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1

Tinea Versicolor  

MedlinePLUS

... way it discolors their skin. We all have yeast living on our skin. When the yeast grow out of control, a person can get ... you have a fungal infection on your skin. Yeast is a type of fungus. Tinea versicolor is ...

2

Uncommon cases of pityriasis versicolor.  

PubMed

Malassezia may play a role in several dermatoses. It is responsible for foliculitis and mainly for pityriasis versicolor. Pityriasis versicolor is the most known dermatitis because of its clinical aspects and frequently for its poor response to the therapy, mainly in chronic forms. The clinical aspects of uncommon and rare forms of pityriasis versicolor have been reported. The data related to the patients observed in the last thirty years in Siena are reported. In addition, a study was carried out in Pisa by Professor F. Mancianti to identify species of Malassezia isolated in 37 patients. PMID:18693567

Romano, C

2008-06-01

3

Blaschkoid pityriasis versicolor.  

PubMed

A 31-year-old male patient complained of having follicular and brownish red maculopapules along the Blaschko's lines on the right chest for 2 days. On examination, follicular brownish maculopapules were present on the chest with a uniform size of about 3 mm in diameter. The lesions were isolated without a tendency to merge, giving several S-shaped, band-like appearances. Direct mycological examination of the skin flakes revealed many pseudomycelial hyphae and yeast cells with typical spaghetti and meatball appearance. Wood's light examination of the lesion revealed a golden yellow fluorescence. A diagnosis of blaschkoid pityriasis versicolor was suggested because of blaschkoid distribution of the lesions in this new variant of PV. PMID:19486298

Tan, Cheng; Zhu, Wen-Yuan; Min, Zhong-Sheng

2009-05-27

4

Onychomycosis caused by Aspergillus versicolor.  

PubMed

We report a case of onychomycosis caused by Aspergillus versicolor in a 66-year-old female patient. The infection was characterised clinically by yellowish pigmentation of the nail plate and mild nail bed hyperkeratosis of the first left toe. All other nails were normal. Three direct microscopical examinations of nail samples revealed the presence of hyaline hyphae as well as conidiophores. Pure colonies of A. versicolor were found in three cultures. The patient was successfully treated with oral itraconazole. PMID:19422523

Veraldi, Stefano; Chiaratti, Anna; Harak, Henry

2009-05-05

5

Extracellular oxidases purified from Coriolus versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on the extracellular enzymes ofCoriolus versicolor have resulted in the isolation and purification of several proteins that have the potential to act as redox enzymes.C. versicolor was cultured on a glucose-amino acid medium in a large-scale fermenter (60 L) with 2,5-xylidine added to induce the production\\u000a of extracellular laccase. Proteins were precipitated from the growth medium with ammonium sulfate,

C. S. Evans; J. M. Palmer

1984-01-01

6

A Case of Tinea Versicolor of the Eyelids.  

PubMed

? Tinea versicolor is a commonly encountered superficial fungal infection often presenting on the chest and back with hyperpigmented or hypopigmented scaly macules and patches. We report an unusual and rare presentation of tinea versicolor affecting only the eyelids. PMID:22506882

Huang, William W; Tharp, Michael D

2012-04-17

7

Management of seborrheic dermatitis and pityriasis versicolor.  

PubMed

Pityriasis (tinea) versicolor and seborrheic dermatitis are two very common skin diseases. Pityriasis versicolor is a chronic superficial fungal disease usually located on the upper trunk, neck, or upper arms. In pityriasis versicolor, the lipophilic yeast Malassezia (also know as Pityrosporum ovale or P. orbiculare) changes from the blastospore form to the mycelial form under the influence of predisposing factors. The most important exogenous factors are high temperatures and a high relative humidity which probably explain why pityriasis versicolor is more common in the tropics. The most important endogenous factors are greasy skin, hyperhidrosis, hereditary factors, corticosteroid treatment and immunodeficiency. There are many ways of treating pityriasis versicolor topically. Options include propylene glycol, ketoconazole shampoo, zinc pyrithione shampoo, ciclopiroxamine, selenium sulfide, and topical antifungals. In difficult cases, short term treatment with fluconazole or itraconazole is effective and well tolerated. To avoid recurrence a prophylactic treatment regimen is mandatory. Seborrheic dermatitis is characterized by red scaly lesions predominantly located on the scalp, face and upper trunk. There are now many studies indicating that Malassezia plays an important role in this condition. Even a normal number of Malassezia will start an inflammatory reaction. Mild corticosteroids are effective in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. However, the disease recurs quickly, often within just a few days. Antifungal therapy is effective in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis and, because it reduces the number of Malassezia, the time to recurrence is increased compared with treatment with corticosteroids. Antifungal therapy should be the primary treatment of this disease. PMID:11702314

Faergemann, J

8

Single-Dose Fluconazole versus Itraconazole in Pityriasis versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The new antifungal triazoles itraconazole and fluconazole have revolutionized the treatment of pityriasis versicolor. Both drugs have shown promising results in different dose schedules. Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of single oral dose treatment with fluconazole versus itraconazole in patients with pityriasis versicolor. Methods: A total of 40 patients with pityriasis versicolor were allocated randomly to group

R. Partap; I. Kaur; A. Chakrabarti; B. Kumar

2004-01-01

9

Microreview of Pityriasis versicolor and Malassezia species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently 11 Malassezia species were isolated. Attention has focused on the relationship between Malassezia species and Malassezia-related disease. The causal fungus of Pityriasis versicolor is M. globosa. The conditions of mycelial form induction are not clear for M. globosa.

N. Morishita; Y. Sei

2006-01-01

10

Epidemiology of pityriasis versicolor in Adana, Turkey.  

PubMed

Pityriasis versicolor is a common superficial mycoses of the skin. It is now recognized that the causative organisms of this infection are different species of Malassezia. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of Malassezia species in patients with pityriasis versicolor in Adana, Turkey. In total, 97 patients positive for Malassezia elements, namely, yeast cells and short hyphae in microscopic examination, were included in the study. All samples were inoculated in plates containing modified Dixon's medium. However, only 44 of the patients (45.4%) showed Malassezia spp. in culture. Malassezia globosa (47.7%) was the most commonly isolated species followed by Malassezia furfur (36.4%) and Malassezia slooffiae (15.9%). Mixed Malassezia species were not isolated. In conclusion, M. globosa was found to be the predominant PV isolate in Adana, Turkey. PMID:19583685

Karaka?, Mehmet; Turaç-Biçer, Aygül; Ilkit, Macit; Durdu, Murat; Seydao?lu, Gül?ah

2009-07-01

11

Hypopigmented macules: leprosy, atopy or pityriasis versicolor?  

PubMed

Lepromatous leprosy (LL) represents the highest infective and multibacillary form of leprosy. Clinical manifestations are consequent to the haematogenous spread of bacilli and include macules, plaques and nodules in a symmetric distribution or a diffuse infiltration of the skin. LL may mimic many different inflammatory and neoplastic skin diseases and in a small percentage of patients, skin manifestation may be atypical. This article reports the case of a South American child with LL presenting with symmetrically distributed hypopigmented macules previously misdiagnosed as pytiriasis alba, atopic dermatitis and pityriasis versicolor. Atopy and pityriasis versicolor are common skin conditions that can be also observed in leprosy patients and that can masquerade the diagnosis of LL, especially if occurring in dark skin. Dermatologists in Europe should be aware of this unusual form of presentation of leprosy and must take in mind Hansen disease in the differential diagnosis in patients coming from endemic areas. PMID:21139555

Massone, C; Cavalchini, A; Clapasson, A; Nunzi, E

2010-12-01

12

Atrophying Pityriasis Versicolor: Is This a New Variant of Pityriasis Versicolor?  

PubMed Central

An atypical clinical form of pityriasis versicolor has been infrequently reported, in which cutaneous atrophy is associated with individual pityriasis versicolor lesions. The pathogenesis of this atrophy remains unclear, but is believed to be a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to antigens derived from the Malassezia species. A 60-year-old man presented with multiple, slightly scaly, and depressed maculopatches or plaques on the trunk and extremities. Our microscopic examination of the skin scrapings on a KOH preparation revealed numerous short hyphae and spores. The patient was treated daily with 200 mg of itraconazole in combination with topical antifungals, achieving clinical improvement and mycological recovery, which was confirmed upon follow-up 1 month later. This is the first case report of atrophying pityriasis versicolor in Korea. It needs to be differentiated from other atrophying disorders of the skin.

Yang, Yun-Seok; Shin, Min-Kyung

2010-01-01

13

Experimental Tinea Versicolor in Rabbits and Humans with Pityrosporum orbiculare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to produce experimental tinea versicolor in rabbits and humans with Pityrosporum orbiculare. Inoculation with P. orbiculare under plastic occlusion on the glabrous follicle-rich inside of the rabbit ear resulted in a tinea versicolor-like lesion after 1 week in 3 of 4 animals. One week after inoculation with P. orbiculare under plastic occlusion, experimental infections

Jan Faergemann

1979-01-01

14

Polysaccharopeptides of Coriolus versicolor: physiological activity, uses, and production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protein-bound polysaccharides or polysaccharopeptides produced by Coriolus versicolor are effective immunopotentiators, which are used to supplement the chemotherapy and radiotherapy of cancers and various infectious diseases. Antitumor activity of polysaccharopeptides has been documented. Several kinds of protein-bound polysaccharides have been shown to be produced by the white rot fungus, C. versicolor. Although some of these polymers are structurally distinct,

Jian Cui; Yusuf Chisti

2003-01-01

15

COMPARACIÓN DE LA COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA DE LOS METABOLITOS SECUNDARIOS VOLÁTILES DE CUATRO PLANTAS DE LA FAMILIA PIPERACEAE OBTENIDOS POR DESTILACIÓN-EXTRACCIÓN SIMULTÁNEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile fractions were isolated by simultaneous distillation- solvent extraction (SDE) from leaves of four Piperaceae species: Piper marginatum Jacq, P. aduncum L., P. hispidum Sw. and Pothomorphe peltata L. Components were separated and identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC - MS).

EDWIN J. BOTTIA; Estudiante de Química; OLGA L. DÍAZ; DEYNY L. MENDIVELSO; JAIRO RENÉ MARTÍNEZ; ELENA E. STASHENKO

2007-01-01

16

Treatment of pityriasis versicolor with ketoconazole.  

PubMed

Eighty-two patients with pityriasis versicolor were treated orally with ketoconazole in tablet form (200 mg). The tablets were taken at least 90 min before a meal, and patients who received only one tablet daily were told to refrain from bathing except immediately before ingestion of the drug and only once a day. Dosage of ketoconazole varied from a single dose of 400 mg to 200--400 mg per day for four weeks. Seventy-seven patients reported no adverse effects. There were reports from others of headache, gastralgia, nausea, dyspnea, dizziness, or tinnitus. In most affected patients, these symptoms stopped with the first meal eaten after initiation of treatment. Follow-up examinations were performed at different intervals. The maximal therapeutic effect of ketoconazole was seen three to six weeks after initiation of therapy. Seventy-eight patients were considered cured; one had received only one tablet. Only hypopigmented macules remained. Examination of these areas with a Wood lamp revealed no fluorescence, and scrapings examined with the light microscope did not contain Malassezia furfur. These results indicate that ketoconazole is effective in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor, but the problem of protecting susceptible persons from infection and reinfection remains. PMID:6255536

Borelli, D

17

Pathogenesis of dermatophytosis and tinea versicolor.  

PubMed

Dermatophytoses are infections caused by keratinophilic fungi known as dermatophytes. Several steps are required for infection to take place: contact, adherence, and invasion of keratin layers. The severity of the infection depends on the type of agent, environmental factors, and the host immunologic status. Tinea versicolor is caused by the Malassezia spp yeasts, which are microorganisms that belong to normal biota in seborrheic areas, but some contributing factors, such as the application of oily preparations, creams, an increase in ambient humidity, corticosteroid abuse, or genetic predisposition can induce its overgrowth in both filamentous and yeast structures. Exposure to sunlight stimulates the production of azelaic acid, which causes the appearance of hypopigmented spots. Currently, there is no scientific explanation for hyperpigmented lesions. PMID:20347661

Mendez-Tovar, Luis J

2010-03-01

18

Aspergillus versicolor, a New Causative Agent of Canine Disseminated Aspergillosis  

PubMed Central

Disseminated aspergillosis in dogs has been associated with Aspergillus terreus or A. deflectus infection. We report a case of disseminated A. versicolor infection presenting as diskospondylitis, osteomyelitis, and pyelonephritis. The diagnosis was made based on clinical, radiographic, and pathological findings. The etiologic agent was identified by fungal culture and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing. This is the first description of canine aspergillosis caused by A. versicolor.

Corapi, Wayne; Quist, Erin; Griffin, Sarah; Zhang, Michael

2012-01-01

19

The incidence of tinea versicolor in central Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. In a survey of 3302 people in an area of central Sweden, tinea versicolor was diagnosed in 0.5% of males and 0.3% of females; all those infected were adults. Tinea versicolor is much less common in Sweden than in the tropics. A survey of the total population in the area showed that 0.5% of the males and 0.3% of

L. HELLGREN; J. VINCENT

1983-01-01

20

An Evidence-based Perspective of Coriolus Versicolor (Multicolored Polypore Mushroom) for Cancer Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the era of molecularly targeted, rationally designed cancer therapeutics, natural products, especially medicinal mushrooms,\\u000a continue to provide a rich source of anticancer agents. One potent medicinal mushroom extensively used in both traditional\\u000a medicine and modern clinical practice is Coriolus versicolor (alternative names Trametes versicolor, Polyporus versicolor, Polystictus versicolor, multicolored polypore mushroom). In spite of their paucity, available data about

Stanislava Stoši?-Gruji?i?; Sanja Mijatovi?; Danijela Maksimovi?-Ivani?

21

Solubilization of leonardite by an extracellular fraction from Coriolus versicolor  

SciTech Connect

Coriolus versicolor has previously been shown to degrade leonardite, an oxidized form of lignite. An extracellular fraction containing protein purified from a C. versicolor culture solubilized leonardite in vitro. Expression of the activity did not require the presence of leonardite and appeared during idiophase. During ion-exchange and gel filtration column chromatography, leonardite-biosolubilizing activity eluted with syringaldazine oxidase activity and with protein, as measured by A//sub 280/ and the biuret protein assay. Syringaldazine is a substrate of the polyphenol oxidase formed by C. versicolor. Comparison of leonardite-biosolubilizing activity with the effects of chelators and surface-active agents on leonardite showed that biosolubilization was not due to either surfactant or chelating ability. Heat treatment of the preparation at 60/sup 0/C for 30 min significantly reduced both syringaldazine oxidase and leonardite-biosolubilizing activities. Cyanide, azide, and thioglycolate, which are know inhibitors of syringaldazine oxidase activity of C. versicolor, also inhibited leonardite biosolubilization. From these data, we conclude that the purified protein fraction from C. versicolor contains a syringaldazine oxidase activity that participates in leonardite biosolubilization by enzymatic action.

Pyne, J.W. Jr.; Stewart, D.L.; Fredrickson, J.; Wilson, B.W.

1987-12-01

22

Polysaccharopeptides of Coriolus versicolor: physiological activity, uses, and production.  

PubMed

The protein-bound polysaccharides or polysaccharopeptides produced by Coriolus versicolor are effective immunopotentiators, which are used to supplement the chemotherapy and radiotherapy of cancers and various infectious diseases. Antitumor activity of polysaccharopeptides has been documented. Several kinds of protein-bound polysaccharides have been shown to be produced by the white rot fungus, C. versicolor. Although some of these polymers are structurally distinct, they are not distinguishable in terms of their physiological activity. This review focuses on the physiologically active polysaccharopeptides of C. versicolor. In nature, C. versicolor occurs as a mushroom body, but the fungus can be grown as mycelial biomass in submerged culture in bioreactors. Mushrooms gathered in the wild, cultivated mushrooms, and the mycelial biomass of submerged culture are used to produce the polysaccharopeptides. Submerged cultures are typically carried out in batches lasting 5-7 days and at 25-27 degrees C. Hot water extraction of the biomass is used to recover the thermostable polysaccharopeptides that are concentrated, purified, and dried into a powder for medicinal use. In view of the documented physiological benefits of these compounds, extensive research is underway on the structure, composition, production methods, and use of new C. versicolor strains for producing the therapeutic biopolymers. Properties, physiological activity, recovery, and purification of the bioactive polysaccharopeptides are discussed. PMID:14499133

Cui, Jian; Chisti, Yusuf

2003-04-01

23

Pityriasis versicolor: avoiding pitfalls in disease diagnosis and therapy.  

PubMed

Pityriasis versicolor is common among young active duty members with overactive sweat glands working in humid environments and results in pigmentary changes that can be profound in those with darker skin. This article addresses several issues related to making the correct diagnosis and providing appropriate treatment, as well as the specific challenges military providers may face in these cases. PMID:23929053

Rivard, Shayna C

2013-08-01

24

THE PARASITIC COLONIZATION OF THE HORNY LAYER IN TINEA VERSICOLOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of vertical sections and of tape strippings of areas infested with tinea versicolor indicate that because of their dimorphic state, these parasites can colonize the horny layer. Mycelial hyphae progress downwards into the intercellular spaces of the horny cells where they feed on nonkeratinous substances and extrude proliferating yeast cells which form clusters in nest-like cavities. The yeast-mycelial conversion

Antonio Tosti; Santi Villardita; Maria L. Fazzini

1972-01-01

25

[Efficacy of lamysil dermgel in treatment of tinea versicolor].  

PubMed

The fungi of the genus Malassezia are part of normal mycobiota of human and mammal skin. As a representative of the normal mycobiota skin warm-blooded animals and humans, under certain conditions they can cause pathological process including tinea versicolor - a common skin infection. In spite of existence of broad-spectrum antibiotics and antifungals for the treatment of skin diseases the efficacy of drugs aren't always successful. The aim of the study was to estimate efficacy of lamysil dermgel in comparison with clotrimazole in the treatment of tinea versicolor. The study population included 43 patients of both sex. The diagnosis of tinea versicolor was confirmed by assessment of signs and symptoms, test-positive by Balzer and by microscopy, which revealed the presence of fungus of the Malassezia genus. By the post treatment examination treatment success had been achieved in both groups, but significantly higher percentages was achieved in lamysil dermgel group. Treatment success rate in lamysil dermgel group: clinical cure - 21 patients (95,45%), mycologic cure - 19 patients (86,3%), full - 18 patients (81,81%). In clotrimazole group: clinicaly cure - 17 patients (80,95%), mycologic cure - 13 patients (61,9%), full - 13 patients (61,9%).The results of our study confirm highly antifungal activity of lamysil dermgel against tinea versicolor and suggest that it may be more effective then clotrimazole, therefore it will be approved for treatment of this dermatosis. PMID:19578210

Beridze, L R; Katsitadze, T G

2009-06-01

26

Pityriasis versicolor circinata: isolation of Malassezia sympodialis - Case report.  

PubMed

The authors report a case of pityriasis versicolor circinata whose isolated etiologic agent was Malassezia sympodialis in a 34-year-old woman. The isolation and identification of Malassezia sympodialis were accomplished with modified Dixon's agar, and the molecular method used to confirm the species was polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP). PMID:20520940

Framil, Valéria Maria de Souza; Melhem, Márcia S C; Szeszs, Maria Walderez; Corneta, Elaine Cristina; Zaitz, Clarisse

27

Tinea versicolor: Ultrastructural Studies on Hypopigmented and Hyperpigmented Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Punch biopsy specimens from 4 patients with confirmed diagnosis of tinea versicolor were investigated. Hypopigmented, hyperigmented and uninvolved sites from the same subject were compared in relation to ultrastructural alterations as a result of infection with Malassezia furfur, by light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Hyperpigmented skin had thicker stratum corneum than hypopigmented but both were thicker than the uninvolved

R. Karaoui; M. Bou-Resli; N. S. Al-Zaid; A. Mousa

1981-01-01

28

Disruption of barrier function in dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor.  

PubMed

Dermatophytes have the ability to form molecular attachments to keratin and use it as a source of nutrients, colonizing keratinized tissues, including the stratum corneum of the skin. Malassezia species also affect the stratum corneum of the skin. Therefore, dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor of the skin are thought to be important factors of profound changes in skin barrier structure and function. We aimed to describe the changes in transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum hydration, and skin pH in the lesions of the dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor. Thirty-six patients with dermatophytosis (14 with tinea cruris, 13 with tinea corporis and nine with tinea pedis or tinea manus) and 11 patients with pityriasis versicolor were included in this study. TEWL, stratum corneum conductance and skin pH were determined by biophysical methods to examine whether our patients exhibited changes in barrier function. Dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor except tinea pedis and tinea manus showed highly significant increase in TEWL compared with adjacent infection-free skin. Hydration was significantly reduced in lesional skin compared with adjacent infection-free skin. From this study, infections with dermatophytes and Malassezia species on the body can alter biophysical properties of the skin, especially the function of stratum corneum as a barrier to water loss. On the contrary, infections with dermatophytes on the palms and soles little affect the barrier function of the skin. PMID:21950511

Lee, Weon Ju; Kim, Jun Young; Song, Chang Hyun; Jung, Hong Dae; Lee, Su Hyun; Lee, Seok-Jong; Kim, Do Won

2011-09-22

29

Parental Origin and Genome Evolution in the Allopolyploid Iris versicolor  

PubMed Central

Background Aims One of the classic examples of an allopolyploid is Iris versicolor, ‘Blue Flag’ (2n = 108), first studied by Edgar Anderson and later popularized by George Ledyard Stebbins in cytogenetics and evolutionary text-books. It is revisited here using modern molecular and cytogenetic tools to investigate its putative allopolyploid origin involving progenitors of I. virginica (2n = 70) and I. setosa (2n = 38). Methods Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and Southern hybridization with 5S and 18–26S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) probes were used to identify the parental origin of chromosomes, and to study the unit structure, relative abundance and chromosomal location of rDNA sequences. Key Results GISH shows that I. versicolor has inherited the sum of the chromosome complement from the two progenitor species. In I. versicolor all the 18–26S rDNA units and loci are inherited from the progenitor of I. virginica, those loci from the I. setosa progenitor are absent. In contrast 5S rDNA loci and units from both progenitors are found, although one of the two 5S loci expected from the I. setosa progenitor is absent. Conclusions These data confirm Anderson's hypothesis that I. versicolor is an allopolyploid involving progenitors of I. virginica and I. setosa. The number of 18–26S rDNA loci in I. versicolor is similar to that of progenitor I. virginica, suggestive of a first stage in genome diploidization. The locus loss is targeted at the I. setosa-origin subgenome, and this is discussed in relation to other polyploidy systems.

Lim, K. Yoong; Matyasek, Roman; Kovarik, Ales; Leitch, Andrew

2007-01-01

30

Pityriasis versicolor on penile shaft in a renal transplant recipient.  

PubMed

Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial infection of the stratum corneum, which is caused by the Malassezia species. Tge Malassezia species consist of 12 subspecies, including M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. symphodialis and M. globasa. The Malassezia species are classified as a normal flora, particularly in the sebum rich areas of the skin, and they convert from saprophytic yeast to parasitic mycelial morpholgic form to cause clinical disease. But majorities of their distributions are in the upper back, the neck, the thighs, and the forearm, and not in the penis. It is well known that the renal transplant patients, who take immunosuppressive agents, have impairment in the protective cell mediated immunity. Thus, they are more susceptible to infectious diseases, such as a fungal infection. Therefore, clinical manifestations show higher incidence of disease, but they mostly occur in an expected distribution. We here report a case of pityriasis versicolor in a renal transplant recipient on penile shaft, which is an unusual area. PMID:22879720

Ryu, Han-Won; Cho, Jae-We; Lee, Kyu-Suk

2012-07-25

31

Pityriasis Versicolor on Penile Shaft in a Renal Transplant Recipient  

PubMed Central

Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial infection of the stratum corneum, which is caused by the Malassezia species. Tge Malassezia species consist of 12 subspecies, including M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. symphodialis and M. globasa. The Malassezia species are classified as a normal flora, particularly in the sebum rich areas of the skin, and they convert from saprophytic yeast to parasitic mycelial morpholgic form to cause clinical disease. But majorities of their distributions are in the upper back, the neck, the thighs, and the forearm, and not in the penis. It is well known that the renal transplant patients, who take immunosuppressive agents, have impairment in the protective cell mediated immunity. Thus, they are more susceptible to infectious diseases, such as a fungal infection. Therefore, clinical manifestations show higher incidence of disease, but they mostly occur in an expected distribution. We here report a case of pityriasis versicolor in a renal transplant recipient on penile shaft, which is an unusual area.

Ryu, Han-Won; Cho, Jae-We

2012-01-01

32

Culture Conditions for Mycelial Growth of Coriolus versicolor  

PubMed Central

Coriolus versicolor, is one of the most popular medicinal mushrooms due its various biologically active components. This study was conducted to obtain basic information regarding the mycelial culture conditions of C. versicolor. Based on the culture, and MCM media were suitable for the mycelial growth of the mushroom. The optimum carbon and nitrogen sources were dextrin and yeast extract, respectively, and the optimum C/N ratio was 10 to 2 when 2% glucose was used. Other minor components required for optimal growth included thiamine-HCl and biotin as vitamins, succinic acid, lactic acid and citric acid as organic acids, as well as MgSO4·7H2O as mineral salts.

Kang, Min-Jin; Choi, Seong-Yong; Yoo, Young-Bok; Seok, Soon-Ja; Jung, Hee-Young

2010-01-01

33

Production of sterigmatocystin by Aspergillus versicolor and Bipolaris sorokiniana on semisynthetic liquid and solid media.  

PubMed

Higher yields of sterigmatocystin were obtained with Aspergillus versicolor than with Bipolaris sorokiniana both in liquid and on solid media. The optimum temperature for sterigmatocystin production by A. versicolor was 27 to 29 degrees C and 23 degrees C for B. sorokiniana. In liquid shake cultures, production of sterigmatocystin by B. sorokiniana was negligible, whereas maximal production by A. versicolor was 210 mg/liter. On solid substrates, the highest yields (8 g/kg) were obtained with A. versicolor on still cultures of whole corn supplemented with Soytone. PMID:970940

Rabie, C J; Lubben, A; Steyn, M

1976-08-01

34

Partial purification of coriolus versicolor's extracellular polyphenol oxidase (PPO)  

SciTech Connect

Coriolus versicolor, a white-rot basidiomycete, secretes ligno-celluloytic enzymes. Because these are valuable to paper-pulp agricultural industries, trials are in progress to substrate induce these enzymes enhance their secretions. Reported are attempts to develop an extracellular PPO (o-diphenols to 0-diquinones) purification protocol applicable to [open quote]batch-cultured[close quote] C. versicolor. Whereas dialysis (MW [open quote]cut-off[close quote], 14,000) of 13 day growth medium (GM) resulted in 2.17 fold PPO spc. act. increase, dialysis plus a 0-30% (NH[sub 4])[sub 2]SO[sub 4] [open quote]cut[close quote] yielded a 3.27 fold enhancement. Subsequent GM chromatography on DEAE CM-Sephadexes revealed that PPO exchanged with DEAE's counterion without enhancing spc. act. Gel filtration of GM commercial PPOs on G-150 resulted in similar elutions indicating a substitute for ion exchange chromatography. Time-dependent fungal growth in liquid medium followed by viscometry utilizing CMC revealed a GM endocellulase 2 days after inoculation an activity rise to day 12. Filteration of Onozuka cellulase on G-150 yielded an elution profile similar to those of GM authentic PPO's compounding C. versicolor's PPO purification. SDS-PAGE of dialyzed GM revealed 4 proteins, one of which was removed by the (NH[sub 4])[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. The m[sub TS] of commercial Sigma's PPO Onozuka cellulase were 0.76 0.59, respectively, for comparison to C. versicolor's PPO. Affinity, hydroxylapatite hydrophobic interaction chromatographies may yield a single SDS-PAGE PPO band.

Moore, N.L.; Dashek, W.V. (Clark Atlanta Univ., GA (United States))

1993-05-01

35

Decoloration of a Carpet Dye Effluent Using Trametes Versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a non-sterile, undiluted carpet dye effluent (containing two anthraquinone dyes) did not support growth of Trametes versicolor, the pre-grown fungus removed 95% of its color in shake-flasks after 10 h of incubation. After decoloration, the COD of the cell-free supernatant increased and the toxicity was unchanged as determined by the Microtox assay using Vibrio fischeri. Decoloration rates decreased when

Juliana A. Ramsay; Chris Goode

2004-01-01

36

[Evaluation of some clinic data in patients with tinea versicolor].  

PubMed

Fungi from Malassezia species may be a component of human and animal skin onthocenosis but also may cause general mycoses in patients from high risk groups. The aim of study was the evaluation of some clinic data in patients with tinea versicolor, who entered to Department of Biology and Medical Parasitology, Centre for Treatment of Parasitic Diseases and Mycoses, Medical University of Lodz. Forty four patients with tinea versicolor were examined. Localization and number of skin lesions as well as eventually risk factor were examined. In all patients mycological examine was done; morphotic elements of fungi in direct and stained slides were found, cultures on solid medium with oil olive were done. In Wood light fluorescence of changed skin was observed. The most incidence of tinea versicolor was observed in young persons to compare with to another age groups. The most frequently localization of clinical lesions concerned back skin, back and chest. In women - to compare with to male patients--clinical lesions on back skin were significantly more frequent. The only one factor was conducived to infection--it was a seborrhea of the skin, observed mainly in patients from the youngest age group. PMID:21452526

Kwa?niewska, Jolanta; Moru?-Urba?ska, Emilia; Jaskó?owska, Agnieszka

2010-01-01

37

Comparison of Antibody Responses in Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis and Tinea Versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibody titers against Candida albicans and Pityrosporum orbiculare, the presumed etiologic agent of tinea versicolor, were determined in normal subjects, and in patients with tinea versicolor or chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. Whereas antibody against both organisms was found in low titer in normal subjects, a majority of patients with each infection had elevated antibody titers against the infecting organism. Patients infected

Gary J. DaMert; Charles H. Kirkpatrick; Peter G. Sohnle

1980-01-01

38

Antibodies to Pityrosporum orbiculare in Patients with Tinea Versicolor and Controls of Various Ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sera from patients with tines versicolor and controls of various ages were investigated with the indirect immunofluorescence technique for antibodies against Pityrosporum orbiculare etiologic agent of tinea versicolor. No differences in titers were observed between patients and adult controls. Also, there were no differences in antibody titers in the patient group with differences in antibody titers in the patient group

Jan Faergemann

1983-01-01

39

Phylogenetic and biochemical characterisation of a recombinant laccase from Trametes versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laccases are important enzymes for bioremediation and the best-characterised are from the fungus Trametes versicolor. Here, we describe the cloning and characterisation of a new variant of laccase from T. versicolor and its expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have performed a sequence-based analysis of Trametes laccases that leads to a proposal for a new nomenclature of this fungus laccases according

Brenda Valderrama; Jorge Luis Folch-Mallol; Gabriel Iturriaga

2005-01-01

40

Amaranth decoloration by Trametes versicolor in a rotating biological contacting reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequential batch and continuous operation of a rotating biological contacting (RBC) reactor and the effects of dissolved oxygen on the decoloration of amaranth by Trametes versicolor were evaluated. Amaranth belongs to the group of azo dyes which are potential carcinogens and\\/or mutagens that can be transformed into toxic aryl amines under anaerobic conditions. Cultivation of T. versicolor in a stirred

Juliana Ramsay; Maria Shin; Sunny Wong; Christopher Goode

2006-01-01

41

Tinea versicolor, tinea nigra, white piedra, and black piedra.  

PubMed

Superficial mycoses are fungal infections limited to the stratum corneum and its adnexal structures. The most frequent types are dermatophytoses or tineas. Tinea versicolor involves the skin in the form of hypochromic or hyperchromic plaques, and tinea nigra affects the skin of the palms with dark plaques. White piedra and black piedra are parasitic infections of scalp hairs in the form of concretions caused by fungal growth. Diagnosis of these mycoses is made from mycologic studies, direct examination, stains, and isolation, and identification of the fungi. Treatment includes systemic antifungals, topical antifungals, and keratolytics. PMID:20347655

Bonifaz, Alexandro; Gómez-Daza, Fernando; Paredes, Vanessa; Ponce, Rosa María

2010-03-01

42

Identification of Malassezia yeast species isolated from patients with pityriasis versicolor.  

PubMed

Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a disease with worldwide distribution. Twelve different species of Malassezia yeast have been described. The objective of this study was to determine which species of Malassezia are more prevalent in patients with pityriasis versicolor. Samples were collected by scraping the lesions of 87 patients with a clinical suspicion of pityriasis versicolor. The samples were then submitted to fungal microscopy and culture to identify the species. The species found were: Malassezia sympodialis (30%), Malassezia furfur (25.7%), Malassezia globosa (22.7%), Malassezia restricta (12.1%), Malassezia obtusa (7.6%) and Malassezia slooffiae (1.5%). PMID:21987156

Petry, Vanessa; Tanhausen, Fernanda; Weiss, Luciana; Milan, Thais; Mezzari, Adelina; Weber, Magda Blessmann

43

Geographic host use variabiliy and host range evolutionary dynamics in the phytophagous insect Apagomerella versicolor (Cerambycidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The high diversity of phytophagous insects has been explained by the tendency of the group towards specialization; however, generalism may be advantageous in some environments. The cerambycid Apagomerella versicolor exhibits intraspecific geographical variation in host use. In northern Argentina it ...

44

Antifungal efficacy of Brazilian green propolis extracts and honey on Tinea capitis and Tinea versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studyThis study aimed to determine the prevalence of Tinea capitis and Tinea versicolor, and evaluate the efficacy of bee products in management of skin disorders in Congolese school children.

Nlandu Roger Ngatu; Takao Saruta; Ryoji Hirota; Masamitsu Eitoku; Basilua Andre Muzembo; Tomomi Matsui; Luzitu Severin Nangana; Muaka Anselme Mbenza; Naoko Kumagai; Narufumi Suganuma

45

A case of Hansen Disease presenting as tinea versicolor.  

PubMed

Hansen Disease (leprosy) is an infectious disease that targets macrophages and Schwann cells, caused by the acid fast intracellular organism, Mycobacterium leprae. Clinically, it presents with a spectrum of findings that may include hypopigmented macules, erythematous plaques and nodules, and thickened or tender peripheral nerves. The most feared complication is mutilating damage to facial structures or digits resulting from loss of sensation in affected skin. In non-endemic areas, the diagnosis of leprosy is frequently delayed because it may mimic other more common skin conditions. We present a case of borderline/lepromatous leprosy in an otherwise healthy young Brazilian man that was initially diagnosed as tinea versicolor, but did not respond to appropriate treatment. This case highlights the importance of having a high index of suspicion for leprosy in patients from endemic areas who present with lesions that could be consistent with this disease. PMID:24021367

Yang, Shelley; Makredes, Maryanne; O'Donnell, Patrick; Levin, Nikki A

2013-04-15

46

Characterization of Bioethanol Production from Hexoses and Xylose by the White Rot Fungus Trametes versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioethanol production by white rot fungus (Trametes versicolor), identified from fungal mixture in naturally decomposing wood samples, from hexoses and xylose was characterized. Results\\u000a showed that T. versicolor can grow in culture, under hypoxic conditions, with various mixtures of hexoses and xylose and only xylose. Xylose was efficiently\\u000a fermented to ethanol in media containing mixtures of hexoses and xylose, such

Rasika L. Kudahettige; Marie Holmgren; Peter Imerzeel; Anita Sellstedt

47

Enhanced Production of Laccase from Coriolus versicolor NCIM 996 by Nutrient Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plackett and Burman design criterion and central composite design were applied successfully for enhanced production of laccase\\u000a by Coriolus versicolor NCIM 996 for the first time. Plackett and Burman design criterion was applied to screen the significance of ten nutrients\\u000a on laccase production by C. versicolor NCIM 996. Out of the ten nutrients tested, starch, yeast extract, MnSO4, MgSO4·7H2O, and

Santhiagu Arockiasamy; Indira Packialakshmi Gurusamy Krishnan; Nimalanandan Anandakrishnan; Sabitha Seenivasan; Agalya Sambath; Janani Priya Venkatasubramani

2008-01-01

48

Notoamide E: Biosynthetic incorporation into notoamides C and D in cultures of Aspergillus versicolor NRRL 35600  

PubMed Central

Notoamide E, a short-lived secondary metabolite, has been proposed as a biosynthetic intermediate to several advanced metabolites isolated from Aspergillus versicolor. In order to verify the role of this indole alkaloid along the biosynthetic pathway, synthetic doubly 13C-labeled notoamide E was fed to Aspergillus versicolor. Analysis of the metabolites showed significant incorporation of notoamide E into the natural products notoamides C and D.

