the trajectories of diversity and sex in the rise and fall pattern.
The ability of two white-rot fungi (Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus) and one brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum) to degrade two organochlorine insecticides, lindane and endosulfan, in liquid cultures was studied and dead fungal biomass was examined for adsorption of both insecticides from liquid medium. Lindane and endosulfan were also treated with fungal laccase and bacterial protein CotA, which has laccase activities. The amount of degraded lindane and endosulfan increased with their exposure period in the liquid cultures of both examined white-rot fungi. Endosulfan was transformed to endosulfan sulphate by T. versicolor and P. ostreatus. A small amount of endosulfan ether was also detected and its origin was examined. Degradation of lindane and endosulfan by a brown rot G. trabeum did not occur. Mycelial biomasses of all examined fungi have been found to adsorb lindane and endosulfan and adsorption onto fungal biomass should therefore be considered as a possible mechanism of pollutant removal when fungal degradation potentials are studied. Bacterial protein CotA performed more efficient degradation of lindane and endosulfan than fungal laccase and has shown potential for bioremediation of organic pollutants. PMID:23736895
A set of methoxy-substituted benzyl alcohol (MBA) congeners were examined regarding susceptibility to oxidation by Trametes versicolor laccase, T. versicolor lignin peroxidase and horseradish peroxidase: 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl alcohol (TMBA), 3,4,5-TMBA, 2,3,4-TMBA, 2,5-dimethoxybenzyl alcohol (DMBA), 3,4-DMBA, and 2,3-DMBA. The corresponding methoxy-substituted benzaldehydes were strongly predominant as products on enzymic oxidation. This together with different reaction rates and redox potentials makes the MBAs suitable as substrates in the characterization of ligninolytic enzymes. For fungal laccase, the reaction rate order was: 2,4,5-TMBA > 2,5-DMBA > 3,4-DMBA > 3,4,5-TMBA approximately 2,3,4-TMBA approximately 2,3-DMBA. Horseradish peroxidase displayed a similar reactivity order. Oxidation of some of the MBAs with laccase and horseradish peroxidase was only observed when the reactions were carried out at low pH and with relatively high-substrate concentration. 3,4-DMBA (veratryl alcohol) was the best substrate for lignin peroxidase and the reaction rate order was: 3,4-DMBA > 2,4,5-TMBA approximately 3,4,5-TMBA > 2,5-DMBA > 2,3,4-TMBA approximately 2,3-DMBA. The oxidation experiments with different MBAs elucidate the potential of the enzymes as oxidants in various applications. PMID:16915649
Background: Hypopigmentary disorders are common group of dermatoses in pediatric age group. Aim: To study the frequency and patterns of hypopigmentary disorders in children. Materials and Methods: This study was a descriptive clinical study spanning over a period of 23 months. A total of 113 children (61 boys and 52 girls) were included in this study. Results: The frequency of hypopigmentary disorders among children was 3.28 per 1000 children attending the dermatology out patient department. The mean age of the children was 7.2 years. The mean of age of onset was 7.36 years. Most common hypopigmentary disorder in our study was pityriasis alba (24.7%), followed by vitiligo (20.4%), leprosy (11.5%), nevus depigmentosus (10.18%), and tinea versicolor (6.2%). Others were hypomelanosis of Ito (5), post-inflammatory hypopigmentation (5), pityriasis rosea (4), steroid-induced hypopigmentation (4), lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (3), pityriasis lichenoides chronica (3), lichen striatus (2), oculocutaneous albinism (2), tuberous sclerosis complex (2), pigmentary mosaicism (1), and Griscelli syndrome (1). Conclusion: Pityriasis alba, vitiligo, leprosy, nevus depigmentosus and tinea versicolor are the five most common hypopigmentary disorders in children.
Habitat preferences of organisms are reliant on a variety of factors. For amphibians specifically, preferences can depend on factors such as food availability, water quality, and the presence of potential predators. Because some amphibians breed in permanent bodies of water (e.g., ponds), the threat of predation (e.g., from fish) is constant. Thus, some amphibians are unpalatable to many predators, allowing them to coexist in the same habitats. However, the addition of anthropogenic stressors (i.e., pesticides) may alter the perceived palatability of prey items to predators. The authors tested the hypothesis that bluegill fish (Lepomis macrochirus), previously exposed to the pesticide carbaryl, would consume more unpalatable prey (Fowler's toad [Anaxyrus fowleri] tadpoles) than unexposed predators. Carbaryl is a pesticide that attacks the nervous system and is linked to taste sense in organisms. Moreover, the authors conducted an identical test using palatable prey (gray treefrog [Hyla versicolor] tadpoles) and predicted that no change in preference would be observed. In support of the primary hypothesis, bluegill exposed to the highest concentration of carbaryl consumed more A. fowleri tadpoles compared with those exposed to carbaryl at the lowest concentration or water control. Moreover, an effect of carbaryl on predation success on H. versicolor tadpoles was not observed. The present study shows that an anthropogenic stressor (carbaryl) can alter the perceived palatability of noxious prey to fish predators, potentially altering predator-prey relationships in natural settings. PMID:24383102
Microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) emitted from the mould species Penicillium expansum, P. chrysogenum, Aspergillus versicolor, A. fumigatus, A. niger and Cladosporium cladosporoides were analyzed by means of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and GCMS. The mould species were cultivated on the synthetic agar dichloran chloramphenicol (DG 18) and on wet wall paper. The production of MVOCs was monitored over several weeks to detect changes in the emission rates between the initial stage and later periods of growth. The cultivation on the synthetic agar resulted in MVOC patterns with a wide variety of signals. In contrast, the growth on wet wall paper led to changed MVOC patterns with less signals. The emission rates were drastically reduced. Components emitted by all six fungi species on wall paper were 2-pentanol and 2-pentanone. 1-Octen-3-ol was emitted by five fungi species. 2-Pentanol was only detected in considerable amounts during the first days of growth whereas 1-octen-3-ol had a more constant emission rate over the whole period of growth. On the basis of our studies some MVOCs could be proposed as specific for single fungi on wall paper, e.g. 1,3-dimethoxybenzene for A. versicolor and 2,4-pentandione for A. fumigatus. PMID:18577403
The process of biodegradation in lingo-cellulosic materials is critically relevant to biospheric carbon. The study of this natural process has largely involved laboratory investigations, focused primarily on the biodegradation and recycling of agricultural by-products, generally using basidiomycetes species. In order to collect super white rot fungi and evaluate its ability to degrade lingo-cellulosic material, 35 fungal strains, collected from forests, humus soil, livestock manure, and dead trees, were screened for enzyme activities and their potential to decolorize the commercially used Poly-R 478 dye. In the laccase enzymatic analysis chemical test, 33 white rot fungi and 2 brown rot fungi were identified. The degradation ability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) according to the utilized environmental conditions was higher in the mushrooms grown in dead trees and fallen leaves than in the mushrooms grown in humus soil and livestock manure. Using Poly-R 478 dye to assess the PAH-degradation activity of the identified strains, four strains, including Agrocybe pediades, were selected. The activities of laccase, MnP, and Lip of the four strains with PAH-degrading ability were highest in Pleurotus incarnates. 87 fungal strains, collected from forests, humus soil, livestock manure, and dead trees, were screened for enzyme activities and their potential to decolorize the commercially used Poly-R 478 dye on solid media. Using Poly-R 478 dye to assess the PAHdegrading activity of the identified strains, it was determined that MKACC 51632 and 52492 strains evidenced superior activity in static and shaken liquid cultures. Subsequent screening on plates containing the polymeric dye poly R-478, the decolorization of which is correlated with lignin degradation, resulted in the selection of a strain of Coriolus versicolor, MKACC52492, for further study, primarily due to its rapid growth rate and profound ability to decolorize poly R-478 on solid media. Considering our findings using Poly-R 478 dye to evaluate the PAH-degrading activity of the identified strains, Coriolus versicolor, MKACC 52492 was selected as a favorable strain. Coriolus versicolor, which was collected from Mt. Yeogi in Suwon, was studied for the production of the lignin-modifying enzymes laccase, manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP), and lignin peroxidase (LiP). PMID:23983508
Release of submicrometer-sized fungal fragments (<1.0 microm) was discovered in earlier studies, which investigated the aerosolization of spores from moldy surfaces. However, the contribution of fungal fragments to total mold exposure is poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to investigate the size-fractionated concentrations of particulate (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan and numbers of particles aerosolized from the surface of artificially mold-contaminated materials using a novel sampling methodology. Aspergillus versicolor and Stachybotrys chartarum were grown on malt extract agar and building materials (ceiling tiles and gypsum board) for one to six months. Fungal particles released from these materials were collected size-selectively by a newly developed Fragment Sampling System, and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan in air samples was analyzed by Limulus Amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. The concentrations of (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan varied from 0.4x10(0) to 9.8x10(2) ng m(-3) in the fragment size and from 1.0x10(1) to 4.7x10(4) ng m(-3) in the spore size range. Numbers of submicrometer-sized particles aerosolized from 6-month old cultures were always significantly higher that those from 1-month old (P<0.001). This can be attributed to increased dryness on the surface of material samples and an increase in fungal biomass over time. The average fragment to spore ratios both in particle numbers and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan mass were higher for S. chartarum than for A. versicolor. The results indicate that long-term mold damage in buildings may lead to increased contribution of fragments to the total mold exposure. Therefore, the health impact of these particles may be even greater than that of spores, considering the strong association between numbers of fine particles and adverse health effects reported in other studies. Furthermore, the contribution of fragments may vary between species and appears to be higher for S. chartarum than for A. versicolor. PMID:19012949
Seo, Sung-Chul; Reponen, Tiina; Levin, Linda; Grinshpun, Sergey A
Although most skin diseases can be diagnosed with simple visual inspection, laboratory investigations are necessary in several clinical circumstances. This contribution highlights the usefulness of routine diagnostic procedures that are often overlooked and the innovative methods of molecular biology, which are expensive and require an experienced staff. Among the classic diagnostic investigations are (1) the use of Wood's light in many dermatologic disorders (eg, vitiligo, pityriasis versicolor, erythrasma, porphyrias), (2) cytodiagnosis of Tzanck in dermatologic practice (eg, herpetic infections, molluscum contagiosum, leishmaniasis, pemphigus vulgaris, basal cell carcinoma, erythroplasia of Queyrat, Hailey-Hailey disease), and (3) microscopic examination for fungal and bacterial skin infections as well as for mite infestation using potassium hydroxide, simple saline, and Gram stain. Modern molecular biotechnologies encompassing gene-specific polymerase chain reaction and its variants have a substantial affect in selected cases of viral (especially herpes simplex virus), bacterial, fungal, and protozoan (Leishmania) skin infections. PMID:21855731
Microbial metabolism of organosulfur compounds is of interest in the petroleum industry for in-field viscosity reduction and desulfurization. Here, dibenzyl sulfide (DBS) metabolism in white rot fungi was studied. Trametes trogii UAMH 8156, Trametes hirsuta UAMH 8165, Phanerochaete chrysosporium ATCC 24725, Trametes versicolor IFO 30340 (formerly Coriolus sp.), and Tyromyces palustris IFO 30339 all oxidized DBS to dibenzyl sulfoxide prior to oxidation to dibenzyl sulfone. The cytochrome P-450 inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole eliminated dibenzyl sulfoxide oxidation. Laccase activity (0.15 U/ml) was detected in the Trametes cultures, and concentrated culture supernatant and pure laccase catalyzed DBS oxidation to dibenzyl sulfoxide more efficiently in the presence of 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) than in its absence. These data suggest that the first oxidation step is catalyzed by extracellular enzymes but that subsequent metabolism is cytochrome P-450 mediated. PMID:12571066
Van Hamme, Jonathan D; Wong, Eddie T; Dettman, Heather; Gray, Murray R; Pickard, Michael A
Microbial metabolism of organosulfur compounds is of interest in the petroleum industry for in-field viscosity reduction and desulfurization. Here, dibenzyl sulfide (DBS) metabolism in white rot fungi was studied. Trametes trogii UAMH 8156, Trametes hirsuta UAMH 8165, Phanerochaete chrysosporium ATCC 24725, Trametes versicolor IFO 30340 (formerly Coriolus sp.), and Tyromyces palustris IFO 30339 all oxidized DBS to dibenzyl sulfoxide prior to oxidation to dibenzyl sulfone. The cytochrome P-450 inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole eliminated dibenzyl sulfoxide oxidation. Laccase activity (0.15 U/ml) was detected in the Trametes cultures, and concentrated culture supernatant and pure laccase catalyzed DBS oxidation to dibenzyl sulfoxide more efficiently in the presence of 2,2?-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) than in its absence. These data suggest that the first oxidation step is catalyzed by extracellular enzymes but that subsequent metabolism is cytochrome P-450 mediated.
Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Wong, Eddie T.; Dettman, Heather; Gray, Murray R.; Pickard, Michael A.
In the presence of a redox mediator, 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT), iso-butylparaben (iso-BP) and n-butylparaben (n-BP) were treated with laccase from white rot fungus Trametes versicolor. HPLC analysis demonstrated that iso-BP and n-BP almost completely disappeared from the reaction mixture after 4 h of treatment with the laccase-HBT system. Using the yeast two-hybrid assay system, it was also confirmed that the laccase-HBT system substantially removed the estrogenic activity of iso-BP and n-BP after 4 h of treatment. Furthermore, there was a linear relationship between the removal of estrogenic activity of both parabens and the decrease in their concentrations. These results demonstrate that the laccase-HBT system is effective in eliminating iso-BP and n-BP, and removing the estrogenic activity of both parabens. PMID:19109757
Graft copolymers of waxy maize starch and sodium lignosulfonate (SLS) were prepared by Trametes versicolor laccase catalysis in aqueous solution. Amount of SLS grafted based on phenol analysis was 0.5% and 1.0% in the absence and presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT), respectively. Starch-SLS graft copolymers were effective antioxidants as judged by 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. The presence of laccase caused a reduction in starch molecular weight although a cross-linked gel fraction was also observed when HBT was present. This new method for preparing starch chemically modified with phenolic compounds is simple and the resulting antioxidant polymers have potential in food, cosmetic and packaging applications. PMID:23121948
Carbamazepine (CBZP) is used as an antiepileptic drug and is highly persistent. In this study, CBZP was treated with laccase from white rot fungus Trametes versicolor in the presence of a redox mediator 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT). A single treatment with laccase and HBT eliminated CBZP by about 22% after 24h, and repeated treatments with laccase and HBT, which were added to the reaction mixture every 8h, helped eliminate about 60% of CBZP after 48h. This suggests that repeated treatment is effective in eliminating CBZP. Mass spectrometric analyses demonstrated that two degradation products of CBZP, 10,11-dihydro-10,11-epoxycarbamazepine and 9(10H)-acridone, were formed via repeated treatment with laccase and HBT. PMID:20619797
A total of 54 patients with culturally proven tropical dermatomycoses, comprising 23 with various types of dermatophytoses, one with foot infection due to Trichosporon beigelii and one with foot infection due to Geotrichum candidum, two with candidosis of the groin and 27 with pityriasis versicolor, were included in a clinical trial of efficacy of 1% isoconazole cream (Travogen, Schering, Berlin, Germany). Five patients were not evaluable. A clinical and mycological cure was achieved in 29 cases in 3-4 weeks. In 15 (31%) of the remaining patients treatment was required for 5-6 weeks, while another three patients required treatment for 8 weeks. In two patients the disease proved to be resistant to treatment with the drug. PMID:7935591
Gugnani, H C; Akpata, L E; Gugnani, M K; Srivastava, R
In this work, the potential for sustainable energy production from wastes has been exploited using a combination fungus-bacterium in microbial fuel cell (MFC) and electro-Fenton technology. The fungus Trametes versicolor was grown with Shewanella oneidensis so that the bacterium would use the networks of the fungus to transport the electrons to the anode. This system generated stable electricity that was enhanced when the electro-Fenton reactions occurred in the cathode chamber. This configuration reached a stable voltage of approximately 1000 mV. Thus, the dual benefits of the in situ-designed MFC electro-Fenton, the simultaneous dye decolourisation and the electricity generation, were demonstrated. Moreover, the generated power was effectively used to drive an ex situ electro-Fenton process in batch and continuous mode. This newly developed MFC fungus-bacterium with an in situ electro-Fenton system can ensure a high power output and a continuous degradation of organic pollutants. PMID:24035817
Fernández de Dios, María Ángeles; del Campo, Araceli González; Fernández, Francisco Jesús; Rodrigo, Manuel; Pazos, Marta; Sanromán, María Ángeles
Eight fungal species known to produce wood pigmentation were tested for reaction to various moisture contents in two hardwood species. Fungal pigmentation by Trametes versicolor and Xylaria polymorpha was stimulated at low water concentrations in both Acer saccharum (sugar maple) and Fagus grandifolia (American beech), while Inonotus hispidus and Polyporus squamosus were stimulated above 22-28% and 34-38% moisture content in beech and in sugar maple respectively. Fomes fomentarius and Polyporus brumalis produced maximum pigmentation in beech at 26 - 41% and in sugar maple at 59 - 96% moisture content. The pink staining Scytalidium cuboideum pigmented both wood species at above 35% moisture content. This research indicates that controlling the moisture content values of wood substrates can stimulate the intensity of pigmentation of specific fungi when spalting wood for decorative and commercial purpose. PMID:23245292
Eight fungal species known to produce wood pigmentation were tested for reaction to various moisture contents in two hardwood species. Fungal pigmentation by Trametes versicolor and Xylaria polymorpha was stimulated at low water concentrations in both Acer saccharum (sugar maple) and Fagus grandifolia (American beech), while Inonotus hispidus and Polyporus squamosus were stimulated above 22-28% and 34-38% moisture content in beech and in sugar maple respectively. Fomes fomentarius and Polyporus brumalis produced maximum pigmentation in beech at 26 - 41% and in sugar maple at 59 - 96% moisture content. The pink staining Scytalidium cuboideum pigmented both wood species at above 35% moisture content. This research indicates that controlling the moisture content values of wood substrates can stimulate the intensity of pigmentation of specific fungi when spalting wood for decorative and commercial purpose.
Autofluorescence of fruiting bodies of the wood-rotting fungus Fomes fomentarius has been observed and is described among native macrofungi for the first time. The strongest yellow autofluorescence with blue excitation was displayed by pith sets, a weaker yellow, yellow-green to yellow-red fluorescence was due to generative thin-walled hyphae while the weakest yellow-reddish fluorescence was emitted by thick-walled skeletal hyphae (though their parts may emit a more intensive yellow fluorescence). This yellow, yellow-green to yellow-red autofluorescence was assessed to be more intensive than the emission described so far in bacteria and fungi (except for lysed hyphae of the fungus Trametes versicolor). With green excitation all F. fomentarius cells emitted strong red autofluorescence. PMID:16821719
As wood is prone to fungal degradation, fundamental research is necessary to increase our knowledge aiming at product improvement. Several imaging modalities are capable of visualizing fungi, but the X-ray equipment presented in this article can envisage fungal mycelium in wood nondestructively in three dimensions with submicron resolution. Four types of wood subjected to the action of the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor (Linnaeus) Quélet (CTB 863 A) were scanned using an X-ray-based approach. Comparison of wood volumes before and after fungal exposure, segmented manually or semiautomatically, showed the presence of the fungal mass on and in the wood samples and therefore demonstrated the usefulness of computed X-ray tomography for mycological and wood research. Further improvements to the experimental setup are necessary to resolve individual hyphae and enhance segmentation. PMID:19709462
Van den Bulcke, Jan; Boone, Matthieu; Van Acker, Joris; Van Hoorebeke, Luc
Hairy roots induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes grow faster, and are considered as genetically stable. These hairy roots can be used as an interesting material for the production of secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical value. Salidroside has been identified as the major compounds from the roots of Rhodiola sachalinensis A. BOR. Here, we provide an update that adds new perspectives on the prospects and challenges of producing Salidroside from hairy roots induced by Agrobacterium rhizogene in Rhodiola sachalinensis A. BOR. For high salidroside production, the optimal concentration for precursor (Tyrosol, Tyrosine, and Phenylalanine) and elicitor (Aspergillus niger, Coriolus versicolor, and Ganoderma lucidum) was added in the LB liquid medium, respectively. The addition of elicitor in the liquid MS medium and the utilization of precursor from chemical feeding enhanced biomass accumulation and salidroside production. The optimal concentration for elicitor and precursor in the liquid medium was 0.05 mg/l and 1 mmol/l, respectively. PMID:17329834
This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms ( b? x? mó g?; Agaricus blazei, yún zh?; Coriolus versicolor, líng zh?; Ganoderma lucidum, xi?ng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, niú zh?ng zh?; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps ( d?ng chóng xià c?o), pomegranate ( shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea ( l? chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic ( dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric ( ji?ng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba ( q?ng h?o; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120
Wastewater containing direct dyes discharged from various industries, in particular, textile industry, often cause many environmental problems. Among the various effluent treatment methods, biological methods found to be cost effective and do not end up in secondary pollutants. In this study, an attempt has been made to study the decolorization of cibacron yellow S-3R, an azo reactive dye by using fungal cultures such as Coriolus versicolor, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Myrothecium verrucaria. The fungi were able to decolorize individually the azo reactive dye cibacron yellow S-3R to an extent of nearly in the range 75 - 85%, whereas the mixed fungal consortium was able to decolorize to an extent of nearly 95%.The study is extended with the kinetics of decolorization of Cibacron yellow S-3R using mixed fungal consortium containing equal proportions of the cultures. The experimental results show that decolorization kinetics follow second order rate equation. PMID:23505830
Mass spectral analysis demonstrated oligomerization of peptides that had been subjected to oxidation catalysed by Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor laccase. Peptide oligomerization occurred only when cysteines or tyrosines were present in the peptides. MS/MS confirmed the cross-linking in tyrosine-containing peptides to be located between tyrosine residues. Ferulic acid mediated oligomerization of cysteine-containing peptides, but prevented cross-linking of tyrosines when used in the same concentration as the peptides. This suggests an antioxidative effect of ferulic acid in relation to tyrosine oxidation, although incorporation of ferulic acid into peptide oligomers was found in some of the tyrosine-containing peptides. No other modifications to amino acid residues by laccase-catalysed oxidation were observed by mass spectroscopy. Thus, it is suggested that oxidative modifications of other amino acids observed in proteins oxidized by laccase are not major reaction products of laccase-catalysed oxidation. PMID:19905979
Steffensen, Charlotte L; Stensballe, Allan; Kidmose, Ulla; Degn, Peter E; Andersen, Mogens L; Nielsen, Jacob H
The present study evaluated the potential of white-rot fungal strain Coriolus versicolor to decolorize five structurally different dyes in sequential batch reactors under optimized conditions. The experiments were run continuously for seven cycles of 8 d each. High decolorizing activity was observed even during the repeated reuse of the fungus, especially when the old medium was replaced with fresh medium after every cycle. Biodegradation was the dominating factor as the fungus was able to produce the enzyme laccase mainly, to mineralize synthetic dyes. The nutrients and composition of the medium played important roles in sustaining the decolorisation potential of the fungus. Corncob was found be an easy and cheap substitute for carbon source for the fungus. Glucose consumption by the fungus was in accordance to its decolorisation activity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction. PMID:20131593
The objective of the paper was to estimate the fungicidal value of wood tar extracted as a product of pyrolysis of wood previously treated with either creosote oil or CCB-type salt preservative. The effectiveness of wood treated with one of these two wood tar residuals was compared to the effectiveness of wood treated with virgin creosote oil (type WEI-B) and an untreated control. Wood was impregnated with alcohol solutions of the two extracted preservatives or virgin creosote oil and then subjected to the Coniophora puteana, Poria placenta and Coriolus versicolor fungi. The fungicidal values of the investigated preservatives were determined with the use of the short agar-block method and the aging test according to the standard EN 84. It was found that wood tar extracted by pyrolysis of old creosote-treated wood and then used to treat wood may have potential as a preservative for wood protection or as a component of preservatives. PMID:17011772
This paper highlights the mechanistic aspects of white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor as a complexing/reducing agent for chromium bioremediation. The chemical reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) via the formation of Cr(VI) thio ester as an intermediate, is pH dependent and controls the overall chromium adsorption kinetics. The strong adsorption affinity of the biomass towards Cr(VI) anions was evaluated by the Freundlich and the Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The FTIR spectroscopic analysis suggested the involvement of amino, carboxylate, and thiol groups from fungal cell wall in chromium binding and reduction. The mechanism of the adsorption was preferential sequestration along with binding of the metal to the ligating groups present in the biomass followed by reduction to trivalent state. The results indicate step-wise progression of overall reaction dictated and modulated by structural and conformation effects in the biomass that lead to saturation, acceleration, and ultimate saturation kinetics effects. PMID:19467785
Sanghi, Rashmi; Sankararamakrishnan, Nalini; Dave, Bakul C
In this study, it has been investigated the disinfection of Korean cultural artifacts by gamma irradiation, simulating the absorbed dose distribution on the object with the Monte Carlo methodology. Fungal contamination was identified on two traditional Korean agricultural tools, Hongdukkae and Holtae, which had been stored in a museum. Nine primary species were identified from these items: Bjerkandera adusta, Dothideomycetes sp., Penicillium sp., Cladosporium tenuissimum, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium sp., Entrophospora sp., Aspergillus sydowii, and Corynascus sepedonium. However, these fungi were completely inactivated by gamma irradiation at an absorbed dose of 20kGy on the front side. Monte Carlo N Particle Transport Code was used to simulate the doses applied to these cultural artifacts, and the measured dose distributions were well predicted by the simulations. These results show that irradiation is effective for the disinfection of cultural artifacts and that dose distribution can be predicted with Monte Carlo simulations, allowing the optimization of the radiation treatment. PMID:22940410