Finefield, Jennifer M.; Greshock, Thomas J.; Sherman, David H.; Tsukamoto, Sachiko

2011-01-01

49

[Labor epidural analgesia for a woman with a pityriasis versicolor in the lumbar region].  

PubMed

Epidural analgesia is usually contraindicated in case of infection at the site of needle insertion. Tinea versicolor is a benign superficial cutaneous fungal infection caused by the proliferation of a skin commensal yeast of low pathogenicity. We report the case of a pregnant woman with a tinea versicolor in the lumbar region, who benefited from a labor epidural analgesia, realised with reinforced antiseptic measures. No neurological or infectious complication occurred. PMID:21680133

Dubar, G; Omarjee, M; Viguié, C; Barbarot, S; Mignon, A

2011-06-15

50

An open trial of the effect of a zinc pyrithione shampoo in tinea versicolor.  

PubMed

The effect of zinc pyrithione 1 percent, incorporated in a shampoo, has been tested in an open trial of twenty patients with tinea versicolor. The period of treatment was two weeks, and eighteen patients returned for follow-up visits two weeks after the last day of treatment. All of these patients were cured of tinea versicolor clinically, under Wood's light, and microscopically. No side effects were noticed in any of the patients and the patients found the shampoo cosmetically acceptable. PMID:6991220

Faergemann, J; Fredriksson, T

1980-06-01

51

Biosorption of cadmium from aquatic systems by carboxymethylcellulose and immobilized Trametes versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trametes versicolor basidio spores immobilized onto carboxymethylcellulose were used for the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions. The biosorption of Cd(II) ions on carboxymethylcellulose and both immobilized live and heat-killed fungal mycelia of T. versicolor was studied from aqueous solutions in the concentration range of 30–700 mg\\/L. The biosorption of Cd(II) ions by the carboxymethylcellulose and both immobilized live

Y Yalç?nkaya; L Soysal; A Denizli; M. Y Ar?ca; S Bekta?; Ö Genç

2002-01-01

52

Biochemical and molecular characterization of a cellobiohydrolase from Trametes versicolor.  

PubMed

A cellobiohydrolase-encoding cDNA, Tvcel7a, from Trametes versicolor has been cloned and expressed in Aspergillus niger. The deduced amino acid sequence shows that Tvcel7a encodes a 456-amino acid polypeptide belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 7. TvCel7a possesses a 19-amino acid secretion signal but does not possess a linker region nor a carbohydrate-binding domain. Two peaks of activity were obtained after TvCel7a was purified to apparent homogeneity by gel-filtration followed by anion-exchange chromatography. Mass spectrometry performed on the purified proteins confirmed that both peaks corresponded to the predicted sequence of the T. versicolor cellulase. The biochemical properties of the purified TvCel7a obtained from both peaks were studied in detail. The pH and temperature optima were 5.0 and 40 degrees C, respectively. The enzyme was stable over a pH range extending from pH 3.0 to 9.0 and at temperatures lower than 50 degrees C. The kinetic parameters with the substrate p-nitrophenyl beta-D: -cellobioside (pNPC) were 0.58 mM and 1.0 micromol/min/mg protein for the purified TvCel7a found in both peaks 1 and 2. TvCel7a catalyzes the hydrolysis of pNPC, filter paper, beta-glucan, and avicel to varying extents, but no detectable hydrolysis was observed when using the substrates carboxymethylcellulose, laminarin and pNPG. PMID:17333176

Lahjouji, Karim; Storms, Reginald; Xiao, Zhizhuang; Joung, Kwang-Bo; Zheng, Yun; Powlowski, Justin; Tsang, Adrian; Varin, Luc

2007-03-01

53

Effect of Residual Lignin Type and Amount on Bleaching of Kraft Pulp by Trametes versicolor  

PubMed Central

The white rot fungus Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor can delignify and brighten unbleached hardwood kraft pulp within a few days, but softwood kraft pulps require longer treatment. To determine the contributions of higher residual lignin contents (kappa numbers) and structural differences in lignins to the recalcitrance of softwood kraft pulps to biobleaching, we tested softwood and hardwood pulps cooked to the same kappa numbers, 26 and 12. A low-lignin-content (overcooked) softwood pulp resisted delignification by T. versicolor, but a high-lignin-content (lightly cooked) hardwood pulp was delignified at the same rate as a normal softwood pulp. Thus, the longer time taken by T. versicolor to brighten softwood kraft pulp than hardwood pulp results from the higher residual lignin content of the softwood pulp; possible differences in the structures of the residual lignins are important only when the lignin becomes highly condensed. Under the conditions used in this study, when an improved fungal inoculum was used, six different softwood pulps were all substantially brightened by T. versicolor. Softwood pulps whose lignin contents were decreased by extended modified continuous cooking or oxygen delignification to kappa numbers as low as 15 were delignified by T. versicolor at the same rate as normal softwood pulp. More intensive O2 delignification, like overcooking, decreased the susceptibility of the residual lignin in the pulps to degradation by T. versicolor.

Reid, Ian D.; Paice, Michael G.

1994-01-01

54

Regulation of Laccase Gene Transcription in Trametes versicolor  

PubMed Central

The expression of laccase in the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor is regulated at the level of gene transcription by copper and nitrogen. We used reverse transcription-PCR to demonstrate that as the concentration of copper or nitrogen in fungal cultures was increased, an increase in laccase activity, corresponding to increased laccase gene transcription levels, was observed. In addition, we demonstrated that the amounts of laccase mRNA and laccase activity in 10-day-old cultures were a direct function of the concentration of either 1-hydroxybenzotriazole, a previously described laccase substrate, or 2,5-xylidine, a well-known laccase inducer, in the medium. No induction was observed after the addition of two aromatic acids, ferulic acid and veratric acid, which have been shown to induce laccase production in other white rot fungi. When either copper, 2,5-xylidine, or both compounds were added to cultures grown in the absence of copper, increased laccase transcript levels were detected within 15 min. Corresponding increases in laccase activity were observed after 24-h incubation only when copper was present.

Collins, P. J.; Dobson, A.

1997-01-01

55

Skin Characteristics in Patients with Pityriasis Versicolor Using Non-Invasive Method, MPA5  

PubMed Central

Background Skin pigmentary changes of pityriasis versicolor may occur as either hyperpigmented or hypopigmented lesions, depending on the outcome of interactions between Malassezia yeasts and the skin, such as lipoperoxidation process, stimulus of inflammatory cell to melanocytes, and increased thickness of keratin layer. Objective To investigate skin characteristic factors that enhance the susceptibility to Malassezia yeasts and provoke different color changes of pityriasis versicolor patients. Methods To clarify these factors, we investigated the skin characteristics of pityriasis versicolor patients, using a non-invasive method known as MPA 5® (Courage and Khazaka, Germany). A total of 90 normal healthy subjects and 30 pityriasis versicolor patients were included in this study. Results Both hyperpigmented and hypopigmented pityriasis versicolor skin lesions showed higher humidity, increased sebum excretion rate and increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL) values than normal healthy subjects. But no significant difference of specific Malassezia yeasts species between hyperpigmented and hypopigmented skin lesions was evident. Conclusion These results indicate that higher humidity and increased sebum level provide a better growing environment of Malassezia yeasts in the skin, leading to the assumption that interaction between Malassezia yeasts and skin barrier materials makes disruption of skin barrier causing increased TEWL.

Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom

2012-01-01

56

Ketoconazole 2% shampoo in the treatment of tinea versicolor: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Tinea versicolor is a common superficial fungal infection caused by a lipophilic yeast. This chronically recurring opportunistic infection is especially prevalent in tropical and semitropical regions. The topical short-term application of ketoconazole 2% shampoo may provide effective and safe therapy for tinea versicolor. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a single

David S. Lange; Henry M. Richards; Joseph Guarnieri; John M. Humeniuk; Ronald C. Savin; Blas A. Reyes; Janet Hickman; David M. Pariser; Robert J. Pariser; Elizabeth F. Sherertz; Rachel M. Grossman; Elvira M. Gisoldi; Mark A. Klausner

1998-01-01

57

Double-blind comparison of a zinc pyrithione shampoo and its shampoo base in the treatment of tinea versicolor.  

PubMed

A zinc pyrithione shampoo was compared with its shampoo base in the treatment of tinea versicolor. Forty patients with tinea versicolor were included in the study. The condition in twenty patients treated with the zinc pyrithione shampoo cleared; the condition in the remaining twenty patients treated with the shampoo base did not. No side effects were noted in any of the patients. PMID:6342980

Fredriksson, T; Faergemann, J

1983-04-01

58

VOLTINISM AND DIAPAUSE IN POPULATIONS OF APAGOMERELLA VERSICOLOR (COLEOPTERA: CERAMBYCIDAE) IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF ITS LATITUDINAL GRADIENT.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

APAGOMERELLA VERSICOLOR (BOHEMAN), A LONG HORN STEM-BORER BEETLE OF THE HOST GENERA PLUCHEA., XANTHIUM,.AND AMBROSIA (ASTERACEAE). IN ARGENTINA, IT OCCURS BETWEEN 25 DEGREES AND 39 DEGREES S. STUDIES CONDUCTED IN BUENOS AIRES (35 DEGREES S) INDICATED THAT A. VERSICOLOR IS UNIVOLTINE AND HAS A WINT...

59

Sterigmatocystin production by nine newly described Aspergillus species in section Versicolores grown on two different media.  

PubMed

Nine recently described Aspergillus species and four known species in section Versicolores were tested for their ability to produce sterigmatocystin on two liquid media, Czapek w/20% Sucrose Broth and Yeast Extract Broth grown in the dark for 1 week at 25 °C. Detection and quantification of ST were performed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry. Limit of detection was 3 ng/mL and limit of quantification was 10 ng/mL. Nine newly described Aspergillus species from various substrates, A. amoenus, A. creber, A. cvjetkovicii, A. fructus, A. jensenii, A. puulaauensis, A. subversicolor, A. tennesseensis and A. venenatus in section Versicolores were found to produce sterigmatocystin. Production was confirmed in recently collected isolates of A. protuberus and A. versicolor. A. austroafricanus and A. tabacinus did not produce sterigmatocystin. PMID:23417508

Jurjevi?, Zeljko; Peterson, Stephen W; Solfrizzo, Michele; Peraica, Maja

2013-02-17

60

Fungal biodegradation and biotransformation of soluble lignocarbohydrate complexes from straw. [Aspergillus japonicus, Polyporus versicolor  

SciTech Connect

Aspergillus japonicus is an efficient degrader of phenolics and carbohydrates present in a mixture of soluble lignocarbohydrate complexes extracted from wheat straw. Trichoderma species attacked part of the carbohydrate but hardly affected the aromatic portion of this solution. Polyporus versicolor had a complex effect; polymerization of low-molecular-size phenolics accompanied the degradation of aromatic and carbohydrate polymers. The addition of xylose to the medium facilitated depolymerization of lignin by the fungi tested and prevented the polymerization of low-molecular-size fractions of lignocarbohydrate complexes by P. versicolor. P. versicolor, in contrast to A. japonicus and Trichoderma species, also excreted into the medium considerable amounts of laccase, but only in the absence of endogenous or exogenous carbohydrates. Apparently, laccase is involved in polymerization rather than degradation of lignin in this organism. A number of extracellular glycanases were also secreted by these fungi. 19 references

Milstein, O.A.; Vared, Y.; Sharma, A.; Gressel, J.; Flowers, H.M.

1983-08-01

61

[Pityriasis versicolor : new aspects of an old disease].  

PubMed

Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is one of the most common infectious skin diseases, as well as the most common dermatosis associated with pigmentation alterations of the skin. PV is prevalent in 1% of the population living in temperate climate zones and more common during the summer. In tropical areas, PV is found in up to 50% of all patients consulting a dermatologist. Of the known Malassezia species, M. globosa is currently felt to play a key role in the pathogenesis of PV, as it is most commonly found in PV lesions. In addition, its round-shaped cells may contribute to the characteristic histology of the disease ("spaghetti and meatballs"). However, the clinical appearance of PV including hyper- and hypopigmentation, fluorescence of the lesions, as well as a lack of inflammation despite high fungal load cannot fully be explained by the presence of M. globosa, which is also found on healthy skin. In M. furfur a tryptophan-dependent metabolic pathway generates a number of indole pigments, which may be associated with the clinical appearance of PV. In the model organism Ustilago maydis it was shown that the formation of the indole compounds occurs spontaneously after initial conversion of tryptophan into indole pyruvate controlled by the key enzyme aminotransferase Tam 1. We review the present knowledge of PV and highlight the potential role of Tam1 in explaining the poorly understood aspects of the disease. Promising therapeutic results using the application of Tam1 inhibitors to treat PV support the enzyme's important role in the disease pathogenesis. PMID:23114508

Mayser, P A; Preuss, J

2012-11-01

62

Production of ligninolytic activities when treating paper pulp effluents by Trametes versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the ability of Trametes versicolor to decolorize the effluents from the alkaline cooking of cereal straw produced at a paper and paper pulp making plant is studied. Enzymatic activities related to the metabolism of lignin during fungal treatment have also been evaluated. The results that have been attained show the necessity of a carbon source for the

P. Manzanares; S. Fajardo; C. Martin

1995-01-01

63

Biological decolourisation of wastewater from molasses fermentation by Trametes versicolor in an airlift reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous decolourisation of wastewater from molasses fermentation using mycelium of Trametes versicolor in pellets shape was performed in an airlift bioreactor (semi-pilot scale) with the aim of operating steadily for a long period, maintaining the colour removal activity. The influences of influent flow and glucose feed rate were tested. Induction of peroxidases secretion by Mn addition was also studied. The

R. Rioja; M. T. García; M. Peña; G. González

2008-01-01

64

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF MALASSEZIA SPP. IN PYTIRIASIS VERSICOLOR IN KASHAN, IRAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a chronic superficial fungal disease caused by Malassezia spp. The incidence is as high as 30-40% in tropical climates. Epidemiological data suggest geographical variations in the rate of the isolated species from PV. Our aim was to identify Malassezia spp. from PV patients in Kashan, Iran. Methodology: Isolates of Malassezia were collected from 118 PV

Rezvan Moniri; Mehdi Nazeri; Shokouh Amiri; Babak Asghari

65

Decolorization of wastewater from an alcoholic fermentation process with Trametes versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decoloration by Trametes versicolor of molasses wastewater from an alcoholic fermentation factory was studied. Tests varying the concentrations of carbon source, nutrients, initial pH and mycelia were carried out in order to analyze their influence on the percentage decolorization, COD removal and decrease of ammonium content of the wastewater. Satisfactory results were obtained working with a low sucrose concentration and

G. González Benito; M. Peña Miranda; D. Rodríguez de los Santos

1997-01-01

66

Differential effect of Coriolus versicolor (Yunzhi) extract on cytokine production by murine lymphocytes in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Being one of the commonly used Chinese medicinal herbs, Coriolus versicolor (CV), also named as Yunzhi, was known to possess both anti-tumor and immunopotentiating activities. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro immunomodulatory effect of a standardized ethanol–water extract prepared from CV on the proliferation of murine splenic lymphocytes using the MTT assay, and the production of six

C. Y. Ho; Clara B. S. Lau; C. F. Kim; K. N. Leung; K. P. Fung; T. F. Tse; Helen H. L. Chan; Moses S. S. Chow

2004-01-01

67

Transcriptional Responses in the Hemiparasitic Plant Triphysaria versicolor to Host Plant Signals1(w)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitic plants in the Scrophulariaceae use chemicals released by host plant roots to signal developmental processes critical for heterotrophy. Haustoria, parasitic plant structures that attach to and invade host roots, develop on roots of the hemiparasitic plant Triphysaria versicolor within a few hours of exposure to either maize (Zea mays) root exudate or purified haustoria-inducing factors. We prepared a normalized,

Marta Matvienko; Manuel J. Torres; John I. Yoder

2001-01-01

68

[Pityriasis versicolor: isolation and identification of the main species of Malassezia].  

PubMed

Species of the genus Malassezia isolated were: Malassezia sympodialis (16.66%), Malassezia furfur (12.50%), Malassezia globosa (11.45%), and Malassezia slooffiae (2.10%). Malassezia sympodialis predominated in the study. The species of Malassezia identified did not show correlation with clinical variants and with the distribution of pityriasis versicolor lesions in relation to areas of the body. PMID:20464101

Framil, Valéria Maria de Souza; Melhem, Márcia S C; Szeszs, Maria Walderez; Corneta, Elaine Cristina; Zaitz, Clarisse

69

Foundation Pattern, Productivity and Colony Success of the Paper Wasp, Polistes versicolor  

PubMed Central

Polistes versicolor (Olivier) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) colonies are easily found in anthropic environments; however there is little information available on biological, ecological and behavioral interactions of this species under these environmental conditions. The objective of this work was to characterize the foundation pattern, the productivity, and the success of colonies of P. versicolor in anthropic environments. From August 2003 to December 2004, several colonies were studied in the municipal district of Juiz de Fora, Southeastern Brazil. It was possible to determine that before the beginning of nest construction the foundress accomplishes recognition flights in the selected area, and later begins the construction of the peduncle and the first cell. As soon as new cells are built, the hexagonal outlines appear and the peduncle is reinforced. Foundation of nests on gypsum plaster was significantly larger (p < 0.0001; ?2 test) in relation to the other types of substrate, revealing the synantropism of the species. On average, the P. versicolor nest presents 244.2 ± 89.5 (100–493) cells and a medium production of 171.67 ± 109.94 (37–660) adults. Cells that produced six individuals were verified. Usually, new colonies were founded by an association of females, responsible for the success of 51.5%. Although these results enlarge knowledge on the foundation pattern of P. versicolor in anthropic environments, other aspects of the foundation process require further investigation.

Alves de Oliveira, Simone; Monteiro de Castro, Mariana; Prezoto, Fabio

2010-01-01

70

Expression and potential function of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides in dermatophytosis and tinea versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This study was designed to characterize the role of the human cathelicidin LL-37 in fungal skin infections such as dermatophytosis and tinea versicolor. Methods: The in vitro antimicrobial activity of synthetic antimicrobial peptides including the human cathelicidin LL-37 against Malassezia furfur and several dermatophytes was determined. Immunostaining was performed to determine expression of cathelicidin in skin biopsies from patients

BelenL opez-Garcõ ´ a; Phillip H. A. Lee; Richard L. Gallo

2006-01-01

71

A Novel Cellular Reaction Caused by Tinea Versicolor: Extracellular Glycogen Deposits1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tinea versicolor infections examined by electron microscopy were compared with the clinically normal (uninfected) skin of the same subjects. Comparison was made by detailed study of all layers of the epidermis with special emphasis on the basal and spinous layers. For the detailed studies photographic montages (at 12,000×) were prepared from electron micrographs of sections of skin up to 0.1

Frances M Keddie

1969-01-01

72

The culture duration affects the immunomodulatory and anticancer effect of polysaccharopeptide derived from Coriolus versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polysaccharopeptide (PSP) derives from the medicinal mushroom Coriolus versicolor is considered a biological response modifier with potential pharmaceutical applications. Significant literatures support the immune and anticancer functions of PSP; however, standardization is of big concern because variable biotechnological factors can affect both the chemical and biological properties of PSP. In this study, the extracts of PSP obtained at different days

Cheuk-Lun Lee; Xiaotong Yang; Jennifer Man-Fan Wan

2006-01-01

73

Superficial fungal infections: an update on pityriasis versicolor, seborrheic dermatitis, tinea capitis, and onychomycosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent advances in pityriasis versicolor, seborrheic dermatitis, tinea capitis and onychomycosis are reviewed. Some highlighted points include the new classification of Malassezia species, and the association of Malassezia species with seborrheic dermatitis. The use of terbinafine, fluconazole, and itraconazole for the treatment of tinea capitis is discussed. The management of onychomycosis, highlighting the high efficacy rates obtained with terbinafine

Aditya K Gupta; Jennifer E Ryder; Karyn Nicol; Elizabeth A Cooper

2003-01-01

74

Liquefaction of Coal by Polyporus Versicolor and Poria Monticola. Progress Report, 1 January-31 March 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Both Polyporus versicolor and Poria monticola were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection. Growth of Polyporus was shown to be faster and stronger than that of Poria under all conditions tested and the results reported here are based upon liqu...

M. S. Cohen

1985-01-01

75

Die Bildung der Phenoloxydase und die Stoffwechselbeeinflussung durch Phenole bei Polystictus versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of phenolase and the influence of phenols on metabolism were investigated with different strains of Polystictus versicolor.1.In the presence of carbon sources which like glucose can easily be metabolized, the formation of laccase was repressed. In the beginning of autolytic processes, caused by the lack of nutrient, the laccase formation was induced by a deficient energy supply.2.By addition

K. Grabbe; R. Koenig; K. Haider

1968-01-01

76

Identification and Speciation of Malassezia in Patients Clinically Suspected of Having Pityriasis Versicolor  

PubMed Central

Background: Malassezia is a lipid-dependent yeast known to cause Pityriasis versicolor, a chronic, recurrent superficial infection of skin and present as hypopigmented or hyperpigmented lesions on areas of skin. If not diagnosed and treated, it may lead to disfigurement of the areas involved and also result in deep invasive infections. Aim: The aim of the present study was to identify and speciate Malassezia in patients clinically suspected of having Pityriasis versicolor. Materials and Methods: Total 139 patients suspected of having Pityriasis versicolor were evaluated clinically and diagnosis was done by Wood's lamp examination, confirmed mycologically by using KOH, cultivation on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and modified Dixon agar at a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai. The total duration of study was 12 months. Results: Majority of the patients were males (59.71%) in the age group of 21-30 years (33.81%) who were students (30.21%) by profession. The incidence of Malassezia in Pityriasis versicolor was 50.35%. The most common isolate was M. globosa (48.57%), followed by M. furfur (34.28%). Majority of the patients had hypopigmented lesions, with M. globosa as the predominant isolate. Neck was the most common site affected; 88.48% were Wood's lamp positive of which 56.91% of Malassezia isolates grew on culture. KOH mount was positive in 82.01% of which 61.40% Malassezia isolates grew on culture. Conclusions: The procedure of culture and antifungal testing is required to be performed as different species of Malassezia are involved in Pityriasis versicolor and susceptibility is different among different species. Thus, it would help to prevent recurrences and any systemic complications.

Shah, Avani; Koticha, Avani; Ubale, Milind; Wanjare, Shashir; Mehta, Preeti; Khopkar, Uday

2013-01-01

77

DESTRUCTION OF ASPERGILLUS VERSICOLOR, PENICILLIUM CRYSOGENUM, STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM, AND CLADOSPORIUM CLADOSPORIDES SPORES USING CHEMICAL OXIDATION TREATMENT PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

The survival of aqueous suspensions of Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Cladosporium cladosporioides spores was evaluated using various combinations of hydrogen peroxide and iron (II) as catalyst. Spores were suspended in water and trea...

78

Liquefaction of Coal by Polyporus Versicolor and Poria Monticola. Final Report, 1 September 1984-31 August 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Polyporus versicolor (ATCC 12679), obtained from the American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, MD, has been demonstrated to degrade leonardite, lignite, and subbituminous coals to a black liquid product which is called the bioextract. The process of so...

M. S. Cohen

1986-01-01

79

Degradation of chlorinated lignin compounds in a bleach plant effluent by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorinated lignin derivatives in a combined bleach plant effluent from sulphite pulping were degraded by several white-rot fungi among which Trametes versicolor (Coriolus versicolor) strains were the most efficient. With glucose as co-substrate, about 90% colour reduction was achieved within 3 days. Simultaneously, the concentration of chloro-organic compounds measured as adsorbable organic halogens decreased by about 45%. As shown by

Matthias Bergbauer; Claudia Eggert; Gunda Kraepelin

1991-01-01

80

Manganese peroxidase, produced by Trametes versicolor during pulp bleaching, demethylates and delignifies kraft pulp  

SciTech Connect

The white rot fungus Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor delignifies and bleaches kraft pulp. However, the process is slow compared with chemical bleaching and the cellulose is also attacked. This study attempts to determine the enzymology of fungal delignification and then applies the relevant enzymes directly to the pulp. Lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) have both been implicated in lignin biodegradations. However, the researchers show that MnP is the critical enzyme. It is produced by bleaching cultures of T. versicolor; its peak production occurs at the same time as the maximum rate of fungal culture bleaching, and the manganese-and peroxide-dependent demethylation and delignification of kraft pulp occurs in vitro. 50 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

Paice, M.G.; Reid, I.D.; Bourbonnais, R.; Archibald, F.S.; Jurasek, L. (Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada, Pointe Claire, Quebec (Canada))

1993-01-01

81

Role of Laccase and Low Molecular Weight Metabolites from Trametes versicolor in Dye Decolorization  

PubMed Central

The studies regarding decolorization of dyes by laccase may not only inform about the possible application of this enzyme for environmental purposes, but also may provide important information about its reaction mechanism and the influence of several factors that could be involved. In this paper, decolorization of crystal violet and phenol red was carried out with different fractions of extracellular liquids from Trametes versicolor cultures, in order to describe the role of laccase in this reaction. Moreover, the possible role of the low molecular weight metabolites (LMWMs) also produced by the fungus was evaluated. The results confirm the existence of a nonenzymatic decolorization factor, since the nonprotein fraction of the extracellular liquids from cultures of T. versicolor has shown decolorization capability. Several experiments were performed in order to identify the main compounds related to this ability, which are probably low molecular weight peroxide compounds.

Moldes, Diego; Fernandez-Fernandez, Maria; Sanroman, M. Angeles

2012-01-01

82

Role of laccase and low molecular weight metabolites from Trametes versicolor in dye decolorization.  

PubMed

The studies regarding decolorization of dyes by laccase may not only inform about the possible application of this enzyme for environmental purposes, but also may provide important information about its reaction mechanism and the influence of several factors that could be involved. In this paper, decolorization of crystal violet and phenol red was carried out with different fractions of extracellular liquids from Trametes versicolor cultures, in order to describe the role of laccase in this reaction. Moreover, the possible role of the low molecular weight metabolites (LMWMs) also produced by the fungus was evaluated. The results confirm the existence of a nonenzymatic decolorization factor, since the nonprotein fraction of the extracellular liquids from cultures of T. versicolor has shown decolorization capability. Several experiments were performed in order to identify the main compounds related to this ability, which are probably low molecular weight peroxide compounds. PMID:22566767

Moldes, Diego; Fernández-Fernández, María; Sanromán, M Ángeles

2012-04-01

83

Sociogenetic structure of Polistes (Aphanilopterus) versicolor Olivier, 1791 colonies (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistini)  

PubMed Central

The observation of two distinct, well-defined oviposition areas in nests of the primitively eusocial wasp Polistes versicolor suggests the presence of multiple egg-layers and territorial behaviors. Electrophoretic analysis of enzyme loci in pupae from 35 colonies revealed an average observed heterozygosity of 0.10 and the existence of private polymorphisms, thereby indicating a low dispersion in this species. No evidence of diploid males was found. Phenotypic segregation analysis revealed the presence of more than one egg-laying female in 15 out of 35 colonies, as well as spatially preferential oviposition in 2 out of 13 nests, with distinct oviposition areas. Genetic relatedness estimates for brood were lower than expected for haplodiploid species under monogynous conditions (r = 0.75 for female broods and r = 0.5 for male) in 4 of those 13 nests, thereby inferring complex sociogenetic structuring in Polistes versicolor colonies.

2010-01-01

84

Degradation of diphenyl ether herbicides by the lignin-degrading basidiomycete Coriolus versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under ligninolytic conditions, the white-rot basidiomycete Coriolus versicolor metabolized chloronitrofen (2, 4, 6-trichloro-4'-nitrodiphenyl ether; CNP) and nitrofen (2, 4-dichloro-4'-nitrodiphenyl ether; NIP), which constitute the largest class of commercially produced diphenyl ether herbicides. The pathway of CNP degradation was elucidated by the identification of fungal metabolites upon addition of CNP and its metabolic intermediates. The metabolic pathway was initially branched to

N. Hiratsuka; H. Wariishi; H. Tanaka

2001-01-01

85

Cresols utilization by Trametes versicolor and substrate interactions in the mixture with phenol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor strain 1 to degrade and utilize methylated phenols (cresols) was established for the first time in a medium not containing\\u000a any other carbon components. The data obtained demonstrated the better potential of the strain to assimilate p-cresol instead of o- or m- cresol. The 0.5 g\\/l p-cresol provided was degraded in full

Zlatka Alexieva; Hyusein Yemendzhiev; Plamena Zlateva

2010-01-01

86

Cell growth and catecholase production for Polyporus versicolor in submerged culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell growth and catecholase production for Polyporus versicolor (ATCC 12679) were studied in mechanically agitated submerged culture, as functions of temperature. The exponential-phase growth rate exhibited a maximum at 28°C. Over the range of 20°C to approximately 30°C, both cell mass and enzyme yield factors were constant. At higher temperatures (30 to 40°C) cell mass yield factor decreased and enzyme

P. A. Carroad; C. R. Wilke

1977-01-01

87

Enzyme Production by Solid Substrate Fermentation of Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor on Tomato Pomace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process of solid state fermentation (SSF) on tomato pomace was developed with the white-rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor, using sorghum stalks as support. Operative parameters (humidity, water activity, and size of substrate particles) guaranteeing\\u000a a good colonization of tomato pomace by both fungi were defined and conditions for production at high titers of the industrially\\u000a relevant enzymes

Donata Iandolo; Alessandra Piscitelli; Giovanni Sannia; Vincenza Faraco

2011-01-01

88

Members of opposite sex mutually regulate gonadal recrudescence in the lizard Calotes versicolor (Agamidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult males and females of the seasonally breeding lizardCalotes versicolor were subjected to various social situations under semi-natural conditions to explain the role of socio-sexual factors in\\u000a gonadal recrudescence. They were grouped as: (i) males and females, (ii) males and females separated by a wire mesh, (iii)\\u000a same sex groups of males or females, (iv) castrated males with intact females

B. A. Shanbhag; R. S. Radder; S. K. Saidapur

2002-01-01

89

Brevianamides with antitubercular potential from a marine-derived isolate of Aspergillus versicolor.  

PubMed

An Aspergillus versicolor isolated from sediment collected from the Bohai Sea, China, yielded the new dimeric diketopiperazine brevianamide S (1), together with three new monomeric cometabolites, brevianamides T (2), U (3), and V (4). Structures were determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis. Brevianamide S exhibited selective antibacterial activity against Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), suggestive of a new mechanism of action that could inform the development of next-generation antitubercular drugs. PMID:22963079

Song, Fuhang; Liu, Xinru; Guo, Hui; Ren, Biao; Chen, Caixia; Piggott, Andrew M; Yu, Ke; Gao, Hong; Wang, Qian; Liu, Mei; Liu, Xueting; Dai, Huanqin; Zhang, Lixin; Capon, Robert J

2012-09-10

90

Humoral immune response to Malassezia furfur in patients with pityriasis versicolor and seborrheic dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humoral immune responses against exoantigen components of oval, elliptic and round yeast forms of Malassezia furfur were analysed\\u000a by ELISA and Western blotting assays, using sera from patients with pityriasis versicolor (PV), seborrheic dermatitis (SD)\\u000a and healthy adults (HA), as control.\\u000a \\u000a Sera from patients with SD showed IgG anti-oval M. furfur titers ranging from 1\\/400 to 1\\/6400 showing geometric mean

Victor Silva; Olga Fischman; Zoilo Pires de Camargo

1997-01-01

91

Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformed roots of the parasitic plant Triphysaria versicolor retain parasitic competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitic plants in the Orobanchaceae invade roots of neighboring plants to rob them of water and nutrients. Triphysaria is facultative parasite that parasitizes a broad range of plant species including maize and Arabidopsis. In this paper we describe transient and stable transformation systems for Triphysaria\\u000a versicolor Fischer and C. Meyer. Agrobacterium\\u000a tumefaciens and Agrobacterium\\u000a rhizogenes were both able to transiently

Alexey Tomilov; Natalya Tomilova; John I. Yoder

2007-01-01

92

Symbiosis initiation in the bacterially luminous sea urchin cardinalfish Siphamia versicolor.  

PubMed

To determine how each new generation of the sea urchin cardinalfish Siphamia versicolor acquires the symbiotic luminous bacterium Photobacterium mandapamensis, and when in its development the S. versicolor initiates the symbiosis, procedures were established for rearing S. versicolor larvae in an aposymbiotic state. Under the conditions provided, larvae survived and developed for 28 days after their release from the mouths of males. Notochord flexion began at 8 days post release (dpr). By 28 dpr, squamation was evident and the caudal complex was complete. The light organ remained free of bacteria but increased in size and complexity during development of the larvae. Thus, aposymbiotic larvae of the fish can survive and develop for extended periods, major components of the luminescence system develop in the absence of the bacteria and the bacteria are not acquired directly from a parent, via the egg or during mouth brooding. Presentation of the symbiotic bacteria to aposymbiotic larvae at 8-10 dpr, but not earlier, led to initiation of the symbiosis. Upon colonization of the light organ, the bacterial population increased rapidly and cells forming the light-organ chambers exhibited a differentiated appearance. Therefore, the light organ apparently first becomes receptive to colonization after 1 week post-release development, the symbiosis is initiated by bacteria acquired from the environment and bacterial colonization induces morphological changes in the nascent light organ. The abilities to culture larvae of S. versicolor for extended periods and to initiate the symbiosis in aposymbiotic larvae are key steps in establishing the experimental tractability of this highly specific vertebrate and microbe mutualism. PMID:22957874

Dunlap, P V; Gould, A L; Wittenrich, M L; Nakamura, M

2012-09-01

93

Acoustic communication in the gray treefrog, Hyla versicolor : evolutionary and neurobiological implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Acoustic communication in the gray treefrog,H. versicolor, was studied by analyzing the vocalizations of males and observing the phonotactic behavior of gravid females in response to pairs of synthetic stimuli, which usually simulated choices between calls of conspecific males at different temperatures or choices between calls of conspecific males and those of a sibling species,H. chrysoscelis. Calls ofH. chrysoscelis were

H. Carl Gerhardt; John A. Doherty

1988-01-01

94

Carbon and nitrogen sources influence the ligninolytic enzyme activity of Trametes versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among carbon sources studied, cellobiose and mannitol provided the highest laccase (Lac) activity (648 and 742 U1-1, respectively) of Trametes versicolor 775 while glucose gave maximum manganese peroxidase (MnP) and peroxidase activities (44 and 114U1-1, respectively). Citrus fruit peel as growth substrate enhanced Lac activity 7-fold when compared to the medium with cellobiose, whereas grape vine sawdust increased MnP and

N. Mikiashvili; V. Elisashvili; S. Wasser; E. Nevo

2005-01-01

95

Growth and laccase production kinetics of Trametes versicolor in a stirred tank reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

White rot fungi are a promising option to treat recalcitrant organic molecules, such as lignin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,\\u000a and textile dyes, because of the lignin-modifying enzymes (LMEs) they secrete. Because knowledge of the kinetic parameters\\u000a is important to better design and operate bioreactors to cultivate these fungi for degradation and\\/or to produce LME(s), these\\u000a parameters were determined using Trametes versicolor

A. T. Thiruchelvam; Juliana A. Ramsay

2007-01-01

96

Malassezia yeast species isolated from Iranian patients with pityriasis versicolor in a prospective study.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of Malassezia species in pityriasis versicolor lesions and to examine if the range of species varies with patients characteristics such as: age, sex and family history and also clinical findings such as site and number of the lesions. In a prospective study from July 2006 to July 2007, the patients with a clinical diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor (n = 166) were asked to participate in the study. A total of 116 patients had positive culture for Malassezia species: M. globosa was found in 52 (31.3%) cases, M. furfur in 34 (20.5%) cases, M. pachydermatis in 12 (7.2%) cases, M. restricta in 12 (7.2%) cases, M. slooffiae in 6 (3.6%) cases. According to our data, M. globosa is the main species causing pityriasis versicolor, M. furfur was found to be the second-most frequent species. M. sympodialis and M. obtusa were not found in any case, and in 30.2% of patient's Malassezia culture was negative. PMID:19500258

Rasi, Abbas; Naderi, Reza; Behzadi, Ashkan Heshmatzade; Falahati, Mehraban; Farehyar, Shirin; Honarbakhsh, Yasamin; Akasheh, Amir Poya

2009-06-04

97

Molecular epidemiology of Malassezia globosa and Malassezia restricta in Sudanese patients with pityriasis versicolor.  

PubMed

Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial infection of the stratum corneum caused by Malassezia yeasts. The cutaneous Malassezia globosa and Malassezia restricta in Sudanese patients with pityriasis versicolor were elucidated using a molecular-based, culture-independent method and compared with that in healthy individuals. Scale samples were collected by applying an Opsite™ transparent dressing to lesional and non-lesional sites on 29 Sudanese patients with pityriasis versicolor and 54 healthy individuals. Malassezia DNA was extracted directly from the samples. The overall level of colonization by Malassezia globosa and Malassezia restricta was analyzed by real-time PCR using a TaqMan probe. The overall level of colonization by Malassezia at the lesional sites was higher than that at the non-lesional sites for all body sites, including the face, neck, cheeks, and trunk (2.7- to 6.0-fold increase). Both M. globosa and M. restricta were detected in patients and healthy individuals. However, M. globosa predominated at lesional sites, whereas the level of colonization by both species was similar in healthy individuals. PMID:23054329

Saad, M; Sugita, T; Saeed, H; Ahmed, A

2012-10-04

98

Localized Hormone Fluxes and Early Haustorium Development in the Hemiparasitic Plant Triphysaria versicolor1  

PubMed Central

Perhaps the most obvious phenotypes associated with chemical signaling between plants are manifested by parasitic species of Orobanchaceae. The development of haustoria, invasive root structures that allow hemiparasitic plants to transition from autotrophic to heterotrophic growth, is rapid, highly synchronous, and readily observed in vitro. Haustorium development is initiated in aseptic roots of the facultative parasite Triphysaria versicolor when exposed to phenolic molecules associated with host root exudates and rhizosphere bioactivity. Morphological features of early haustorium ontogeny include rapid cessation of root elongation, expansion, and differentiation of epidermal cells into haustorial hairs, and cortical cell expansion. These developmental processes were stimulated in aseptic T. versicolor seedlings by the application of exogenous phytohormones and inhibited by the application of hormone antagonists. Surgically dissected root tips formed haustoria if the root was exposed to haustorial-inducing factors prior to dissection. In contrast, root tips that were dissected prior to inducing-factor treatment were unable to form haustoria unless supplemented with indole-3-acetic acid. A transient transformation assay demonstrated that auxin and ethylene-responsive promoters were up-regulated when T. versicolor was exposed to either exogenous hormones or purified haustoria-inducing factors. These experiments demonstrate that localized auxin and ethylene accumulation are early events in haustorium development and that parasitic plants recruit established plant developmental mechanisms to realize parasite-specific functions.

Tomilov, Alexey A.; Tomilova, Natalia B.; Abdallah, Ibrahim; Yoder, John I.

2005-01-01

99

Laccase production by free and immobilized mycelia of Peniophora cinerea and Trametes versicolor: a comparative study.  

PubMed

The production of laccase by immobilized mycelia of Peniophora cinerea and Trametes versicolor was studied. In an initial stage, experimental assays were performed in Erlenmeyer flasks using free and immobilized mycelium, and the performance of the fungal strains to produce the enzyme was compared. Both fungi adhered into the support material (a synthetic fiber), growing not only on the surface but also in the interspaces of the fibers. Immobilization of P. cinerea provided a 35-fold increase in laccase production when compared to the production obtained by using free mycelium. On the other hand, immobilization of T. versicolor caused a decrease in laccase activity. A comparison between the strains revealed that immobilized P. cinerea (3,500 U/L) surpassed the enzyme production by free T. versicolor (800 U/L). When the conditions that gave the best laccase production to each fungus were employed in a stirred tank bioreactor, very low laccase production was observed for both the cases, suggesting that shear stress and mycelia damage caused by the agitation impellers negatively affected the enzyme production. PMID:22865121

Silvério, Sara C; Moreira, Sérgio; Milagres, Adriane M F; Macedo, Eugénia A; Teixeira, José A; Mussatto, Solange I

2012-08-04

100

Physical factors affecting the cost and efficiency of sound production in the treefrog Hyla versicolor.  

PubMed

The metabolic cost, energy output and efficiency (i.e. the ratio of energy output to metabolic cost) of sound production were compared among male grey treefrogs (Hyla versicolor) as a function of body size and temperature. The effects of call length (in notes per call) and dominant frequency (in kHz) were also considered. Cost, determined from the amount of oxygen consumed, averaged 12.1 mJ per note and was dependent only upon body mass. Acoustic energy per note, determined from oscillograms of recorded calls, averaged 0.34 mJ and was dependent only upon temperature. Conventional theory suggests that the efficiency of sound production should be a function of the ratio of the linear size of the radiating structures to the wavelength of the sound generated (i.e. efficiency is assumed to be a function of the product of mass(0.33) and frequency), but efficiency in H. versicolor was found to be a function of the product of temperature(2.1) and mass(-1.08). Adjusting for temperature and body mass, the efficiency of sound production in H. versicolor (average 2.4 %) is greater than the efficiency of other frog species for which data are available. Temperature may affect acoustic energy output because trunk muscle contraction speed increases with temperature, which increases the velocity of airflow across the vocal cords. PMID:11104712

McLister, J D

2001-01-01

101

Endopolysaccharides from Ganoderma resinaceum, Phlebia rufa, and Trametes versicolor affect differently the proliferation rate of HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

Fungi have been used for medicinal purposes for long time by Asian countries, being a putative source of powerful new phytopharmaceuticals such as polysaccharides. The aim of this study was to extract endopolysaccharides (IPS) from Ganoderma resinaceum, Phlebia rufa, and Trametes versicolor, grown under submerged culture, to compare crude IPS production, total carbohydrate, and protein yield, and to study the effect of these IPS on HepG2 cells proliferation rate. Total biomass produced by G. resinaceum, P. rufa, and T. versicolor was (in gram per liter) 3.32?±?0.80, 5.42?±?0.58, and 4.2?±?1.29 and the IPS yield (as the biomass percent) was 9.9?±?0.05, 29.0?±?6.3, and 9.1?±?3.1 %, respectively. Characterization of IPS has shown different proportion between total sugar and protein being, on average 6.04, 10.74, and 22.62, for G. resinaceum, T. versicolor, and P. rufa, respectively. The IPS effect, at 50, 100, and 200 ?g?mL(-1) on HepG2 cell growth and viability was negligible for G. resinaceum and P. rufa but, in the case of T. versicolor, 200 ?g?mL(-1) of IPS evoked 40 % reduction on cell growth. The results suggest that the intracellular polysaccharides from T. versicolor are a potential source for bioactive molecules with anti-proliferative properties. PMID:23354498

Silva, Amélia M; Miranda, Andreia; Fernandes, Elisabete; Santos, Susana; Fraga, Irene; Santos, Dario L; Dias, Albino A; Bezerra, Rui M

2013-01-25

102

Biodegradation of olive oil mill wastewaterby Coriolus versicolor and Funalia trogii:effects of agitation, initial COD concentration, inoculum size and immobilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biodegradation of olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW) by Coriolus versicolor and Funalia trogii was investigated. Initial COD concentration, agitation and inoculum size were all found to be significant for biodegradation. Adding glucose, sulphate or nitrogen had no effect on biodegradation. During growth in optimum conditions, C.versicolor removed approximately 63% COD, 90% phenol and 65% colour within 6 days and

O. Yesilada; S. Sik; M. Sam

1998-01-01

103

Lignin Peroxidase Activity Is Not Important in Biological Bleaching and Delignification of Unbleached Kraft Pulp by Trametes versicolor  

PubMed Central

The discovery in 1983 of fungal lignin peroxidases able to catalyze the oxidation of nonphenolic aromatic lignin model compounds and release some CO2 from lignin has been seen as a major advance in understanding how fungi degrade lignin. Recently, the fungus Trametes versicolor was shown to be capable of substantial decolorization and delignification of unbleached industrial kraft pulps over 2 to 5 days. The role, if any, of lignin peroxidase in this biobleaching was therefore examined. Several different assays indicated that T. versicolor can produce and secrete peroxidase proteins, but only under certain culture conditions. However, work employing a new lignin peroxidase inhibitor (metavanadate ions) and a new lignin peroxidase assay using the dye azure B indicated that secreted lignin peroxidases do not play a role in the T. versicolor pulp-bleaching system. Oxidative activity capable of degrading 2-keto-4-methiolbutyric acid (KMB) appeared unique to ligninolytic fungi and always accompanied pulp biobleaching.

Archibald, Frederick S.

1992-01-01

104

Carbon and nitrogen balance of leaf-eating sesarmid crabs ( Neoepisesarma versicolor) offered different food sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon and nitrogen budgets for the leaf-eating crab, Neoepisesarma versicolor, were established for individuals living on pure leaf diets. Crabs were fed fresh (green), senescent (yellow) and partly degraded (brown) leaves of the mangrove tree Rhizophora apiculata. Ingestion, egestion and metabolic loss of carbon and nitrogen were determined from laboratory experiments. In addition, bacterial abundance in various compartments of the crabs' digestive tract was enumerated after dissection of live individuals. Ingestion and egestion rates (in terms of dry weight) were highest, while the assimilation efficiency was poorest for crabs fed on brown leaves. The low assimilation efficiency was more than counteracted by the high ingestion rate providing more carbon for growth than for crabs fed green and yellow leaves. In any case, the results show that all types of leaves can provide adequate carbon while nitrogen was insufficient to support both maintenance (yellow leaves) and growth (green, yellow and brown leaves). Leaf-eating crabs must therefore obtain supplementary nitrogen by other means in order to meet their nitrogen requirement. Three hypotheses were evaluated: (1) crabs supplement their diet with bacteria and benthic microalgae by ingesting own faeces and/or selective grazing at the sediment surface; (2) assimilation of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the crabs' own intestinal system; and (3) nitrogen storage following occasional feeding on animal tissues (e.g. meiofauna and carcasses). It appears that hypothesis 1 is of limited importance for N. versicolor since faeces and sediment can only supply a minor fraction of the missing nitrogen due to physical constraints on the amount of material the crabs can consume. Hypothesis 2 can be ruled out because tests showed no nitrogen fixation activity in the intestinal system of N. versicolor. It is therefore likely that leaf-eating crabs provide most of their nitrogen requirement from intracellular deposits following occasionally ingestion of animal tissue (hypothesis 3).

Thongtham, Nalinee; Kristensen, Erik

2005-10-01

105

Cell growth and catecholase production for Polyporus versicolor in submerged culture.  

PubMed

Cell growth and catecholase production for Polyporus veriscolor (ATCC 12679) were studied in mechanically agitated submerged culture, as functions of temperature. The exponential-phase growth rate exhibited a maximum at 28 degrees C. Over the range of 20 degrees C to approximately 30 degrees C, both cell mass and enzyme yield factors were constant. At higher temperatures (30 to 40 degrees C) cell mass yield factor decreased and enzyme yield factor increased. Specific respiration rate of P. versicolor was determined. Thermal deactivation of catecholase was investigated between 30 and 50 degrees C, and deactivation rates were fit to an Arrhenius rate expression. PMID:869531

Carroad, P A; Wilke, C R

1977-04-01

106

Cell growth and catecholase production for Polyporus versicolor in submerged culture.  

PubMed Central

Cell growth and catecholase production for Polyporus veriscolor (ATCC 12679) were studied in mechanically agitated submerged culture, as functions of temperature. The exponential-phase growth rate exhibited a maximum at 28 degrees C. Over the range of 20 degrees C to approximately 30 degrees C, both cell mass and enzyme yield factors were constant. At higher temperatures (30 to 40 degrees C) cell mass yield factor decreased and enzyme yield factor increased. Specific respiration rate of P. versicolor was determined. Thermal deactivation of catecholase was investigated between 30 and 50 degrees C, and deactivation rates were fit to an Arrhenius rate expression.

Carroad, P A; Wilke, C R

1977-01-01

107

Natural Hybridization between the Cholla Cactus Species Opuntia spinosior and Opuntia versicolor  

PubMed Central

The sexually reproducing cholla cactus species, Opuntia spinosior and O. versicolor, hybridize naturally in Arizona to produce hybrid swarms and segregating introgressive populations with a high degree of individual variation. The pattern of variation in these hybrid populations can be compared with that in populations derived from crossing of O. spinosior and O. fulgida, where the hybrids reproduce vegetatively rather than by seeds. The latter hybrid combination, in marked contrast to the former, results in clonal colonies with little or no observable individual variation. Images

Grant, Verne; Grant, Karen A.

1971-01-01

108

Characterization and decolorization applicability of xerogel matrix immobilized manganese peroxidase produced from Trametes versicolor IBL-04.  

PubMed

A novel manganese peroxidase (MnP) isolated from solid state culture of Trametes versicolor IBL-04 was immobilized using xerogel matrix composed of trimethoxysilane (TMOS) and propyltetramethoxysilane (PTMS). FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the successful entrapment of MnP into the xerogel matrix. An immobilization efficiency of 92.2% was achieved with a purified active fraction containing 2 mg/mL MnP. After 24 h incubation at varying pH and temperatures, the immobilized MnP retained 82 and 75% activity at pH 4 and 80°C, respectively. Xerogel matrix immobilization enhanced the catalytic efficiency of entrapped MnP. Metal ions including Cu2+, Mn2+ and Fe2+ stimulated enzyme activity while cysteine, EDTA and Ag+ inhibited the activity. MnP preserved 82% of its initial activity during oxidation of MnSO4 in 10 consecutive cycles, demonstrating the reusability of xerogel entrapped MnP. The immobilized MnP could be stored for up to 75 days at 4°C without significant activity loss. To explore the industrial applicability of MnP, the immobilized MnP was tested for decolorization of textile industry effluent in a Packed Bed Reactor System (PBRS). After five consecutive cycles, 98.8% decolorization of effluent was achieved within 5 h. The kinetic properties, storage stability and reusability of entrapped MnP from T. versicolor IBL-04 reflect its prospects as biocatalyst for bioremediation and other industrial applications. PMID:23016633

Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir; Asgher, Muhammad

2013-05-01

109

Oxidation of Anthracene and Benzo[a]pyrene by Laccases from Trametes versicolor  

PubMed Central

The in vitro oxidation of the two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene, which have ionization potentials of <=7.45 eV, is catalyzed by laccases from Trametes versicolor. Crude laccase preparations were able to oxidize both anthracene and the potent carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene. Oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene was enhanced by the addition of the cooxidant 2,2(prm1)-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), while an increased anthracene oxidizing ability was observed in the presence of the low-molecular-weight culture fluid ultrafiltrate. Two purified laccase isozymes from T. versicolor were found to have similar oxidative activities towards anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene. Oxidation of anthracene by the purified isozymes was enhanced in the presence of ABTS, while ABTS was essential for the oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene. In all cases anthraquinone was identified as the major end product of anthracene oxidation. These findings indicate that laccases may have a role in the oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by white rot fungi.

Collins, P. J.; Kotterman, M.; Field, J. A.; Dobson, A.

1996-01-01

110

Bioremoval of textile dyes with different chemical structures by Aspergillus versicolor in molasses medium.  

PubMed

Bioremoval of 17 dyes with different chemical structures by Aspergillus versicolor was detected in this study. Maxilon Red GRL (MR-GRL), Everdirect Fast Black VSF (EFB-VSF) and Brillant Blue R (BB-R) were removed better by fungal mycelia. Optimum pH values were found as 6 for all three dyes. In further experiments in the highest dye concentrations tested in this study, 58.3, 100 and 49% removal yields and 14.8, 12.6, 9.0 q(m) values were found for MR-GRL, EFB-VSF and BB-R, respectively. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction after seven days of incubation period and role of laccase activity of Aspergillus sp. were also investigated. COD reduction and laccase activities were 55.6% and 2.93 U/mL for MR-GRL, 90.7% and 3.0 U/mL for EFB-VSF and 69.0% and 1.79 U/mL for BB-R, respectively. According to these results A. versicolor deserves notable attention for removal of these dyes in wastewater effluents. PMID:22949249

Ta?tan, Burcu Ertit; Karatay, Sevgi Ertu?rul; Dönmez, Gönül

2012-01-01

111

Dectin-1 and IL-17A suppress murine asthma induced by Aspergillus versicolor but not Cladosporium cladosporioides due to differences in beta-glucan surface exposure1  

PubMed Central

There is considerable evidence supporting a role for mold exposure in the pathogenesis and expression of childhood asthma. Aspergillus versicolor and Cladosporium cladosporioides are common molds that have been implicated in asthma. In a model of mold-induced asthma, mice were repeatedly exposed to either A. versicolor or C. cladosporioides spores. The two molds induced distinct phenotypes and this effect was observed in both Balb/c and C57BL/6 strains. C. cladosporioides induced robust airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), eosinophilia, and a predominately Th2 response, while A. versicolor induced a strong Th17 response and neutrophilic inflammation, but very mild AHR. Neutralization of IL-17A resulted in strong AHR and eosinophilic inflammation following A. versicolor exposure. In Dectin-1 deficient mice, A. versicolor exposure resulted in markedly attenuated IL-17A and robust AHR compared to wild type mice. In contrast, C. cladosporioides induced AHR and eosinophilic inflammation independent of IL-17A and Dectin-1. A. versicolor, but not C. cladosporioides, spores had increased exposure of beta-glucans on their surface and were able to bind Dectin-1. Thus, the host response to C. cladosporioides was IL-17A- and Dectin1-independent, while Dectin-1 and IL-17A-dependent pathways were protective against the development of asthma after exposure to A. versicolor.

Mintz-Cole, Rachael A.; Gibson, Aaron M.; Bass, Stacey A.; Budelsky, Alison L.; Reponen, Tiina; Hershey, Gurjit K. Khurana

2012-01-01

112

Female Mating History Influences Copulation Behavior but Not Sperm Release in the Orb-Weaving Spider Tetragnatha versicolor (Araneae, Tetragnathidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the influence of female mating history on copulation behavior and sperm release in the haplogyne spider Tetragnatha versicolor. Despite significant behavioral differences during mating, males released equivalent amounts of sperm to virgin and non-virgin females. When mating with non-virgin females, males showed twice as many pedipalp insertions and half the copulation duration as compared to virgin females; however,

Anne M. Danielson-François; Todd C. Bukowski

2005-01-01

113

Treatment of toxic industrial wastewater in fluidized and fixed-bed batch reactors with Trametes versicolor: influence of immobilisation.  

PubMed

This work presents the results obtained in the treatment of industrial pulp mill wastewater (black liquor) with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor immobilised in nylon and polyurethane foam cubes. Reductions in colour (36%), aromatic compounds (54%) and toxicity (3.15 times reduction of the initial value) were obtained when the fungus was immobilised in nylon and good toxicity reduction (5.7-fold reduction of the initial value) when polyurethane foam was used. These results were compared with those obtained with Trametes versicolor in the form of pellets for colour and aromatic compounds (84.8% and 70.2% respectively). Correlations among different parameters have been studied. Relationships between colour and changes in the molecular weight distribution profiles, as well as a correlation between laccase production and toxicity reduction have been found. For laccase production vs. toxicity reduction a different behaviour has been observed depending on the bioreactor configuration (fixed-bed reactor with immobilised Trametes versicolor or fluidised bed reactor with pellets of Trametes versicolor). PMID:16972380

Font, X; Caminal, G; Gabarrell, X; Vicent, T

2006-08-01

114

Influence of iron and copper nanoparticle powder on the production of lignocellulose degrading enzymes in the fungus Trametes versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

White rot fungi are one of the key group of microorganisms that help to enrich the soil via degradation of wood. In the current communication, influence of iron and copper nanoparticles on the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes by Trametes versicolor have been investigated. The production of enzymes in the presence of the two nanoparticles was compared to that of ferrous

Vishal Shah; Petra Dobiášová; Petr Baldrian; František Nerud; Amit Kumar; Sudipta Seal

2010-01-01

115

Cytotoxic activities of Coriolus versicolor (Yunzhi) extract on human leukemia and lymphoma cells by induction of apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coriolus versicolor (CV), also known as Yunzhi, is one of the commonly used Chinese medicinal herbs. Although recent studies have demonstrated its antitumour activities on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, the exact mechanism is not fully elucidated. Hence, the objective of this study was to examine the in vitro cytotoxic activities of a standardized aqueous ethanol extract prepared

C. B. S Lau; C. Y Ho; C. F Kim; K. N Leung; K. P Fung; T. F Tse; H. H. L Chan; M. S. S Chow

2004-01-01

116

Method for solubilization of low-rank coal using low molecular weight cell-free filtrates derived from cultures of Coriolus versicolor  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for isolating an extracellular product derived from a broth of Coriolus versicolor. It comprises separating the cells from a broth of C. versicolor to obtain a cell-free filtrate; separating from the cell-free filtrate a fraction containing molecules of molecular weight in the range of about 500 to 1000 daltons. This patent also describes a method for degrading low-rank coal to a water-soluble material. It comprises contacting the low-rank coal with a cell-free fraction from the broth of Coriolus versicolor containing molecules in the molecular weight range of about 500 to 1000 daltons.

Stewart, D.L.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Campbell, J.A.; Pyne, J.W. Jr.; Bean, R.M.; Wilson, B.W.

1992-01-28

117

Leaf removal by sesarmid crabs in Bangrong mangrove forest, Phuket, Thailand; with emphasis on the feeding ecology of Neoepisesarma versicolor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field measurements on leaf removal by populations of sesarmid crabs at different locations in the Bangrong mangrove forest, Phuket, Thailand, indicated that crabs on average can remove 87% of the daily leaf litter fall by ingestion or burial. The removal rate is correlated positively with the number of crab burrows and negatively with tidal inundation time. The results from the field were supplemented with observations on the behavior of Neoepisesarma versicolor in laboratory microcosms and a mangrove mesocosm. N. versicolor feeds primarily at night and total time spent feeding was up to an order of magnitude higher in the artificial microcosms than under simulated in situ conditions in the mesocosm. Most of the time during both day and night was spent resting near the entrance or inside burrows. N. versicolor mainly feeds on mangrove leaves and scraps of food material from the sediment surface. This is supported by examinations of stomach content, which showed that 62% is composed of higher plant material and 38% of detritus and mineral particles from the sediment. The nutritive value of leaves and detritus is insufficient to maintain crab growth. Sesarmid crabs may instead obtain the needed nutrients by occasional consumption of nitrogen-rich animal tissues, such as carcasses of fish and crustaceans, as indicated by the presence of animal remains in the stomach and the willingness of crabs to consume fish meat. Laboratory experiments on leaf consumption and leaf preferences of N. versicolor indicate that they preferentially feed on brown leaves, if available, followed by green and yellow leaves. If all species of sesarmid crabs in the Bangrong mangrove forest consume leaves at the same rate as N. versicolor, they could potentially ingest 52% of the total litter fall.

Thongtham, Nalinee; Kristensen, Erik; Puangprasan, Som-Ying

2008-12-01

118

Structural elucidation of an extracellular polysaccharide produced by the marine fungus Aspergillus versicolor.  

PubMed

A homogenous extracellular polysaccharide, designated AWP, was isolated from the fermented liquid of the marine fungus Aspergillus versicolor from the coral Cladiella sp. and purified by anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Chemical and spectroscopic analyses, including one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D and 2D NMR) spectroscopy showed that AWP consisted of glucose and mannose in a molar ratio of 8.6:1.0, and its average molecular weight was estimated to be 500kDa. AWP is a slightly branched extracellular polysaccharide. The backbone of AWP is mainly composed of (1?6)-linked ?-D-glucopyranose residues, slightly branched by single ?-d-mannopyranose units attached to the main chain at C-3 positions of the glucan backbone. The investigation demonstrated that AWP is a novel extracellular polysaccharide different from those of other marine microorganisms. PMID:23499086

Chen, Yin; Mao, Wenjun; Gao, Yan; Teng, Xiancun; Zhu, Weiming; Chen, Yanli; Zhao, Chunqi; Li, Na; Wang, Chunyan; Yan, Mengxia; Shan, Jimiao; Lin, Cong; Guo, Tao

2013-01-02

119

Rapid reversal of hyperpigmentation in pityriasis versicolor upon short-term topical cycloserine application.  

PubMed

The clinical phenomena of pityriasis versicolor (PV), a common Malassezia-associated skin disease, such as hyperpigmentation, depigmentation and fluorescence of the lesions may at least partly be explained by the generation of Trp-derived indole pigments through the action of transaminase 1 (TAM 1). Cycloserine, a TAM inhibitor, was able to completely inhibit pigment production in M. furfur in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Application of a 0.2-mol l(-1) aqueous cycloserine solution b.i.d. for 5 days in three patients with hyperpigmented PV resulted in complete healing within 3-5 days without side-effects. Topically applied TAM inhibitors may therefore represent a new therapeutic principle for prophylaxis and therapy of PV, thus underlining the importance of the TAM pathway for the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:19780976

Mayser, Peter; Rieche, Inga

2009-09-22

120

[The effect of low radiation doses on the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and Paecilomyces lilacinus].  

PubMed

Peculiarities of growth of the strains of two species of microscopic fungi Aspergillus versicolor and Paecilomyces lilacinus were analyzed under exposure to chronic irradiation. It was shown that the rate of radial growth increased nonuniformly in the range of doses from 0 to 250 mGy but with maximums at a certain dose of radiation. It was shown that the absorbed dose of radiation to 2 Gy did not influence the survival of investigated strains in comparison with the control ones without irradiation. It was shown that the doses of irradiation to 2 Gy (at capacity exposure dose 0.955 microC/kg) are small for these species of microscopic fungi. PMID:24006782

Tuga?, T I; Tuga?, A V; Zheltonozhskaia, M V; Sadovnikov, L V

121

Studies of laccase from Trametes versicolor in aqueous solutions of several methylimidazolium ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Stability and kinetic behavior of laccase from Trametes versicolor in the presence of several ionic liquids from the methylimidazolium family have been investigated. In general laccase stability diminished as the size of the alkylic substitute in the methylimidazolium ring increased. Higher concentrations of ionic liquids caused more destabilization than lower ones. Thus, low concentrations of [C(2)mim(+)][EtSO(4)(-)] allowed maintaining enzymatic stability. [C(4)mim(+)][Cl(-)] appeared to have a stabilizing effect on laccase, as little activity decay was observed within three weeks. Kinetic studies indicated that both [C(2)mim(+)][EtSO(4)(-)] and [C(4)mim(+)][Cl(-)] inhibited laccase activity, although 10-fold more [C(2)mim(+)][EtSO(4)(-)] than [C(4)mim(+)][Cl(-)] was required to cause the same degree of inhibition. A kinetic model was developed to represent the experimental data. PMID:21669518

Domínguez, Alberto; Rodríguez, Oscar; Tavares, Ana Paula M; Macedo, Eugenia A; Longo, María Asunción; Sanromán, María Angeles

2011-05-30

122

Bioactive anthraquinones from endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor isolated from red sea algae.  

PubMed

The marine fungus Aspergillus versicolor was isolated from the inner tissue of the Red Sea green alga Halimeda opuntia. The fungus was identified by its morphology and 18s rDNA. Cultivation of this fungal strain led to a new metabolite named isorhodoptilometrin-1-methyl ether (1) along with the known compounds emodin (2), 1-methyl emodin (3), evariquinone (4), 7-hydroxyemodin 6,8-methyl ether (5), siderin (6), arugosin C (7), and variculanol (8). The structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry. The biological properties of ethyl acetate extract and compounds 1-3 and 6-8 were explored for antimicrobial activity, anti-cancer activity and inhibition of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease. PMID:23139125

Hawas, Usama W; El-Beih, Ahmed Atef; El-Halawany, Ali M

2012-11-09

123

A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled evaluation of short-term treatment with oral itraconazole in patients with tinea versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The use of short-term oral azoles is an alternative to topical therapy in patients with tinea versicolor.Objective: We compared the efficacy and safety of oral itraconazole with that of placebo in 36 patients with mycologically proven tinea versicolor.Methods: Patients were randomly assigned to 7 days of treatment with either itraconazole, 200 mg once daily, or placebo. A potassium hydroxide

Janet G. Hickman

1996-01-01

124

Tinea Versicolor  

MedlinePLUS

... condition caused by surface (superficial) infection with a yeast that commonly lives on the skin. In the ... such as warm, oily, and moist skin, the yeast ( Malassezia ) can overgrow and cause a rash consisting ...

125

[Pityriasis versicolor].  

PubMed

The common superficial infection caused by Malassezia yeasts raises even today several questions concerning important pathogenetic and therapeutical aspects like an effective prevention therapy. PMID:22233025

Abeck, Dietrich

2011-12-01

126

In vitro chemopreventive effects of plant polysaccharides (Aloe barbadensis Miller, Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum and Coriolus versicolor)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plant polysaccharide, Aloe gel extract, was reported to have an inhibitory effect on benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P)-DNA adduct formation in vitro and in vivo. Hence, chemopreven- tive effects of plant polysaccharides (Aloe barbadensis Miller (APS), Lentinus edodes (LPS), Ganoderma lucidum (GPS) and Coriolus versicolor (CPS)) were compared using in vitro short-term screening methods associated with both initi- ation and promotion processes

Hyung Sik Kim; Sam Kacew; Byung Mu Lee

1999-01-01

127

Isolation and characterization of a new Bacillus sp. 50-3 with highly alkaline keratinase activity from Calotes versicolor faeces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new native feather-degrading bacterium has been isolated from the faeces of the agamid lizard Calotes versicolor, collected from the Beijing Zoo in China. The isolate, which has been identified as Bacillus sp. 50-3 based on morphological and biochemical and 16S rDNA tests, was shown to degrade native feather completely at 37°C\\u000a and pH 7.0 within 36 h when using chicken

Bin Zhang; DanDan Jiang; WenWen Zhou; HuaKun Hao; TianGui Niu

2009-01-01

128

Ceramic honeycomb as support for covalent immobilization of laccase from Trametes versicolor and transformation of nuclear fast red  

Microsoft Academic Search

The covalent immobilization of laccase on an inorganic ceramic support was investigated. The intention was to find a system\\u000a of enzyme and reactor for a universal immobilization procedure. Laccase from Trametes versicolor as model enzyme was chosen. The special honeycomb structure of the monolith can be applied for intensive mixing of the reaction\\u000a compounds. An appropriate reactor with ceramic material

Regina Plagemann; Ludwig Jonas; Udo Kragl

2011-01-01

129

Restriction endonuclease mapping of ribosomal RNA genes: Sequence divergence and the origin of the tetraploid treefrog Hyla versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyla chrysoscelis (2n=24) and H. versicolor (2n=48) are a diploid-tetraploid species pair of treefrogs. Restriction endonuclease mapping of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene repeat units of diploids collected from eastern and western populations reveals no differences within rRNA gene coding regions but distinctive differences within the nontranscribed spacers. A minimum of two physical maps is required to construct an rRNA gene

P. R. Romano; J. C. Vaughn

1986-01-01

130

Effects of propiconazole on extra-cellular enzymes involved in nutrient mobilization during Trametes versicolor wood colonization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of propiconazole on extra-cellular enzyme levels in Trametes versicolor have been investigated during wood colonization and degradation. The working hypothesis was that the biocide could alter\\u000a metabolic pathways, which could lead to an alteration of extra-cellular enzyme production. In the presence of a propiconazole\\u000a sub-lethal concentration, the wood degradation rate decrease concomitantly with the lag phase of fungal

Serge Lekounougou; Jean-Pierre Jacquot; Philippe Gérardin; Eric Gelhaye

2008-01-01

131

Comparative Efficacy and Tolerance of 1% Bifonazole Cream and Bifonazole Cream Vehicle in Patients with Tinea versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bifonazole 1% cream (Mycospor®1) was compared to its cream vehicle in the treatment of tinea versicolor, using a once-a-day application for 2 weeks. Patients were evaluated both clinically and mycologically in order to assess the efficacy and tolerance of the medication. 29 patients were evaluated by statistical analysis. Bifonazole cream 1% was shown to be significantly more effective in the

R. G. Mora; D. L. Greer

1984-01-01

132

Mineralization and conversion of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in soil inoculated with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in autoclaved soil supplemented with straw and inoculated with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor was investigated. Inoculated flasks were incubated for 0 to 42d and control flasks for 0 to 28d. Mineralization and volatilization of PCP and its transformation products were measured using 14C-labelled PCP for radiorespirometry and extraction analysis, and non-labelled PCP to monitor

Marja Tuomela; Merja Lyytikäinen; Pekka Oivanen; Annele Hatakka

1998-01-01

133

Plasma Progesterone Levels and Luteal Activity during Gestation and Prolonged Oviductal Egg Retention in a Tropical Lizard, Calotes versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma progesterone (P) levels and luteal and adrenal activities were studied during normal gestation and unusual prolonged period of oviductal egg retention in a polyautochronic, multiclutched lizard, Calotes versicolor. The normal gestation period (?15 days) was categorized into four stages: stage I—a few hours following ovulation, stage II—eggs with shell and embryo at primitive streak, stage III—embryonic stages 16–20, and

B. A. Shanbhag; R. S. Radder; S. K. Saidapur

2001-01-01

134

Amelioration of the ability to decolorize dyes by laccase: relationship between redox mediators and laccase isoenzymes in Trametes versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of redox mediators in the dye decolorization by two laccase isoenzymes from Trametes versicolor cultures supplemented with barley bran has been investigated. All the redox mediators tested, 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT), promazine (PZ), para-hydroxybenzoic acid (pHBA) and 1-nitroso-2-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic acid (NNDS), led to higher dye decolorization than those obtained without mediator addition. Among the different tested mediators, PZ was the most

Diego Moldes

2006-01-01

135

Oxidation of fluorene and phenanthrene by Mn(II) dependent peroxidase activity in whole cultures of Trametes(coriolus) versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity in 10 day old cultures of Trametes versicolor290 increased from 13 to 104 nmol\\/ml.min when the nitrogen concentration in the growth medium was increased from 0.1 to 0.4 gL-1 and supplemented with 600 µM Mn(II). When cultured under these conditions the fungus oxidised the PAHs fluorene and phenanthrene, with approximately 75% oxidation of phenanthrene after 11

Patrick J. Collins; Alan D. W. Dobson

1996-01-01

136

The secretome of Trametes versicolor grown on tomato juice medium and purification of the secreted oxidoreductases including a versatile peroxidase.  