Some damaged cartons of soft drinks and carbonated water were analyzed to detect the microorganisms that caused the damage. The contaminants of sugar used in the production of one of the drinks were also studied. The methods of Déak & Beuchat and Pitt & Hocking were used for the identification of yeasts and moulds, respectively. The agents of the spoilage of soft drinks were Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The microorganisms found in sugar were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, P. anomala and Rhizopus stolonifer. Paecilomyces fulvus and Penicillium glabrum were observed in carbonated water. PMID:17037258
In order to identify and successfully treat the age-specific problems of adolescence, the physician must have knowledge of the physiologic skin changes of adolescence. The physician should provide practical advice on the basics of skin care, including face-washing technique, cosmetic use and sun exposure, since other sources of this information may be misleading. Acne, warts, scabies, tinea versicolor and molluscum contagiosum represent common skin disorders that require an organized treatment strategy. Most teenage patients will comply with even the most complex treatment regimens if reasons for, and mechanisms of, therapy have been adequately explained. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5aFigure 5bFigure 6Figure 7
The efficiency of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), enzymatic treatment and combined enzymatic/AOP sequences for the colour remediation of soda and chemimechanical pulp and paper mill effluent was investigated. The results indicated that under all circumstances, the AOP using ultraviolet irradiation (photo-Fenton) was more efficient in the degradation of effluent components in comparison with the dark reaction. It was found that both versatile peroxidase (VP) from Bjerkandera adusta and laccase from Trametes versicolor, as pure enzymes, decolorize the deep brown effluent to a clear light-yellow solution. In addition, it was found that in the laccase treatment, the decolorization rates of both effluents were enhanced in the presence of 2, 2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate), while in the case of VP, Mn(+2) decreased the efficiency of the decolorization treatment. The concomitant use of enzymes and AOPs imposes a considerable effect on the colour remediation of effluent samples. PMID:20450108
The use of fungal pigments as color additives to wood as a method to increase forest revenue is a relatively new, but quickly developing field. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is currently the primary utilized hardwood for spalting and appears to be the best suited North American hardwood for such purposes. The combination of Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta has been identified in several instances as a strong fungal pairing for zone line production; however, Xylaria polymorpha is capable of creating zone lines without the antagonism of a secondary fungus. Few fungal pigments have been developed for reliable use; Scytalidium cuboideum is capable of producing a penetrating pink/red stain, as well as a blue pigment after extended incubation, and Chlorociboria sp. produces a blue/green pigment if grown on aspen (Populus tremuloides). Several opportunities exist for stimulation of fungal pigments including the use of copper sulfate and changes in wood pH. PMID:22237673
Fully electroactive multilayer architectures combining the redox protein cytochrome c and the enzyme laccase by the use of silica nanoparticles as artificial matrix have been constructed on gold electrodes capable of direct dioxygen reduction. Laccase form Trametes versicolor and cytochrome c from horse heart were electrostatically coimmobilized by alternate deposition with interlayers of silica nanoparticles in a multilayer fashion. The layer formation has been monitored by quartz crystal microbalance. The electrochemical properties and performance of the nanobiomolecular entities were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, indicating, that a multistep electron transfer cascade, from the electrode via cytochrome c in the layered system toward the enzyme laccase, and here to molecular dioxygen was achieved. The response of the novel architecture is based on direct electron exchange between immobilized proteins and can be tuned by the assembly process. PMID:24804981
Feifel, Sven Christian; Kapp, Andreas; Lisdat, Fred
This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms (???? b? x? mó g?; Agaricus blazei, ?? yún zh?; Coriolus versicolor, ?? líng zh?; Ganoderma lucidum, ?? xi?ng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, ??? niú zh?ng zh?; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps (???? d?ng chóng xià c?o), pomegranate (?? shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea (?? l? chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic (?? dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric (?? ji?ng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba (?? q?ng h?o; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011.
Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is a disease characterized by recurrent episodes of paralysis and hypokalemia during a thyrotoxic state. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is a common complication of hyperthyroidism in Asian populations, but can affect other ethnic groups as well. Due to population mobility, Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is increasingly common in Western countries. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of the thyrotoxic state and potassium supplementation prevent life-threatening complications associated with hypokalemia and muscle weakness. We present a young Turkish man who developed acute flaccid paralysis after receiving pulse prednisolone therapy for treatment of Pityriasis versicolor. His muscle strength and serum potassium fully recovered after potassium replacement and treatment of the thyrotoxic state which was a consequence of underlying Graves’ disease.
Elznerova, Tereza; Dietrich, Wenke; Schrauzer, Thomas; John, Stefan
During anti-Malassezia screening of plants by CLSI broth microdilution method, Cladia aggregata (Swartz) Nyl. (family Cladoniaceae), a fruticose lichen from Sikkim (northeast Himalayan region), has been found effective at minimum inhibitory concentrations (mg/mL) of 2.72, 0.63, and 1.28 against yeast-like fungi namely, M. furfur, M. globosa and M. sympodialis, respectively. These test pathogens are responsible for pityriasis versicolor (PV) and seborrheic dermatitis (SD) in humans. We tried to establish the reason for variable MICs against various Malassezia spp. using bioinformatical tools, thereby reducing the cost of the experimentation. This is the first report on anti-Malassezia activity of C. aggregata and thus can serve as a potential source for the development of cosmaceuticals. PMID:24069589
Pandey, Anand; Mishra, Rohit K; Tiwari, Amit K; Kumar, Awadhesh; Bajaj, A K; Dikshit, Anupam
Most species of this genus are lipid-dependent yeasts, which colonize the seborrheic part of the skin, and they have been reported to be associated with pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia folliculitis, seborrheic dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis. Malassezia have been re-classified into 7 species based on molecular biological analysis of nuclear ribosomal DNA/RNA and new Malassezia species were reported. As members of the genus Malassezia share similar morphological and biochemical characteristics, it was thought to be difficult to differentiate between them based on phenotypic features. While molecular biological techniques are the most reliable methods for identification of Malassezia, they are not available in most clinical laboratories. We studied ( i ) development of an efficient isolation media and culture based easy identification system, ( ii ) the incidence of atypical biochemical features in Malassezia species and propose a culture-based easy identification system for clinically important Malassezia species, M. globosa, M. restricta, and M. furfur. PMID:22123328
Malassezia species are associated with pityriasis (tinea) versicolor, seborrheic dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis. Presently, eleven species are accepted in the genus Malassezia. Of these, M. globosa and M. restricta colonize the skin surface in atopic dermatitis patients, suggesting that they play a significant role in exacerbating the condition. The two species have different genotypes in the intergenic spacer (IGS) region of the rRNA gene, which correspond to patients and healthy individuals. In addition, the antifungal susceptibilities of the genotypic strains to itraconazole and ketoconazole differ. We found a new analytically significant role of the rRNA gene in Malassezia species, in addition to its use for fungal taxonomy and identification. PMID:16094286
By means of a special selective preparation technique, it is possible to investigate in thin sections, by electron microscopy, areas of a cell that have been observed in the living state, by phase-contrast microscopy, up to the time of fixation. Structures recorded in the living state can thus be compared to structures seen in electron micrographs. In cells of the fungus Polystictus versicolor, aggregates of membrane systems as well as single cisternae with a diameter of approximately 200 to 300 A can be detected with phase optics. It can be shown, by calculation, that these structures, which are far below the limit of resolution of the light optical system, give enough contrast to be discernible by phase optics. Thus a basis is provided for observing the dynamics of membrane systems which perhaps may contribute to the analysis of the functional significance of these cell components.
The activity of trypsin-like proteinases and trypsin inhibitors was measured in fruiting bodies of various species of basidial fungi (Basidiomycetes). Fruiting bodies of all fungi contained these enzymes, with the exceptions of polypore (Coriolus versicolor (Fr.) Karst) and hedgehog fungus (Hericium erinaceus (Fr.) Quel), belonging to the families Polyporaceae and Hericiaceae, respectively, in which the enzyme activities were barely detectable. The activity of trypsin-like proteinases was the highest in fruiting bodies of Boletaceae and Agaricaceae. Fruiting bodies of all fungi contained trypsin inhibitors. The highest activity of trypsin inhibitors was detected in basidiomycetes of the families Boletaceae, Agaricaceae, and Pleurotaceae, including Boletus castanus (Fr.) Karst, orange-cap boletus (Leccinum aurantiacum (Fr.) Sing), and brown-cap boletus (Leccinum melanum (Fr.) Karst). PMID:16358748
Gzogian, L A; Proskuriakov, M T; Ievleva, E V; Valueva, T A
Forty-four fungal species belonging to 20 genera were isolated from 30 samples of qat leaves. The most frequent genera were Aspergillus, Alternaria, Penicillium, and Cladosporium followed by Fusarium, Drechslera, Chaetomium, and Mucor. The most prevalent species in above genera were Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A fumigatus, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium chrysogenum, P. citrinum, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and Fusarium verticillioides. From these fungi, 17 species (39%) related to 7 genera (35%) proved to be true endophytes. Eleven out of 75 isolates were mycotoxigenic. A. alternata produced alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether whereas A. flavus produced aflatoxins B1 and B2. Ochratoxin A, sterigmatocystin, citrinin and T-2 toxin were produced by A. ochraceus, A. versicolor, P. citrinum and F. oxysporum, respectively. The presence of such toxigenic fungi associated with qat leaves is considered to be a threat to public health. PMID:11347273
In this work, an enzyme catalyzed detoxification process of lignocellulose hydrolyzates with immobilized laccase from Trametes versicolor was developed and optimized. Further, the immobilized laccase significantly reduced the amount of toxic phenolic compounds in the xylan rich fraction (XRF) by polymerization within 1h. The insoluble products precipitated onto the carrier surface and could be reversible resolubilized by an aqueous ethanol solution. Consequently, an in situ product removal could be realized. The reusability of the immobilized laccase could be additionally shown. The reaction kinetics could be described by a reversible Michaelis Menten equation giving the prerequisite for scaling up the process. In a second step, the organic acids, hydroxymethylfurfural and phenolic acids could be further removed by employing an anion exchanger. Both, the laccase and the laccase+anion exchanger treatment enhanced successfully the fermentability of an organosolv wheat straw fraction. PMID:23454802
Unfolded-protein response (UPR) denotes the upregulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident chaperone and foldase genes and numerous other genes involved in secretory functions during the accumulation of unfolded proteins into the ER. Overexpression of individual foldases and chaperones has been used in attempts to improve protein production in different production systems. We describe here a novel strategy to improve foreign-protein production. We show that the constitutive induction of the UPR pathway in Aspergillus niger var. awamori can be achieved by expressing the activated form of the transcription factor hacA. This induction enhances the production of Trametes versicolor laccase by up to sevenfold and of bovine preprochymosin by up to 2.8-fold in this biotechnically important fungus. The regulatory range of UPR was studied by analyzing the mRNA levels of novel A. niger var. awamori genes involved in different secretory functions. This revealed both similarities and differences to corresponding studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Valkonen, Mari; Ward, Michael; Wang, Huaming; Penttila, Merja; Saloheimo, Markku
Five fungal species, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium commune, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Paecilomyces variotii, and Phialophora fastigiata, were cultivated on two media, malt extract agar and dichloran glycerol agar. Culture flasks provided with inlet and outlet tubes were used and purified, and humidified air was constantly led through the flasks. Air samples from the cultures were sorbed on Tenax GR and analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography. The produced volatile metabolites were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Various hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones, ethers, esters, sulfur-containing compounds, and terpenes were identified. The most commonly produced substances were 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methylfuran, and dimethyl disulfide. The production was highly dependent on both medium and species.
This review provides background information on the importance of bioremediation approaches. It describes the roles of fungi, specifically white rot fungi, and their extracellular enzymes, laccases, ligninases, and peroxidises, in the degradation of xenobiotic compounds such as single and mixtures of pesticides. We discuss the importance of abiotic factors such as water potential, temperature, and pH stress when considering an environmental screening approach, and examples are provided of the differential effect of white rot fungi on the degradation of single and mixtures of pesticides using fungi such as Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. We also explore the formulation and delivery of fungal bioremedial inoculants to terrestrial ecosystems as well as the use of spent mushroom compost as an approach. Future areas for research and potential exploitation of new techniques are also considered.
Screening of the antifungal activities of ten Guadeloupean plants was undertaken to find new extracts and formulations against superficial mycoses such as onychomycosis, athlete's foot, Pityriasis versicolor, as well as the deep fungal infection Pneumocystis pneumonia. For the first time, the CMI of these plant extracts [cyclohexane, ethanol and ethanol/water (1:1, v/v)] was determined against five dermatophytes, five Candida species, Scytalidium dimidiatum, a Malassezia sp. strain and Pneumocystis carinii. Cytotoxicity tests of the most active extracts were also performed on an HaCat keratinocyte cell line. Results suggest that the extracts of Bursera simaruba, Cedrela odorata, Enterolobium cyclocarpum and Pluchea carolinensis have interesting activities and could be good candidates for developing antifungal formulations. PMID:23280633
The oxidation of polycyclic aromatic compounds was studied in systems consisting of laccase from Trametes versicolor and so-called mediator compounds. The enzymatic oxidation of acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, and fluorene was mediated by various laccase substrates (phenols and aromatic amines) or compounds produced and secreted by white rot fungi. The best natural mediators, such as phenol, aniline, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol were as efficient as the previously described synthetic compounds ABTS [2,2?-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. The oxidation efficiency increased proportionally with the redox potentials of the phenolic mediators up to a maximum value of 0.9 V and decreased thereafter with redox potentials exceeding this value. Natural compounds such as methionine, cysteine, and reduced glutathione, containing sulfhydryl groups, were also active as mediator compounds.
Wheat straw cultures of the brown rot fungi Gloeophyllum striatum and G. trabeum degraded 2,4-dichlorophenol and pentachorophenol. Up to 54% and 27% 14CO2, respectively, were liberated from uniformly 14C-labeled substrates within 6 weeks. Under identical conditions Trametes versicolor, a typical white rot species employed as reference, evolved up to 42% and 43% 14CO2 and expressed high activities of laccase, manganese peroxidase, and manganese-independent peroxidase. No such activity could be detected in straw or liquid cultures of Gloeophyllum. Moreover, G. striatum degraded both chlorophenols most efficiently under non-cometabolic conditions, i.e. on a defined mineral medium lacking sources of carbon, nitrogen and phosphate. PMID:10361717
The taxonomy of central Australian populations of geckos of the genus Gehyra has been uncertain since chromosomal studies carried out in the 1970s and 1980s revealed considerable heterogeneity and apparently independent patterns of morphological and karyotypic diversity. Following detailed molecular genetic studies, species boundaries in this complex have become clearer and we here re-set the boundaries of the three named species involved, G. variegata (Duméril & Bibron, 1836), G. montium Storr, 1982, and G. nana King, 1982, and describe three new species. Two of the new species, G. moritzi and G. pulingka, include populations formerly assigned to either G. montium or G. nana Storr, 1982, while the third, G. versicolor, includes all of the eastern Australian populations formerly assigned to G. variegata. PMID:24943424
Hutchinson, Mark N; Sistrom, Mark J; Donnellan, Stephen C; Hutchinson, Rhonda G
Research was carried out on presence and prevalence of common fungal air spores at locations in Croatia. The sampling method employed in the study was by exposure 350 of Petri agar plates to the air for 10 min. Approximately 3400 colonies were found and mould spores belonging to 22 fungal genera were identified. Cladosporium (44.7%), Penicillium (34.4%), Alternaria (26.3%), Aspergillus (21.6%) and Absidia (12.2%) were the most prevalent fungi encountered. Investigation of toxigenic potential of airborne fungi isolates of genera Aspergillus, Fusarium and Trichoderma showed 16.9% mycotoxin-producing strains. The production of aflatoxin B 1 by A. flavus sterigmatocystin by A. versicolor zearalenon and T-2 toxin by F. graminearum and diacetoscirpenol by strains of T. viride were obtained.
Indoor mold growth has recently become a concern in the legal world in regards to insurance litigation. Hazardous mold exposure to humans has been linked to many acute and chronic adverse health effects including death. As it grows, mold produces several types of primary and secondary metabolites, including microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs). Microbial volatile organic compound emission may be used as a preliminary indication of a mold infestation that is invisible to the unaided eye. The objective of the study is to identify the unique odor signatures of three species of molds, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Stachybotrys chartarum by SPME-GC/MS analysis. Determining the compounds that are emitted by the selected species has made it possible to conduct validation studies of canine detection of these mold species through a series of field tests.
Griffith, Robert T.; Jayachandran, Krishnaswamy; Shetty, Kateel G.; Whitstine, William; Furton, Kenneth G.
The efficacy and safety of the broad-spectrum, topically applied antifungal agent clotrimazole were evaluated in two double-blind, multicentric trials. Ten investigators reported on a total of 1,361 cases in which a 1% solution or a 1% cream formulation was compared with its respective vehicle. Clotrimazole was therapeutically effective, as confirmed by mycological cure (negative microscopy and culture) and clinical improvement, in tinea pedis, tinea cruris, tinea corporis, pityriasis versicolor, and cutaneous candidasis. Furthermore, species identification established the efficacy of clotrimazole against Trichophyton rubrum, T mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Malassezia furfur (Pityrosporum orbiculare), and Candida albicans. Safety was demonstrated by the low incidence of possibly drug-related adverse experiences, namely, 19 (2.7%) of 699 patients who were treated with clotrimazole, of whom four (0.6%) discontinued treatment. PMID:769697
Laccase from Trametes versicolor was successfully in situ encapsulated into the poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA)/PEO-PPO-PEO (F108) electrospun microfibers by emulsion electrospinning. The porous morphology of electrospun microfibers was observed with scanning electron microscope, and the core-shell structure of microfibers and existence of laccase in microfibers were proved by laser confocal scanning microscopy micrograph. In this study, fibrous porosity and core-shell structure are advantageous to the activity and stability preservation of immobilized laccase. The activity of immobilized laccase could retain over 67% of that of the free enzyme. After 10 successive runs in the enzyme reactor, the immobilized laccase could also maintain 50% of its initial activity. Crystal violet dye was successfully degraded by the PDLLA/F108-laccase electrospun microfiber membranes. It was observed that the immobilized laccase possessed a broadening pH range of catalysis activity compared to free laccase. PMID:20673716
Wood decay within forests, a significant renewable photosynthetic energy resource, is caused primarily by Basidiomycetous fungi, e.g., white rot fungi. These organisms possess the ability to degrade lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose, the main organic polymers of wood. In the case of the white rot fungi, e.g., Coriolus versicolor, the capacity results from the fungus` ability to elaborate extracellular cellulolytic and ligninolytic enzymes. With regard to the latter, at least one of the enzymes, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) appears within a defined growth medium. This proposal focuses on the over-production and enhanced secretion of PPO, cellulase and lignin peroxidase. There are two major sections to the proposal: (1) overproduction of lignocellulolytic enzymes by genetic engineering methodologies and hyper-production and enhanced secretion of these enzymes by biochemical/electro microscopical techniques and (2) the biochemical/electron microscopical method involves substrate induction and the time-dependent addition of respiration and PPO enzymes.
Previous studies in our laboratory used a spectrophotometric assay to study biomimetic solubilization of leonardite by sodium oxalate. It was found, however, that in extended incubations of several days, this assay resulted in overestimation of the percent of leonardite that was solubilized. This problem did not appear to be significant for short term incubations (ie., up to -24 h) and was circumvented in long term incubations by using a gravimetric assay to assay for solubilization. In other studies during this reporting period we examined oxalate production by P. chrysosporium and T. versicolor grown in Fahreus-Reinhammar medium in agitated pelleted culture. It was found that in this system concentrations of oxalate are produced that are much lower than those that would be optimal for leonardite solubilization.
Irvin, R.L. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences; Bumpus, J.A. [University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
Landscape habitat associations of frogs and toads in Iowa and Wisconsin were tested to determine whether they support or refute previous general habitat classifications. We examined which Midwestern species shared similar habitats to see if these associations were consistent across large geographic areas (states). Rana sylvatica (wood frog), Hyla versicolor (eastern gray treefrog), Pseudacris crucifer (spring peeper), and Acris crepitans (cricket frog) were identified as forest species, P. triseriata (chorus frog), H. chrysoscelis (Cope's gray treefrog), R. pipiens (leopard frog), and Bufo americanus (American toad) as grassland species, and R. catesbeiana (bullfrog), R. clamitans (green frog), R. palustris (pickerel frog), and R. septentrionalis (mink frog) as lake or stream species. The best candidates to serve as bioindicators of habitat quality were the forest species R. sylvatica, H. versicolor, and P. crucifer, the grassland species R. pipiens and P. triseriata, and a cold water wetland species, R. palustris. Declines of P. crucifer, R. pipiens, and R. palustris populations in one or both states may reflect changes in habitat quality. Habitat and community associations of some species differed between states, indicating that these relationships may change across the range of a species. Acris crepitans may have shifted its habitat affinities from open habitats, recorded historically, to the more forested habitat associations we recorded. We suggest contaminants deserve more investigation regarding the abrupt and widespread declines of this species. Interspersion of different habitat types was positively associated with several species. A larger number of wetland patches may increase breeding opportunities and increase the probability of at least one site being suitable. We noted consistently negative associations between anuran species and urban development. Given the current trend of urban growth and increasing density of the human population, declines of amphibian populations are likely to continue.