PubMed

The present work was carried out with the aim to analyze the secretome of Trametes versicolor BAFC 2234 grown on tomato juice medium supplemented with copper and manganese. T. versicolor BAFC 2234 was selected among diverse wood dwelling agaricomycetes from Argentina by its ability to cause a strong white rot on hardwood and in addition to show high tolerance toward phenolic compounds. A considerable number of the identified proteins were related to the degradation/modification of lignocelluloses. Hydrolases, peroxidases and phenoloxidases were the most abundant enzymes produced under the above-mentioned culture conditions. The lignin-modifying oxidoreductases laccase, manganese peroxidase (MnP) and versatile peroxidase (VP) were successfully purified - the latter for the first time from T. versicolor. The native VP protein has a molecular mass of 45kDa and an isoelectric point of pH 3.7. The study clearly shows that complex plant-based media being rich in phenolics, such as tomato juice, can stimulate the secretion of a broad set of extracellular lignocellulolytic enzymes. Using such natural products as fungal culture media may give the opportunity to investigate plant biomass decomposition as well as the biodegradation of organic pollutants in an environment close to nature. PMID:23948257

Carabajal, Maira; Kellner, Harald; Levin, Laura; Jehmlich, Nico; Hofrichter, Martin; Ullrich, René

2013-08-12

137

Continuous degradation of a mixture of sulfonamides by Trametes versicolor and identification of metabolites from sulfapyridine and sulfathiazole.  

PubMed

In this study, we assessed the degradation of the sulfonamides sulfapyridine (SPY) and sulfathiazole (STZ) by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Complete degradation was accomplished in fungal cultures at initial pollutant concentrations of approximately 10 mg L(-1), although a longer period of time was needed to completely remove STZ in comparison to SPY. When cytochrome P450 inhibitors were added to the fungal cultures, STZ degradation was partially suppressed, while no additional effect was observed for SPY. Experiments with purified laccase and laccase mediators caused the removal of greater than 75% of each antibiotic. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqTOF-MS) analyses allowed the identification of a total of eight degradation intermediates of SPY in both the in vivo and the laccase experiments, being its desulfonated moiety the commonly detected product. For STZ, a total of five products were identified. A fluidized bed reactor with T. versicolor pellets degraded a mixture of sulfonamides (SPY, STZ and sulfamethazine, SMZ) by greater than 94% each at a hydraulic residence time of 72 h. Because wastewater contains many diverse pollutants, these results highlight the potential of T. versicolor as a bioremediation agent not only for the removal of antibiotics but also for the elimination of a wide range of contaminants. PMID:22390957

Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; García-Galán, M A Jesús; Blánquez, Paqui; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa

2012-02-11

138

Purification and Characterization of Cellobiose Dehydrogenases from the White Rot Fungus Trametes versicolor  

PubMed Central

The white rot fungus Trametes versicolor degrades lignocellulosic material at least in part by oxidizing the lignin via a number of secreted oxidative and peroxidative enzymes. An extracellular reductive enzyme, cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH), oxidizes cellobiose and reduces insoluble Mn(IV)O(inf2), commonly found as dark deposits in decaying wood, to form Mn(III), a powerful lignin-oxidizing agent. CDH also reduces ortho-quinones and produces sugar acids which can promote manganese peroxidase and therefore ligninolytic activity. To better understand the role of CDH in lignin degradation, proteins exhibiting cellobiose-dependent quinone-reducing activity were isolated and purified from cultures of T. versicolor. Two distinct proteins were isolated; the proteins had apparent molecular weights of 97,000 and 81,000 and isoelectric points of 4.2 and 6.4, respectively. The larger CDH (CDH 4.2) contained both flavin and heme cofactors, whereas the smaller contained only a flavin (CDH 6.4). These CDH enzymes were rapidly reduced by cellobiose and lactose and somewhat more slowly by cellulose and certain cello-oligosaccharides. Both glycoproteins were able to reduce a very wide range of quinones and organic radical species but differed in their ability to reduce metal ion complexes. Temperature and pH optima for CDH 4.2 were affected by the reduced substrate. Although CDH 4.2 showed rather high substrate specificity among the ortho-quinones, it could also rapidly reduce a structurally very diverse collection of other species, from negatively charged triiodide ions to positively charged hexaquo ferric ions. CDH 6.4 showed a higher K(infm) and a lower V(infmax) and turnover number than did CDH 4.2 for all substrates tested. Furthermore, CDH 6.4 did not reduce the transition metals Fe(III), Cu(II), and Mn(III) at concentrations likely to be physiologically relevant, while CDH 4.2 was able to rapidly reduce even very low concentrations of these ions. The reduction of Fe(III) and Cu(II) by CDH 4.2 may be important in sustaining a Fenton's-type reaction, which produces hydroxyl radicals that can cleave both lignin and cellulose. Unlike the CDH proteins from Phanerochaete chrysosporium, CDH 4.2 and CDH 6.4 are unable to produce hydrogen peroxide.

Roy, B. P.; Dumonceaux, T.; Koukoulas, A. A.; Archibald, F. S.

1996-01-01

139

Production and Characterization of Trametes versicolor Mutants Unable To Bleach Hardwood Kraft Pulp  

PubMed Central

Protoplasts of the monokaryotic strain 52J of Trametes versicolor were treated with UV light and screened for the inability to produce a colored precipitate on guaiacol-containing agar plates. Mutants unable to oxidize guaiacol had absent or very low secretion of laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) proteins. All isolates unable to secrete MnP were also unable to bleach or delignify kraft pulp. One mutant strain, M49, which grew normally but did not oxidize guaiacol, was tested further with a number of other substrates whose degradation has been associated with delignification by white rot fungi. Compared with the parent, 52J, mutant M49, secreting no MnP and low laccase, could not brighten or delignify kraft pulp, produced less ethylene from 2-keto methiolbutyric acid, released much less (sup14)CO(inf2) from [(sup14)C]DHP (a synthetic lignin-like polymerizate), and produced much less methanol from pulp. This mutant also displayed decreased abilities to oxidize the dyes poly B-411, poly R-478, and phenol red compared with the wild-type strain and was also unable to decolorize kraft bleachery effluent or mineralize its organochlorine. Addition of purified MnP in conjunction with H(inf2)O(inf2), MnSO(inf4), and an Mn(III) chelator to M49 cultures partially restored methanol production, pulp delignification, and biobleaching in some cases.

Addleman, K.; Dumonceaux, T.; Paice, M. G.; Bourbonnais, R.; Archibald, F. S.

1995-01-01

140

Pityriasis versicolor during anti-TNF-? monoclonal antibody therapy: therapeutic considerations.  

PubMed

Anecdotal reports have shown that tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? inhibition may cause unchecked superficial infection with the microorganisms responsible for pityriasis versicolor (PV). We observed several cases of PV, which is frequently resistant to topical therapies, in psoriatic patients undergoing anti-TNF-? monoclonal antibody therapy. To evaluate the incidence and the therapeutic management of PV in this group of individuals, between 1 January and 27 December 2010, we examined 153 psoriatic patients for the hypopigmented/hyperpigmented macular and scaling lesions associated with PV. All patients positive for PV were given topical therapy with miconazole nitrate cream twice daily for 28 days, after which they were re-evaluated. In patients non-responsive to topical therapy, we started systemic therapy with fluconazole, 300 mg week(-1) for 3 weeks. We diagnosed seven cases of PV. At the end of topical treatment, complete healing of lesions was observed in only one patient. In the other six patients, systemic treatment led to complete resolution of the infection. Although the onset of PV during anti-TNF-? therapy is seldom reported, it is not likely to be rare, but rather under-reported because of its limited pathological significance. In our opinion, the therapeutic management of this condition deserves greater consideration, as the use of topical treatments alone is largely ineffective compared with systemic treatment. PMID:22283428

Balestri, Riccardo; Rech, Giulia; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Antonucci, Angela; Ismaili, Alma; Patrizi, Annalisa; Bardazzi, Federico

2012-01-27

141

An open-label study of naftifine hydrochloride 1% gel in the treatment of tinea versicolor.  

PubMed

Tinea versicolor (TV) is a superficial cutaneous fungal infection characterized by cutaneous pigment changes, pruritus, scaling, and erythema. This open-label, single-center pilot study evaluated the efficacy and safety of naftifine 1% gel applied twice daily for 2 weeks in 10 men and women (median age 38 years) with TV. Baseline mycology status was determined by potassium hydroxide (KOH) and microscopy and clinical symptom severity (CSS) scored by the investigator using a 0 to 9 scale (0=absent, 9=worst). Patients applied naftifine HCI 1% gel to the affected area twice daily for 14 days. They returned for follow-up efficacy and safety assessments at the end of treatment (week 2), 2 weeks after treatment (week 4), and 6 weeks after treatment (week 8). All patients had a positive mycology at baseline; one was KOH negative at week 2, two were negative at week 4, and five (50%) were negative at week 8. Mean investigator total CSS score decreased from a baseline value of 4.7 to 3.2 at week 2 (32% improvement), 2.6 at week 4 (45% improvement), and 2.7 at week 8 (43% improvement). The patients rated their symptoms to be improved at all follow-up visits. There were no treatment-related adverse events during the study. These results suggest that naftifine 1% gel is a safe and efficacious topical treatment for TV. PMID:22165042

Gold, Michael H; Bridges, Tancy; Avakian, Edward; Plaum, Stefan; Pappert, Eric J; Fleischer, Alan B; Hardas, Bhushan

142

Identification of Malassezia species from pityriasis versicolor in Indonesia and its relationship with clinical characteristics.  

PubMed

Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a chronic superficial fungal disease caused by Malassezia spp. The incidence is as high as 30-40% in tropical climates. Previous studies indicate that the geographic factor has influence on the main species isolated from PV. Our aim was to identify Malassezia spp. from PV patients in Indonesia and their correlation to clinical characteristics. Isolates of Malassezia were collected from 98 PV patients (62 males and 36 females). Identification was based on morphological observation and biochemical evaluation. Leeming Notman agar was used as isolation culture medium. The biochemical evaluation consisted of specimen culture onto Sabouraud dextrose agar, Cremophor EL, Esculin, Dixon's agar at 37 degrees C and catalase reaction. The isolates found were Malasseziafurfur (42.9%), M. sympodialis (27.5%), M. globosa (13.3%), M. slooffiae (7.7%), M. obtusa (7.7%) and M. restricta (2.2%), and 7.14% specimens were unidentified. There was no statistically significant association between Malassezia spp. and demographic characteristics and clinical characteristics of the patients. Unlike reports from temperate climate countries, this study in Indonesia found M. furfur as the most frequently isolated Malassezia spp. in PV patients. PMID:18643886

Krisanty, Roro Inge Ade; Bramono, Kusmarinah; Made Wisnu, I

2008-07-17

143

Development of a bioreactor system for the decolorization of dyes by Coriolus versicolor f. antarcticus.  

PubMed

Decolorization of 100 microM malachite green (MG) by Coriolus versicolor f. antarcticus using a two-phase bioreactor, was investigated. In the first phase the decolorization ability of this fungus, growing under conditions of solid-state fermentation (SSF), was proved; in the second phase the capacity of the enzymes present in extracts from the solid residues was exploited. During the first phase using the same culture in the bioreactor, five consecutive charges were made, each with 75 ml of 100 microM MG solution, at 28 degrees C. Each cycle ended when MG solution reached a decolorization of 50%, at this time the bioreactor was discharged to a stainless steel coil at 50 degrees C, initiating the second phase of decolorization. Time required in order to reach 50% decolorization during the first phase varied between 25 and 65 min, with an average retention time of 48 min. The second stage had a retention time of 120 min. Residual MG after this phase varied from 0% to 6.3%. The role of laccase and Mn-peroxidase in MG decolorization is discussed. Toxicity of MG solutions before and after decolorization treatments was assayed using Lumbriculus variegatus as test organism. PMID:18359061

Diorio, L A; Mercuri, A A; Nahabedian, D E; Forchiassin, F

2008-03-21

144

Liquefaction of coal by Polyporus versicolor and Poria monticola. Progress report, 1 January-31 March 1985  

SciTech Connect

Both Polyporus versicolor and Poria monticola were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection. Growth of Polyporus was shown to be faster and stronger than that of Poria under all conditions tested and the results reported here are based upon liquefaction of lignite coal by Polyporus. The liquefied coal samples were treated with acetonitrile which gave two fractions, a black precipitate and a light yellow liquid phase supernatant. This supernatant consists of acetonitrile and organic compounds which are soluble in acetonitrile. If the supernatant is drawn off with a Pasteur pipette followed by addition of water to the black precipitate, the precipitate dissolves instantly in the water producing a black liquid. Using these techniques, the products of coal liquefaction have been divided into two phases which are soluble either in acetonitrile or in water. Both fractions have been analyzed by HPLC and compounds have been partially separated. No peaks have been identified. However, two principal peaks of the acetonitrile fraction have been sent to PETC for chemical analysis by GC-MS. 9 figs.

Cohen, M.S.

1985-01-01

145

Enzyme-Catalyzed Oxidation of 17?-Estradiol Using Immobilized Laccase from Trametes versicolor  

PubMed Central

Many natural and synthetic estrogens are amenable to oxidation through the catalytic action of oxidative enzymes such as the fungal laccase Trametes versicolor. This study focused on characterizing the conversion of estradiol (E2) using laccase that had been immobilized by covalent bonding onto silica beads contained in a bench-scale continuous-flow packed bed reactor. Conversion of E2 accomplished in the reactor declined when the temperature of the system was changed from room temperature to just above freezing at pH 5 as a result of a reduced rate of reaction rather than inactivation of the enzyme. Similarly, conversion increased when the system was brought to warmer temperatures. E2 conversion increased when the pH of the influent to the immobilized laccase reactor was changed from pH 7 to pH 5, but longer-term experiments showed that the enzyme is more stable at pH 7. Results also showed that the immobilized laccase maintained its activity when treating a constant supply of aqueous E2 at a low mean residence time over a 12-hour period and when treating a constant supply of aqueous E2 at a high mean residence time over a period of 9 days.

Cardinal-Watkins, Chantale; Nicell, Jim A.

2011-01-01

146

Purification of a novel pepsin inhibitor from Coriolus versicolor and its biochemical properties.  

PubMed

A novel pepsin inhibitor was isolated from Coriolus versicolor. The purification was carried out by a 2-step ultrafiltration followed by DEAE-52 and Mono Q ion-exchange chromatography. SDS-PAGE and gel filtration chromatography analysis showed that the isolated inhibitor was a 22.3 kDa protein with a single subunit. Heat stability of this inhibitor was estimated and only 7% of its inhibitory activity lost after treatment at 98 °C. The inhibitor was more specific against pepsin than several other proteases. The dissociation constant (K(i)) and concentration required for 50% pepsin inhibition (IC50) were 5.84 × 10(-5) M and 26.26 ?g/mL, respectively. Apparent decrease of ?-helix and increase of random coil were observed in the circular dichroism spectra of pepsin when an equimolar amount of the inhibitor was added. The inhibition mechanism of this inhibitor differs from the reported aspartic protease inhibitors, according to the secondary structure and the kinetic studies of this inhibitor. PMID:22384953

Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Qiu-Ping; Sun, Ying; Tian, Ya-Ping; Zhou, Nan-Di

2012-03-01

147

Agrococcus versicolor sp. nov., an actinobacterium associated with the phyllosphere of potato plants.  

PubMed

The taxonomic position of a group of actinobacterial strains isolated from the phyllosphere of potato plants was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Although the similarity values for their 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested an intermediate position between Microbacterium and Agrococcus, the phylogenetic tree demonstrated a clear clustering of the representative strain, K 114/01(T), within the genus Agrococcus. The presence of 2,4-diaminobutyric acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain K 114/01(T) substantiated the affiliation to the genus Agrococcus. An analysis performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry revealed highly similar spectral patterns for the isolated strains, which, together with their conformity regarding a multitude of phenotypic features, supported their affiliation to the same species. Differences in several physiological features, peptidoglycan and menaquinone composition and whole-cell fatty acid profiles enabled discrimination of the phyllosphere isolates with respect to recognized Agrococcus species. As the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values were below 97 %, the strains isolated from the phyllosphere of potato plants represent a novel species of the genus Agrococcus, for which the name Agrococcus versicolor sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is K 114/01(T) (=DSM 19812(T) =LMG 24386(T)). PMID:19060068

Behrendt, Undine; Schumann, Peter; Ulrich, Andreas

2008-12-01

148

Lethal and sublethal effects of embryonic and larval exposure of Hyla versicolor to Stormwater pond sediments.  

PubMed

Stormwater ponds are common features of modern stormwater management practices. Stormwater ponds often retain standing water for extended periods of time, develop vegetative characteristics similar to natural wetlands, and attract wildlife. However, because stormwater ponds are designed to capture pollutants, wildlife that utilize ponds might be exposed to pollutants and suffer toxicological effects. To investigate the toxicity of stormwater pond sediments to Hyla versicolor, an anuran commonly found using retention ponds for breeding, we exposed embryos and larvae to sediments in laboratory microcosms. Exposure to pond sediments reduced survival of embryos by approximately 50% but did not affect larval survival. Larvae exposed to stormwater pond sediment developed significantly faster (x = 39 days compared to 42 days; p = 0.005) and were significantly larger at metamorphosis (x = 0.49 g compared to 0.36 g; p < 0.001) than controls that were exposed to clean sand. Substantial amounts (712-2215 mg/l) of chloride leached from pond sediments into the water column of treatment microcosms; subsequently, survival of embryos was negatively correlated (r (2) = 0.50; p < 0.001) with water conductivity during development. Our results, along with the limited number of other toxicological studies of stormwater ponds, suggest that road salt contributes to the degradation of stormwater pond habitat quality for amphibian reproduction and that future research should focus on understanding interactions among road salts and other pollutants and stressors characteristic of urban environments. PMID:19685097

Brand, Adrianne B; Snodgrass, Joel W; Gallagher, Matthew T; Casey, Ryan E; Van Meter, Robin

2009-08-14

149

Treatment of pityriasis versicolor with topical application of essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf - therapeutic pilot study*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Pityriasis versicolor is a fungal infection caused by Malassezia spp. that has frequent relapses. OBJECTIVES The main objective of this research was to perform phase I and II clinical studies, using formulations containing essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus in patients with pityriasis versicolor. METHODS Phase I study included twenty volunteers to ascertain the safety of the formulations. In phase II, 47 volunteers randomly received essential oil formulations at 1.25 ?L/mL concentration, for forty days. The shampoo should be applied three times a week and the cream twice a day. A control group in phase II, consisting of 29 volunteers, received the same formulations but with 2% ketoconazole as the active ingredient. RESULTS No significant adverse events were observed in volunteers during Phase I. In Phase II, 30 (63.83%) volunteers using essential oil and 18 (62.07%) using ketoconazole remained until the end of the study. We observed a predominance of lesions in disseminated form, with M. sympodialis detected as the predominant agent identified in cultures. After 40 days of treatment, the rate of mycological cure was 60% (p <0.05) for the group treated with essential oil of C. citratus and over 80% (p <0.05) for the group treated with ketoconazole formulations. CONCLUSIONS Notwithstanding the safety and antifungal effects observed in this study after application of formulations containing the essential oil of C. citratus, further studies with larger populations should be performed to confirm the actual potential of these formulations in the treatment of patients with Pityriasis versicolor.

Carmo, Egberto Santos; Pereira, Fillipe de Oliveira; Cavalcante, Neuza Maria; Gayoso, Carla Wanderley; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira

2013-01-01

150

Purification of recombinant laccase from Trametes versicolor in Pichia methanolica and its use for the decolorization of anthraquinone dye.  

PubMed

A recombinant laccase from Trametes versicolor in Pichia methanolica was produced constitutively in a defined medium. The recombinant laccase was purified using ultrafiltration, anion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration. The molecular weight of the purified laccase was estimated as 64 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The purified recombinant laccase decolorized more than 90% of Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) initially at 80 mg l(-1) after 16 h at 45 degrees C and pH 5 when 25 U laccase ml(-1) was used. The purified recombinant laccase could efficiently decolorize RBBR without additional redox mediators. PMID:18688574

Guo, Mei; Lu, Fuping; Liu, Minyao; Li, Tuoping; Pu, Jun; Wang, Na; Liang, Peng; Zhang, Chenyun

2008-08-08

151

Influence of treatment conditions on the oxidation of micropollutants by Trametes versicolor laccase.  

PubMed

Many organic compounds present at low concentrations in municipal wastewater, such as various pharmaceuticals and biocides, are recalcitrant in conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). To improve their biodegradation, oxidoreductase enzymes such as laccases were tested. The goal was to find optimal conditions for the transformation of two anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals (diclofenac (DFC) and mefenamic acid (MFA)), one biocide (triclosan (TCN)) and one plastic additive (bisphenol A (BPA)) by Trametes versicolor laccase. Experiments were conducted in spiked solutions at different pH values (from 3 to 9), enzyme concentrations (70-1400Ul(-1)), reaction times (0-26hours) and temperatures (10, 25 and 40°C) following a Doehlert experimental design. A semi-empirical model was developed to understand better the combined effects of the four factors and to determine optimal values. This model was able to fit well the experimental data (R(2)>0.97) and showed good predictive ability. All four factors had a significant effect on the micropollutant oxidation with the greatest influence shown by pH. Results for single compounds were different from those obtained for mixtures of micropollutants. For instance, DFC transformation occurred at much higher rates in mixtures under alkaline conditions. Optimal conditions were compound-dependent, but were found to be between pH 4.5 to 6.5 and between 25°C to more than 40°C. A laccase concentration of 730Ul(-1) was sufficient to obtain a high removal rate (>90%) of the four individual compounds (range of times: 40min to 5hours), showing the potential of laccases to improve biodegradation of environmentally persistent compounds. PMID:23831273

Margot, Jonas; Maillard, Julien; Rossi, Luca; Barry, D A; Holliger, Christof

2013-07-03

152

Single-dose oral fluconazole versus topical clotrimazole in patients with pityriasis versicolor: A double-blind randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

This study was designed to compare the therapeutic effects of topical clotrimazole and systemic fluconazole in pityriasis versicolor. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was carried out in the dermatological clinic of Gorgan, northern Iran, between April 2006 and May 2007. All consecutive patients with pityriasis versicolor were included and randomly divided into two groups. In the first group (G1), patients underwent treatment with a single dose of fluconazole capsule (400 mg) and placebo cream. In the second group (G2), patients underwent treatment with clotrimazole cream (twice daily) and placebo capsule. The course of treatment was 2 weeks. All subjects were re-evaluated 2, 4 and 12 weeks after the end of the therapeutic course. After 2 weeks, the rate of complete resolution of disease was significantly higher in G2 than G1 (49.1% vs 30%). After 4 weeks, 41 patients (81.2%) of G1 and 52 patients (94.9%) of G2 showed complete resolution. After 12 weeks, 46 patients (92%) in G1 and 45 patients (81.8%) in G2 showed complete resolution. Recurrence rate in G1 and G2 were 6% and 18.2%, respectively. No complications were seen in either group. In this study, clinical response at week 4 was greater in the clotrimazole group than the fluconazole group. Recurrence at week 12 after treatment was less with oral fluconazole than clotrimazole cream. So, for better evaluation, more studies need to be done. PMID:20649710

Dehghan, Mohammad; Akbari, Negin; Alborzi, Nazila; Sadani, Somayeh; Keshtkar, Abas A

2010-08-01

153

Removal of pharmaceuticals, polybrominated flame retardants and UV-filters from sludge by the fungus Trametes versicolor in bioslurry reactor.  

PubMed

Conventional wastewater treatments are inefficient in the removal of many organic pollutants. The presence of these contaminants in the final sludge represents a source of environmental pollution due to the increasing use of biosolids in land application. A biotechnological approach which employed the fungus Trametes versicolor in a sludge-bioslurry reactor was assessed in order to remove several groups of emerging pollutants. Biological fungal activity was monitored by means of ergosterol and laccase determinations. Fifteen out of 24 detected pharmaceuticals were removed at efficiencies over 50% after the treatment, including eight completely degraded. Removal ranged between 16-53% and 22-100% for the brominated flame retardants and the UV-filters, respectively. Only two of all the detected compounds remained unchanged after the treatment. Although elimination results are promising, the toxicity of the final sludge increased after the treatment. This finding is contrary to the toxicity results obtained in similar treatments of sludge with T. versicolor in solid-phase. PMID:22840500

Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Barón, Enrique; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Jeli?, Aleksandra; Llorca, Marta; Farré, Marinella; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Eljarrat, Ethel; Petrovi?, Mira; Caminal, Glòria; Barceló, Damià; Vicent, Teresa

2012-07-16

154

Degradation of naproxen and carbamazepine in spiked sludge by slurry and solid-phase Trametes versicolor systems.  

PubMed

Growth and activity of the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor on sewage sludge were assessed in bioslurry and solid-phase systems. Bioslurry cultures with different loads of sludge (10%, 25% and 38%, w/v) were performed. A lag phase of at least 2 d appeared in the 25 and 38%-cultures, however, the total fungal biomass was higher for the latter and lower for the 10%-culture after 30 d, as revealed by ergosterol determination. Detectable laccase activity levels were found in the 10 and 25%-cultures (up to 1308 and 2588 AUL(-1), respectively) while it was negligible in the 38%-culture. Important levels of ergosterol and laccase were obtained over a 60 d period in sludge solid-phase cultures amended with different concentrations of wheat straw pellets as lignocellulosic bulking material. Degradation experiments in 25%-bioslurry cultures spiked with naproxene (NAP, analgesic) and carbamazepine (CBZ, antiepileptic) showed depletion of around 47% and 57% within 24h, respectively. Complete depletion of NAP and around 48% for CBZ were achieved within 72 h in sludge solid cultures with 38% bulking material. CBZ degradation is especially remarkable due to its high persistence in wastewater treatment plants. Results showed that T. versicolor may be an interesting bioremediation agent for elimination of emerging pollutants in sewage sludge. PMID:20031398

Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Caminal, Gloria

2009-12-23

155

Effects of Lycium barbarum extract on production and immunomodulatory activity of the extracellular polysaccharopeptides from submerged fermentation culture of Coriolus versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polysaccharopeptides (PSPs) from Coriolus versicolor have been used as immunomodulatory and anticancer agents. However, most studies have concentrated on the mycelial PSPs and not those in the fermented broth. On the other hand, Lycium barbarum fruit has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine for two millennia. Its extract contains various nutrients, minerals, and also polysaccharide–protein complexes, which are

Fang-Yi Lin; Yiu-Kay Lai; Hao-Chen Yu; Nan-Yin Chen; Chi-Yue Chang; Hui-Chen Lo; Tai-Hao Hsu

2008-01-01

156

IgE Antibodies to Malassezia furfur, M. sympodialis and Pityrosporum orbiculare in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis, Seborrheic Eczema or Pityriasis Versicolor, and Identi® cation of Respective Allergens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malassezia yeasts may be a trigger factor for atopic dermatitis. Following the recent reclassi® cation of the genus, the presence of speci® c IgE antibodies was examined in the sera of patients with atopic dermatitis (n= 223), pityriasis versicolor (n= 83), seborrheic eczema (n= 50) and hymenoptera allergy (n= 39) and in controls without skin diseases (n= 50). In addition

PETER MAYSER; ANTJE GROSS

157

Enhanced extracellular laccase activity as a part of the response system of white rot fungi: Trametes versicolor and Abortiporus biennis to paraquat-caused oxidative stress conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of paraquat dichloride (PQ) on the laccase (LAC) activity and some biochemical parameters of Trametes versicolor and Abortiporus biennis strains belonging to white rot Basidiomycetes fungi were examined. PQ water solution was added to 10-day-old stationary cultures cultivated on a liquid medium. Having measured the activity of extracellular laccase during the first 120h, we found that the addition of

M. Jaszek; K. Grzywnowicz; E. Malarczyk; A. Leonowicz

2006-01-01

158

Ceramic honeycomb as support for covalent immobilization of laccase from Trametes versicolor and transformation of nuclear fast red.  

PubMed

The covalent immobilization of laccase on an inorganic ceramic support was investigated. The intention was to find a system of enzyme and reactor for a universal immobilization procedure. Laccase from Trametes versicolor as model enzyme was chosen. The special honeycomb structure of the monolith can be applied for intensive mixing of the reaction compounds. An appropriate reactor with ceramic material was constructed allowing different setup for enzyme immobilization and its application. To test the success of the immobilization, 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) was used. The immobilized laccase was found to be stable over a time period of over 3 months. As an example for possible application for treatment of wastewater containing dyes, the conversion of nuclear fast red as model substrate was tested. PMID:21181152

Plagemann, Regina; Jonas, Ludwig; Kragl, Udo

2010-12-23

159

A cluster of genes encoding major isozymes of lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase from the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gene cluster from the white-rot basidiomycete Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor (Tv) PRL 572 containing three structural genes, LPGIII, LPGIV and MPGI, was characterized. The genes are arranged in the same transcriptional direction, within a 10-kb region, and found to encode quantitatively dominant isozymes of lignin peroxidase (LP) and manganese peroxidase (MP). The second gene in sequence, LPGIV, predicts a 346-amino-acid

Tomas Johansson; Per Olof Nyman

1996-01-01

160

Biosorption of benzidine based textile dyes “Direct Blue 1 and Direct Red 128” using native and heat-treated biomass of Trametes versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacities and mechanisms of native and heat-treated white rot fungus “Trametes versicolor” biomass in removing of two different benzidine based dyes (i.e., Direct Blue 1, DB-1 and Direct Red 128, DR-128) from aqueous solution was investigated with different parameters, such as molecular weight of dye, adsorbent dosage, pH, temperature and ionic strength. In the batch system, the biosorption equilibrium

Gülay Bayramo?lu; M. Yakup Ar?ca

2007-01-01

161

Changes in GnRH I, bradykinin and their receptors and GnIH in the ovary of Calotes versicolor during reproductive cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the abundance of gonadotrophin releasing hormone I (GnRH I) and GnRH I receptor in the ovary of Calotes versicolor during the reproductive cycle and correlate them with the changes in gonadotrophin inhibitory hormone (GnIH), bradykinin and bradykinin B2 receptor in order to understand their interaction during ovarian cycle. GnRH I,

Padmasana Singh; Amitabh Krishna; Rajagopala Sridaran; Kazuyoshi Tsutsui

2008-01-01

162

Oxidation of atenolol, propranolol, carbamazepine and clofibric acid by a biological Fenton-like system mediated by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological advanced oxidation of the pharmaceuticals clofibric acid (CA), carbamazepine (CBZP), atenolol (ATL) and propranolol (PPL) is reported for the first time. Extracellular oxidizing species were produced through a quinone redox cycling mechanism catalyzed by an intracellular quinone reductase and any of the ligninolytic enzymes of Trametes versicolor after addition of the lignin-derived quinone 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (DBQ) and Fe3+-oxalate in the

Ernest Marco-Urrea; Jelena Radjenovi?; Gloria Caminal; Mira Petrovi?; Teresa Vicent; Damià Barceló

2010-01-01

163

Estimation of bound and free fractions of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes of wood-rotting fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes versicolor and Piptoporus betulinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid cultures with cellulose and solid state fermentation cultures on wheat straw of the white-rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor and the brown-rot fungus Piptoporus betulinus were assayed for the free and solid fraction-bound activity of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes. The majority of the ligninolytic enzymes laccase and Mn peroxidase was detected in the free fraction of P. ostreatus and T.

Vendula Valášková; Petr Baldrian

2006-01-01

164

C–N coupling of 3-methylcatechol with primary amines using native and recombinant laccases from Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five laccase genes from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus and Trametes versicolor encoding for different isoenzymes have been cloned, recombinantly expressed and characterized. Following C–N coupling of primary linear, branched-chained and cyclic amines to 3-methylcatechol was mediated by native and recombinant laccases yielding the corresponding secondary amines. Formation of C5-monoaminated ortho-methylquinones occurred within 1–2h; prolonged incubation led to the formation of high-molecular mass

Susanne Herter; Annett Mikolasch; Dirk Michalik; Elke Hammer; Frieder Schauer; Uwe Bornscheuer; Marlen Schmidt

2011-01-01

165

Trametes versicolor Protein YZP Activates Regulatory B Lymphocytes - Gene Identification through De Novo Assembly and Function Analysis in a Murine Acute Colitis Model  

PubMed Central

Background Trametes versicolor (Yun-Zhi) is a medicinal fungus used as a chemotherapy co-treatment to enhance anti-tumor immunity. Although the efficacies of T. versicolor extracts have been documented, the active ingredients and mechanisms underlying the actions of these extracts remain uncharacterized. Results We purified a new protein, YZP, from the fruiting bodies of T. versicolor and identified the gene encoding YZP using RNA-seq and de novo assembly technologies. YZP is a 12-kDa non-glycosylated protein comprising 139 amino acids, including an 18-amino acids signal peptide. YZP induced a greater than 60-fold increase in IL-10 secretion in mice B lymphocytes; moreover, YZP specifically triggered the differentiation of CD1d+ B cells into IL-10-producing regulatory B cells (Bregs) and enhanced the expression of CD1d. YZP-induced B cells suppressed approximately 40% of the LPS-activated macrophage production of inflammatory cytokines in a mixed leukocyte reaction and significantly alleviated the disease activity and colonic inflammation in a DSS-induced acute colitis murine model. Furthermore, YZP activated Breg function via interaction with TLR2 and TLR4 and up-regulation of the TLR-mediated signaling pathway. Conclusions We purified a novel Breg-stimulating protein, YZP, from T. versicolor and developed an advanced approach combining RNA-seq and de novo assembly technologies.to clone its gene. We demonstrated that YZP activated CD1d+ Breg differentiation through TLR2/4-mediated signaling pathway, and the YZP-stimulated B cells exhibited anti-inflammatory efficacies in vitro and in murine acute colitis models.