Pityrosporum and Candida-yeasts are opportunistic pathogens and infections require predisposing factors. These factors are also of major importance in treatment and the reason for recurrence and sometimes chronicity of the disease caused by these yeasts. Pityrosporum orbiculare and P.ovale are both lipophilic, probably identical, and both are members of the normal human cutaneous flora. In pityriasis versicolor they change from the blastospore form to the mycelial form. My favourite treatment for pityriasis versicolor is propylene glycol 50% in water applied with a gauze pad twice daily for 2 weeks. This will clear 95-100%. Other treatment modalities are: zinc pyrithione shampoo, selenium sulfide shampoo and the imidazoles. For extensive cases, patients who frequently relapse, and infections refractary to other treatments ketoconazole orally may be an effective alternative both therapeutically and prophylactically. In another disease caused by these yeasts, Pityrosporum folliculitis, both propylene glycol and ketoconazole are effective. Although Candida species are only seldom found on normal-looking skin predisposing factors are still the main reason for disease. Under the influence of these factors the organism changes from the blastospore to the mycelial form. The main predisposing factors important to control are: occlusion, underlying skin diseases, diabetes mellitus and immunodeficiency diseases. The imidazoles in a cream vehicle are very effective for many infections and applied for 2-3 weeks they will clear most lesions. The addition of a corticosteroid to the imidazole will not shorten the time of treatment but will give a more prompt symptomatic relief. In extensive cutaneous lesions and lesions refractary to other treatments ketoconazole is an effective alternative. PMID:3459338
There are few studies on associations between respiratory health and allergens, fungal and bacterial compounds in schools in tropical countries. The aim was to study associations between respiratory symptoms in pupils and ethnicity, chemical microbial markers, allergens and fungal DNA in settled dust in schools in Malaysia. Totally 462 pupils (96%) from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated. Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of different types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH), muramic acid, ergosterol, allergens and five fungal DNA sequences. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 13.1% pupils reported doctor's diagnosed asthma, 10.3% wheeze and 21.1% pollen or pet allergy. Indian and Chinese children had less atopy and asthma than Malay. Carbon dioxide levels were low (380-690 ppm). No cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f 1) or horse allergens (Ecu cx) were detected. The levels of Bloomia tropicalis (Blo t), house dust mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der m 1) and cockroach allergens (Per a 1 and Bla g 1) were low. There were positive associations between levels of Aspergillus versicolor DNA and daytime breathlessness, between C14 3-OH and respiratory infections and between ergosterol and doctors diagnosed asthma. There were negative (protective) associations between levels of C10 3-OH and wheeze, between C16 3-OH and day time and night time breathlessness, between cockroach allergens and doctors diagnosed asthma. Moreover there were negative associations between amount of fine dust, total endotoxin (LPS) and respiratory infections. In conclusion, endotoxin at school seems to be mainly protective for respiratory illness but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. Fungal contamination measured as ergosterol and Aspergillus versicolor DNA can be risk factors for respiratory illness. The ethnical differences for atopy and asthma deserve further attention. PMID:24523884
The antitumor effect of biological preparations was examined in a double grafted tumor system. PSK is a hot water extract of cultured mycelia from Coliolus versicolor. Its protein content is about 38% and the main glycoside portion of PSK is beta-D-glucan. Lentinan is purified from fruit bodies of Lentinus edodes and is a beta-1, 3-glucan. Cepharanthin is an extract from the root of Stephania cepharantha HAYATA, consisting of 4 kinds of biscoclaurine alkaloids. TAHEEBO tea is a hot water extract of Tabebuia avellanedae, the active ingredient of which is naphthoquinones. If protein-bound polysaccharides were to be used in Western medicine, these polysaccharides would be purified, but purified beta-glucan loses its beneficial effects. Similarly, when raw Cepharanthin is purified to isolate its active ingredient (an alkaloid cepharanthine), its anti-tumor effect is weakened. Clear IAP induction was observed in serum of mice treated with extracts of Coliolus versicolor and Stephania cepharantha. However, IAP induction was not observed in the serum of mice treated with purified beta-glucan or purified alkaloid. This suggests that macrophages may recognize extracts but not purified substances. In Western medicine, purified substances with known chemical structures are recognized as drugs, but overdoses of these drugs are toxic to the body, thus adverse reactions are always an issue. In Chinese medicine, mixtures containing several crude drugs are recognized as drugs, whose active ingredients are not identified. In integrative medicine, drugs are extracts that contain active ingredients with known structures and functions. We propose a Japanese version of integrative medicine which is neither Western nor Chinese. PMID:11707968
While there is a large variation of prevalence of asthma symptoms worldwide, what we do know is that it is on the rise in developing countries. However, there are few studies on allergens, moulds and mycotoxin exposure in schools in tropical countries. The aims were to measure selected fungal DNA, furry pet allergens and mycotoxins in dust samples from schools in Malaysia and to study associations with pupils' respiratory health effects. Eight secondary schools and 32 classrooms in Johor Bahru, Malaysia were randomly selected. A questionnaire with standardized questions was used for health assessment in 15 randomly selected pupils from each class. The school buildings were inspected and both indoor and outdoor climate were measured. Dust samples were collected by cotton swabs and Petri dishes for fungal DNA, mycotoxins and allergens analysis. The participation rate was 96% (462/480 invited pupils), with a mean age of 14 yr (range 14-16). The pupils mostly reported daytime breathlessness (41%), parental asthma or allergy (22%), pollen or pet allergy (21%) and doctor-diagnosed asthma (13%) but rarely reported night-time breathlessness (7%), asthma in the last 12 months (3%), medication for asthma (4%) or smoking (5%). The inspection showed that no school had any mechanical ventilation system, but all classrooms had openable windows that were kept open during lectures. The mean building age was 16 yr (range 3-40) and the mean indoor and outdoor CO(2) levels were 492 ppm and 408 ppm, respectively. The mean values of indoor and outdoor temperature and relative humidity were the same, 29°C and 70% respectively. In cotton swab dust samples, the Geometric Mean (GM) value for total fungal DNA and Aspergillus/Penicillium (Asp/Pen) DNA in swab samples (Cell Equivalents (CE)/m(2)) was 5.7*10(8) and 0.5*10(8), respectively. The arithmetic mean (CE/m(2)) for Aspergillus versicolor DNA was 8780, Stachybotrys chartarum DNA was 26 and Streptomyces DNA was 893. The arithmetic means (pg/m(2)) for the mycotoxins sterigmatocystin and verrucarol were 2547 and 17, respectively. In Petri dish dust samples, the GM value for total fungal DNA and Asp/Pen DNA (CE/m(2) per day) was 9.2*10(6) and 1.6*10(6), respectively. The arithmetic mean (CE/m(2) per day) for A. versicolor DNA was 1478, S. chartarum DNA was 105 and Streptomyces DNA was 1271, respectively. The GM value for cat (Fel d1) allergen was 5.9 ng/m(2) per day. There were positive associations between A. versicolor DNA, wheeze and daytime breathlessness and between Streptomyces DNA and doctor-diagnosed asthma. However, the associations were inverse between S. chartarum DNA and daytime breathlessness and between verrucarol and daytime breathlessness. In conclusion, fungal DNA and cat allergen contamination were common in schools from Malaysia and there was a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms among pupils. Moreover, there were associations between levels of some fungal DNA and reported respiratory health in the pupils. PMID:21457336
Minerals play a key role in controlling the mobility and distribution of metals and metalloids of environmental concern in supergenic environments. These are involved in a variety of processes, spanning the alteration of primary minerals to the formation of secondary authigenic phases and can represent a source or a trap for Potentially Ecotoxic Elements (PTEs). Soil, sediments, and waters heavily polluted with PTEs through AMD processes are a reservoir of a unusual bacteria and fungi well adapted to these toxic environments. Classical studies of biotic weathering have mainly focused on water-mineral interaction and on the ability of microorganism to influence the soil solution chemical composition. In this work, we analyzed two different representative ochreous and greenish-blue AMD colloidal precipitates in order to i) characterize the biota population present in these colloidal minerals and ii) verify the bioaccumulation of PTEs into the fungi and the potential impact of bacteria in the geochemistry of the system. The samples are composed by nanocrystalline goethite which contains high amounts of Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni and woodwardite that is characterized by Cu, Zn, Ni, Y, and Ce. These precipitates were examined in order to evaluate the presence of fungal strains and to extract bacteria DNA. The preliminary results of fungi characterization show an interesting and selected mycobiota able to survive under unfavourable environmental conditions. A significant number of fungal strains was isolated in pure culture. Most of them belong to the genus Mucor and Penicillium. It is worth noting the presence of Trametes versicolor, a macrofungal lignicolous species already known for heavy metal biosorption capability from aqueous solution (Gülay et al 2003). The same colloidal precipitates have been processed to extract bacteria DNA, using a specific procedure developed for DNA extraction from sediments. The results gave a good yield of nucleic acids and the positive PCR amplification of 16S rDNA accomplished the first step for future metagenomic analysis. Gülay B., Sema B., M. Yakup A.. 2003 Biosorption of heavy metal ions on immobilized white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Journal of Hazardous Materials B101 (2003) 285-300
A personal cyclone sampler (cyclone) was operated in a 0.9-m3 chamber, side by side with a 25-mm filter sampler (filter) and either a slit impactor (Air-O-Cell) or a single-stage, multiple-hole, agar impactor (N6). Aerosols of two fungal spores were collected for 5 min to 5 hr-Aspergillus versicolor: 10, 20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 min; concentration: 10(2)-10(5) spore m(-3); Scopulariopsis brevicaulis: 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30-min; concentration: 10(3)-10(5) spore m(-3) (six replicates for each sampling time). For each fungus, air concentrations were determined by a 15-channel optical particle counter (particle m(-3); N = 36), microscopy (spore m(-3); cyclone and filter, N = 36; Air-O-Cell, N = 18), culture (colony forming unit m(-3); cyclone and filter, N = 36; N6, N = 18), and polymerase chain reaction (cell equivalent m(-3); cyclone and filter, N = 36). Samplers were significantly correlated with each other as were the three analyses (correlation coefficients = 0.79-1.00 and 0.87-0.98, respectively). Ratios were calculated for simultaneous measurements with the cyclone and comparison samplers and for paired colony:spore, colony:cell equivalent, and cell equivalent:spore measurements for the cyclone and filter samples. The cyclone equaled or underestimated the other samplers for both fungi and all analyses (mean ratio: 0.75-1.04). A. versicolor colony and cell equivalent measurements exceeded spore measurements although microscopy should detect all spores not just culturable ones, perhaps due to difficulty observing the smaller spores or detection of DNA in cell fragments in addition to intact spores. Plots of the ratios of paired measurements against their averages identified biases between samplers and analyses. For example, ratios were correlated with spore concentration, and there was greater uncertainty at lower concentrations. These chamber tests have shown that the cyclone is suitable for collection of airborne fungal spores over a wide concentration range and time period and for analysis by microscopy, culture, and polymerase chain reaction. PMID:18720289
Background Dermatologic disorders are common in many countries but the spectrum varies greatly. Many studies have reported a significant burden of skin diseases in school children. The objective of this study was to determine the current spectrum of dermatological disorders in primary school children in Dar es Salaam city. Methods Primary school children were recruited by multistage sampling. Detailed interview, dermatological examination and appropriate laboratory investigations were performed. Data was analyzed using the 'Statistical Package for Social Sciences' (SPSS) program version 10.0 and EPI6. A p-value of < 0.5 was significant. Results A total of 420 children were recruited (51% males; mean age 11.4 ± 2.8 years; range 6-19 years). The overall point prevalence of any skin disorder was 57.3% and it was 61.9% and 52.6% in males and females respectively (p = 0.05). Infectious dermatoses accounted for 30.4% with superficial fungal infections (dermatophytoses and pityriasis versicolor) being the commonest (20%). Dermatophytoses were diagnosed in 11.4% (48/420); the prevalence in males and females being 12.6% and 10.1% respectively (p = 0.41) and higher (21.8%) in the age-group 6-10 years (p = 0.045). Fungal cultures were positive in 42/48 children (88%). All three dermatophyte genera were isolated. Tinea capitis was the commonest disease among culture-positive dermatophytoses (30/42; 71.4%) with an overall prevalence of 7.1% (30/420) followed by tinea pedis (11/42; 26.1%) whose overall prevalence was 2.6%. Microsporum canis was common in tinea capitis (14/30; 46.7%) followed by Trichophyton violaceum (6/30; 20%). Trichophyton rubrum was common in tinea pedis (5/11; 45.5%). Thirty six children (8.6%) had pityriasis versicolor which was more prevalent (6/27; 22.l2%) in the age group 16-19 years (p = 0.0004). The other common infectious dermatoses were pyodermas (4%) and pediculosis capitis (3.6%). Common non-infectious dermatoses were: acne vulgaris (36.4%), non-specific dermatoses (10.7%), non-specific ulcers (5%) and atopic eczema (2.6%). Rare conditions (prevalence < 1%) included: vitiligo, alopecia areata and intertrigo. The majority of the affected children (67.2%) did not seek any medical assistance. Conclusions Skin disorders are common in primary school children; infectious dermatoses are still rampant and many children do not seek medical assistance.
Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequences of each of the PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.
D`Souza, T.M.; Boominathan, K.; Reddy, C.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)
Polysaccharides produced by microorganisms represent an industrially unexploited market. An important number of polysaccharides have been isolated from fungi, especially mushrooms, with many interesting biological functions, such as antitumor, hypoglycemic, and immunostimulating activities. In the search of new sources of fungal polysaccharides, the main goal of this research was to test the ability of several species of basidiomycetes, among them various edible mushrooms, to produce both extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) and intracellular polysaccharides (IPSs). Among 10 species screened for production of EPSs in submerged cultures with glucose, soy oil, and yeast extract, the best results were obtained with Ganoderma lucidum (0.79 g/L EPS) and Pleurotus ostreatus (0.75 g/L EPS). Agitation strongly improved EPS production in most of the studied strains. Eight of 10 species assayed successfully developed basidiomes during synthetic "bag-log" cultivation on a substrate consisting of oak sawdust and corn bran. This work describes for the first time the environmental factors required for fruiting of 4 species under such conditions: Schizophyllum commune, Ganoderma applanatum, Trametes versicolor, and T. trogii. IPSs were extracted from the carpophores. The IPS content of the carpophores varied from 1.4% (G. applanatum) up to 5.5% and 6% in G. lucidum and Grifola frondosa, respectively. PMID:23510286
Montoya, Sandra; Sanchez, Oscar Julian; Levin, Laura
The method of combining white rot fungal strains was used to enhance laccase activity, and the interaction mechanism between strains was also studied. The laccase activity of combined fungi of strain 55 (Trametes trogii) and strain m-6 (Trametes versicolor) were 24.13 and 4.07-fold higher than that of strain 55 and strain m-6, respectively. No inhibitory effect was observed when the two strains were co-cultivated. On plate cultivation, there was hyphal interference in the contact area, where laccase activity was the highest followed by brown pigmentation. In liquid cultivation, strain m-6 played much more important role on enhancement of laccase activity, and the laccase activity of strain 55 by adding strain m-6 was 7.03-fold higher than that of strain m-6 by adding strain 55, furthermore, filter sterilized- and high temperature autoclaved-extracellular substances of strain m-6 could also stimulate strain 55 to excrete more laccase, which led to 6.79-fold and 4. 60-fold increase in laccase activity by adding 20 mL, respectively. The native staining results of Native-PAGE showed that the types of laccase isozymes were not changed when strains were co-cultured, but the concentration of three types increased. PMID:20391719
The effect of amino acids, complex nitrogen sources and vitamin addition on Trametes trogii, Trametes villosa and Coriolus versicolor var. antarcticus ligninolytic enzyme production, was evaluated. Dye decolorization by their culture filtrates was compared. Glutamic acid followed by peptone, were the best N sources for laccase and manganese peroxidase production. The three fungi produced two laccase isoenzymes (molecular weights from 38 up to 150 kDa); their pattern of production was not affected by medium composition. Although the response was not uniform, vitamin addition sometimes stimulated ligninolytic enzyme production, but never inhibited it. Thiamine induced manganese peroxidase production. T. trogii grown in glutamic acid produced culture filtrates with the highest laccase (188.3 U/ml) and manganese peroxidase activities (4.5 U/ml), rendering the best results in decolorization. These crude filtrates were able to decolorize in half hour (at pH 4.5, 30 degrees C): 13%, 23%, 40%, 46%, 82%, 94% and 95% of Gentian Violet, Xylidine, Congo Red, Malachite Green, Remazol Brilliant Blue R, Indigo Carmine and Anthraquinone Blue, respectively. PMID:20153961
Numerous efforts have been made to remove emerging trace organic contaminants, such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). This study examined the removal of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) by Trametes versicolor laccase and its laccase-mediator systems. Experimental results showed that DEET was poorly removed by laccase alone. The poor removal efficiency of DEET by laccase may be attributed to the presence of strong withdrawing electron group (-CO-N [CH2-CH3]2) in the chemical structure of DEET. Experimental results also indicated that DEET might be indirectly oxidized by laccase-mediator systems. More than 50% initial DEET amount was removed by laccase in the presence of a redox mediator, such as 2,2'-azino-bis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] (ABTS) or 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT). However, laccase activity was considerably decreased in the presence of a redox mediator (ABTS or HBT). Further studies on identification of degradation byproducts and degradation pathways are recommended. PMID:24034986
Superficial fungal infections are chronic and recurring conditions. Tinea capitis is a scalp infection, primarily affecting prepubescent children. Ringworm infections, such as tinea corporis and tinea cruris, involve the glabrous skin. Tinea nigra is a rare mycotic infection that may be related to travel abroad. Piedra, black or white, is limited to the hair shaft without involvement of the adjacent skin. Pityriasis (tinea) versicolor and seborrheic dermatitis are dermatoses associated with yeasts of the genus Malassezia that affect the lipid-rich areas of the body. The taxonomy of the Malassezia yeasts has been revised to include nine species, eight of which have been recovered from humans. Tinea pedis, an infection of the feet and toes, is one of the most common forms of dermatophytosis. Onychomycosis is a fungal infection affecting the nail bed and nail plate; it may be chronic and can be difficult to treat. In instances where the superficial fungal infection is severe or chronic, an oral antifungal agent should be considered. Terbinafine, itraconazole, and fluconazole are oral antifungals that are effective in the treatment of superficial mycoses. PMID:15301570
Gupta, Aditya K; Cooper, Elizabeth A; Ryder, Jennifer E; Nicol, Karyn A; Chow, Melody; Chaudhry, Maria M
The stratum corneum (SC) provides a vital barrier membrane between the external environment and the vulnerable internal tissues of the skin. It impedes the flow of water, the penetration of xenobiotics, and invasion of pathogenic micro-organisms. It also has protective capacity against ultraviolet radiation and thermal injury. As routine histopathology provides a misleading picture of a disorganized and shadowy SC, we would recommend the skin surface biopsy technique. This painless technique is easy and reliable in obtaining information from the SC. It demonstrates the geometric patterns of the surface, the openings of the eccrine ducts and hair follicles. The skin surface biopsy technique is also ideal for the investigation of the in situ microbiology of skin. Staining with periodic acid Schiff reagent makes it possible to see ringworm fungi, pityriasis versicolor, candida species, or erythrasma micro-organisms. Scanning electron microscopy can be employed when the higher magnification is needed. Histochemical applications include silver staining for melanin particle, potassium ferricyanide staining for blood pigments and lipid staining with Sudan red, for sebum. The rate of movement of topically applied drugs into the skin can be measured using the skin surface biopsy technique. The concentration of radiolabelled drugs can be counted and compared. Comedogenicity and DNA analysis are other applications of this non-invasive technique. PMID:10900833
Using the dilution-plate method, 27 genera and 64 species were collected from 20 air-dust samples on glucose - (24 genera and 57 species) and cellulose - (21 genera and 45 species) Czapek's agar at 28 degrees C. There are basic similarities between the mycoflora of air-dust on the two media and the most prevalent species were Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, A. terreus, A. versicolor, Penicillium chrysogenum, P. funiculosum, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium herbarum, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer and Trichoderma viride. Chaetomium globosum, Stachybotrys chartarum, Humicola grisea and Arthrobotrys oligospora were common only on cellulose agar plates. Extracts of mycelium from 25 isolates were tested with brine schrimp (Artemia salina); of these 23 displayed varying degrees of toxicity. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of 12 isolates of Aspergillus flavus revealed that 4 strains were producing detectable aflatoxin. Zearalenone production was noted for 3 out of 5 strains of Fusarium oxysporum and 2 out of 5 strains of F. solani. PMID:2938009
Abdel-Hafez, S I; Shoreit, A A; Abdel-Hafez, A I; el Maghraby, O M
The decline in amphibians across the globe has sparked a search for the causes, and recent evidence suggests a connection with pesticides. However, for most pesticides, tests on amphibians are rare and conducted only for short durations (1 to 4 days) and without natural stressors. Recent studies have discovered that the stress of predator cues in the water can make insecticides much more lethal to larval amphibians, but it is unknown whether this phenomenon can be generalized to other types of pesticides. Using six species of North American amphibian larvae (Rana sylvatica, R. pipiens, R. clamitans, R. catesbeiana, Bufo americanus, and Hyla versicolor), I examined the impact of a globally common herbicide (Roundup) on the survival of tadpoles for 16 days with and without the chemical cues emitted by predatory newts (Notophthalmus viridescens). LC50(16-d) estimates varied from 0.55 to 2.52 mg of active ingredient (AI)/L, which was considerably lower than the few previous studies using Roundup (1.5 to 15.5 mg AI/L). Moreover, in one of the six species tested (R. sylvatica), the addition of predatory stress made Roundup twice as lethal. This discovery suggests that synergistic interactions between predatory stress and pesticides may indeed be a generalizable phenomenon in amphibians that occurs with a wide variety of pesticides. PMID:15886853
Frog virus 3 (FV3) and FV3-like viruses, are members of the genus Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae), and they have been associated with infectious diseases that may be contributing to amphibian population declines. We examined the mode of transmission of an FV3-like virus, and potential hosts and reservoirs of the virus in a local amphibian community. Using the polymerase chain reaction to detect infected animals, we found an FV3-like virus in south-central Ontario, Canada, amphibian communities, where it infects sympatric amphibian species, including ranid and hylid tadpoles (Rana sylvatica, Hyla versicolor, and Pseudacris spp.), larval salamanders (Ambystoma spp.), and adult eastern-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens). The high prevalence of FV3-like infections in caudate larvae suggests that salamanders are likely to be both hosts and reservoirs. In laboratory FV3 challenges of R. sylvatica, the rate of infection was dependent on the amount of virus to which the animals were exposed. In addition, although vertical transmission was suspected, horizontal transmission through exposure to infected pond water is the most likely route of infection in tadpoles. Based on our observations, a simple model of FV3/FV3-like virus transmission postulates that, in aquatic amphibian communities, transmission of the virus occurs between anuran and urodele species, with ambystomatid salamanders the most likely reservoir for the ranavirus in our study. PMID:18263826
Duffus, A L J; Pauli, B D; Wozney, K; Brunetti, C R; Berrill, M
To detect aquatic animal diseases of national concern, 111 individual amphibians, including wood frogs Rana sylvatica (28), spring peepers Pseudacris crucifer (35), red-spotted newts Notophthalmus viridescens (41), and gray tree frogs Hyla versicolor (7), were sampled at seven different sites in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area (DGNRA), Pennsylvania, from June 14 to July 19, 2007. These samples were screened for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and viral pathogens at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Fish Health Center in Lamar, Pennsylvania. Cell culture revealed cytopathic effect (CPE) in two cell lines (epithelioma papillosum cyprini and fathead minnow) inoculated with liver, kidney, and spleen samples from one sample pool of Notophthalmus viridescens (4 individuals). Polymerase chain reaction was conducted on cell culture supernatant exhibiting CPE. Sequencing revealed the resulting product to be identical to frog virus 3, a ranavirus in the family Iridoviridae. Upon gross examination, two Notophthalmus viridescens were found to exhibit dermal swelling and lethargy. Histological examination of these lesions revealed involvement by an Ichthyophonus sp. In summary, two pathogens of concern were found in amphibians in the DGNRA: a ranavirus with a major capsid protein sequence identical to that of frog virus 3 and a mesomycetozoan, Ichthyophonus sp. Although no epizootic die-offs were observed during this health survey, the results warrant further research into the distribution of these pathogens throughout the DGNRA because they have the potential to cause mass mortalities in amphibians. PMID:20848885
Glenney, Gavin W; Julian, James T; Quartz, William M
Recent research indicates that RNA translocation occurs between certain parasitic plant species and their hosts. The movement of at least 27 mRNAs has been demonstrated between hosts and Cuscuta pentagona Engelm., with the largest proportion of these being regulatory genes. Movement of RNAi signals has been documented from hosts to the parasites Triphysaria versicolor (Frisch & CA Mey) and Orobanche aegyptiaca (Pers.), demonstrating that the regulation of genes in one species can be influenced by transfer of RNA signals through a parasitic association. This review considers the implications of these findings in light of present understanding of host-parasite connections and the growing body of evidence that RNAs are able to act as signal molecules that convey regulatory information in a cell- and tissue-specific manner. Together, this suggests that parasitic plants can exchange RNAs with their hosts, and that this may be part of the coordinated growth and development that occurs during the process of parasitism. This phenomenon offers promise for new insights into parasitic plants, and new opportunities for the control of parasitic weeds. PMID:19253417
Westwood, James H; Roney, Jeannine K; Khatibi, Piyum A; Stromberg, Verlyn K
A magnetically stabilized fluidized bed (MSFB) with the Cu(2+)-chelated magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MMSNPs-Cu(2+)) was established to purify laccase directly from the fermentation broth of Trametes versicolor. The MMSNPs-Cu(2+) particles in the MSFB maintained a stable bed expansion of two to threefold at a flow rate of 120-180 cm/h. At the optimal magnetic field intensity of 120 Gs, both the maximal Bodenstein number and the smallest axial dispersion coefficient were achieved, which resulted in a stable fluidization stage. The dynamic binding capacity of laccase in the MSFB decreased from 192.5 to144.3 mg/g when the flow velocity through the bed increased from 44.2 to 69.8 cm/h. The MSFB with MMSNPs-Cu(2+) achieved efficient laccase purification from the fermentation broth with 62.4-fold purification of laccase and 108.9 % activity yield. These results provided an excellent platform for the application of these magnetic mesoporous nanoparticles integrated with the MSFB in developing novel protein purification process. PMID:24037517
In the last 15 years, the genus Malassezia has been a topic of intense basic research on taxonomy, physiology, biochemistry, ecology, immunology, and metabolomics. Currently, the genus encompasses 14 species. The 1996 revision of the genus resulted in seven accepted taxa: M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. sympodialis, M. globosa, M. obtusa, M. restricta, and M. slooffiae. In the last decade, seven new taxa isolated from healthy and lesional human and animal skin have been accepted: M. dermatis, M. japonica, M. yamatoensis, M. nana, M. caprae, M. equina, and M. cuniculi. However, forthcoming multidisciplinary research is expected to show the etiopathological relationships between these new species and skin diseases. Hitherto, basic and clinical research has established etiological links between Malassezia yeasts, pityriasis versicolor, and sepsis of neonates and immunocompromised individuals. Their role in aggravating seborrheic dermatitis, dandruff, folliculitis, and onychomycosis, though often supported by histopathological evidence and favorable antifungal therapeutic outcomes, remains under investigation. A close association between skin and Malassezia IgE binding allergens in atopic eczema has been shown, while laboratory data support a role in psoriasis exacerbations. Finally, metabolomic research resulted in the proposal of a hypothesis on the contribution of Malassezia-synthesized aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands to basal cell carcinoma through UV radiation-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:22232373
Mincle (also called as Clec4e and Clecsf9) is a C-type lectin receptor expressed in activated phagocytes. Recently, we have demonstrated that Mincle is an FcR?-associated activating receptor that senses damaged cells. To search an exogenous ligand(s), we screened pathogenic fungi using cell line expressing Mincle, FcR?, and NFAT-GFP reporter. We found that Mincle specifically recognizes the Malassezia species among 50 different fungal species tested. Malassezia is a pathogenic fungus that causes skin diseases, such as tinea versicolor and atopic dermatitis, and fatal sepsis. However, the specific receptor on host cells has not been identified. Mutation of the putative mannose-binding motif within C-type lectin domain of Mincle abrogated Malassezia recognition. Analyses of glycoconjugate microarray revealed that Mincle selectively binds to ?-mannose but not mannan. Thus, Mincle may recognize specific geometry of ?-mannosyl residues on Malassezia species and use this to distinguish them from other fungi. Malassezia activated macrophages to produce inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. To elucidate the physiological function of Mincle, Mincle-deficient mice were established. Malassezia-induced cytokine/chemokine production by macrophages from Mincle?/? mice was significantly impaired. In vivo inflammatory responses against Malassezia was also impaired in Mincle?/? mice. These results indicate that Mincle is the first specific receptor for Malassezia species to be reported and plays a crucial role in immune responses to this fungus.