Kuan, Yen-Chou; Wu, Ying-Jou; Hung, Chih-Liang; Sheu, Fuu

2013-01-01

166

Hydroxyl radical generation by an extracellular low-molecular-weight substance and phenol oxidase activity during wood degradation by the white-rot basidiomycete Trametes versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-electron oxidation activity, as measured by ethylene generation from 2-keto-4-thiomethylbutyric acid, phenol oxidase activity, and the generation of hydroxyl radical were examined in cultures of the lignin-degrading white-rot basidiomycete fungus, Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor. The activity levels of specific lignin-degrading enzymes and cellulases, as well as the rate of wood degradation, also were examined. The fungus secreted a low-molecular-weight substance (Mr

Hiromi Tanaka; Shuji Itakura; Akio Enoki

1999-01-01

167

Enhanced oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene by crude enzyme extracts produced during interspecific fungal interaction of Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

PubMed

The effects of interspecific fungal interactions between Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium on laccase activity and enzymatic oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated. A deadlock between the two mycelia rather than replacement of one fungus by another was observed on an agar medium. The laccase activity in crude enzyme extracts from interaction zones reached a maximum after a 5-day incubation, which was significantly higher than that from regions of T. versicolor or P. chrysosporium alone. The enhanced induction of laccase activity lasted longer in half nutrition than in normal nutrition. A higher potential to oxidize benzo[a]pyrene by a crude enzyme preparation extracted from the interaction zones was demonstrated. After a 48 hr incubation period, the oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene by crude enzyme extracts from interaction zones reached 26.2%, while only 9.5% of benzo[a]pyrene was oxidized by crude extracts from T. versicolor. The oxidation was promoted by the co-oxidant 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate diammonium salt (ABTS). These findings indicate that the application of co-culturing of white-rot fungi in bioremediation is a potential ameliorating technique for the restoration of PAH-contaminated soil. PMID:23520872

Qian, Linbo; Chen, Baoliang

2012-01-01

168

Effect of Coriolus versicolor supplemented diet on innate immune response and disease resistance in kelp grouper Epinephelus bruneus against Listonella anguillarum.  

PubMed

The effect of Coriolus versicolor extract supplemented diets on innate immune response and disease resistance in kelp grouper, Epinephelus bruneus against Listonella anguillarum, is reported. Kelp grouper were divided into four groups of 25 each and fed with C. versicolor enriched diets at 0% (control), 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1.0% level. After 30 days of feeding, all fish were injected interaperitoneally (i.p.) with 50 ?l of L. anguillarum (4.7 × 10(7) CFU) to investigate the immune parameters at weeks 1, 2, and 4. The reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species production were significantly enhanced in fish fed with 0.1% and 1.0% supplementation diets from weeks 1-4 when compared to the non enriched diet fed and infected control. The phagocytic activity significantly increased with 0.1% and 1.0% diets on weeks 2 and 4. The leucocyte myeloperoxidase content, lysozyme activity, and total protein level significantly increased when fed with 0.1% and 1.0% supplementation diets from weeks 1-4. The cumulative mortality was 35% and 45% in 1.0% and 0.1% enriched diet fed groups whereas it was 55% and 80% in 0.01% and 0% groups respectively. The present results suggest that diets enriched with C. versicolor at 0.1% or 1.0% level positively enhance the innate immune system and affords protection from L. anguillarum. PMID:22155010

Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Kim, Man-Chul; Kim, Ju-Sang; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

2011-11-30

169

Liquefaction of coal by Polyporus versicolor and Poria monticola. Final report, 1 September 1984-31 August 1986  

SciTech Connect

Polyporus versicolor (ATCC 12679), obtained from the American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, MD, has been demonstrated to degrade leonardite, lignite, and subbituminous coals to a black liquid product which is called the bioextract. The process of solubilizing the coal has been termed liquification. Fungi were routinely maintained in both solid Sabouraud maltose agar (6%) and in Sabouraud maltose broth cultures. All cultures were incubated at 30/sup 0/C, 84 to 98% relative humidity, and pH = 5.8. All materials which came into contact with the fungi were sterilized before use. Experimental cultures were incubated as described for stock cultures. Cultures were incubated for approximately 12 days to produce a mature fungal mat across a glass petri dish. Coal pieces (approximately 5 mm/sup 3/) were placed directly on the hyphal mat. Liquified coal (the bioextract) was removed from the top of the mycelium and/or coal pieces and either stored for analyses at 4/sup 0/C or else freeze-dried and stored dessicated at room temperature. The bioextract has been produced in sufficient quantity to permit various methods of analysis including high performance liquid chromatography, UV-visible spectrophotometry, titrimetry, electrophoresis, proton nmr spectroscopy, and calorimetry. The solubility of the bioextract in different solvents has also been determined. 6 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

Cohen, M.S.

1986-01-01

170

Crystal Structure of Novel Metallocarboxypeptidase Inhibitor from Marine Mollusk Nerita versicolor in Complex with Human Carboxypeptidase A4*  

PubMed Central

NvCI is a novel exogenous proteinaceous inhibitor of metallocarboxypeptidases from the marine snail Nerita versicolor. The complex between human carboxypeptidase A4 and NvCI has been crystallized and determined at 1.7 ? resolution. The NvCI structure defines a distinctive protein fold basically composed of a two-stranded antiparallel ?-sheet connected by three loops and the inhibitory C-terminal tail and stabilized by three disulfide bridges. NvCI is a tight-binding inhibitor that interacts with the active site of the enzyme in a substrate-like manner. NvCI displays an extended and novel interface with human carboxypeptidase A4, responsible for inhibitory constants in the picomolar range for some members of the M14A subfamily of carboxypeptidases. This makes NvCI the strongest inhibitor reported so far for this family. The structural homology displayed by the C-terminal tails of different carboxypeptidase inhibitors represents a relevant example of convergent evolution.

Covaleda, Giovanni; Alonso del Rivero, Maday; Chavez, Maria A.; Aviles, Francesc X.; Reverter, David

2012-01-01

171

In vitro chemopreventive effects of plant polysaccharides (Aloe barbadensis miller, Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum and Coriolus versicolor).  

PubMed

A plant polysaccharide, Aloe gel extract, was reported to have an inhibitory effect on benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-DNA adduct formation in vitro and in vivo. Hence, chemopreventive effects of plant polysaccharides [Aloe barbadensis Miller (APS), Lentinus edodes (LPS), Ganoderma lucidum (GPS) and Coriolus versicolor (CPS)] were compared using in vitro short-term screening methods associated with both initiation and promotion processes in carcinogenesis. In B[a]P-DNA adduct formation, APS (180 micrograms/ml) was the most effective in inhibition of B[a]P binding to DNA in mouse liver cells. Oxidative DNA damage (by 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine) was significantly decreased by APS (180 micrograms/ml) and CPS (180 micrograms/ml). In induction of glutathione S-transferase activity, GPS was found to be the most effective among plant polysaccharides. In screening anti-tumor promoting effects, APS (180 micrograms/ml) significantly inhibited phorbol myristic acetate (PMA)-induced ornithine decarboxylase activity in Balb/3T3 cells. In addition, APS significantly inhibited PMA-induced tyrosine kinase activity in human leukemic cells. APS and CPS significantly inhibited superoxide anion formation. These results suggest that some plant polysaccharides produced both anti-genotoxic and anti-tumor promoting activities in in vitro models and, therefore, might be considered as potential agents for cancer chemoprevention. PMID:10426820

Kim, H S; Kacew, S; Lee, B M

1999-08-01

172

Co-composting of spent coffee ground with olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure and effect of Trametes versicolor inoculation on the compost maturity.  

PubMed

The co-composting of spent coffee grounds, olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure was investigated on a semi-industrial scale. In order to reduce the toxicity of the phenolic fraction and to improve the degree of composting humification, composts were inoculated with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor in the early stages of the maturation phase. During composting, a range of physico-chemical parameters (temperature and both organic matter and C/N reduction), total organic carbon, total nitrogen, elemental composition, lignin degradation and spectroscopic characteristics of the humic acids (HAs) were determined; impacts of the composting process on germination index of Hordeum vulgare and Lactuca sativa were assessed. The coffee waste proved to be a highly compostable feedstock, resulting in mature final compost with a germination index of 120% in less than 5 months composting. In addition, inoculation with T. versicolor led to a greater degree of aromatization of HA than in the control pile. Moreover, in the inoculated mixture, lignin degradation was three times greater and HA increased by 30% (P<0.05), compared to the control pile. In the T. versicolor inoculated mixture, the averages of C and N were significantly enhanced in the HA molecules (P<0.05), by 26% and 22%, respectively. This improvement in the degree of humification was confirmed by the ratio of optical densities of HA solutions at 465 and 665 nm which was lower for HA from the treated mixture (4.5) than that from the control pile (5.4). PMID:22537889

Hachicha, Ridha; Rekik, Olfa; Hachicha, Salma; Ferchichi, Mounir; Woodward, Steve; Moncef, Nasri; Cegarra, Juan; Mechichi, Tahar

2012-04-25

173

Single dose (400 mg) versus 7 day (200 mg) daily dose itraconazole in the treatment of tinea versicolor: a randomized clinical trial.  

PubMed

Tinea (pityriasis) versicolor is a superficial fungal infection and one of the most commonly found pigmentary disorders of skin caused by the yeast Malassezia. Multiple topical as well as systemic therapies are available for treatment. Systemic therapies are used for extensive disease, frequent relapse or where topical agents have failed. The aim that translates the rationale of the study was to compare the efficacy, safety, tolerability and cost effectiveness of single dose 400mg versus 7 day 200 mg daily dose of itraconazole in the treatment of tinea versicolor. A clinical study was done to compare the efficacy of single dose (400 mg) of itraconazole and 7 day 200 mg daily dose of itraconazole in the treatment of extensive tinea versicolor. Total 60 patients (aged 18-50 years) were selected for the study during the period of June 2007 to May 2008 in the department of Dermatology of three different hospitals in Bangladesh. Cases having with extensive involvement, diagnosed clinically and confirmed by wood's lamp and KOH microscopy were taken. Patients were randomly allocated into equal groups. Group A was given single dose 400 mg itraconazole and Group B was given 7 day 200 mg daily itraconazole. Fifty three (88%) male and 7(12%) female were included in the study. The mean age of group A was 32.37+/-9 years and in group B 33.23+/-8 years. The mean duration of the disease in group A was 2.63+/-2 months and 2.76+/-2 months in group B. In group A clinical responders was found cure 22(73.33%) and improvement 5(16.33%) and in group B it was found cure 24(79.99%) and improvement 4(13.33%). The measure at the End point (EP1) equals to 90% response and in-group B it was found cure 24 (79.99%) and improvement 4(13.33%). (Here the End point EP2) equals to 93.33%. The EP clinical analysis however shows 91.66% response. Both single dose and 7 day daily dose of itraconazole can be effective in the treatment of tinea versicolor with extensive involvement but single dose appears to be better for improving compliance and decreasing the cost of treatment. PMID:20046175

Wahab, M A; Ali, M E; Rahman, M H; Chowdhury, S A; Monamie, N S; Sultana, N; Khondoker, L

2010-01-01

174

Pityriasis versicolor: clinical-epidemiological characterization of patients in the urban area of Buerarema-BA, Brazil*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a cutaneous pigmentation disorder caused by a lipophilic yeast of the genus Malassezia sp. It is a superficial mycosis characterized by well-defined, slightly scaly skin lesions of variable color. In Brazil, the number of reported cases is small, and there are few epidemiological studies. OBJECTIVES: to assess incidence, characteristics of the lesions, effectiveness of the Zileri's Sign procedure, and the epidemiological profile of PV in the urban area of Buerarema - Bahia. METHODS: Biological samples were collected on pre-established days at Basic Health Care Units from July to September 2010. Sample collection was followed by laboratory diagnosis using Porto's Method. RESULTS: Of the 158 patients with suspected PV participating in the study, 105 (66.5%) were positive; 72 (68.6%) were female and 33 (31.4%) were male. Sex and location of lesions showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05). The region with the highest rate of cases of PV was found to be the center of the city, with 40.9% of diagnosed cases. The most affected age group was between 10 and 19 years. There was a significant association between the results produced through Zileri's Sign and Porto's Method in relation to positive and negative results (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results showed a higher prevalence of PV among individuals at puberty. The Zileri's Sign method proved to be counterproductive, because it showed low efficacy as a method for clinical diagnosis, yielding negative results for 36 (34.3%) patients who had been diagnosed with PV through laboratory examination.

Santana, Juliano Oliveira; de Azevedo, Fernanda Luiza Andrade; Campos, Pedro Costa

2013-01-01

175

Coriolus versicolor (Yunzhi) extract attenuates growth of human leukemia xenografts and induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway.  

PubMed

Coriolus versicolor (CV), also called Yunzhi, has been demonstrated to exert anti-tumor effects on various types of cancer cells. Our previous studies have demonstrated that a standardized aqueous ethanol extract prepared from CV inhibited the proliferation of human leukemia cells via induction of apoptosis. The present study aimed to evaluate the underlying mechanisms of apoptosis through modulation of Bax, Bcl-2 and cytochrome c protein expressions in a human pro-myelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cell line, as well as the potential of the CV extract as anti-leukemia agent using the athymic mouse xenograft model. Our results demonstrated that the CV extract dose-dependently suppressed the proliferation of HL-60 cells (IC50 = 150.6 microg/ml), with increased nucleosome production from apoptotic cells. Expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax was significantly up-regulated in HL-60 cells treated with the CV extract, especially after 16 and 24 h. Meanwhile, expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was concomitantly down-regulated, as reflected by the increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. The CV extract markedly, but transiently, promoted the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol after 24-h incubation. In vivo studies in the athymic nude mouse xenograft model also confirmed the growth-inhibitory activity of the CV extract on human leukemia cells. In conclusion, the CV extract attenuated the human leukemia cell proliferation in vivo, and in vitro possibly by inducing apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. The CV extract is likely to be valuable for the treatment of some forms of human leukemia. PMID:16865263

Ho, Cheong-Yip; Kim, Chi-Fai; Leung, Kwok-Nam; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Tse, Tak-Fu; Chan, Helen; Lau, Clara Bik-San

2006-09-01

176

ISTA 14--impact of antibiotics from pig slurry on soil microbial communities, including the basidiomycete Trametes versicolor.  

PubMed

Livestock slurry containing antibiotics is a source of contamination of agricultural soils, with possible effects on soil function and micro-organisms. Extracellular oxido-reductases and hydrolases from the fungus T. versicolor and fungal growth were monitored in liquid cultures in the presence of tetracycline, lincomycine, sulfadiazine and ciprofloxacin for 10 days, in order to assess the suitability of these enzymes as biomarkers. Among the conditions of treatment, statistical analysis demonstrated an increase in manganese-dependent peroxidase after exposure to sulfadiazine at 1 mg/L when compared with the control. Acid phosphatase activity was decreased by lincomycine at 1 or 10 mg/L. Conversely, ?-glucosidase activity increased in the presence of this antibiotic at 10 mg/L. In Terrestrial Model Ecosystems spiked with contaminated pig slurry, lincomycine at the concentration of 8 or 80 ?g/kg dry soil, and ciprofloxacin at 250 ng/kg dry soil decreased the activity of soil dehydrogenase, when compared with a green slurry treatment, over 28-day incubations. Laccase activity was similarly decreased in the presence of the highest concentration of antibiotics. We determined bacterial and fungal biomasses using Q-PCR. Bacterial biomass was increased in the presence of lincomycine at 80 ?g/kg whatever the time of exposure, and to a lesser extent in the presence of ciprofloxacin at 250 ng/kg, but only at day 28. In contrast, both antibiotics, whatever their concentrations, did not modify fungal biomass in soil. In conclusion, we were unable to demonstrate important effects of antibiotics at concentrations found in the agricultural environment. PMID:21702076

Igel-Egalon, Angélique; Cheviron, Nathalie; Hedde, Mickael; Hernandez-Raquet, Guillermina; Mougin, Christian

2011-06-23

177

Differential patterns of accumulation and depuration of dietary selenium and vanadium during metamorphosis in the Gray Treefrog (Hyla versicolor).  

PubMed

Selenium (Se) and vanadium (V) are contaminants commonly found in aquatic systems affected by wastes derived from fossil fuels. To examine their effects on a widely distributed species of amphibian, we exposed gray tree frogs (Hyla versicolor) to Se (as SeO?) or V (as NaVO?) in their diet from the early larval period to metamorphosis. Concentrations of Se in Se-enriched food were 1.0 (Se control), 7.5 (Se low), and 32.7 (Se high) ?g/g dw. Concentrations of V in V-enriched food were 3.0 (V control), 132.1 (V low), and 485.7 (V high) ?g/g dw. Although we observed bioaccumulation of both metals throughout the larval period, no effects on growth, survival, metabolic rate, or lipid content were observed. Se concentrations in tissues did not vary among life stages, neither in Se low nor Se high treatments, such that maximum accumulation had occurred by the mid-larval period. In addition, there was no evidence of depuration of Se in either the Se low or the Se high treatments during metamorphosis. A strikingly different pattern of accumulation and depuration occurred in V-exposed individuals. In treatments V low and V high, maximum body burdens occurred in "premetamorphs" (i.e., animals with developed forelimbs but in which tail resorption had not begun), whereas body burdens in animals having completed metamorphosis were much lower and similar to those in larvae. These results suggest that compared with Se-exposed animals, V-exposed animals were able to depurate a substantial amount of accumulated V during the metamorphic period. In an ecologic context, it appears that amphibians exposed to Se during the larval period may serve as a vector of the metal to terrestrial predators, yet potential transfer of accumulated V to predators would largely be restricted to the aquatic habitat. PMID:20878520

Rowe, Christopher L; Heyes, Andrew; Hilton, Jessica

2010-09-29

178

[Local therapy of pityriasis versicolor with 3 imidazole derivatives--results of a therapeutic study. Studies of the rate of recurrence].  

PubMed

In a clinical study from October 1985 to July 1987, we tested the efficacy of 3 different imidazole compounds in 112 male patients suffering from pityriasis versicolor. The diagnosis was made according to clinical criteria and confirmed by microscopical investigation. Our results prove the necessity of daily treatment over a period of at least 2 weeks. After 2 weeks, the microscopical examination should be repeated. Sprays and shampoos seemed equally effective. The relapse rate turned out to be rather high. The symptom-free interval between therapy and relapse could not be correlated to any of the forms of treatment. Those patients who had to be treated for more than 2 weeks were most likely to develop a relapse within a shorter period. PMID:3218286

Senff, H; Bothe, C; Riemann, U; Reinel, D

1988-12-15

179

Changes in GnRH I, bradykinin and their receptors and GnIH in the ovary of Calotes versicolor during reproductive cycle.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the abundance of gonadotrophin releasing hormone I (GnRH I) and GnRH I receptor in the ovary of Calotes versicolor during the reproductive cycle and correlate them with the changes in gonadotrophin inhibitory hormone (GnIH), bradykinin and bradykinin B(2) receptor in order to understand their interaction during ovarian cycle. GnRH I, bradykinin and their receptors and GnIH, were localized immunohistochemically in the ovary. Relative intensity of these peptides was estimated from the contralateral ovary using slot/Western blot followed by densitometry. The immunostaining of GnRH I, bradykinin and their receptors and GnIH were localized in the granulosa cells of previtellogenic follicles and stroma cells, whereas in the peripheral part of the cytoplasm in oocytes of vitellogenic and ovulatory follicles. The GnRH I immunostaining was relatively higher in inactive phase, but was low during active preovulatory phase suggesting inverse correlation with circulating estradiol level. The study showed a positive correlation between the expression pattern of GnRH I and GnIH, but showed a negative correlation between GnIH with GnRH I receptor in the ovary. This study further suggests a possibility for bradykinin regulating GnRH I synthesis in the ovary. An increase in the immunostaining of both GnRH I and GnIH in the oocyte prior to ovulation suggests their involvement in the oocyte maturation. It is thus concluded that the ovary of C. versicolor possesses GnRH I-GnIH-bradykinin system and interaction between these neuropeptides may be involved in the regulation of follicular development and oocyte maturation. PMID:18809405

Singh, Padmasana; Krishna, Amitabh; Sridaran, Rajagopala; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

2008-09-10

180

Pyranose Oxidase, a Major Source of H2O2 during Wood Degradation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor, and Oudemansiella mucida  

PubMed Central

The production of the H2O2-generating enzyme pyranose oxidase (POD) (EC 1.1.3.10) (synonym, glucose 2-oxidase), two ligninolytic peroxidases, and laccase in wood decayed by three white rot fungi was investigated by correlated biochemical, immunological, and transmission electron microscopic techniques. Enzyme activities were assayed in extracts from decayed birch wood blocks obtained by a novel extraction procedure. With the coupled peroxidase-chromogen (3-dimethylaminobenzoic acid plus 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride) spectrophotometric assay, the highest POD activities were detected in wood blocks degraded for 4 months and were for Phanerochaete chrysosporium (149 mU g [dry weight] of decayed wood-1), Trametes versicolor (45 mU g-1), and Oudemansiella mucida (1.2 mU g-1), corresponding to wood dry weight losses of 74, 58, and 13%, respectively. Mn-dependent peroxidase activities in the same extracts were comparable to those of POD, while lignin peroxidase activity was below the detection limit for all fungi with the veratryl alcohol assay. Laccase activity was high with T. versicolor (422 mU g-1 after 4 months), in trace levels with O. mucida, and undetectable in P. chrysosporium extracts. Evidence for C-2 specificity of POD was shown by thin-layer chromatography detection of 2-keto-d-glucose as the reaction product. By transmission electron microscopy-immunocytochemistry, POD was found to be preferentially localized in the hyphal periplasmic space of P. chrysosporium and O. mucida and associated with membranous materials in hyphae growing within the cell lumina or cell walls of partially and highly degraded birch fibers. An extracellular distribution of POD associated with slime coating wood cell walls was also noted. The periplasmic distribution in hyphae and extracellular location of POD are consistent with the reported ultrastructural distribution of H2O2-dependent Mn-dependent peroxidases. This fact and the dominant presence of POD and Mn-dependent peroxidase in extracts from degraded wood suggest a cooperative role of the two enzymes during white rot decay by the test fungi. Images

Daniel, Geoffrey; Volc, Jindrich; Kubatova, Elena

1994-01-01

181

Pyranose Oxidase, a Major Source of H(2)O(2) during Wood Degradation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor, and Oudemansiella mucida.  

PubMed

The production of the H(2)O(2)-generating enzyme pyranose oxidase (POD) (EC 1.1.3.10) (synonym, glucose 2-oxidase), two ligninolytic peroxidases, and laccase in wood decayed by three white rot fungi was investigated by correlated biochemical, immunological, and transmission electron microscopic techniques. Enzyme activities were assayed in extracts from decayed birch wood blocks obtained by a novel extraction procedure. With the coupled peroxidase-chromogen (3-dimethylaminobenzoic acid plus 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride) spectrophotometric assay, the highest POD activities were detected in wood blocks degraded for 4 months and were for Phanerochaete chrysosporium (149 mU g [dry weight] of decayed wood), Trametes versicolor (45 mU g), and Oudemansiella mucida (1.2 mU g), corresponding to wood dry weight losses of 74, 58, and 13%, respectively. Mn-dependent peroxidase activities in the same extracts were comparable to those of POD, while lignin peroxidase activity was below the detection limit for all fungi with the veratryl alcohol assay. Laccase activity was high with T. versicolor (422 mU g after 4 months), in trace levels with O. mucida, and undetectable in P. chrysosporium extracts. Evidence for C-2 specificity of POD was shown by thin-layer chromatography detection of 2-keto-d-glucose as the reaction product. By transmission electron microscopy-immunocytochemistry, POD was found to be preferentially localized in the hyphal periplasmic space of P. chrysosporium and O. mucida and associated with membranous materials in hyphae growing within the cell lumina or cell walls of partially and highly degraded birch fibers. An extracellular distribution of POD associated with slime coating wood cell walls was also noted. The periplasmic distribution in hyphae and extracellular location of POD are consistent with the reported ultrastructural distribution of H(2)O(2)-dependent Mn-dependent peroxidases. This fact and the dominant presence of POD and Mn-dependent peroxidase in extracts from degraded wood suggest a cooperative role of the two enzymes during white rot decay by the test fungi. PMID:16349330

Daniel, G; Volc, J; Kubatova, E

1994-07-01

182

Comparative efficacy and tolerability of Ketomousse (ketoconazole foam 1%) and ketoconazole cream 2% in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor: results of a prospective, multicentre, randomised study.  

PubMed

Ketomousse (K), a new thermophobic formulation (ketoconazole 1%), has proven its efficacy in the treatment of dandruff, caused by the same agent as pityriasis versicolor (PV). The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of K thermophobic foam vs. ketoconazole cream 2% (N) in the treatment of PV. Forty-six patients (22 in K and 24 in N group) with PV involving no more than 15% of the total trunk surface were randomly assigned for treatment either with K or N once daily for 14 days. Three weeks after the completion of treatment, improvement rate and side-effects were evaluated by clinical and mycological examination (Wood's light). Follow-up was available for 81% of subjects. Complete resolution was observed in five patients (29%) in K group and in nine (47%) in N group (P = 0.291). One patient in the N group reported urticaria while no adverse events were reported for K. Both products were cosmetically acceptable with respect to feasibility of application and formulation with a preference for K. Ketomousse (1% ketoconazole) provides an equal efficacy and tolerability compared to ketoconazole cream 2%. Therefore, Ketomousse could be considered an excellent therapeutic option in the treatment of PV. PMID:18422916

Di Fonzo, E M; Martini, P; Mazzatenta, C; Lotti, L; Alvino, S

2008-04-16

183

Transformation of 3,5-dimethoxy,4-hydroxy cinnamic acid by polyphenol oxidase from the fungus Trametes versicolor: product elucidation studies.  

PubMed

Sinapic acid (SA), 3,5-dimethoxy,4-hydroxy cinnamic acid, was incubated with a crude polyphenol oxidase from the fungus Trametes versicolor. Some products of this transformation were isolated and their structures identified using mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. It was found that the enzymatic oxidation of SA includes two distinct phases. In the initial phase SA is enzymatically transformed to r-1H-2c,6c-bis-(4'-hydroxy-3', 5'-dimethoxyphenyl)-3,7-dioxabicyclo-[3,3,0]-octane-4,8-dione, dehydrodisinapic acid dilactone. The mechanism of this reaction may involve coupling of two phenoxy radicals by the beta-beta mode and subsequent intramolecular nucleophilic attack. In the second phase dehydrodisinapic acid dilactone is transformed by polyphenol oxidase into several intermediate products, including 4-(4-(3, 5-dimethoxy-4-oxo-2,5-cyclohexadienyliden)-1, 4-dihydroxy-(E)-2-butenylidene)-2,6-dimethoxy-2, 5-cyclohexadien-1-one. The final product of the overall transformation of SA is 2,6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone. The obtained results were used to propose a part of the transformation pathway for the enzymatic oxidation of SA by polyphenol oxidase. PMID:10099249

Lacki, K; Duvnjak, Z

1998-03-20

184

Mimicking of superoxide dismutase activity by protein-bound polysaccharide of Coriolus versicolor QUEL, and oxidative stress relief for cancer patients.  

PubMed

The protein-bound polysaccharide of Coriolus versicolor QUEL (PS-K) has been found to express antioxidant activity as an "ion-radical scavenger" in diamine oxidation reactions. The mode of this expression was examined to determine whether the drug functioned as a simple radical scavenger or mimicked the action of superoxide dismutase (SOD). The latter was confirmed in both enzymatic and nonenzymatic superoxide anion radical (O2-.) producing systems in vitro. The SOD mimetic activity of PS-K was demonstrated by quantitative analysis of hydrogen peroxide as the end product of O2-., its formation being assisted catalytically by SOD or PS-K. Analysis by electron spin resonance also confirmed the SOD mimetic activity of PS-K in a xanthine-xanthine oxidase reaction. Relative SOD activity with PS-K was approximately 1/8,000 in a KO2-O2-.-producing system. The SOD mimetic activity of PS-K resisted treatment by 0.7N HCl, 0.7N NaOH, boiling for 30 minutes in a double water bath, and digestion by pronase. Fractionation according to differences in molecular mass caused no significant increase in relative SOD activity within a certain range of molecular mass, indicating that there is no definite molecule expressing SOD mimetic activity. Tumor-bearing rats and human patients with digestive tract cancer who suffered from oxidative stress were relieved by a single intraperitoneal administration of PS-K or a 1-day peroral prescription. PMID:1627273

Kariya, K; Nakamura, K; Nomoto, K; Matama, S; Saigenji, K

1992-03-01

185

Effect of Coriolus versicolor polysaccharides on the hematological and biochemical parameters and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila in allogynogenetic crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio).  

PubMed

The effect of dietary intake of Coriolus versicolor Polysaccharides (CVP) on the hematological and biochemical indices of Allogynogenetic crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) was investigated. Fish were fed CVP supplemented diets (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 g CVP kg(-1)) for 56 days. The RBC, WBC counts, hemoglobin content, ESR in blood and TP, ALT, AST, ALP, GLU, CHO, TG, and BUN in serum were measured on day 0, 14, 28, 42, and 56. After feeding of 56 days, fish were infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortalities were recorded. The results indicated that feeding crucian carp with suitable dose of CVP enhanced the RBC, WBC counts, hemoglobin and TP content, ALP activity, and decreased the ESR, ALT, AST, GLU, CHO, TG and BUN. There was no effect in fish at low dose (0.25 g kg(-1)). Unexpectedly, the higher CVP dose used here (2.0 and 4.0 g kg(-1)) has a negative effect in fish. The results of challenge experiment indicated that a moderate level of CVP in the diet (1.0 g kg(-1)) was the most effective to enhance the survival of fish after infected with A. hydrophila. In summary, the use of CVP, as dietary supplements, can improve the innate defense of crucian carp providing resistance to pathogens. PMID:22791194

Wu, Zhi-xin; Pang, Su-feng; Chen, Xiao-xuan; Yu, Yan-mei; Zhou, Jin-min; Chen, Xi; Pang, Li-jiao

2012-07-12

186

DNA Damage and DNA Damage Responses in THP-1 Monocytes after Exposure to Spores of either Stachybotrys chartarum or Aspergillus versicolor or to T-2 toxin  

PubMed Central

We have characterized cell death in THP-1 cells after exposure to heat-treated spores from satratoxin G–producing Stachybotrys chartarum isolate IBT 9631, atranone-producing S. chartarum isolate IBT 9634, and sterigmatocystin-producing Aspergillus versicolor isolate IBT 3781, as well as the trichothecenes T-2 and satratoxin G. Spores induced cell death within 3–6 h, with Stachybotrys appearing most potent. IBT 9631 induced both apoptosis and necrosis, while IBT 9634 and IBT 3781 induced mostly necrosis. T-2 toxin and satratoxin G caused mainly apoptosis. Comet assay ± formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase showed that only the spore exposures induced early (3h) oxidative DNA damage. Likewise, only the spores increased the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), suggesting that spores as particles may induce ROS formation and oxidative DNA damage. Increased Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) phosphorylation, indicating DNA damage, was observed after all exposures. The DNA damage response induced by IBT 9631 as well as satratoxin G was characterized by rapid (15 min) activation of p38 and H2AX. The p38 inhibitor SB 202190 reduced IBT 9631–induced H2AX activation. Both IBT 9631 and T-2 induced activation of Chk2 and H2AX after 3 h. The ATM inhibitor KU 55933, as well as transfection of cells with ATM siRNA, reduced this activation, suggesting a partial role for ATM as upstream activator for Chk2 and H2AX. In conclusion, activation of Chk2 and H2AX correlated with spore- and toxin-induced apoptosis. For IBT 9631 and satratoxin G, additional factors may be involved in triggering apoptosis, most notably p38 activation.

Rakkestad, Kirsten E.; Skaar, Ida; Ansteinsson, Vibeke E.; Solhaug, Anita; Holme, J?rn A.; Pestka, James J.; Samuelsen, Jan T.; Dahlman, Hans J.; Hongslo, Jan K.; Becher, Rune

2010-01-01

187

Regulation of cell cycle transition and induction of apoptosis in HL-60 leukemia cells by the combination of Coriolus versicolor and Ganoderma lucidum.  

PubMed

Medicinal mushrooms have served as the mainstay of treatment for a variety of human illnesses in Asian countries, mostly as supplements by cancer patients. Extracts prepared from Trametes versicolor under the trade name of I'm-Yunity exhibit anti-tumorigenic activities, as supported by inhibition of the proliferation and induction of apoptosis in malignant cells. Similar effects have also been observed for the Reishi mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. The two mushrooms exert their medicinal activities primarily through a family of polysaccharo-peptides. Despite the common identity in their bioactive ingredients, whether their combination might elicit an expanded efficacy and mechanism has not been investigated. In the present study, we investigated similarities and differences between extracts prepared from I'm-Yunity and from a formulation denoted I'm-Yunity-Too combining I'm-Yunity and Ganoderma lucidum. By assaying their anti-proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects using human promyelocytic HL-60 cells, we found that the ethanolic extract of I'm-Yunity-Too was more active in inducing cell death compared to I'm-Yunity, based on measured changes in the expression of caspase 3 and Bax. Moreover, ethanolic extracts of I'm-Yunity-Too exhibited more potent activity compared to its aqueous extracts with regard to suppression of the growth and induction of apoptosis, as assayed by the more pronounced downregulation of phosphorylation of Rb and increased cleavage of poly(ADP?ribose) polymerase (PARP) from its native 112-kDa form to the inactive 89-kDa product. These results suggested that the chemopreventive potential of I'm-Yunity may be enhanced by adding Ganoderma lucidum and that their bioactive ingre-dients potentially exhibit mechanistic synergism suggesting a more efficacious adjunct in chemotherapy. PMID:23670292

Hsieh, Tze-Chen; Wu, Joseph M

2013-05-10

188

Effects of photochemical oxidant injury of ponderosa and Jeffrey pines on susceptibility of sapwood and freshly cut stumps to Fomes annosus. [Pinus ponderosa; Pinus jeffreyi; Fomes annosus; Trichoderma spp. ; Polyporus versicolor; Poria Monticola  

SciTech Connect

Ponderosa and Jeffrey pine sapwood samples and freshly cut stumps from trees with different amounts of oxidant injury were inoculated with Fomes annosus. With stumps, percentage of surface cross-section area infected and extent of vertical colonization were determined 1 mo and 6-10 mo after inoculation, respectively. Increase in surface area infection with increased oxidant injury, expressed as upper-crown needle retention, was statistically significant for ponderosa pine (P=0.01), but was not for Jeffrey pine. Also, the rate of vertical colonization was greater in stumps from severely oxidant-injured trees than in those from slightly injured trees. The relationship between injury and colonization was significant for Jeffrey pine (P = 0.05) and for ponderosa pine at one site (P = 0.03), but nonsignificant (P = 0.18) for ponderosa pine at a second site. Increased susceptibility of stumps to F. annosus appeared to be associated with decreased colonization by other fungi (especially Trichoderma spp. and blue stain fungi). Laboratory tests indicated that decay susceptibility of excised sapwood to F. annosus apparently was not affected by oxidant injury with Jeffrey pine, but weight loss of ponderosa pine sapwood was correlated with decreased injury (greater needle retention). On the other hand, weight losses of Jeffrey pine caused by Polyporus versicolor and of ponderosa pine caused by Poria monticola were correlated with increased injury (increased needle chlorosis). 27 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

James, R.L.; Cobb, F.W. Jr.; Wilcox, W.W.; Rowney, D.L.