Various basidiomycetes, ascomycetes, and deuteromycetes, grown in a sugar-rich liquid medium, were compared for laccase-producing ability and for the inducing effect of 2,5-xylidine on laccase production. Clear stimulation of the extracellular enzyme formation by xylidine was obtained in the cultures of Fomes annosus, Pholiota mutabilis, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Trametes versicolor, whereas Rhizoctonia praticola and Botrytis cinerea were not affected by the xylidine, and in the case of Podospora anserina a decrease in laccase activity was observed. The laccases were purified, and electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels indicated a particular pattern for each laccase. The bands of the induced forms appeared only with basidiomycetes. The optimal pH of R. praticola laccase was in the neutral region, whereas the optima of all the other exolaccases were significantly lower (between pH 3.0 and 5.7). All laccases oxidized the methoxyphenolic acids under investigation, but there existed quantitative differences in oxidation efficiencies which depended on pH and on the nature (noninduced or induced) of the enzyme. The sensitivity of all enzymes to inhibitors did not differ considerably.
The purpose of this study was to develop molecular identification method for medical mushrooms and their preparations based on the nucleotide sequences of nuclear large subunit (LSU) rDNA. Four specimens were collected of each of the three representative medicinal mushrooms used in Korea: Ganoderma lucidum, Coriolus versicolor, and Fomes fomentarius. Fungal material used in these experiments included two different mycelial cultures and two different fruiting bodies from wild or cultivated mushrooms. The genomic DNA of mushrooms were extracted and 3 nuclear LSU rDNA fragments were amplified: set 1 for the 1.1-kb DNA fragment in the upstream region, set 2 for the 1.2-kb fragment in the middle, and set 3 for the 1.3-kb fragment downstream. The amplified gene products of nuclear large subunit rDNA from 3 different mushrooms were cloned into E. coli vector and subjected to nucleotide sequence determination. The sequence thus determined revealed that the gene sequences of the same medicinal mushroom species were more than 99.48% homologous, and the consensus sequences of 3 different medicinal mushrooms were more than 97.80% homologous. Restriction analysis revealed no useful restriction sites for 6-bp recognition enzymes for distinguishing the 3 sequences from one another, but some distinctive restriction patterns were recognized by the 4-bp recognition enzymes AccII and HhaI. This analysis was also confirmed by PCR-RFLP experiments on medicinal mushrooms. PMID:16554714
Lee, Ji Seon; Lim, Mi Ok; Cho, Kyoung Yeh; Cho, Jung Hee; Chang, Seung Yeup; Nam, Doo Hyun
Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases.
This study was conducted to evaluate the degradation of aromatic dyes and the production of ligninolytic enzymes by 10 white rot fungi. The results of this study revealed that Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, Pleurotus pulmonarius, Ganoderma lucidum, Trametes suaveolens, Stereum ostrea and Fomes fomentarius have the ability to efficiently degrade congo red on solid media. However, malachite green inhibited the mycelial growth of these organisms. Therefore, they did not effectively decolorize malachite green on solid media. However, P. cinnabarinus and P. pulmonarius were able to effectively decolorize malachite green on solid media. T. suaveolens and F. rosea decolorized methylene blue more effectively than any of the other fungi evaluated in this study. In liquid culture, G. lucidum, P. cinnabarinus, Naematoloma fasciculare and Pycnoporus coccineus were found to have a greater ability to decolorize congo red. In addition, P. cinnabarinus, G. lucidum and T. suaveolens decolorized methylene blue in liquid media more effectively than any of the other organisms evaluated in this study. Only F. fomentarius was able to decolorize malachite green in liquid media, and its ability to do so was limited. To investigate the production of ligninolytic enzymes in media containing aromatic compounds, fungi were cultured in naphthalene supplemented liquid media. P. coccineus, Coriolus versicolor and P. cinnabarinus were found to produce a large amount of laccase when grown in medium that contained napthalene.
The effects of exudates from uncolonized and from partly decayed beech wood on the extension rates of 16 later stage decay fungi were investigated. The partly decayed wood had been colonized by the pyrenomycete Eutypa spinosa, or the basidiomycetes Fomes fomentarius, Stereum hirsutum, and Trametes versicolor, all known as common early decay agents in European beech forests. Sterilized wood pieces were placed onto 0.5% malt agar, opposite to small agar plugs containing the test fungi. The latter showed very variable and species-specific growth responses to the various wood types. The presence of uncolonized wood stimulated extension rates in many species, whereas the four previously decayed wood types had variable stimulatory or inhibitory effects. Wood decayed by S. hirsutum resulted in reduced extension rate, delayed growth, or total inhibition in the majority of species, thus it is suggested that this species uses secondary metabolites in a defensive strategy. A single species was, however, stimulated in the presence of S. hirsutum-decayed wood. In contrast, the presence of wood decayed by F. fomentarius was stimulatory to 45% of the species. The other previously decayed wood types generally resulted in more variable responses, depending upon species. The results are discussed in an ecological context and it is suggested that the exudates from the partly decayed wood that are responsible for the reported effects may function as infochemicals, structuring microbial communities in wood. PMID:16003479
This study was conducted to evaluate the degradation of aromatic dyes and the production of ligninolytic enzymes by 10 white rot fungi. The results of this study revealed that Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, Pleurotus pulmonarius, Ganoderma lucidum, Trametes suaveolens, Stereum ostrea and Fomes fomentarius have the ability to efficiently degrade congo red on solid media. However, malachite green inhibited the mycelial growth of these organisms. Therefore, they did not effectively decolorize malachite green on solid media. However, P. cinnabarinus and P. pulmonarius were able to effectively decolorize malachite green on solid media. T. suaveolens and F. rosea decolorized methylene blue more effectively than any of the other fungi evaluated in this study. In liquid culture, G. lucidum, P. cinnabarinus, Naematoloma fasciculare and Pycnoporus coccineus were found to have a greater ability to decolorize congo red. In addition, P. cinnabarinus, G. lucidum and T. suaveolens decolorized methylene blue in liquid media more effectively than any of the other organisms evaluated in this study. Only F. fomentarius was able to decolorize malachite green in liquid media, and its ability to do so was limited. To investigate the production of ligninolytic enzymes in media containing aromatic compounds, fungi were cultured in naphthalene supplemented liquid media. P. coccineus, Coriolus versicolor and P. cinnabarinus were found to produce a large amount of laccase when grown in medium that contained napthalene. PMID:23990745
Runoff from turf environments, such as golf courses, is of increasing concern due to the associated chemical contamination of lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and ground water. Pesticide runoff due to fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides used to maintain golf courses in acceptable playing condition is a particular concern. One possible approach to mitigate such contamination is through the implementation of effective vegetative filter strips (VFS) on golf courses and other recreational turf environments. The objective of the current study was to screen ten aesthetically acceptable plant species for their ability to remove four commonly-used and degradable pesticides: chlorpyrifos (CP), chlorothalonil (CT), pendimethalin (PE), and propiconazole (PR) from soil in a greenhouse setting, thus providing invaluable information as to the species composition that would be most efficacious for use in VFS surrounding turf environments. Our results revealed that blue flag iris (Iris versicolor) (76% CP, 94% CT, 48% PE, and 33% PR were lost from soil after 3 mo of plant growth), eastern gama grass (Tripsacum dactyloides) (47% CP, 95% CT, 17% PE, and 22% PR were lost from soil after 3 mo of plant growth), and big blue stem (Andropogon gerardii) (52% CP, 91% CT, 19% PE, and 30% PR were lost from soil after 3 mo of plant growth) were excellent candidates for the optimization of VFS as buffer zones abutting turf environments. Blue flag iris was most effective at removing selected pesticides from soil and had the highest aesthetic value of the plants tested. PMID:18689747
Smith, Katy E; Putnam, Raymond A; Phaneuf, Clifford; Lanza, Guy R; Dhankher, Om P; Clark, John M
Mold investigations were conducted in four buildings that had been insulated with wet spray-applied cellulose insulation (WSACI). Bulk WSACI samples were collected and analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) methods. Airborne mold was evaluated using both Burkard total mold spore and Andersen culturable/viable sampling methods. Although reportedly treated with biocidal borates, QPCR analyses indicated that elevated concentrations of mold cells (reported as spore equivalents per gram) may be present in WSACI. QPCR analyses showed the following: (1) very high concentrations of Penicillium chrysogenum in samples from two of four buildings; (2) very high concentrations of Stachybotrys chartarum in samples from one building and a more moderate presence in a second; (3) moderately high concentrations of Aspergillus versicolor in samples from one building and more moderate concentrations in a second; (4) the presence of the opportunistic pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, in samples from three of the four buildings, and (5) the presence of 22 of 23 target mold species. Elevated airborne total mold spore concentrations were observed in all four of the buildings investigated. Culturable/viable airborne mold concentrations were moderately elevated in three of the four buildings. Mold genera/types present were relatively consistent among airborne mold samples collected by both methods and bulk sample analyses. Results of this study suggest that WSACI has the potential to cause elevated airborne mold levels in buildings where it has been applied and pose significant mold exposure and public health risks. PMID:16499151
Trifoliate orange seed extracts (TSEs) were made using either distilled water (TW), ethanol (TE), or n-hexane (TH), to measure total polyphenol contents, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and anti-complementary activity. The results showed that the total polyphenol content showed higher value at TE (235.24 ?g/mL, p<0.05) than those of TW (132.65 ?g/mL) and TH (165.44 ?g/mL) at 10 mg/mL and TE exerted the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (61.77%, p<0.05), which occurred in the following order: TE>TW (56.87%)>TH (39.78%). The results of ABTS radical scavenging activity showed that TW (34.26%) and TE (31.81%) showed similar activities, which were higher than TH (12.74%, p<0.05). Anti-complementary activity of TE (61% at 500 ?g/mL) showed a higher activity when compared with the positive control (60% at 1,000 ?g/mL) polysaccharide-K (PSK), a known immuno-active polysaccharide from Coriolus versicolor. Consequently, among TSEs, TE is a byproduct from trifoliate orange and could be an important source of dietary polyphenolic antioxidant compounds and immunopotentiating activity, including complement activation.
Chaetochromones A (1) and B (2), two novel polyketides, were isolated from the crude extract of fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68) together with three known analogues PI-3(3), PI-4 (4) and SB236050 (5). The structures of these compounds were determined by HRESI-MS and NMR experiments. Chaetochromones A (1) and B (2) are a member of the polyketides family, which might originate from a similar biogenetic pathway as the known compounds PI-3 (3), PI-4 (4) and SB236050 (5). The biological activities of these secondary metabolites were evaluated against eight plant pathogens, including Alternaria alternata, Ilyonectria radicicola, Trichoderma viride pers, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium verticillioide, Irpex lacteus (Fr.), Poria placenta (Fr.) Cooke and Coriolus versicolor (L.) Quél. Compound 1 displayed moderate inhibitory rate (>60%) against the brown rot fungus Poria placenta (Fr.) Cooke, which causes significant wood decay. In addition, the cytotoxic activities against three cancer cell lines A549, MDA-MB-231, PANC-1 were also tested, without any inhibitory activities being detected. PMID:24013408
Lu, Keyang; Zhang, Yisheng; Li, Li; Wang, Xuewei; Ding, Gang
Trifoliate orange seed extracts (TSEs) were made using either distilled water (TW), ethanol (TE), or n-hexane (TH), to measure total polyphenol contents, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and anti-complementary activity. The results showed that the total polyphenol content showed higher value at TE (235.24 ?g/mL, p<0.05) than those of TW (132.65 ?g/mL) and TH (165.44 ?g/mL) at 10 mg/mL and TE exerted the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (61.77%, p<0.05), which occurred in the following order: TE>TW (56.87%)>TH (39.78%). The results of ABTS radical scavenging activity showed that TW (34.26%) and TE (31.81%) showed similar activities, which were higher than TH (12.74%, p<0.05). Anti-complementary activity of TE (61% at 500 ?g/mL) showed a higher activity when compared with the positive control (60% at 1,000 ?g/mL) polysaccharide-K (PSK), a known immuno-active polysaccharide from Coriolus versicolor. Consequently, among TSEs, TE is a byproduct from trifoliate orange and could be an important source of dietary polyphenolic antioxidant compounds and immunopotentiating activity, including complement activation. PMID:24471075
Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) prepared from the basidiomycete Coriolus versicolor has been used as a biological response modifier for the treatment of cancer patients. Many studies describing the immunomodulatory effects and direct anti-cancer effects of PSK have been reported. Most of studies describing the immunomodulatory effects focused on cellular immunity, although there were several studies which focused on humoral immunity where PSK was shown to be able to induce antibody production in vivo. However, even in these humoral immunity studies, it is thought that the enhancement of antibody production was due to the activation of cellular immunity. In this study, we investigated the direct effect of PSK on B cells and discovered that PSK was able to enhance IgM production in the human B cell line BALL-1. Furthermore, BALL-1 was shown to have the characteristic features of B-1a cells, which are independently involved in the primary immune response. These results show that there is a possibility that PSK directly acts on B cells and simultaneously enhances both humoral immunity and cellular immunity. PMID:18848763
To study the effect of exogenous oxygen, we added water solution of paraquat to 7 d cultures of Coriolus versicolor for the next 148 h. Enzyme exudation and biochemical process were investigated on the addition of paraquat. We found that compared with the control (without paraquat), the addition of 30 micromol/L paraquat stimulated the activity of manganese dependent peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP), and laccases (Lac) 7, 2.5 and 1.3 times, respectively. Also, addition of paraquat enhanced activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the first 48 h. Impact of paraquat on ligninolytic enzymes was significant than that on antioxidant enzyme. Addition of paraquat enhanced phenolic compounds and formaldehyde of cultures too. And concentration of malondialdehyde was increased in the first 24 h. The results showed that addition of paraquat promoted oxidative stress, but the antioxidant systems of the fungal strain are sufficient to prevent mycelia from oxidative stress. As exogenous oxygen, paraquat might be a useful substrate in degradation of lignocellulose. PMID:19938450
A controlled and up-scalable route for the biosynthesis of silver nanopartilces (NPs) mediated by fungal proteins of Coriolus versicolor has been undertaken for the first time. The fungus when challenged with silver nitrate solution accumulated silver NPs on its surface in 72h which could be reduced to 1h by tailoring the reaction conditions. Under alkaline conditions, the reaction was much faster and could easily proceed at room temperature even without stirring. The resulting Ag NPs displayed controllable structural and optical properties depending on the experimental parameters such as pH and reaction temperatures. The average size, morphology, and structure of particles were determined by AFM, TEM, XRD and UV/Visible absorption spectrophotometry. Fourier transform infrared study disclosed that the amino groups were bound to the particles, which was accountable for the stability of NPs. It further confirmed the presence of protein as the stabilizing and capping agent surrounding the silver NPs. Experiments were conducted both with, media in which fungus was initially harvested and that of pristine fungal mycelium alone. Under normal conditions, in the case of media extracellular synthesis took place whereby other than the fungal proteins, glucose was also responsible for the reduction. In the case of fungal mycelium, the intracellular formation of Ag NPs, could be tailored to give both intracellular and extracellular Ag NPs under alkaline conditions whereby the surface S-H groups of the fungus played a major role. PMID:18625550
In Asia, medicinal mushrooms have been popularly used as folk medicine and functional foods. In this study, our aim was to examine the inhibitory effects of six medicinal mushrooms on key enzymes (?-amylase and ?-glucosidase) related to hyperglycemia; chemical profiles of bioactive extracts were also examined. The results showed that the n-hexane extract of Coriolus versicolor had the strongest anti-?-amylase activity, while the n-hexane extract of Grifola frondosa showed the most potent anti-?-glucosidase activity. Compared with acarbose, the anti-?-amylase activity of all mushroom extracts was weaker, however a stronger anti-?-glucosidase activity was noted. GC-MS analysis showed that the magnitude of potency of inhibiting ?-glucosidase activity varied with the levels of oleic acid and linoleic acid present in the extracts. These findings were consistent with the IC50 values of these free fatty acids on inhibiting ?-glucosidase activity. Taken together, this study suggests that oleic acid and linoleic acid could have contributed to the potent anti-?-glucosidase activity of selected medicinal mushrooms. PMID:23396484
The aim of this study was to characterize the properties of juvenile and mature heartwood of Robinia pseudoacacia L. (black locust). The content, the composition, and subcellular localization of heartwood extractives were studied in 14 old-grown trees from forest sites in Germany and Hungary, as well as in 16 younger trees of four clone types. Heartwood extractives (methanol and acetone extraction) were analysed by HPLC-chromatography. UV microspectrophotometry was used to localize the extractives in the wood cell walls. The natural durability of juvenile and mature heartwood was analysed according to the European standard EN 350-1. Growth analyses, as well as the chemical analyses, showed that in Robinia the formation of juvenile wood is restricted to the first 10-15 years of cambial growth. In the heartwood high contents of phenolic compounds and flavonoids were present, which were in high concentrations in the cell walls of the axial parenchyma and of the vessels. In the juvenile heartwood, the content of these extractives is significantly lower than in the mature heartwood. In agree, the juvenile heartwood had a lower resistance to decay by Coniophora puteana (brown rot fungus) and Coriolus versicolor (white rot fungus) compared to the mature. PMID:21779654
Latorraca, João V F; Dünisch, Oliver; Koch, Gerald
Recent evidence suggested that prostate cancer stem/progenitor cells (CSC) are responsible for cancer initiation as well as disease progression. Unfortunately, conventional therapies are only effective in targeting the more differentiated cancer cells and spare the CSCs. Here, we report that PSP, an active component extracted from the mushroom Turkey tail (also known as Coriolus versicolor), is effective in targeting prostate CSCs. We found that treatment of the prostate cancer cell line PC-3 with PSP led to the down-regulation of CSC markers (CD133 and CD44) in a time and dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, PSP treatment not only suppressed the ability of PC-3 cells to form prostaspheres under non-adherent culture conditions, but also inhibited their tumorigenicity in vivo, further proving that PSP can suppress prostate CSC properties. To investigate if the anti-CSC effect of PSP may lead to prostate cancer chemoprevention, transgenic mice (TgMAP) that spontaneously develop prostate tumors were orally fed with PSP for 20 weeks. Whereas 100% of the mice that fed with water only developed prostate tumors at the end of experiment, no tumors could be found in any of the mice fed with PSP, suggesting that PSP treatment can completely inhibit prostate tumor formation. Our results not only demonstrated the intriguing anti-CSC effect of PSP, but also revealed, for the first time, the surprising chemopreventive property of oral PSP consumption against prostate cancer. PMID:21603625
Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) is extracted from Coriolus versicolor (CM101). PSK is a biological response modifier (BRM), and its mechanism of action is partly mediated by modulating host immune systems; however, recent studies showed antiproliferative activity of PSK. Therefore, we examined the mechanism underlying the antiproliferative activity of PSK using seven different human malignant cell lines (WiDr, HT29, SW480, KATOIII, AGS, HL-60 and U937), and PSK was found to inhibit the proliferation of HL-60 cells most profoundly. Therefore, HL-60 cells were used to elucidate the mechanism of the antiproliferative activity. Western blotting was performed to detect phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). A p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, was used to examine the roles in PSK-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition. Flow cytometry was performed for mitochondrial membrane potential detection. PSK activated caspase-3 and induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Co-treatment with SB203580 blocked PSK-induced apoptosis, caspase-3 activation and growth inhibition. PSK induced apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. The depolarization of mitochondria induced by PSK was reversed by co-treatment with SB203580. The present study revealed that PSK induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells via a mitochondrial and p38 MAPK-dependent pathway. PMID:23604455
“Blue” copper-containing proteins are multidomain proteins that utilize a unique redox property of copper ions. Among other blue multicopper oxidases, three-domain oxidases belong to the group of proteins that exhibit a wide variety of compositions in amino acid sequences, functions, and occurrences in organisms. This paper presents a review of the data obtained from X-ray diffraction investigations of the three-dimensional structures of three-domain multicopper oxidases, such as the ascorbate oxidase catalyzing oxidation of ascorbate to dehydroascorbate and its three derivatives; the multicopper oxidase CueO (the laccase homologue); the laccases isolated from the basidiomycetes Coprinus cinereus, Trametes versicolor, Coriolus zonatus, Cerrena maxima, and Rigidoporus lignosus and the ascomycete Melanocarpus albomyces; and the bacterial laccases CotA from the endospore coats of Bacillus subtilis. A comparison of the molecular structures of the laccases of different origins demonstrates that, structurally, these objects are highly conservative. This obviously indicates that the catalytic activity of the enzymes under consideration is characterized by similar mechanisms.
Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Zhukova, Yu. N.; Lyashenko, A. V.; Za?tsev, V. N.; Mikha?lov, A. M.
Protein-bound polysaccharide K (PSK) is derived from the CM-101 strain of the fungus Coriolus versicolor. Several clinical studies have demonstrated that PSK has antitumor properties. In Japan, PSK has been used as an adjuvant chemotherapeutic drug against gastric cancer. However, there is little evidence about the effectiveness of PSK in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of PSK on postoperative recurrence in patients with gastric cancer. The patients with Stage II/III gastric cancer who underwent a surgical curative resection between 1999 and 2008 at the Department of Surgical Oncology, Osaka City University were included in this retrospective study. All patients received oral fluorinated pyrimidine anti-metabolites with or without PSK after surgical operation. We analyzed clinicopathological features and evaluated the impact of PSK on postoperative recurrence. One hundred thirty eight patients received oral anti-metabolized alone (control group) and 116 patients received PSK (PSK group). No significant difference between control and PSK group in relapse free survival was detected. In PSK group, venous invasion was an independent factor for postoperative recurrence (p=0. 004, HR 1. 538, 95% CI 1. 152 to 2.054). Our results suggested that a population with venous infiltration of primary lesion should be at risk of recurrence after surgery even if PSK was administered as postoperative adjuvant therapy. PMID:21224540
Mushrooms are an integral part of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and have been used for millennia to prevent or treat a variety of diseases. Currently mushrooms or their extracts are used globally in the form of dietary supplements. In the present study we have evaluated the anticancer effects of the dietary supplement, MycoPhyto® Complex (MC), a novel medicinal mushroom blend which consists of a blend of mushroom mycelia from the species Agaricus blazei, Cordyceps sinensis, Coriolus versicolor, Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Polyporus umbellatus, and ?-1,3-glucan isolated from the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we show that MC demonstrates cytostatic effects through the inhibition of cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase of highly invasive human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231. DNA-microarray analysis revealed that MC inhibits expression of cell cycle regulatory genes (ANAPC2, ANAPC2, BIRC5, Cyclin B1, Cyclin H, CDC20, CDK2, CKS1B, Cullin 1, E2F1, KPNA2, PKMYT1 and TFDP1). Moreover, MC also suppresses the metastatic behavior of MDA-MB-231 by the inhibition of cell adhesion, cell migration and cell invasion. The potency of MC to inhibit invasiveness of breast cancer cells is linked to the suppression of secretion of the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) from MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, the MC dietary supplement could have potential therapeutic value in the treatment of invasive human breast cancer. PMID:21042722
Advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer has high mortality rates and limited treatment options. Novel therapies are needed to better contend with this disease. Polysaccharide-K® (PSK), an extract of the mushroom Trametes versicolor, has immunomodulatory and tumor suppressive activities. PSK is used in Asia as a cancer immunotherapy. However, its benefit in combination with taxanes for prostate cancer is unknown. We examined whether PSK would enhance docetaxel-induced apoptosis and augment anti-tumor immune responses in orthotopic tumors using transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP)-C2-bearing mice. Combining PSK with docetaxel induced significantly higher tumor suppression than either treatment alone (p<0.05), including a reduction in tumor proliferation and enhanced apoptosis. Combined PSK and docetaxel treatment led to a lower decrease in number of white blood cells than docetaxel alone, an effect accompanied by increased numbers of tumor-infiltrating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. PSK with or without docetaxel significantly enhanced mRNA expression of IFN-? compared to control, but did not significantly alter T-regulatory FoxP3 mRNA expression in tumors. PSK also augmented docetaxel-induced splenic natural killer cell cytolytic activity against YAC-1 target cells (p=0.045). This study is the first to show that PSK enhances docetaxel-induced prostate cancer tumor suppression, apoptosis and antitumor responses.
WENNER, CYNTHIA A.; MARTZEN, MARK R.; LU, HAILING; VERNERIS, MICHAEL R.; WANG, HONGBO; SLATON, JOEL W.
We present the results of a study testing the response of two saprophytic white-rot fungi species, Pleurotus pulmonarius and Coriolus versicolor, to charred biomass (charcoal) as a growth substrate. We used a combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, elemental abundance measurements, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry ((13)C and (15)N) to investigate fungal colonisation of control and incubated samples of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood, and charcoal from the same species produced at 300 degrees C and 400 degrees C. Both species of fungi colonise the surface and interior of wood and charcoals over time periods of less than 70 days; however, distinctly different growth forms are evident between the exterior and interior of the charcoal substrate, with hyphal penetration concentrated along lines of structural weakness. Although the fungi were able to degrade and metabolise the pine woo