1980-01-01

189

Síndrome antifosfolípido secundario a lupus eritematoso sistémico en un hombre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen Paciente de sexo masculino de 23 años con sín- tomas de una semana de evolución de cambios en el comportamiento, y seis meses de pérdida de peso, eritema malar y palpebral, úlceras orales, se le detecta anticuerpos antinucleares (ANAS) positi- vos, planteándose como diagnóstico, lupus erite- matoso sistémico (LES). El paciente permanece controlado durante tres años; al cabo de

Franco J. Vallejo; Luis Fernando Medina; Claudia Juliana Díaz

190

Costos secundarios por infecciones nosocomiales en dos unidades pediátricas de cuidados intensivos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. We estimated associated costs to nosocomial infections in two pediatric intensive care units in Mexico City. Material and methods. A transversal study in the neonatal (NICU) and pediatric (PICU) intensive care units, was done. We reviewed use and cost of diagnostic procedu- res, medications, and excess of hospital stay. Results. There were 102 infections, 46 in the NICU and

Susana Navarrete-Navarro; Gerardo Armengol-Sánchez

1999-01-01

191

Plan de estudios de nivel secundario para adultos (Study Plan for Adult Secondary Education).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes an experimental, multinational plan for adult secondary education sponsored through the Organization of American States and the Argentine Ministry of Culture and Education. General and specific goals of the program are listed here along with details of the proposed curriculum and areas of study, entrance requirements,…

Boletin del Centro Nacional de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa, Parte II: Informaciones, 1970

1970-01-01

192

Roles of the auditory midbrain and thalamus in selective phonotaxis in female gray treefrogs ( Hyla versicolor)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diencephalic and midbrain auditory nuclei are involved in the processing of auditory communication signals in anurans [Comparative Hearing: Fish and Amphibians, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1999, p. 218], but their exact roles in acoustically guided behavior, such as female phonotaxis, are unclear. To address this question, behavioral experiments were combined with lesions of dorsal thalamic nuclei and the midbrain torus semicircularis.

Heike Endepols; Albert S Feng; H. Carl Gerhardt; Johannes Schul; Wolfgang Walkowiak

2003-01-01

193

Applications of micellar enzymology to clean coal technology. [Laccase from Polyporus versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project is designed to develop methods for pre-combustion coal remediation by implementing recent advances in enzyme biochemistry. The novel approach of this study is incorporation of hydrophilic oxidative enzymes in reverse micelles in an organic solvent. Enzymes from commercial sources or microbial extracts are being investigated for their capacity to remove organic sulfur from coal by oxidation of the

Walsh

1990-01-01

194

Biodegradation of azo and phthalocyanine dyes by Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen fungal strains, known for their ability to degrade lignocellulosic material or lignin derivatives, were screened\\u000a for their potential to decolorize commercially used reactive textile dyes. Three azo dyes, Reactive Orange 96, Reactive Violet\\u000a 5 and Reactive Black 5, and two phthalocyanine dyes, Reactive Blue 15 and Reactive Blue 38, were chosen as representatives\\u000a of commercially used reactive dyes. From

A. Heinfling; M. Bergbauer; U. Szewzyk

1997-01-01

195

Inhibition of laccase activity from Trametes versicolor by heavy metals and organic compounds.  

PubMed

Due to the numerous biotechnological applications of laccase enzyme, it is essential to know the influence of different agents usually present in the natural environment on its enzymatic action, especially for in situ treatment technologies. In the present work, a simple and rapid method to determine the inhibitory or inducer effect of different compounds on laccase activity was developed. The compounds tested were copper-chelating agents and heavy metals. It was found that using syringaldazine as a substrate, all copper-chelating agents (except EDTA) highly inhibited laccase activity (around 100%) at an inhibitor concentration lower than 20 mM. Moreover, 40% of inhibition, which was detected at a concentration of 20 mM for both Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) increased with concentration until nearly complete inhibition at 80 mM. PMID:15993161

Lorenzo, M; Moldes, D; Rodríguez Couto, S; Sanromán, Maria A

2005-08-01

196

Decolorization of practical textile industry effluents by white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor IBL04  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textile industry discharges a vast amount of unused synthetic dyes in effluents. The discharge of these effluents into rivers and lakes leads to a reduction in sunlight penetration in natural water bodies, which, in turn, decreases both photosynthetic activity and dissolved oxygen concentration rendering it toxic to living beings. This paper describes the decolorization potential of a local white rot

Muhammad Asgher; Naseema Azim; Haq Nawaz Bhatti

2009-01-01

197

Modelo HACCP General para Productos Carnicos y Avicolas Perecederos, con Inhibidores Secundarios (Generic HACCP Model for Meat and Poultry Products with Secondary Inhibitors, Not Shelf Stable).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system is a scientific approach to process control. It is designed to prevent the occurrence of problems by assuring that controls are applied at any point in a food production system where hazardous or c...

1999-01-01

198

Production and Gelatin Entrapment of Laccase from Trametes versicolor and its Application to Quantitative Determination of Phenolic Contents of Commercial Fruit Juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laccase (benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductase; EC 1.10.3.2) is a particularly promising enzyme for several industrial fields, including food industries, since this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of ortho and para-diphenols, amino-phenols, polyphenols, polyamines, lignins, and aryl diamines as well as some inorganic ions coupled to the reduction of molecular dioxygen to water. In this study, laccase was produced from one of the

Y?ld?z Deniz Unal; Nurdan Kasikara Pazarlioglu

2011-01-01

199

Oxidation of aromatic alcohols by laccase from Trametes versicolor mediated by the 2,2?-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) cation radical and dication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidation of aromatic alcohols, such as non-phenolic lignin model compounds, by oxidised species of 2,2?-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic\\u000a acid) (ABTS) has been investigated. The cation radical and dication formed from ABTS were both capable of oxidising aromatic\\u000a alcohols to aldehydes. The reactions terminated at the level of the aldehyde and no acids were formed. The cation radical\\u000a and dication worked in a cycle

A. Majcherczyk; C. Johannes; A. Hüttermann

1999-01-01

200

Role for toll-like receptor 4 in TNF-alpha secretion by murine macrophages in response to polysaccharide Krestin, a Trametes versicolor mushroom extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Woody fungi and yeast preparations show promise in cancer treatment by activating anti-tumor immune responses. Macrophages (J774A.1) were treated with PSK, Reishi extract, scleroglucan or vehicle control. Pre-incubation with TLR4 blocking antibody inhibited TNF-alpha secretion by both J774A.1 cells and primary splenocytes but had inconclusive effect on scleroglucan-induced secretion of TNF-alpha. PSK induced TNF-alpha and IL-6 secretion by wild type

Lisa A. Price; Cynthia A. Wenner; Daniel T. Sloper; Joel W. Slaton; Jeffrey P. Novack

2010-01-01

201

Role for toll-like receptor 4 in TNF-alpha secretion by murine macrophages in response to polysaccharide Krestin, a Trametes versicolor mushroom extract.  

PubMed

Woody fungi and yeast preparations show promise in cancer treatment by activating anti-tumor immune responses. Macrophages (J774A.1) were treated with PSK, Reishi extract, scleroglucan or vehicle control. Pre-incubation with TLR4 blocking antibody inhibited TNF-alpha secretion by both J774A.1 cells and primary splenocytes but had inconclusive effect on scleroglucan-induced secretion of TNF-alpha. PSK induced TNF-alpha and IL-6 secretion by wild type but not by TLR4-deficient peritoneal macrophages. We conclude that constituents from PSK act as ligands for TLR4 receptors leading to induction of TNF-alpha and IL-6 inflammatory cytokines. Receptor-mediated differences may be due to structural differences in beta glucans or non-glucan constituents. PMID:20550956

Price, Lisa A; Wenner, Cynthia A; Sloper, Daniel T; Slaton, Joel W; Novack, Jeffrey P

2010-06-13

202

Skin color - patchy  

MedlinePLUS

... medication reactions or certain drugs Sunburn or suntan Tinea versicolor Unevenly applying sunscreen, leading to areas of burn, ... ketoconazole, or tolnaftate (Tinactin) lotion can help treat tinea versicolor. Apply as directed to the affected area daily ...

203

Matematicas Para El Primer Ciclo Secundario, Volumen I (Parte 2). Traduccion Preliminar de la Edicion Inglesa Revisada. (Mathematics for Junior High School, Volume I, Part 2. Preliminary Translation of the Revised English Edition).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is part two of a two-part SMSG mathematics text for junior high school students. Key ideas emphasized are structure of arithmetic from an algebraic viewpoint, the real number system, and metric and non-metric relations in geometry. Included are chapters on the rational number system; parallels, parallelograms, triangles, and right prisms;…

Anderson, R. D.; And Others

204

Matematicas Para El Primer Ciclo Secundario, Volumen II (Parte 1). Traduccion Preliminar de la Edicion en Ingles Revisada. (Mathematics for Junior High School, Volume II, Part 1. Preliminary Translation of the Revised English Edition).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is part one of a two-part SMSG mathematics text for junior high school students. Key ideas emphasized are structure of arithmetic from an algebraic viewpoint, the real number system as a progressing development, and metric and non-metric relations in geometry. Chapter topics include number line and coordinates, equations, scientific…

Anderson, R. D.; And Others

205

Matematicas Para El Primer Ciclo Secundario, Volumen I (Parte 1). Traduccion Preliminar de la Edicion Inglesa Revisada. (Mathematics for Junior High School, Volume I, Part 1, Preliminary Translation of the Revised English Edition).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is part one of a two-part SMSG mathematics text for junior high school students. Key ideas emphasized are structure of arithmetic from an algebraic viewpoint, the real number system, and metric and non-metric relations in geometry. Topics included are numbers; cardinal numbers; geometry of lines, points, and planes; geometry of angles,…

Anderson, R. D.; And Others

206

Matematicas Para El Primer Ciclo Secundario, Volumen II (Parte 2). Traduccion Preliminar de la Edicion en Ingles Revisada. (Mathematics for Junior High School, Volume II, Part 2. Preliminary Translation of the Revised English Edition).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is part two of a two-part SMSG mathematics text for junior high school students. Key ideas emphasized are structure of arithmetic from an algebraic viewpoint, the real number system as a progressing development, and metric and non-metric relations in geometry. Chapter topics include real numbers, similar triangles, variation, polyhedrons,…

Anderson, R. D.; And Others

207

Hyperkeratotic Head and Neck Malassezia Dermatosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Pityriasis versicolor (tinea versicolor) is a common skin disorder due to Malassezia usually affecting adolescents and young adults, more frequently in the tropics. Facial involvement, isolated or not, is not frequent in white adults. Objective: Here, we report a possible atypical hyperkeratotic form of dermatosis of the face, in two young immunocompetent Caucasian patients, particularly recalcitrant to therapy. Results:

Franck Boralevi; Josefina Marco-Bonnet; Sebastien Lepreux; Christel Buzenet; Bernard Couprie; Alain Taïeb

2006-01-01

208

Experimental Infections in Rabbits and Humans with Pityrosporum orbiculare and P. ovale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to produce experimental tinea versicolor in rabbits and humans with Pityrosporum orbiculare and P. ovale.P. orbiculare and P. ovale were inoculated, with and without occlusion, on the inside of the ear in 10 male rabbits and on the upper arm in 10 patients with a history of tinea versicolor, and in 3 healthy volunteers.After

Jan Faergemann; Torsten Fredriksson

1981-01-01

209

EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT METHODS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF DNA FROM FUNGAL CONIDIA BY QUANTITATIVE COMPETITIVE PCR ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Five different DNA extraction methods were evaluated for their effectiveness in recovering PCR templates from the conidia of a series of fungal species often encountered in indoor air. The test organisms were Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartaru...

210

Preliminary evaluation of storax and its constituents: Fungal decay ...  

Treesearch

Forest Products Laboratory ... Considerable research has focused on utilizing bioactive essential oils and wood ... Natural storax at the concentration level of 0.5% inhibited all fungi except Trametes versicolor and Ceratocystis pilifera.

211

Cutaneous infestations and infections.  

PubMed

Cutaneous infections and infestations are common problems in childhood and adolescence. This article provides an update focusing on the diagnosis and management of several frequently encountered infections and infestations: scabies, bedbugs, head lice, tinea capitis, and tinea versicolor. PMID:21815448

Haisley-Royster, Camille

2011-04-01

212

Chronic Disabling Dermatoses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method of quantitating the desquamating layers of human skin (corneocyte count) has been applied to normal skin and lesions of psoriasis, tinea versicolor and dandruff. The corneocyte count is an objective measure of severity. Bacteria can also be studi...

A. M. Kligman R. R. Marples

1969-01-01

213

Sertaconazole Topical  

MedlinePLUS

... of the skin in the groin or buttocks), tinea versicolor (fungal infection that causes brown or light colored spots on the chest, back, arms, legs, or neck), and tinea manuum (fungal infection on the hands). Sertaconazole cream ...

214

Butenafine Hydrochloride  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Round yeast cells (blastospores) are not required to be present. The presence of yeast cells alone is not diagnostic for tinea versicolor. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

215

The 'Haemaphysalis' Ticks (Ixodoidea: Ixodidae) of Birds. 4 'H. (Ornithophysalis) Phasisana' Sp. N. from Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Haemaphysalis (Ornithophysalis) phasiana sp. n. is described from wild-caught and laboratory-reared adults and immatures from vegetation and pheasants, Phasianus versicolor subsp., on Sado Island in the Sea of Japan near Honshu. Two male specimens from Tu...

Y. Saito H. Hoogstraal H. Y. Wassef

1973-01-01

216

Ketoconazole Topical  

MedlinePLUS

Nizoral® Shampoo ... Nizoral AD® Shampoo ... and yeast infections of the skin. Prescription ketoconazole shampoo is used to treat tinea versicolor. Over-the-counter ketoconazole shampoo is used to control flaking, scaling, and itching ...

217

A Study and Review of the Japanese Green and the Korean Ring-Necked Pheasants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Following a general review of the taxonomy, distribution and descriptions of the Japanese green pheasants (Phasianus versicolor) and the Korean and Manchurian ring-necked pheasants (P. c. karpowi and P. c. pallasi) detailed consideration is given to their...

W. H. Bohl

1964-01-01

218

Efficient bleaching of non-wood high-quality paper pulp using laccase-mediator system  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-quality flax pulp was bleached in a totally-chlorine-free (TCF) sequence using a laccase-mediator system. Three fungal laccases (from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus eryngii) and two mediators, 2,2?-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT), were compared. P. cinnabarinus and T. versicolor laccases in the presence of HBT gave the best results in terms of high brightness and low lignin content (kappa

Susana Camarero; Olga Garc??a; Teresa Vidal; José Colom; José C del R??o; Ana Gutiérrez; José M Gras; Rebeca Monje; Mar??a J Mart??nez; Ángel T Mart??nez

2004-01-01

219

Accumulation and degradation of dead-end metabolites during treatment of soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with five strains of white-rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor PRL 572, Trametes versicolor MUCL 28407, Pleurotus ostreatus MUCL 29527, Pleurotus sajor-caju MUCL 29757 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium DSM 1556 were investigated for their ability to degrade the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) anthracene, benz[a]anthracene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene in soil. The fungi were grown on wheat straw and mixed with artificially contaminated soil. The results of this\\u000a study

B. E. Andersson; T. Henrysson

1996-01-01

220

[Anti-fungal resistant hypopigmented macules in an adolescent].  

PubMed

Progressive macular hypomelanosis of the trunk is a disease of unknown origin that often goes unrecognized in the clinical setting. We present an adolescent with this condition initially diagnosed as tinea versicolor. She was asymptomatic, with hypopigmented macules located on the trunk and with no previous history of inflammation, infection or injury. Progressive macular hypomelanosis is a common disorder that has frequently been misdiagnosed, probably because it is often considered a post-inflammatory hypopigmentation or pityriasis versicolor. PMID:22935838

Martínez Martínez, M L; Azaña Defez, J M; López Villaescusa, M T; Gómez Sánchez, M

2012-06-17

221

Studies on the Biosynthesis of the Notoamides: Synthesis of an Isotopomer of 6-Hydroxydeoxybrevianamide E and Biosynthetic Incorporation into Notoamide J  

PubMed Central

6-Hydroxydeoxybrevianamide E is proposed as a biosynthetic precursor to several advanced metabolites isolated from both marine-derived Aspergillus sp. and a terrestrial-derived Aspergillus versicolor. To verify the role of this reverse-prenylated indole alkaloid as an intermediate along the biosynthetic pathway, [13C]2-[15N]-6-hydroxydeoxybrevianamide E was synthesized and fed to Aspergillus versicolor. Analysis of the metabolites showed incorporation of the intermediate only into the natural product notoamide J.

Finefield, Jennifer M.; Sherman, David H.; Tsukamoto, Sachiko; Williams, Robert M.

2011-01-01

222

Degradation of hop bitter acids by fungi.  

PubMed

Nine fungal strains related to: Trametes versicolor, Nigrospora oryzae, Inonotus radiatus, Crumenulopsis sororia, Coryneum betulinum, Cryptosporiopsis radicicola, Fusarium equiseti, Rhodotorula glutinis and Candida parapsilosis were tested for their ability to degrade humulones and lupulones. The best results were obtained for T. versicolor culture, in which humulones and lupulones were fully degraded after 4days of incubation in the dark or after 36h in the light. The experiments were performed on a commercial hop extract and on sterilized spent hops. PMID:17845845

Huszcza, Ewa; Bartma?ska, Agnieszka; Anio?, Miros?aw; Maczka, Wanda; Zo?nierczyk, Anna; Wawrze?czyk, Czes?aw

2007-09-12

223

Regulation of coal polymer degradation by fungi. Eighth quarterly report, [January--March 1996  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported on solubilization of low-rank coal by enzyme activity derived from Trametes versicolor or P. chrysosporium. Specifically during the reporting period efforts were directed towards the determining the effect of pH on solubilization of leonardite, the role of laccase in low coal solubilization and metabolism, the decolorization of soluble coal macromolecule by P. chrysosprium and T. versicolor in solid agar gel, and the solubilization of low rank coal in slurry cultures and solid phase reactors.

Irvine, R.L. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences; Bumpus, J.A. [University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1996-07-28

224

Polyethylene degradation by lignin-degrading fungi and manganese peroxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degradation of high-molecular-weight polyethylene membrane by lignin-degrading fungi, IZU-154, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Trametes versicolor, was investigated under various nutritional conditions. IZU-154 showed the most significant polyethylene degradation among\\u000a the three lignin-degrading fungi under nitrogen- or carbon-limited culture conditions. Furthermore, for T. versicolor and P. chrysosporium, the addition of Mn(II) into nitrogen- or carbon-limited culture medium enhanced polyethylene degradation. These results

Yuka Iiyoshi; Yuji Tsutsumi; Tomoaki Nishida

1998-01-01

225

¿Está enfermo uno de sus hijos? No adivine. Lea las ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Si nota nuevos síntomas o efectos secundarios no esperados, o si la medicina parece que no está haciendo efecto, comuníquese con su médico o ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/emergencypreparedness/bioterrorismanddrugpreparedness

226

Hypoglycemic Effects of Exo-biopolymers Produced by Five Different Medicinal Mushrooms in STZ-induced Diabetic Rats.  

PubMed

Hypoglycemic effects of exo-biopolymers (EBP) produced by submerged mycelial cultures of Coriolus versicolor, Cordyceps sinensis, Paecilomyces japonica, Armillariella mellea, and Fomes fomentarius were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The rats from each experimental group were orally administered with EBPs (100 mg/kg BW) daily for 2 weeks. Though the hypoglycemic effect was achieved in all the cases, however, C. versicolor EBP proved as the most potent one. The administration of the C. versicolor EBP substantially reduced (29.9%) the plasma glucose level as compared to the saline administered group (control). It also reduced the plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels by 9.22, 23.83, 16.93, and 27.31%, respectively. The sugar and amino acid compositions of this EBP were also analyzed in detail. PMID:23997607

Yang, Byung-Keun; Kim, Guk-Nam; Jeong, Yong-Tae; Jeong, Hun; Mehta, Pradeep; Song, Chi-Hyun

2008-03-31

227

Hypoglycemic Effects of Exo-biopolymers Produced by Five Different Medicinal Mushrooms in STZ-induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Hypoglycemic effects of exo-biopolymers (EBP) produced by submerged mycelial cultures of Coriolus versicolor, Cordyceps sinensis, Paecilomyces japonica, Armillariella mellea, and Fomes fomentarius were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The rats from each experimental group were orally administered with EBPs (100 mg/kg BW) daily for 2 weeks. Though the hypoglycemic effect was achieved in all the cases, however, C. versicolor EBP proved as the most potent one. The administration of the C. versicolor EBP substantially reduced (29.9%) the plasma glucose level as compared to the saline administered group (control). It also reduced the plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels by 9.22, 23.83, 16.93, and 27.31%, respectively. The sugar and amino acid compositions of this EBP were also analyzed in detail.

Yang, Byung-Keun; Kim, Guk-Nam; Jeong, Yong-Tae; Jeong, Hun; Mehta, Pradeep

2008-01-01

228

Superficial fungal infections.  

PubMed

Tinea capitis, tinea corporis, and pityriasis versicolor are common superficial fungal infections in the pediatric population. • Tinea capitis is the most common dermatophyte infection worldwide. In North America, the cause is almost exclusively T tonsurans. Diagnosis of tinea capitis usually can be made by clinical features alone, especially when occipital or postauricular lymphadenopathy is present. Skin scrapings prepared with potassium hydroxide for microscopic examination, or a cotton swab for fungal culture, usually are diagnostic. • Treatment of tinea capitis requires systemic antifungal therapy. Terbinafine and griseofulvin are both effective against T tonsurans and are FDA-approved for this indication in children. • Adjunctive topical therapy for the patient and household contacts decreases transmission of this infection. • Topical antifungal therapy usually is effective for tinea corporis and pityriasis versicolor. However, recurrences of pityriasis versicolor are common. PMID:22474120

Kelly, Brendan P

2012-04-01

229

Food partitioning of leaf-eating mangrove crabs ( Sesarminae): Experimental and stable isotope ( 13C and 15N) evidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of mangrove leaves as a full diet for sesarmid crabs has been questioned for decades. Since these leaves are nitrogen-poor, sesarmids probably obtain nitrogen from other sources to sustain growth. The aim of this study was to assess the food partitioning of the sesarmid species Neoepisesarma versicolor with emphasis on nitrogen allocation. The preference for animal tissue when crabs were pre-fed diets of different nitrogen content was determined in the laboratory. Furthermore, the possible in situ diet composition of N. versicolor was established from carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signature ( ?13C and ?15N) of freshly caught individuals and their potential food sources, using a concentration-dependent mixing model. N. versicolor showed significantly higher feeding preferences for fish meat when pre-fed leaf material without than with access to meat, indicating that this crab species can meet its nitrogen demand by ingesting animal tissue. The stable isotope mixing model based on in situ materials suggests that the diet of N. versicolor consists of ˜60% leaves in terms of biomass, leaving ˜40% for other sources such as animal tissue and benthic microorganisms. The biomass contribution from animal tissues, in form of e.g. other crustaceans and fish carcasses, was found to account for ˜15%. Despite the relative low biomass fraction, animal food sources may contribute with up to half of the nitrogen in the diet of N. versicolor. The quantity of ingested sediment most likely exceeds that of animal tissues. However, due to the low concentration of assimilable microalgae and other microorganism, we propose that sediment associated sources are less important as a nitrogen source for N. versicolor than hitherto presumed.

Kristensen, Ditte K.; Kristensen, Erik; Mangion, Perrine

2010-05-01

230

[Contribution to the study of dermatomycosis in Catalonia].  

PubMed

We report the results of a study which aim was the mycological identification of specimens coming from patients included in a clinical trial. A total of 445 specimens from patients with clinical diagnosis of dermatomicosis were processed during 8 months (138 pityriasis versicolor, 28 cutaneous candidosis and 279 dermatophytosis). A 48% of pityriasis versicolor cultures were positive for Malassezia furfur, 50% of candidosis cultures were positive for yeasts and 67% of dermatophytosis cultures were positive for dermatophytes. According to our results Candida albicans was the principal causative agent for cutaneous candidosis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum were the most frequent isolated species causing dermatophytosis. PMID:15482021

Boncompte, E; Algueró, M; Videla, S; Forn, J

1997-03-01

231

Calorimetric analysis of fungal degraded wood  

SciTech Connect

Endothermic transition and gross heat of combustion of aspenwood subjected to degradation by Lenzites trabea and Polyporus versicolor were determined by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and an adiabatic O bomb. Endothermic peak areas of undegraded and fungi-degraded wood differed from each other at all levels of weight loss. The regression analysis of the DSC data vs. weight loss revealed a significant relations, although not highly correlated, for P. versicolor-degraded specimens and a nonsignificant relation for L. trabea-degraded specimens; weight loss and gross heat of combustion values of degraded specimens were significantly correlated.

Blankenhorn, P.R.; Baldwin, R.C.; Merrill, W. Jr.; Ottone, S.P.

1980-01-01

232

Non-isothermal bioreactors in enzymatic remediation of waters polluted by endocrine disruptors: BPA as a model of pollutant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioremediation of waters polluted by Bisphenol A, taken as a model for endocrine disruptors, has been pursued by means of catalytic membranes in bioreactors operating under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. Laccase from Trametes versicolor was immobilized on nylon membranes grafted with Glycidyl Methacrylate and using Phenylendiamine as spacer. The behaviour of the catalytic membrane was studied as a function

N. Diano; V. Grano; L. Fraconte; P. Caputo; A. Ricupito; A. Attanasio; M. Bianco; U. Bencivenga; S. Rossi; I. Manco; L. Mita; G. Del Pozzo; D. G. Mita

2007-01-01

233

Non-isothermal bioremediation of waters polluted by phenol and some of its derivatives by laccase covalently immobilized on polypropylene membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the heath problems induced by the presence into the environment of endocrine disruptors, laccase from Trametes versicolor was covalently immobilized on a chemically modified polypropylene membrane in order to remove phenol and its derivatives from polluted waters. Using phenol as substrate model the optimal immobilization conditions were determined. The immobilized laccase exhibited maximal enzyme activity at pH

S. Georgieva; T. Godjevargova; D. G. Mita; N. Diano; C. Menale; C. Nicolucci; C. Romano Carratelli; L. Mita; E. Golovinsky

2010-01-01

234

HOST RANGE OF SORGHUM ERGOT PATHOGENS C. AFRICANA AND C. SORGHI IN INDIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Among 20 graminaceous plant species evaluated for their role as collateral hosts for the two sorghum ergot pathogens Claviceps sorghi and C. africana, only five species viz., Sorghum arundinaceum, S. halepense, S. versicolor, S. virgatum, and Pennisetum glaucum were found to be hosts for both the pa...

235

Plant growth hormone production from olive oil mill and alcohol factory wastewaters by white rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, olive oil mill and alcohol factory wastewaters have been tested as growth media for the production of plant growth hormones. Funalia trogii ATCC 200800 and Trametes versicolor ATCC 200801 have been tested. Gibberellic acid (GA3), abscisic acid (ABA), indole acetic acid (IAA), and cytokinin were determined in the culture media of these fungi. Both organisms produced enhanced

F. Yürekli; O. Yesilada; M. Yürekli; S. F. Topcuoglu

1999-01-01

236

Comparison of ligninolytic activities of selected white-rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six fast growing ligninolytic white-rot fungi were compared with Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The results showed that the fungi have similar ligninolytic systems, although minor differences exist. Like in P. chrysosporium the ligninolytic system could be induced by veratryl alcohol in Coriolus versicolor and Chrysosporium pruinosum. These three lignin peroxidase producing fungi were the fastest lignin degraders in stationary cultures, whereas in

Roland Waldner; Matti S. A. Leisola; Armin Fiechter

1988-01-01

237

Antimicrobial and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Cecropin A(1-8)–Magainin2(1-12) Hybrid Peptide Analog P5 against Malassezia furfur Infection in Human Keratinocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipophilic fungus Malassezia furfur (M. furfur) is a commensal microbe associated with several chronic diseases such as pityriasis versicolor, folliculitis, and seborrheic dermatitis. Because M. furfur-related diseases are difficult to treat and require prolonged use of medications, the treatment for M. furfur-related skin diseases is supposed to gain control over M. furfur growth and the inflammation associated with it,

Sunhyo Ryu; Soon-Yong Choi; Samudra Acharya; Young-Jin Chun; Catherine Gurley; Cheryl A Armstrong; Peter I Song; Beom-Joon Kim

2011-01-01

238

Production of Proinflammatory Mediators by Indoor Air Bacteria and Fungal Spores in Mouse and Human Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the inflammatory and cytotoxic responses caused by household mold and bacteria in human and mouse cell lines. We studied the fungi Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium spinulosum, and Stachybotrys chartarum and the bacteria Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Streptomyces californicus for their cytotoxicity and ability to stimulate the production of inflammatory mediators in mouse RAW264.7 and human 28SC macrophage cell

Kati Huttunen; Anne Hyvärinen; Aino Nevalainen; Hannu Komulainen; Maija-Riitta Hirvonen

2002-01-01

239

Immobilized Peroxidase as a Valuable Tool in the Remediation of Aromatic Pollutants and Xenobiotic Compounds: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors attempted to survey literature based on the role of immobilized peroxidases in the treatment and remediation of various types of organic pollutants present in wastewater. Peroxidases from fungal (Caldariomyces fumago, Lentinula edodes, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus pulmonarius, Aspergillus oryzae, Trametes versicolor, Chrysonilia sitophila [TFB-27441]) and plant sources (horseradish, turnip, tomato, soybean, bitter gourd, white radish chayote, and Saccharum uvarum)

Qayyum Husain; Roland Ulber

2011-01-01

240

Species-specific production of microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOC) by airborne fungi from a compost facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirteen airborne fungal species frequently isolated in composting plants were screened for microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOC), i.e., Aspergillus candidus, A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, Emericella nidulans, Paecilomyces variotii, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium clavigerum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium cyclopium, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium glabrum, Penicillium verruculosum, and Tritirachium oryzae. Air samples from pure cultures were sorbed on Tenax GR and analyzed by thermal desorption

Guido Fischer; Regina Schwalbe; Manfred Möller; Rene Ostrowski; Wolfgang Dott

1999-01-01

241

Effects of different fungal elicitors on growth, total carotenoids and astaxanthin formation by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six fungal elicitors prepared from Rhodotorula rubra, Rhodotorula glutinis, Panus conchatus, Coriolus versicolor, Mucor mucedo, Mortieralla alpina M-23 were examined to determine their effects on the growth, total carotenoids and astaxanthin formation by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. The results showed that different fungal elicitor could cause diversely stimulating effects. Among the fungal elicitors tested, the M. mucedo elicitor concentration of 30mgl?1 promoted

Wenjun Wang; Longjiang Yu; Pengpeng Zhou

2006-01-01

242

Ochratoxin a in Cereals, Foodstuffs and Human Plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus and Penicillium fungi contaminate cereals and foodstuffs, and can thus introduce ochratoxin A (OTA) into the food chain. In this work, five new isolates of Aspergillus: A. albertensis, A. auricomus, A. wentii, A. fumigatus and A. versicolor, were found to produce ochratoxin A. Data on the occurrence and the concentration levels of ochratoxin A in European food of vegetable

A. Rizzo; M. Eskola; F. Atroshi

2002-01-01

243

Potential for bioremediation of agro-industrial effluents with high loads of pesticides by selected fungi.  

PubMed

Wastewaters from the fruit packaging industry contain a high pesticide load and require treatment before their environmental discharge. We provide first evidence for the potential bioremediation of these wastewaters. Three white rot fungi (WRF) (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus) and an Aspergillus niger strain were tested in straw extract medium (StEM) and soil extract medium (SEM) for degrading the pesticides thiabendazole (TBZ), imazalil (IMZ), thiophanate methyl (TM), ortho-phenylphenol (OPP), diphenylamine (DPA) and chlorpyrifos (CHL). Peroxidase (LiP, MnP) and laccase (Lac) activity was also determined to investigate their involvement in pesticide degradation. T. versicolor and P. ostreatus were the most efficient degraders and degraded all pesticides (10 mg l?¹) except TBZ, with maximum efficiency in StEM. The phenolic pesticides OPP and DPA were rapidly degraded by these two fungi with a concurrent increase in MnP and Lac activity. In contrast, these enzymes were not associated with the degradation of CHL, IMZ and TM implying the involvement of other enzymes. T. versicolor degraded spillage-level pesticide concentrations (50 mg l?¹) either fully (DPA, OPP) or partially (TBZ, IMZ). The fungus was also able to rapidly degrade a mixture of TM/DPA (50 mg l?¹), whereas it failed to degrade IMZ and TBZ when supplied in a mixture with OPP. Overall, T. versicolor and P. ostreatus showed great potential for the bioremediation of wastewaters from the fruit packaging industry. However, degradation of TBZ should be also achieved before further scaling up. PMID:20635121

Karas, Panagiotis A; Perruchon, Chiara; Exarhou, Katerina; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

2010-07-16

244

The effects of collembola grazing on microbial activity in decomposing leaf litter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground leaf litter was inoculated with the fungus Coriolus versicolor and incubated in respirometers for 6 days (“fresh” cultures) or 33 days (“senescent” cultures) before different number of Folsomia candida were added. Grazing by 5 animals stimulated O2 consumption in both series of cultures but 10, 15 or 20 animals inhibited microbial respiration. The stimulatory effect was less marked in

R. D. G. Hanlon; J. M. Anderson

1979-01-01

245

Identification of (1?6)-?- d-glucan as the major carbohydrate component of the Malassezia sympodialis cell wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the genus Malassezia are commensal fungi found on the skin of both human and domestic animals and are associated with skin diseases including dandruff\\/seborrheic dermatitis, pityriasis versicolor, and atopic eczema (AE) in humans. In this study we have characterized the cell-wall carbohydrates of Malassezia sympodialis, one of the species most frequently isolated from both AE patients and healthy

Michael D. Kruppa; Douglas W. Lowman; Yu-Han Chen; Christine Selander; Annika Scheynius; Mario. A. Monteiro; David L. Williams

2009-01-01

246

A New Isolate of the Genus Malassezia Based on the Sequence Analysis of 26S and ITS1 in Ribosomal DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malassezia species considered to be the etiological agents of pityriasis versicolor and Malassezia follicolitis in humans. Recently, on the basis of molecular data, four new spe- cies were added to the genus. In total, 11 species have been described and accepted so far. In this study we describe a new isolate of Malassezia based on the nucleotide se- quence of

Hossein Mirhendi; Ali Zia; Kuichi Makimura

247

Skin diseases associated with Malassezia species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yeasts of the genus Malassezia have been associated with a number of diseases affecting the human skin, such as pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia (Pityrosporum) folliculitis, seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and—less commonly—with other dermatologic disorders such as confluent and reticulated papillomatosis, onychomycosis, and transient acantholytic dermatosis. Although Malassezia yeasts are a part of the normal microflora, under certain

Aditya K. Gupta; Roma Batra; Robyn Bluhm; Teun Boekhout; Thomas L. Dawson

2004-01-01

248

In vitro Activity of Lithium Succinate against Malassezia furfur  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The in vitro antifungal activity of lithium succinate has been evaluated against 46 different Malassezia furfur strains, isolated from patients suffering from dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, and pityriasis versicolor. Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations of lithium succinate were measured by the agar dilution technique. Results: Lithium succinate was found to be able to inhibit growth of all investigated M. furfur isolates

P. Nenoff; U. F. Haustein; C. Münzberger

1995-01-01

249

Novel Application of the Masson-Fontana Stain for Demonstrating Malassezia Species Melanin-Like Pigment Production In Vitro and in Clinical Specimens  

PubMed Central

Melanin-like pigment produced in vitro and in vivo by Malassezia yeasts has not been described before. Masson-Fontana staining confirmed accumulation of black pigment on the cell walls of l-dihydroxyphenylalaline (l-DOPA)-cultured Malassezia species. Black pigment was also observed in cells and hyphae from hyperpigmented patient lesions with culture-confirmed pityriasis versicolor and seborrheic dermatitis.

Gaitanis, George; Chasapi, Vassiliki; Velegraki, Aristea

2005-01-01

250

The Effects of Malassezia Yeasts on Cytokine Production by Human Keratinocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeasts of Malassezia, members of the microbiologic flora of the skin, cause pityriasis versicolor and have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of other superficial dermatoses; the most important ones are seborrheic dermatitis, folliculitis, and atopic dermatitis. The mechanisms by which the yeasts cause these dermatoses¸ however, are not yet clear, and there have been no studies on the interaction

Shinichi Watanabe; Rui Kano; Hiroko Sato; Yuka Nakamura; Atsuhiko Hasegawa

2001-01-01

251

Comparison of three methods for the determination of sinapic acid ester content in enzymatically treated canola meals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzymatic reduction of sinapic acid ester content in canola meal using polyphenol oxidase from the fungus T. versicolor was investigated. To determine the effectiveness of this new process, the results obtained using two spectrophotometric methods and an HPLC analytical method for assaying sinapic acid ester content in the treated and untreated meals were compared. It was found that all

K. Lacki; Z. Duvnjak

1996-01-01

252

Comparison of three methods for the determination of sinapic acid ester content in enzymatically treated canola meals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzymatic reduction of sinapic acid ester content in canola meal using polyphenol oxidase from the fungusT. versicolor was investigated. To determine the effectiveness of this new process, the results obtained using two spectrophotometric methods and an HPLC analytical method for assaying sinapic acid ester content in the treated and untreated meals were compared. It was found that all the

K. Lacki; Z. Duvnjak

1996-01-01

253

Durability of rubberwood ( Hevea brasiliensis) treated with peppermint oil, eucalyptus oil, and their main components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anti-fungal activities of two essential oils (peppermint oil and eucalyptus oil) and their main components (menthol and eucalyptol, respectively) against molds (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Penicillium sp.) and a white-rot decay fungus (Trametes versicolor) identified from rubberwood surfaces were investigated. The broth dilution method and the agar diffusion technique were employed to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and

Narumol Matan; Weerapong Woraprayote; Warasri Saengkrajang; Niphaphorn Sirisombat; Nirundorn Matan

2009-01-01

254

Herbal infusions bioelectrochemical polyphenolic index: Green tea – The gallic acid interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

An amperometric biosensor containing immobilised laccase from Trametes versicolor was used for the quantification of phenolic compounds in herbal infusions and green tea samples, from nine botanical families. The main purpose of this research was to correlate the bioelectrochemical polyphenolic index (BPI) of the samples with the total phenolic content according to the Folin–Ciocalteu spectrophotometric method (TPC), and the total

Dulce M. A. Gil; Pedro L. V. Falé; Maria L. M. Serralheiro; Maria J. F. Rebelo

2011-01-01

255

Ecological energetics of Nerita (Archaeogastropoda, Neritacea) populations on Barbados, West Indies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population energy budgets estimated on the assumption of steady state conditions for Nerita tessellataGmelin, N. versicolorGmelin, and N. peloronta L. on Barbados, W. Indies, are presented. Large differences in population structure, and hence energetics, occurred at different localities along the beach. Relatively high proportions (81 to 88%) of the assimilated energy were lost via metabolism. Assimilation efficiencies ranged from 39

R. N. Hughes; W. Indies

1971-01-01

256

Formation of enzymes by biodegradation of agricultural wastes with white rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different strains of white rot fungi, Phanerochaete chrysosporium NRRL 6359, P. chrysosporium NRRL 6361 and Coriolus versicolor NRRL 6102, were tested for their ability to produce xylananse, glucanase and cellulase, and also for their ability to produce release-reducing sugars and proteins in basal media. P. chrysosporium NRRL 6359 was the most active strain for enzyme production. This organism was

Nadia H. Abd El-Nasser; Samia M. Helmy; Amira A. El-Gammal

1997-01-01

257

Degradation of nitrocellulose by fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three lignocellulolytic fungi, Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Coprinus cinereus, and two cellulolytic fungi Trichoderma reesei andChaetomium elatum were tested for their ability to degrade nitrocellulose. They were provided with different carbon and nitrogen sources in liquid cultures. Nitrocellulose (N content above 12%) was added as nitrogen source (in solution in acetone) alongside amino acids or as sole N source.

Nadja Auer; John N. Hedger; Christine S. Evans

2005-01-01

258

ENHANCED ENZYMATIC REMOVAL OF CHLOROPHENOLS IN THE PRESENCE OF CO-SUBSTRATES. (R823847)  

EPA Science Inventory

The effect of reactive co-substrates such as guaiacol and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol on the removal of chlorinated phenols by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and a laccase from the fungus Trametes versicolor was investigated. Addition of 50 mM guaiacol enhanced the precipitation of 4-ch...

259

A diversified approach to evaluate biostimulation and bioaugmentation strategies for heavy-oil-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

A diversified approach involving chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicity assessment of soil polluted by heavy mineral oil was adopted, in order to improve our understanding of the biodegradability of pollutants, microbial community dynamics and ecotoxicological effects of various bioremediation strategies. With the aim of improving hydrocarbon degradation, the following bioremediation treatments were assayed: i) addition of inorganic nutrients; ii) addition of the rhamnolipid-based biosurfactant M(AT10); iii) inoculation of an aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading microbial consortium (TD); and iv) inoculation of a known hydrocarbon-degrading white-rot fungus strain of Trametes versicolor. After 200 days, all the bioremediation assays achieved between 30% and 50% total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) biodegradation, with the T. versicolor inoculation degrading it the most. Biostimulation and T. versicolor inoculation promoted the Brevundimonas genus concurrently with other ?-proteobacteria, ?-proteobacteria and Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides (CFB) as well as Actinobacteria groups. However, T. versicolor inoculation, which produced the highest hydrocarbon degradation in soil, also promoted autochthonous Gram-positive bacterial groups, such as Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. An acute toxicity test using Eisenia fetida confirmed the improvement in the quality of the soil after all biostimulation and bioaugmentation strategies. PMID:22858534

Lladó, S; Solanas, A M; de Lapuente, J; Borràs, M; Viñas, M

2012-08-02

260

New and rare lignicolous hyphomycetes from Zhejiang Province, China* §  

PubMed Central

Sporidesmiopsis zhejiangensis sp. nov. and Spadicoides americana were found on submerged wood from streams in Zhejiang Province, China. Sporidesmiopsis zhejiangensis is characterized by obclavate to fusiform, 5-6-distoseptate, versicolorous, verruculose conidia with an apical mucilaginous sheath. Spadicoides americana is a new record to China. These taxa are described and illustrated, and morphological differences between these species and their similar species were summarized.

Wongsawas, Mongkol; Wang, Hong-kai; Hyde, Kevin D.; Lin, Fu-cheng

2008-01-01

261

Fungal production of volatiles during growth on fiberglass.  

PubMed Central

Acoustic and thermal fiberglass insulation materials used in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems were colonized with fungi in laboratory chambers. The mixed fungal population, principally Aspergillus versicolor, Acremonium obclavatum, and Cladosporium herbarum, produced odoriferous volatiles, including 2-ethyl hexanol, cyclohexane, and benzene. These volatiles may be related to poor indoor air quality and the sick building syndrome.

Ezeonu, I M; Price, D L; Simmons, R B; Crow, S A; Ahearn, D G

1994-01-01

262

Effect of relative humidity on fungal colonization of fiberglass insulation.  

PubMed Central

Fiberglass duct liners and fiberglass duct boards from eight buildings whose occupants complained of unacceptable or moldy odors in the air were found to be heavily colonized by fungi, particularly by Aspergillus versicolor. Unused fiberglass was found to be susceptible to fungal colonization in environmental chambers dependent upon relative humidity. No colonization was observed at relative humidities below 50%. Images

Ezeonu, I M; Noble, J A; Simmons, R B; Price, D L; Crow, S A; Ahearn, D G

1994-01-01

263

Can Differences in Host Behavior Drive Patterns of Disease Prevalence in Tadpoles?  

PubMed Central

Differences in host behavior and resistance to disease can influence the outcome of host-pathogen interactions. We capitalized on the variation in aggregation behavior of Fowler's toads (Anaxyrus [?=?Bufo] fowleri) and grey treefrogs (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles and tested for differences in transmission of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and host-specific fitness consequences (i.e., life history traits that imply fitness) of infection in single-species amphibian mesocosms. On average, A. fowleri mesocosms supported higher Bd prevalences and infection intensities relative to H. versicolor mesocosms. Higher Bd prevalence in A. fowleri mesocosms may result, in part, from higher intraspecific transmission due to the aggregation of tadpoles raised in Bd treatments. We also found that, independent of species, tadpoles raised in the presence of Bd were smaller and less developed than tadpoles raised in disease-free conditions. Our results indicate that aggregation behavior might increase Bd prevalence and that A. fowleri tadpoles carry heavier infections relative to H. versicolor tadpoles. However, our results demonstrate that Bd appears to negatively impact larval growth and developmental rates of A. fowleri and H. versicolor similarly, even in the absence of high Bd prevalence.

Venesky, Matthew D.; Kerby, Jacob L.; Storfer, Andrew; Parris, Matthew J.

2011-01-01

264

Additional notes on species of Aspergillus, Eurotium and Emericella from Egyptian desert soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus floriformis, A. pseudodeflectus, Eurotium xerophilum (st. con.A. xerophilus) andEmericella purpurea (st. con.A. purpureus) are described and illustrated as new species. In addition the morphology of strains identified asAspergillus melleus, A. caespitosus andA. versicolor is discussed.

R. A. Samson; J. Mouchacca

1975-01-01

265

Inhibition and Stimulation Effects in Communities of Wood Decay Fungi: Exudates from Colonized Wood Influence Growth by Other Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of exudates from uncolonized and from partly decayed beech wood on the extension rates of 16 later stage decay fungi were investigated. The partly decayed wood had been colonized by the pyrenomycete Eutypa spinosa, or the basidiomycetes Fomes fomentarius, Stereum hirsutum, and Trametes versicolor, all known as common early decay agents in European beech forests. Sterilized wood pieces

J. Heilmann-Clausen; L. Boddy

2005-01-01

266

Evaluation of antifungal properties of octyl gallate and its synergy with cinnamaldehyde  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of using octyl gallate alone or with organic biocides as a preservative against wood decay fungi. Antifungal activities of three antioxidants, propyl gallate, octyl gallate and butylated hydroxyltoluene (BHT) were tested against four wood decay fungi, Lenzites betulina, Trametes versicolor, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Laetiporus sulphureus. Octyl gallate was found to

Fu-Lan Hsu; Hui-Ting Chang; Shang-Tzen Chang

2007-01-01

267

The evaluation of white rot fungi in the decoloration of textile dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the five species of white rot fungi evaluated for their ability to decolorize Amaranth, Remazol Black B, Remazol Orange, Remazol Brilliant Blue, Reactive Blue, and Tropaeolin O in agar plates, Bjerkandera sp. BOS55, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Trametes versicolor displayed the greatest extent of decoloration. In static aqueous culture, the three cultures formed fungal mats which did not decolorize any

J Swamy; J. A. Ramsay

1999-01-01

268

Biodecontamination of aqueous substrates from bisphenol A by ligninolytic fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor compound of health concern in natural systems. In this study, BPA removal from solid and aqueous matrices by ligninolytic fungi was investigated. Three white rot fungi, Trametes versicolor (TRA), Stereum hirsutum (STE) and Pleurotus ostreatus (PLE) were evaluated for their capacity to remove BPA added at concentrations of 4.6 and 46 mg L

Andreina Traversa; Elisabetta Loffredo; C. Eliana Gattullo; Nicola Senesi

2012-01-01

269

Oxalate production by wood-rotting fungi growing in toxic metal-amended medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, we have identified oxalic acid as an important metabolite elaborated in the response of wood-rotting fungi to toxic metal stress. The formation of oxalate crystals by white rot fungi (Bjerkandera fumosa, Phlebia radiata and Trametes versicolor) and the brown rot fungus Fomitopsis pinicola, grown on media containing high levels of toxic metal ions has been visualized using

Anna Jarosz-Wilkolazka; Geoffrey M Gadd

2003-01-01

270

Aerodynamic characteristics and respiratory deposition of fungal fragments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of fungal fragments and to estimate their respiratory deposition. Fragments and spores of three different fungal species ( Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium melinii, and Stachybotrys chartarum) were aerosolized by the fungal spore source strength tester (FSSST). An electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) measured the size distribution in real-time and collected the aerosolized fungal particles simultaneously onto 12 impactor stages in the size range of 0.3-10 ?m utilizing water-soluble ZEF-X10 coating of the impaction stages to prevent spore bounce. For S. chartarum, the average concentration of released fungal fragments was 380 particles cm -3, which was about 514 times higher than that of spores. A. versicolor was found to release comparable amount of spores and fragments. Microscopic analysis confirmed that S. chartarum and A. versicolor did not show any significant spore bounce, whereas the size distribution of P. melinii fragments was masked by spore bounce. Respiratory deposition was calculated using a computer-based model, LUDEP 2.07, for an adult male and a 3-month-old infant utilizing the database on the concentration and size distribution of S. chartarum and A. versicolor aerosols measured by the ELPI. Total deposition fractions for fragments and spores were 27-46% and 84-95%, respectively, showing slightly higher values in an infant than in an adult. For S. chartarum, fragments demonstrated 230-250 fold higher respiratory deposition than spores, while the number of deposited fragments and spores of A. versicolor were comparable. It was revealed that the deposition ratio (the number of deposited fragments divided by that of deposited spores) in the lower airways for an infant was 4-5 times higher than that for an adult. As fungal fragments have been shown to contain mycotoxins and antigens, further exposure assessment should include the measurement of fungal fragments for evaluating mold exposures in damp buildings.

Cho, Seung-Hyun; Seo, Sung-Chul; Schmechel, Detlef; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Reponen, Tiina

271

Desequilibrios en la educación superior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Una de las cuestiones que se debaten en la educación privada y pública de hoy es la dicotomía que existe entre el sistema primario y secundario con respecto al universitario. En los últimos años, diversos analistas han denunciado el declive en la educación primaria (Beck, 1986) (Bauman, 2005) (Sanguineti, 2006) (Korstanje, 2008). No obstante, la demanda de educación superior ha

Maximiliano E. Korstanje

2009-01-01

272

Ética y política de la traducción en la época contemporánea, edición de Assumpta Camps, PPU, Barcelona 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Es desde distintas perspectivas que el volumen colectivo editado por Assumpta Camps Ética y política de la traducción en la época contemporánea, ofrece una reflexión sobre la cuestión de la traducción entendida como transferencia cultural, centrándose siempre en el ámbito de la traducción literaria. Ahora que la traducción ha dejado de ser considerada como un “arte secundario” y ha adquirido

Myriam Mallart

2006-01-01

273

Empresa, comportamiento innovador y Universidad: el caso de la Economía Social en Andalucía\\/Enterprise, innovating behaviour and University: the case of Andalusian Social Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

La finalidad de esta investigación es presentar, a partir de datos primarios y secundarios, un modelo cognitivo sobre el comportamiento innovador de las empresas de Economía Social andaluzas, que sea útil a los siguientes agentes sociales: investigadores, empresarios y gestores públicos. Para alcanzar la finalidad previa, se sigue el siguiente itinerario de investigación. En primer lugar, se plantea un modelo

CRISTINA BORRA MARCOS; ANTONIO GARCÍA SÁNCHEZ; FRANCISCO ESPASANDÍN BUSTELO

2005-01-01

274

Fungicides affect the production of extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) and the peripheral growth unit (PGU) in two wood-rotting basidiomycetes.  

PubMed

This study shows the effect of two fungicides on the production of extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) in two wood-rotting basidiomycetes and identifies a mechanism that might be responsible for the variation observed. Increasing concentrations of the fungicides copper sulphate (CuSO4) and cyproconazole in the growth medium increased the proportion of ECMM in the biomass of Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum. These fungicides also caused a reduction in the length of the peripheral growth unit (PGU) of the mycelia leading to a more highly branched morphology and a larger number of hyphal tips, the sites for active secretion of ECMM, per unit length of mycelium. It is postulated that both in T. versicolor and G. trabeum this change in growth leads to the increases observed in the proportion of ECMM in the total biomass. The implications of these results are discussed with a view to a potential protective role of ECMM against stress and toxic environments. PMID:17008083

Vesentini, Damiano; Dickinson, David J; Murphy, Richard J

2006-09-26

275

Comparative studies of fungal degradation of single or mixed bioaccessible reactive azo dyes.  

PubMed

A screening using several fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes versicolor and Aureobasidium pullulans) was performed on the degradation of syringol derivatives of azo dyes possessing either carboxylic or sulphonic groups, under optimized conditions previously established by us. T. versicolor showed the best biodegradation performance and its potential was confirmed by the degradation of differently substituted fungal bioaccessible dyes. Enzymatic assays (lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, laccase, proteases and glyoxal oxidase) and GC-MS analysis were performed upon the assay obtained using the most degraded dye. The identification of hydroxylated metabolites allowed us to propose a possible metabolic pathway. Biodegradation assays using mixtures of these bioaccessible dyes were performed to evaluate the possibility of a fungal wastewater treatment for textile industries. PMID:12781230

Martins, M Adosinda M; Lima, Nelson; Silvestre, Armando J D; Queiroz, M João

2003-08-01

276

A protein from Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis C.J. Mou with strong removal activity against the natural steroid hormone, estriol: purification, characterization, and identification as a laccase.  

PubMed

A protein with strong removal activity against the natural estrogen estriol was purified from a culture supernatant of Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis C.J. Mou. The protein was characterized as a laccase and had a molecular mass of 60kDa on SDS-PAGE. The enzyme was most active at pH 7.0 and 50°C. The partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme showed homology with laccases from mushrooms, such as Pleurotus ostreatus, Coriolus versicolor (current name: Trametes versicolor), Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, and P. eryngii. A recombinant yeast assay confirmed that laccase treatment was very efficient for removing the estrogenic activity of steroid estrogens. Our results suggest that the enzyme may be applicable as a potential factor for removing natural steroid hormones. PMID:23040398

Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Shintani, Kayo; Nakanishi-Anjyuin, Akiko; Nakazawa, Masami; Kusuda, Mizuho; Nakatani, Fumiki; Kawaguchi, Takashi; Tsujiyama, Sho-Ichi; Kawanishi, Masanobu; Yagi, Takashi; Miyatake, Kazutaka

2012-09-04

277

Aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin contamination of pistachio nuts in orchards.  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus flavus and A. versicolor were both shown to be weak pathogens of developing pistachio fruits, producing aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin, respectively. Aflatoxin concentrations approached those reported in cereal and legume seeds. Fungus lesions on the first hulls were followed by invasion of seeds despite the sclerified shell. Infections and mycotoxins present before harvest would presumably lead to further build-up after harvest if drying was slow or storage was under high humidity.

Sommer, N F; Buchanan, J R; Fortlage, R J

1976-01-01

278

Aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin contamination of pistachio nuts in orchards.  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus and A. versicolor were both shown to be weak pathogens of developing pistachio fruits, producing aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin, respectively. Aflatoxin concentrations approached those reported in cereal and legume seeds. Fungus lesions on the first hulls were followed by invasion of seeds despite the sclerified shell. Infections and mycotoxins present before harvest would presumably lead to further build-up after harvest if drying was slow or storage was under high humidity. PMID:823868

Sommer, N F; Buchanan, J R; Fortlage, R J

1976-07-01

279

Comparison of Gas Chromatography and Mineralization Experiments for Measuring Loss of Selected Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congeners in Cultures of White Rot Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

phenyl, and 2,2*,4,4*,5,5*-hexachlorobiphenyl. The congener tested for mineralization was 2,4*,5-(U-14C)TCB. Culture supernatants were also assayed for lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase activities. Of the fungi tested, two strains of Bjerkandera adusta (UAMH 8258 and UAMH 7308), one strain of Pleurotus ostreatus (UAMH 7964), and Trametes versicolor UAMH 8272 gave the highest biodegradation and mineralization. P. chry- sosporium ATCC 24725, a

LEE A. BEAUDETTE; STEPHEN DAVIES; PHILLIP M. FEDORAK; OWEN P. WARD; MICHAEL A. PICKARD

280

Degradation of phenols in olive oil mill wastewater by biological, enzymatic, and photo-Fenton oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW) environmental impacts minimization have been attempted by developing more effective processes,\\u000a but no chemical or biological treatments were found to be totally effective to mitigate their impact on receiving systems.\\u000a This work is the first that reports simultaneously the efficiency of three different approaches: biological treatment by two\\u000a fungal species (Trametes versicolor

Celine Justino; Ana Gabriela Marques; Kátia Reis Duarte; Armando Costa Duarte; Ruth Pereira; Teresa Rocha-Santos; Ana Cristina Freitas

2010-01-01

281

Dephenolization and decolorization of olive mill wastewater through sequential batch and co-culture applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous work it was reported adapted Trametes versicolor FPRL 28A INI culture was used to treat undiluted olive mill wastewater (OMW) without addition of any nutrients with significant\\u000a amount of total phenolics were removed. However, decolorization was not so pronounced. Therefore, the aim of this study is\\u000a to enhance the efficiency of dephenolization and decolorization of the primary

Fulya Ergun Ergül; Sayit Sarg?n; Gaye Öngen; Fazilet Vardar Sukan

2011-01-01

282

Fungal post-treatment of pulp mill effluents for the removal of recalcitrant pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to evaluate the post-treatment of an anaerobic recalcitrant effluent (anaerobically-treated weak black liquor, AnE) in an aerobic, upflow reactor packed with “biocubes” of Trametes versicolor immobilized onto small cubes of holm oak wood. The treated effluent (named anaerobic effluent; AnE) from an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor was fed to an up-flow aerobic fungal packed

Alfredo Ortega-Clemente; S. Caffarel-Méndez; M. T. Ponce-Noyola; J. Barrera-Córtes; Héctor M. Poggi-Varaldo

2009-01-01

283

Decolorization of reactive dyes by immobilized laccase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immobilization of laccase by Trametes versicolor on silica chemically modified with imidazol groups, amberlite IRA-400, glass–ceramic chemically modified with carbodiimide\\/glutaraldehyde and by aminoprolyltriethoxysilane\\/glutaraldehyde and montmorillonite modified by aminoprolyltriethoxysilane\\/glutaraldehyde were afforded. These supports were used in the decolorization of textile reactive dyes (Remazol Brilliant Blue R, Remazol Black B, Reactive Orange 122 and Reactive Red 251). One of the most efficient

Patricio Peralta-Zamora; Cláudia M. Pereira; Elaine R. L. Tiburtius; Sandra G. Moraes; Maria A. Rosa; Rosana C. Minussi; Nelson Durán

2003-01-01

284

Enzymatic synthesis of oligoesculin: structure and biological activities characterizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oligomerization of esculin, catalyzed by the laccase from Trametes versicolor, was realized in an attempt to improve the properties of this glycosidic coumarin. MALDI-TOF analyses showed a degree of\\u000a oligomerization up to 9, whereas NMR spectra revealed the formation of C–C and C–O bridges, which involve both the phenolic\\u000a and the glucosidic part of the coumarin. The solubility of

Julie Anthoni; Catherine Humeau; Elaine Rose Maia; Latifa Chebil; Jean-Marc Engasser; Mohamed Ghoul

2010-01-01

285

Extracellular oxidative enzyme production and PAH removal in soil by exploratory mycelium of white rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected strains of three species of white rot fungi, Pleurotus ostreatus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor,\\u000a were grown in sterilized soil from straw inocula. The respective colonization rates and mycelium density values decreased\\u000a in the above mentioned order. Three- and four-ringed PAHs at 50 ppm inhibited growth of fungi in soil to some extent. The\\u000a activities of fungal MnP and

?en?k Novotný; Pavla Erbanová; Václav Šašek; Alena Kubátová; Tomáš Cajthaml; Elke Lang; Jürgen Krahl; František Zadražil

1999-01-01

286

Antiviral activity of polyporoid mushrooms (higher Basidiomycetes) from Altai Mountains (Russia).  

PubMed

Antiviral activity against type A influenza virus of birds A/chicken/Kurgan/05/2005 (H5N1) and humans A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2) was investigated for aqueous extracts from mycelium of 11 basidial fungi species collected in the Altai Mountains (Altai Republic, Russia). The most perspective strains for producing antiviral medicines are studied strains Daedaleopsis confragosa, Datronia mollis, Ischnoderma benzoinum, Trametes gibbosa, T. versicolor, Laricifomes officinalis, and Lenzites betulina. PMID:22339706

Teplyakova, Tamara V; Psurtseva, Nadezhda V; Kosogova, Tatiana A; Mazurkova, Natalia A; Khanin, Viacheslav A; Vlasenko, Viacheslav A

2012-01-01

287

Biosynthesis and Characterization of Laccase Catalyzed Poly(Catechol)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymatic polymerization of catechol was conducted batch-wise using laccase enzyme produced by the culture Trametes versicolor (ATCC 200801). The polymerization reaction was carried out in 1:1 (v\\/v) aqueous-acetone solution, buffered at pH 5.0 with sodium acetate (50 mM) in a sealed, temperature-controlled reactor at 25°C. The molecular weight of the produced polymer was determined with GPC. FT-IR, DSC, and TGA

Nahit Akta?; Nurettin ?ahiner; Ömer Kanto?lu; Bekir Salih; Abdurrahman Tanyolaç

2003-01-01

288

Reaction conditions for laccase catalyzed polymerization of catechol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(catechol) was synthesized in batch runs with laccase from Trametes versicolor (ATCC 200801). The polymerization reaction was conducted in a closed, temperature controlled system containing acetone and sodium acetate buffer for pH control. The effects of the solvent mixture, monomer (catechol), enzyme, medium pH and temperature on the polymerization rate were investigated with respect to initial reaction conditions and depletion

Nahit Akta?; Abdurrahman Tanyolaç

2003-01-01

289

On Suicidal punishment among \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-founding queens ('co-foundresses') of the obligate desert fungus garden ant Acromyrmex versicolor exhibit a forager specialist who subsumes all foraging risk prior to first worker eclosion (Rissing et al., 1989); laboratory observations suggest a 'coordination' mechanism (sensu Aumann, 1974; Rosenthal, 1974; cf. Pollock, 1994b, 1996) that assigns task-specific risk without contention among (unrelated) co-foundresses (Rissing et al., 1989, 1996). In

Gregory B. Pollock; Antonio Cabrales; Steven W. Rissing

2004-01-01

290

Detoxification of substituted phenols by oxidoreductive enzymes through polymerization reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laccases from the fungiRhizoctonia praticola andTrametes versicolor as well as horseradish peroxidase and tyrosinase were evaluated for their ability to polymerize phenolic contaminants. The removal of phenols through polymerization depended on the chemical structure and concentration of the substrate, pH of the reaction mixture, activity of the enzyme, length of incubation, and temperature. The enzymes retained their activity throughout a

J. Dec; J.-M. Bollag

1990-01-01

291

Beyond spaghetti and meatballs: skin diseases associated with the Malassezia yeasts.  

PubMed

Malassezia are common lipid-dependent fungi that grow on the sebaceous areas of human skin, including the face, scalp, and upper trunk. Although Malassezia are a part of the normal human skin flora, they may also cause or exacerbate several skin diseases, including tinea versicolor, Pityrosporum folliculitis, and seborrheic dermatitis. Topical antifungals are the mainstay of treating Malassezia-related diseases. Chronic prophylaxis is often required to prevent recurrences. PMID:19283956

Levin, Nikki A

292

Molecular Analysis of Malassezia Microflora in Seborrheic Dermatitis Patients: Comparison with Other Diseases and Healthy Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malassezia species colonize the skin of normal and various pathological conditions including pityriasis versicolor (PV), seborrhoeic dermatitis (SD) and atopic dermatitis (AD). To elucidate the pathogenic role of Malassezia species in SD, Malassezia microflora of 31 Japanese SD patients was analyzed using a PCR-based, culture-independent method. Nested PCR assay using the primers in the rRNA gene indicated that the major

Mami Tajima; Takashi Sugita; Akemi Nishikawa; Ryoji Tsuboi

2008-01-01

293

Production of sterigmatocystin.  

PubMed

A procedure for the isolation of pure sterigmatocystin is described. It involves cultivation of an appropriate fungus on sterile maize, and extraction and column chromatographic purification of the crude extract. With this method sterigmatocystin may be obtained at a fraction of its commercial cost. Aspergillus versicolor seemed to be the best producer (5-12 g/kg) in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks. The yield dropped markedly with increasing flask size. PMID:1141192

Steyn, M; Rabie, C J

1975-05-01

294

Seasonal and height-dependent fluctuation of starch and free glucose contents in moso bamboo ( Phyllostachys pubescens ) and its relation to attack by termites and decay fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of termite (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) and fungal attacks [Fomitopsis palustris (Berkeley et Curtis) Murrill (FFPRI 0507) and Trametes versicolor (L. ex Fr.) Quel (FFPRI 1030)] against moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel) were evaluated with regard to the seasonal and height-dependent changes of the free glucose and starch contents, which\\u000a were measured by a newly developed method. The free

Yoko Okahisa; Tsuyoshi Yoshimura; Yuji Imamura

2006-01-01

295

A chloroplast DNA deletion located in RNA polymerase gene rpoC2 in CMS lines of sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fertile lines of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were shown to differ from cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines by the presence of a 3.8 kb HindIII chloroplast DNA fragment in the former and a smaller (3.7 kb) fragment in the latter. DNA\\/DNA hybridization studies showed that these two fragments are homologous. Fertile plants from S. versicolor, S. almum, S. halepense, and Sorghastrum

Zengjian Chen; S. Muthukrishnan; George H. Liang; Keith F. Schertz; Gary E. Hart

1993-01-01

296

Vesiculobullous syphilis: a case involving an unusual cutaneous manifestation of secondary syphilis.  

PubMed

The recent resurgence of syphilis mandates that clinicians maintain a heightened suspicion for Treponema infection, and that they be aware of the variety of cutaneous presentations that may mimic eczema, psoriasis, drug eruption, erythema multiforme, lichen planus, tinea versicolor, seborrheic dermatitis, mycosis fungoides, or other lichenoid lesions. In this report, we describe an unusual case of secondary syphilis in an adult woman, and briefly review the wide array of syphilitic dermopathy that could present to the foot and ankle surgeon. PMID:21106408

Schnirring-Judge, Molly; Gustaferro, Cynthia; Terol, Coralia

2010-11-24

297

Determination of fungal activity in modified wood by means of micro-calorimetry and determination of total esterase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beech and pine wood blocks were treated with 1,3-dimethylol-4,5-dihydroxyethylen urea (DMDHEU) to increasing weight percent\\u000a gains (WPG). The resistance of the treated specimens against Trametes versicolor and Coniophora puteana, determined as mass loss, increased with increasing WPG of DMDHEU. Metabolic activity of the fungi in the wood blocks was\\u000a assessed as total esterase activity (TEA) based on the hydrolysis of

Pradeep Verma; Jens Dyckmans; Holger Militz; Carsten Mai

2008-01-01

298

Degradation of pentachlorophenol by selected species of white rot fungi  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this research was to examine the potential for using white rot fungi to degrade pentachlorophenol (PCP) in water. Experiments were designed to determine the optimum growth conditions for 4 species of fungi, quantify toxicity of PCP to 18 species, and examine PCP degradation by both extracellular enzymes and whole cultures of 4 species. Optimum growth temperatures ranged from 25C for G. oregonense to 40C from P. chrysosporium with I. dryophilus and T. versicolor at approximately 30C. Optimum growth pH were 4.5 for P. chrysosporium and 6.0 for the other 3 species. Eighteen species tested for PCP sensitivity were inhibited by 10 mg-PCP/L when grown on agar plates. Within 2 weeks, 17 of the 18 species grew in the inhibition zones. In liquid phase toxicity experiments, all 18 species were killed by 5 mg-PCP/L. Further liquid testing showed that P. chrysosporium and G. oregonense were among the most sensitive species while I. dryophilus and T. versicolor were more tolerant species, having lethal dosages of 17-34, 25-50, > 41, and > 85 {mu}g-PCP/mg-biomass, respectively. Extracellular enzymes produced in shallow batch cultures by P. chrysosporium and T. versicolor, degraded up to 50% and 75% of the PCP, respectively, when 40 mg-PCP/L was added to mycelia free culture broth. The pattern of chloride ion release resulting from dehalogenation of PCP was bimodal for both species. PCP was degraded by 10 species when PCP was added to whole cultures. Further testing with 4 species showed P. chrysosporium and T. versicolor were the more efficient at reducing aqueous organic chlorine concentrations.

Alleman, B.C.

1991-01-01

299

Decolorization and biodegradation of anaerobically digested sugarcane molasses spent wash effluent from biomethanation plants by white-rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four white-rot fungal cultures were examined for their ability to decolorize and bioremediate anaerobically digested molasses spent wash (DMSW) generated by biomethanation plants. Two cultures Coriolus versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium showed an ability to decolorize and reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of diluted DMSW (12·5% v\\/v). Both cultures required an additional labile carbon source to carry out decolorization while

V. Kumar; L. Wati; P. Nigam; I. M. Banat; B. S. Yadav; D. Singh; R. Marchant

1998-01-01

300

Comparison of Phenanthrene and Pyrene Degradation by Different Wood-Decaying Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of phenanthrene and pyrene was investigated by using five different wood-decaying fungi. After 63 days of incubation in liquid culture, 13.8 and 4.3% of the (ring U- 14 C)phenanthrene and 2.4 and 1.4% of the (4,5,9,10- 14 C)pyrene were mineralized by Trametes versicolor and Kuehneromyces mutabilis, respectively. No 14 CO2 evolution was detected in either ( 14 C)phenanthrene

UTE SACK; THOMAS M. HEINZE; JOANNA DECK; CARL E. CERNIGLIA; RAINER MARTENS; FRANTISEK ZADRAZIL

1997-01-01

301

Quantifying Mold Biomass on Gypsum Board: Comparison of Ergosterol and Beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase as Mold Biomass Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two mold species, Stachybotrys chartarum and Aspergillus versicolor, were inoculated onto agar overlaid with cellophane, allowing determination of a direct measurement of biomass density by weighing. Biomass density, ergosterol content, and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase (3.2.1.52) activity were monitored from inoculation to stationary phase. Regression analysis showed a good linear correlation to biomass density for both ergosterol content and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase activity. The same

M. Reeslev; M. Miller; K. F. Nielsen

2003-01-01

302

Analytical pyrolysis study of biodelignification of cloned Eucalyptus globulus (EG) clone and Pinus pinaster Aiton kraft pulp and residual lignins  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study centred on the analysis of lignin in situ of cloned eucalypt and pine kraft pulps. Trametes versicolor laccase-violuric acid system (LMS) delignifications were performed on a softwood (Pinus pinaster) and a hardwood (Eucalyptus globulus) conventional kraft pulp with an initial kappa number of 34.5 and 15.5, respectively. The LMS treated pulps were then subjected to alkaline extraction stages

Atika Oudia; Erika Mészáros; Emma Jakab; Rogério Simões; João Queiroz; Arthur Ragauskas; Lajos Novák

2009-01-01

303

Propionibacterium acnes and the Pathogenesis of Progressive Macular Hypomelanosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Progressive macular hypomelanosis is a common hypopigmentation mainly on the central parts of the trunk, predominantly in young adults, especially women. It is often mistaken for pityriasis versicolor and pityriasis alba. It occurs in all races and has been de- scribed in many parts of the world. We discovered fol- licularredfluorescencerestrictedtolesionalskin.Wesus- pected a relation with a porphyrin-producing bacteria residinginsebumofthepilosebaceousduct,andwethere-

Wiete Westerhof; Germaine N. Relyveld; Melanie M. Kingswijk; Peter de Man; Henk E. Menke

304

Production of metal chelating compounds by white and brown-rot fungi and their comparative abilities for pulp bleaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wolfiporia cocos, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Trametes versicolor and Poria medula-panis basidiomycetes, were cultivated in wheat bran liquid medium and their supernatants were concentrated and separated by ultrafiltration into low and high molecular mass fractions. The molecular mass fraction below 5 kDa promoted a quick change in the color of chrome-azurol S (CAS)-blue reagent to purple. The compounds responsible for the positive

A. M. F. Milagres; V. Arantes; C. L. Medeiros; A. Machuca

2002-01-01

305

Improved activity and stability of an immobilized recombinant laccase in organic solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laccase (E.C. 1.10.3.2) from Trametes versicolor was immobilized (adsorbed) by drying on various supports (glass, glass powder, silica gel, and Nylon 66 membrane). The enzyme activity and stability were determined in diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, and methylene chloride. The initial rate for the oxidation of syringaldazine varied up to 245-fold depending on the solvent and support, the best results being

Annia I. Ruiz; Adriel J. Malavé; Claus Felby; Kai Griebenow

2000-01-01

306

A Potentially Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV5) Found in Two Renal Allograft Recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have observed 2 immunosuppressed renal allograft recipients with skin lesions induced by human papillomavirus type 5 (HPV-5). One recipient had multiple pityriasis versicolor-like (PV-like) skin lesions on his arms and trunk, and multiple Bowenoid in-situ skin cancers. The other had 2 warty lesions on the back of her fingers. Structural antigens of human papillomavirus type 5 (HPV-5) were identified

Marvin Lutzner; Odile Croissant; Marie-Françoise Ducasse; Henri Kreis; Jean Crosnier; Gérard Orth

1980-01-01

307

A highly efficient buckypaper-based electrode material for mediatorless laccase-catalyzed dioxygen reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The redox enzyme laccase from Trametes versicolor efficiently catalyzes the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in mediatorless biofuel cell cathodes when adsorbed onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). In this work we demonstrate that the fabrication of MWCNTs in form of buckypaper (BP) results in an excellent electrode material for laccase-catalyzed cathodes.BPs are mechanically stable, self-entangling mats with high dispersion of MWCNTs

L. Hussein; S. Rubenwolf; F. von Stetten; G. Urban; R. Zengerle; M. Krueger; S. Kerzenmacher

2011-01-01

308

Characterization of the brown pigment in sautéed onion by metal-chelating Sepharose 6B column chromatography and microbial decolorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brown pigment in sautéed onion was characterized by a microbiological procedure (involving microbial decolorization) and a chemical procedure (involving metal-chelating chromatography with a Sepharose 6B column). The suitability of the chemical procedure as a method for classifying brown pigments was also examined.The pigment from sautéed onion was about 40% decolorized by Coriolus versicolor IFO 30340, as were the model

Masako Tamaki; Masatsune Murata; Seichi Homma

2007-01-01

309

Biodegradation of PAHs by fungi in contaminated-soil containing cadmium and nickel ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated the degradation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a) fluoranthene, benzo(a) pyrene, chrysene and phenanthrene in a soil that was sterilized and inoculated with the nonligninolytic fungi, Fusarium flocciferum and Trichoderma spp. and the ligninolytic fungi, Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus in the presence of cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) during a ten week incubation period.

Harrison Ifeanyichukwu Atagana

310

The effects of the physical characteristics of the culture medium on the development of red seaweeds in tissue culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explants of Gelidium versicolor, Grateloupia doryphora and Laurencia sp. were cultivated in Provasoli enriched seawater culture medium (PES) adjusted to several osmolalities (0.5, 0.7, 1.0 and 1.5 Os kg-1) and solidities (agar concentration = 3, 8 and 15 g L-1). Osmolality was adjusted by dilution of seawater with distilled water (50, 70 and 100% seawater) and by NaCl addition. Explants

R. R. Robaina; G. Garcia-Reina; A. Luque

1990-01-01

311

Wood decay: a submicroscopic view  

SciTech Connect

Typical patterns of decay in softwoods are shown by ultrastructural differences revealed by SEM. Illustrative micrographs are reproduced showing fungi and their effects. Brown rot fungi (e.g. Fomitopsis pinicolor) degrade cellulose leaving a lignin skeleton. White rot fungi (e.g. Coriolus versicolor and Hirschioporus abietinus) degrade both lignin and cellulose. White pocket rots (e.g. Phellinus pini) primarily degrade lignin; they have potential for use in paper making, or the production of animal feed.

Blanchette, R.A.

1980-01-01

312

ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF PYROLYTIC OILS OF TAR FROM RUBBERWOOD (HEVEA BRASILIENSIS) PYROLYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

pyrolytic oil samples from rubberwood tar on three fungi species, viz. Gloeophyllum trabeum (brown rot), Coriolus versicolor (while rot) and Bostryodiplodia theobromea (blue stain) was studied with the agar dilution technique using malt extract agar media (MEA). With the three pyrolytic oil samples tested, the lowest concentrations causing a 50% reduction in fungal growth (ED50) were 640.77 ug-m\\/'1 for G.tabeum,

Halimahton Mansor; Rasadah Mat Ali

313

Production of organic acids and oxalate decarboxylase in lignin-degrading white rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracellular oxalate decarboxylase (ODC, EC 4.1.1.2) activity was screened in the mycelium of 12 white rot fungi. ODC activity was detected in the mycelial extracts of Dichomitus squalens, Phanerochaete sanguinea, Trametes ochracea, and Trametes versicolor (strain R\\/7) after addition of 5-mM oxalic acid to the liquid culture medium. In D. squalens, intracellular ODC activity increased six-fold with addition of oxalic

Miia Mäkelä; Sari Galkin; Annele Hatakka; Taina Lundell

2002-01-01

314

A quantitative structure–antifungal activity relationship study of oxygenated aromatic essential oil compounds using data structuring and PLS regression analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty two oxygenated aromatic essential oil compounds were chosen for the study of the antifungal activity against two wood-decaying fungi, the white-rot Trametes versicolor, which mainly metabolizes lignin, and the brown-rot Coniophoha puteana, which digests cellulose in plant cell walls. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by the agar dilution method, using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the solvent for the

Karmen Voda; Bojana Boh; Margareta Vrta?nik

2004-01-01

315

Preliminary results on antigenotoxic effects of dried mycelia of two medicinal mushrooms in Drosophila melanogaster somatic mutation and recombination test.  

PubMed

In this study, the antigenotoxic effects of dried mycelia from Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus were investigated using a Drosophila melanogaster somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART), which is based on the principle that the loss of heterozygosity of suitable recessive marker hairs, such as multiple wing (mwh) and flare-3 (flr3), can lead to the formation of mutant clones of larval cells, which then are expressed as spots on the wings of the adult flies. In this study, dried mycelia from T. versicolor and P. ostreatus alone (7.5, 15, and 30 mg) were examined for genotoxicity and combined with mitomycin C (MMC; 0.05 mM) for antigenotoxicity. Commonly known mutagen which is mitomycin C (MMC) was used as positive control. The results showed that the dried mycelia of mushrooms were not genotoxic themselves. Nevertheless, the mushrooms have antigenotoxic activity by reducing the frequency of MMC-induced spots in varying proportions. Thus, powders of these 2 fungi were able to suppress somatic cell mutation induced by MMC. These results suggest that T. versicolor and P. ostreatus have antigenotoxic activity, including antirecombinogenic activity. PMID:23796223

Kylyc, Aygul; Yesilada, Elif

2013-01-01

316

Antifungal and antibacterial activities of Araucaria araucana (Mol.) K. Koch heartwood lignans.  

PubMed

Five lignans (secoisolariciresinol, pinoresinol, eudesmin, lariciresinol, and lariciresinol-4-methyl ether) were isolated from an MeOH extract from Araucaria araucana (Mol.) K. Koch wood for the first time in this species and their structures determined with spectroscopic methods. The antimicrobial activities of these compounds were determined for the bacteria Citrobacter sp., Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and for the white rooting and staining fungi Mucor miehei, Paecilomyces variotii, Ceratocystis pilifera, Trametes versicolor, and Penicillium notatum, and in addition, the MeOH extract was evaluated against Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Fusarium moniliforme, F. sporotrichum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The most sensitive bacteria against pinoresinol were the Gram-positive. However, secoisolariciresinol exhibited a significant antifungal activity on fungi of white rooting and wood staining and this compound completely inhibited the mycelial growth of T. versicolor and C. pilifera at 300 and 400 microg per disc, respectively, whereas pinoresinol showed a moderate inhibitory activity. On the other hand, the MeOH extract had the highest activity against rooting and staining and pathogenic fungi as well as T. versicolor, Fusarium spp. and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, inhibiting completely the growth at 400 microg per disc. PMID:16610214

Céspedes, Carlos L; Avila, J Guillermo; García, Ana M; Becerra, José; Flores, Cristian; Aqueveque, Pedro; Bittner, Magalis; Hoeneisen, Maritza; Martinez, Miguel; Silva, Mario

317

Influence of growth regulators and elicitors on cell growth and ?-tocopherol and pigment productions in cell cultures of Carthamus tinctorius L.  

PubMed

The present study examined the effects of plant growth hormones, incubation period, biotic (Trametes versicolor, Mucor sp., Penicillium notatum, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Fusarium oxysporum) and abiotic (NaCl, MgSO(4), FeSO(4), ZnSO(4), and FeCl(3)) elicitors on cell growth and ?-tocopherol and pigment (red and yellow) productions in Carthamus tinctorius cell cultures. The cell growth and ?-tocopherol and pigment contents improved significantly on Murashige and Skoog (MS) liquid medium containing 50.0 ?M ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 2.5 ?M 6-Benzyladenine (BA) at 28 days of incubation period. Incorporation of T. versicolor (50 mg l(-1)) significantly enhanced the production of ?-tocopherol (12.7-fold) and red pigment (4.24-fold). Similarly, supplementation of 30 mg l(-1) T. versicolor (7.54-fold) and 70 mg l(-1) Mucor sp. (7.40-fold) significantly increased the production of yellow pigment. Among abiotic elicitors, NaCl (50-70 mg l(-1)) and MgSO(4) (10-30 mg l(-1)) significantly improved production of ?-tocopherol (1.24-fold) and red pigment (20-fold), whereas yellow pigment content increased considerably by all the abiotic elicitor treatments. Taken together, the present study reports improved productions of ?-tocopherol and the pigment as a stress response of safflower cell cultures exposed to these elicitors. PMID:21120469

Chavan, Smita P; Lokhande, Vinayak H; Nitnaware, Kirti M; Nikam, Tukaram D

2010-12-01

318

Disulfide bonds and glycosylation in fungal peroxidases.  

PubMed

Four conserved disulfide bonds and N-linked and O-linked glycans of extracellular fungal peroxidases have been identified from studies of a lignin and a manganese peroxidase from Trametes versicolor, and from Coprinus cinereus peroxidase (CIP) and recombinant C. cinereus peroxidase (rCIP) expressed in Aspergillus oryzae. The eight cysteine residues are linked 1-3, 2-7, 4-5 and 6-8, and are located differently from the four conserved disulfide bridges present in the homologous plant peroxidases. CIP and rCIP were identical in their glycosylation pattern, although the extent of glycan chain heterogeneity depended on the fermentation batch. CIP and rCIP have one N-linked glycan composed only of GlcNAc and Man at residue Asn142, and two O-linked glycans near the C-terminus. The major glycoform consists of single Man residues at Thr331 and at Ser338. T. versicolor lignin isoperoxidase TvLP10 contains a single N-linked glycan composed of (GlcNAc)2Man5 bound to Asn103, whereas (GlcNAc)2Man3 was found in T. versicolor manganese isoperoxidase TvMP2 at the same position. In addition, mass spectrometry of the C-terminal peptide of TvMP2 indicated the presence of five Man residues in O-linked glycans. No phosphate was found in these fungal peroxidases. PMID:7851395

Limongi, P; Kjalke, M; Vind, J; Tams, J W; Johansson, T; Welinder, K G

1995-01-15

319

Decolorization of the metal textile dye Lanaset Grey G by immobilized white-rot fungi.  

PubMed

In this paper we studied the ability of four Tunisian-isolated fungi (i.e. Coriolopsis gallica, Bjerkandera adusta, Trametes versicolor and Trametes trogii) immobilized into Ca-alginate beads to decolorize the metal textile dye Lanaset Grey G (LG). The effect of different operational conditions, such as initial dye concentration, temperature, pH, beads/medium ratio and agitation, on dye decolorization by the immobilized fungi was investigated. Maximal decolorization percentages of 88.7%, 89.3%, 82.1% and 81.3% for C. gallica, B. adusta, T. versicolor and T. trogii were attained, respectively, when operating at an initial LG concentration of 150 mg/L, pH values of 5.0-6.0, temperatures of 40-45 °C and a beads/medium ratio of 20% (w/v) in static conditions after 72 h of incubation. Subsequently, the re-usability of the immobilized fungi was evaluated. After three decolorization cycles, the decolorization percentage of free cell cultures dropped to values below 36%, while decolorization percentages of about 75%, 70%, 60% and 68% were obtained by the immobilized cultures of C. gallica, B. adusta, T. versicolor and T. trogii, respectively. PMID:23978620

Daâssi, Dalel; Mechichi, Tahar; Nasri, Moncef; Rodriguez-Couto, Susana

2013-08-26

320

Influence of ligninolytic enzymes on straw saccharification during fungal pretreatment.  

PubMed

Solid state and submerged fermentations in the presence of white-rot basidiomycetes (Bjerkandera adusta, Fomes fomentarius, Ganoderma resinaceum, Irpex lacteus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor and basidiomycete Euc-1) and the litter-decomposing basidiomycete Lepista nuda were evaluated as a pretreatment to increase enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw. Enzymatic hydrolysis of holocellulose after solid state pretreatment showed a significant (P<0.05) increase of saccharification process for T. versicolor, Euc-1, G. resinaceum and I. lacteus, being T. versicolor (strain Tv2) the best one with a sugar yield increase of 91% compared with untreated straw. In submerged medium the pretreatment with I. lacteus, Euc-1 and P. chrysosporium enhanced saccharification but at a lesser extent. Covariance analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between ligninolytic enzymes (lignin peroxidase, manganese-dependent peroxidase and laccase) and saccharification increase. Results showed that only the presence of lignin peroxidase during pretreatment can lead to a significant (P<0.05) increase in the saccharification yield. PMID:22406100

Pinto, Paula A; Dias, Albino A; Fraga, Irene; Marques, Guilhermina; Rodrigues, Miguel A M; Colaço, Jorge; Sampaio, Ana; Bezerra, Rui M F

2012-02-22

321

Biodegradation and saccharification of wood chips of Pinus strobus and Liriodendron tulipifera by white rot fungi.  

PubMed

Degradation and glucose production from wood chips of white pine (Pinus strobus) and tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera) by several white rot fungi were investigated. The highest weight losses from 4 g of wood chips of P. strobus and L. tulipifera by the fungal degradation on yeast extractmalt extract-glucose agar medium were 38% of Irpex lacteus and 93.7% of Trametes versicolor MrP 1 after 90 days, respectively. When 4 g of wood chips of P. strobus and L. tulipifera biodegraded for 30 days were treated with cellulase, glucose was recovered ot the highest values of 106 mg/g degraded wood by I. lacteus and 450 mg/g degraded wood by T. versicolor. The weight loss of 10 g of wood chip of L. tulipifera by T. versicolor on the nutrient non-added agar under the nonsterile conditions was 35% during 7 weeks of incubation, and the cumulative amount of glucose produced during this period was 239 mg without cellulase treatment. The activities of ligninolytic enzymes (lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and laccase) of fungi tested did not show a high correlation with degradation of the wood chips and subsequent glucose formation. These results suggest that the selection of proper wood species and fungal strain and optimization of glucose recovery are all necessary for the fungal pretreatment of woody biomass as a carbon substrate. PMID:19047827

Hwang, Soon-Seok; Lee, Sung-Jae; Kim, Hee Kyu; Ka, Jong-Ok; Kim, Kyu-Joong; Song, Hong-Gyu

2008-11-01

322

Fungi immobilization for landfill leachate treatment.  

PubMed

This paper investigated treatment of landfill leachate collected from Nonthaburi landfill site, Thailand, by using immobilized white rot fungi, namely, Trametes versicolor BCC 8725 and Flavodon flavus BCC 17421. Effects of pH and co-substrates were investigated at different contact times. Three types of co-substrates as carbon source used in this study are glucose, corn starch and cassava. Treatment efficiency was evaluated based on color, BOD, and COD removal. Initial BOD and COD were found to be 5,600 and 34,560?mg/L, respectively. The optimum pH was found to be 4, the optimum co-substrate concentration (glucose, corn starch and cassava) was 3?g/L and the optimum contact time was 10 days for both types of fungi. Addition of glucose, corn starch and cassava as co-substrate at optimum conditions could remove 78, 74, and 66% of color, respectively for T. versicolor and 73, 68, and 60%, respectively, for F. flavus. Moreover, for T. versicolor, BOD and COD reduction of 69 and 57%, respectively, could be achieved at optimum conditions when using glucose as a co-substrate. For F. flavus, BOD and COD reduction of 66 and 52%, respectively were obtained when using glucose as a co-substrate. White rot fungi can be considered potentially useful in the treatment of landfill leachate as they can help in removing color, BOD and COD due to their biodegradative abilities. PMID:20861536

Saetang, Jenjira; Babel, Sandhya

2010-01-01

323

Taxol-producing [corrected] fungal endophyte, Pestalotiopsis species isolated from Taxus cuspidata.  

PubMed

The endophytic fungi, Pestalotiopsis versicolor and Pestalotiopsis neglecta, were isolated from the healthy leaves and bark of the Japanese Yew tree, Taxus cuspidata. The fungal species were identified by their characteristic culture morphology and molecular analysis. For the first time, the test fungi were screened for the production of taxol in modified liquid medium. The presence of taxol was confirmed by HPLC, (1)H NMR, and LC-MS methods of analysis. The maximum amount of taxol production in P. versicolor was recorded as 478 ?g/l. The production rate was increased to 9560-fold than that found in the culture broth of earlier reported fungus, Taxomyces andreanae. The extracted fungal taxol showed a strong cytotoxic activity in the in vitro culture of tested human cancer cells by apoptotic assay indicating that the increase in taxol concentration induces increased cell death. A PCR-based screening for ts, a unique gene in the formation of the taxane skeleton, confirmed the molecular blueprint for taxol biosynthesis. The results designate that the fungal endophyte, P. versicolor, is an excellent candidate for an alternate source of taxol supply and can also serve as a potential species for genetic engineering to enhance the production of taxol to a higher level. PMID:20634132

Kumaran, Rangarajulu Senthil; Kim, Hyung Joo; Hur, Byung-Ki

2010-07-15

324

Morphology and laccase production of white-rot fungi grown on wheat bran flakes under semi-solid-state fermentation conditions.  

PubMed

In this paper, we studied the laccase production and the growth morphology of different white-rot fungi, i.e. Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes pubescens, Cerrena unicolor and Trametes versicolor, cultured under semi-solid-state fermentation conditions using wheat bran flakes as a natural low-cost support substrate. Trametes versicolor exhibited the highest laccase activity per gram of total dry matter, followed by P. ostreatus (63.5 and 58.2Ug(-1) , respectively). In addition, they showed a time profile of laccase production that was quite similar. Growth morphology was studied using environmental microscopic images and analyzed by discrete Fourier transformation-based software to determine the mean diameter of the hyphae, the number of hypha layers and the global micromorphology. The four strains exhibited different micromorphologies of growth. Pleurotus ostreatus presented narrow hyphae, which formed many thick clumps, T. pubescens and T. versicolor showed clumps of different sizes and C. unicolor showed thick hyphae that formed larger clumps, but in less amounts. PMID:21291496

Osma, Johann F; Moilanen, Ulla; Toca-Herrera, José L; Rodríguez-Couto, Susana

2011-03-01

325

La quimioterapia y usted  

Cancer.gov

Hable con su doctor y enfermera sobre lo que puede esperar durante la quimioterapia. Es posible que le sugieran que lea ciertas secciones de este libro. También podrían sugerirle que siga algunos consejos que se dan en este libro para controlar los efectos secundarios. No lea este libro de principio a fin. Lea sólo aquellas secciones que necesita ahora. Consulte el índice para ver una lista de los temas que se tratan en este libro.

326

Evaluation of Ten Wild Nigerian Mushrooms for Amylase and Cellulase Activities  

PubMed Central

Amylases and cellulases are important enzymes that can be utilized for various biological activities. Ten different wild Nigerian mushrooms (Agaricus blazei, Agaricus sp., Corilopsis occidentalis, Coriolus versicolor, Termitomyces clypeatus, Termitomyces globulus, Pleurotus tuber-regium, Podoscypha bolleana, Pogonomyces hydnoides, and Nothopanus hygrophanus) were assayed for production of these secondary metabolites. The results revealed that most of the tested wild fungi demonstrated very good amylase and cellulase activities. With the incorporation of carboxymethyl-cellulose (a carbon source) into the culture medium, Agaricus blazei had the highest amylolytic activity of 0.60 unit/mL (at 25?, pH 6.8). This was followed in order by P. tuber-regium and Agaricus sp. with 0.42 and 0.39 unit/mL, respectively (p ? 0.05). Maltose and sucrose supplementation into the submerged liquid medium made N. hygrophanus and P. hydnoides to exhibit very low amylase activities of 0.09 and 0.11 unit/mL, respectively. Introducing peptone (an organic nitrogen source) into the basal medium enhanced the ability of C. versicolor to produce a cellulase value of 0.74 unit/mL. Other organic nitrogen sources that supported good cellulase activities were yeast extract and urea. Sodium nitrate (inorganic nitrogen source) generally inhibited cellulase production in all mushrooms. The best carbon source was carboxymethyl-cellulose, which promoted very high cellulase activity of 0.67 unit/mL in C. versicolor, which was followed in order by P. tuber-regium, T. chypeatus, and C. occidentalis (p ? 0.05). Sucrose was the poorest carbon compound, supporting the lowest values of 0.01, 0.01, and 0.14 unit/mL in P. hydnoides, A. blazei, and Agaricus sp., respectively.

Adeoyo, Olusegun Richard

2011-01-01

327

Biodegradation of endocrine-disrupting phthalates by Pleurotus ostreatus.  

PubMed

Biodegradation of endocrine-disrupting phthalates [diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP)] was investigated with 10 white rot fungi isolated in Korea. When the fungal mycelia were added together with 100 mg/l of phthalate into yeast extract-malt extract-glucose (YMG) medium, Pleurotus ostreatus, Irpex lacteus, Polyporus brumalis, Merulius tremellosus, Trametes versicolor, and T. versicolor MrP1 and MrP13 (transformant of the Mn-repressed peroxidase gene of T. versicolor) could remove almost all of the 3 kinds of phthalates within 12 days of incubation. When the phthalates were added to 5-day pregrown fungal cultures, most fungi except I. lacteus showed the increased removal of the phthalates compared with those of the nonpregrown cultures. In both culture conditions, P. ostreatus showed the highest degradation rates for the 3 phthalates tested. BBP was degraded with the highest rates among the 3 phthalates by all fungal strains. Only 14.9% of 100 mg/l BBP was degraded by the supernatant of P. ostreatus culture in YMG medium in 4 days of incubation, but the washed or homogenized mycelium of P. ostreatus could remove 100% of BBP within 2 days even in distilled water, indicating that the initial BBP biodegradation by P. ostreatus may be attributed to mycelium-associated enzymes rather than extracellular enzymes. The biodegradation rate of BBP by the immobilized cells of P. ostreatus was almost the same as that in the suspended culture. The estrogenic activity of 100 mg/l DMP decreased during biodegradation by P. ostreatus. PMID:18467874

Hwang, Soon-Seok; Choi, Hyoung Tae; Song, Hong-Gyu

2008-04-01

328

Warming effects on consumption and intraspecific interference competition depend on predator metabolism.  

PubMed

1.?Model analyses show that the stability of population dynamics and food web persistence increase with the strength of interference competition. Despite this critical importance for community stability, little is known about how external factors such as the environmental temperature affect intraspecific interference competition. 2.?We aimed to fill this void by studying the functional responses of two ground beetle species of different body size, Pterostichus melanarius and Poecilus versicolor. These functional response experiments were replicated across four predator densities and two temperatures to address the impact of temperature on intraspecific interference competition. 3.?We generally expected that warming should increase the speed of movement, encounter rates and in consequence interference among predator individuals. In our experiment, this expectation was supported by the results obtained for the larger predator, P. melanarius, whereas the opposite pattern characterized the interference behaviour of the smaller predator P. versicolor. 4.?These results suggest potentially nontrivial implications for the effects of environmental temperature on intraspecific interference competition, for which we propose an explanation based on the different sensitivity to warming of metabolic rates of both species. As expected, increasing temperature led to stronger interference competition of the larger species, P. melanarius, which exhibited a weaker increase in metabolic rate with increasing temperature. The stronger increase in the metabolic rate of the smaller predator, P. versicolor, had to be compensated by increasing searching activity for prey, which did not leave time for increasing interference. 5.?Together, these results suggest that any generalization how interference competition responds to warming should also take the species' metabolic response to temperature increases into account. PMID:22112157

Lang, Birgit; Rall, Björn C; Brose, Ulrich

2011-11-23

329

Electrospun microfibrous poly(styrene- alt-maleic anhydride)\\/poly(styrene- co-maleic anhydride) mats tailored for enzymatic remediation of waters polluted by endocrine disruptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel bicomponent microfibrous mats containing targeted amount of reactive maleic anhydride groups were prepared by electrospinning of mixed solutions of poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) and poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride). Then, amino-functionalized P(St-alt-MA)\\/P(St-co-MA) mats were obtained by reaction with p-phenylenediamine. ATR-FTIR and XPS spectroscopy were used to characterize pristine and modified P(St-alt-MA)\\/P(St-co-MA) mats. On the next step, laccase from Trametes versicolor was covalently attached onto

M. Ignatova; O. Stoilova; N. Manolova; D. G. Mita; N. Diano; C. Nicolucci; I. Rashkov

2009-01-01

330

Efficient direct oxygen reduction by laccases attached and oriented on pyrene-functionalized polypyrrole/carbon nanotube electrodes.  

PubMed

We report the functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes by oxidative electropolymerization of pyrrole monomers bearing pyrene and N-hydroxysuccinimide groups. Both polymers were applied to the immobilization and electrical wiring of Trametes versicolor laccase via chemical grafting or non-covalent binding. A "pseudo" host-guest interaction of polymerized pyrene with a hydrophobic cavity of laccase was used for the oriented enzyme immobilization on MWCNT electrodes. The latter leads to higher catalytic current for oxygen reduction (1.85 mA cm(-2)) and higher electroenzymatic stability (50% after one month). PMID:23994955

Lalaoui, Noémie; Elouarzaki, Kamal; Goff, Alan Le; Holzinger, Michael; Cosnier, Serge

2013-09-17

331

[Recent advances in research on Malassezia microbiota in humans].  

PubMed

Malassezia species of lipophilic yeasts account for most fungal microbiota. Although they colonize healthy skin, they are also associated with several skin diseases, including pityriasis versicolor, seborrheic dermatitis, Malassezia folliculitis, and atopic dermatitis. To date, 14 members of the Malassezia genus have been identified. Of these, both M. globosa and M. restricta predominate, regardless of skin-disease type. Comprehensive analysis of fungal microbiota in the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis using an rRNA clone library method revealed that fungal microbiota cluster according to disease severity. The external ear canal and sole of the foot are colonized by specific Malassezia microbiota. PMID:23470953

Sugita, Takashi; Zhang, Enshi; Tanaka, Takafumi; Nishikawa, Akemi; Tajima, Mami; Tsuboi, Ryoji

2013-01-01

332

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis associated with HPV 10.  

PubMed

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare, inherited dermatologic condition demonstrating an increased susceptibility to specific HPV genotypes, resulting in both benign and malignant skin lesions. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis lesions are frequently described as pityriasis versicolor-like scaly macules, flat wart-like papules, or verrucous and seborrhic keratosis-like papules and plaques. Acquired EV has been described in patients with HIV and in those who are on immunosuppressive therapy. We discuss a patient with congenital EV who presents with skin lesions associated with HPV 10, a less frequently cited causative subtype, and histological findings that are not classic for EV. PMID:24021362

Zahir, Amir; Craig, Lauren; Rady, Peter; Tyring, Stephen; Ehrlich, Alison

2013-04-15

333

Superficial fungal infections of the male genitalia: a review.  

PubMed

Fungal infections of the genitals are probably more common than realized; however, relatively few reports concerning fungal genital infections exist in the literature. In this review, the fungal microbiota of the penis are highlighted, and the epidemiological characteristics of Candida balanitis, penile pityriasis versicolor, and tinea genitalis are addressed. In addition, the benefits of circumcision on male genital infections are included. However, systemic mycoses affecting the penis and/or scrotum will not be addressed in this review. To obtain a reliable diagnosis of genital fungal infections, medical history, clinical examination, and mycological and histological investigations of the lesions are critical. PMID:21668404

Aridogan, Ibrahim Atilla; Izol, Volkan; Ilkit, Macit

2011-06-14

334

Glucose-2-oxidase activity in mycelial cultures of basidiomycetes.  

PubMed

The activity of intracellular glucose-2-oxidase was tested in 40 species of 26 basidiomycete genera. The enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of D-glucose to the dicarbonyl sugar D-arabino-2-hexosulose was demonstrated in mycelial extracts of 9 species of Aphyllophorales and 6 species of Agaricales cultivated in liquid media. In the majority of species exhibiting this activity hexosulose was detected in the cultivation medium. The highest enzyme activity was detected in Oudemansiella mucida, Coriolopsis occidentalis, Fomes fomentarius, Trametes versicolor and a not-yet-classified species of the genus Trametes. PMID:3996982

Volc, J; Denisova, N P; Nerud, F; Musílek, V

1985-01-01

335

Tolciclate versus miconazole, a double-blind trial in patients with dermatomycosis.  

PubMed

Eighty-one patients with dermatomycosis such as tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea pedis and pityriasis versicolor were treated with tolciclate 1% cream or miconazole 2% cream. Parasitological cure was obtained in 100% of the patients given tolciclate and in 97.4% of those given miconazole. Patients and investigator considered tolciclate treatment as excellent, respectively, in 76.2% and 73.8% of the cases. The corresponding figures for miconazole were 74.4% and 66.7%. Both treatments were well tolerated. PMID:6989684

Cucè, L C; Assunção, B F; Medawar, L G; Salibian, A; Groppi, W

1980-01-01

336

Infectivity of cultured Trypanosoma fallisi (Kinetoplastida) to various anuran species and its evolutionary implications.  

PubMed

Trypanosoma fallisi, a hemoflagellate infecting Bufo americanus from Ontario, was grown in vitro, and metatrypanosomes from the primary culture were inoculated into 4 uninfected test groups from 3 anuran families: Bufonidae, Hylidae, and Ranidae. In vitro-cultured T. fallisi was found to infect B. americanus and to induce transient infections in Bufo valliceps and Hyla versicolor. The flagellate was not infective to Rana clamitans. Trypanosoma ranarum was uninfective to the bufonids and hylids tested. These data suggest that the potential for host-switching decreases with increased evolutionary distance of the potential anuran host. PMID:2040964

Martin, D S; Desser, S S

1991-06-01

337

Effect of vapor phase corrosion inhibitor on microbial corrosion of aluminum alloys.  

PubMed

Vapor phase corrosion inhibitors were used to investigate the antimicrobial activities and anticorrosion of aluminum alloy. Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. versicolor, Chaetomium globosum and Penicillium funiculosum had moderate to abundant growth on the aluminum alloy AA 1100 at Aw 0.901, while there was less growth at Aw 0.842. High humidity stimulated microbial growth and induced microbial corrosion. Dicyclohexylammonium carbonate had a high inhibitory effect on the growth of test fungi and the microbial corrosion of aluminum alloy, dicyclohexylammonium caprate and dicyclohexylammonium stearate were the next. Aluminum alloy coating with vapor phase corrosion inhibitor could prevent microbial growth and retard microbial corrosion. PMID:10592784

Yang, S S; Ku, C H; Bor, H J; Lin, Y T

1996-02-01

338

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis associated with plasmablastic lymphoma and hepatitis B virus infection.  

PubMed

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis is a rare genodermatosis characterized by inherited susceptibility to infection with certain papillomaviruses, which leads to the development of disseminated plane wart-like lesions. In some patients, lesions resembling pityriasis versicolor appear. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis has also been reported in immunosuppressed patients, most notably those with HIV infection. The affected patients are predisposed to development of skin and mucosal malignancies. We describe the rare occurrence of plasmablastic lymphoma in a patient with long lasting epidermodysplasia verruciformis and hepatitis B virus infection. PMID:23317490

Shayanfar, Nasrin; Babaheidarian, Pegah; Rahmani, Hoda; Azadmanesh, Keyhan; Sohrabi, Amir; Mohammadpour, Masoud; Mirzaie, Ali Zare; Parvaneh, Nima

2012-12-01

339

Epidemiological Survey of Skin Diseases in Schoolchildren Living in the Purus Valley (Acre State, Amazonia, Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 9,955 schoolchildren aged 6–16 years have been examined in a tropical region. The prevalence of dermatosis varied from 21 to 87% in the municipalities surveyed. The most common dermatoses were pediculosis (prevalence 50%), nevi (16.8%), pityriasis versicolor (13.2%), pyoderma (12.2%), pityriasis alba (9.9%), dermatophytosis (6.2%), viral dermatosis (6.2%), scabies (3.0%) and acne vulgaris (2.7%). The prevalence of

Luiz M. Bechelli; Nagib Haddad; Waiter P. Pimenta; Paulo M. G. Pagnano; Roberto C. Fregnan; Luiz C. Zanin; Ademir Arenas

1981-01-01

340

Regulation of coal polymer degradation by fungi. Eighth quarterly report, [April--June 1996  

SciTech Connect

This project addresses the solubilization of low-rank coal (leonardite) by lignin degrading fungi. During this reporting period efforts were focused on determining the effect of pH on coal solubilization by oxalate ion and other biologically important compounds that might function as metal chelators, on the role of laccase in coal solubilization and metabolism, on decolorization of soluble coal macromolecule by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and T. versicolor in solid agar media, and on solubilization of coal in slurry cultures and solid phase reactors.

Irvine, R.L. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences; Bumpus, J.A. [University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1996-07-28

341

[How I explore...skin by photodiagnosis using skin fluorescence and its functional imaging].  

PubMed

Under specific light illumination, skin produces peculiar fluorescent aspects. Such property can be used to provide diagnostic arguments or to disclose some peculiar functions of the skin. Some superficial infections (erythrasma, tinea versicolor, dermatophytic tinea,..) reveal fluorescence that may be intense. The pilosebaceous follicles enriched in Propionibacterium spp show fluorescence. Such property is lost during some anti-acne treatments. A quenching effect is observed after application of sunscreens. The (pre)neoplastic areas prepared for dynamic phototherapy become fluorescent. Pyranine labeling of the stratum corneum exhibits fluorescence allowing the assessment of the renewal activity of the epidermis. PMID:21086585

Szepetiuk, G; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Quatresooz, P; Piérard, G E

2010-09-01

342

Fluoreszenz im Wood-LichtAktueller Einsatz in der dermatologischen Diagnostik, Therapiekontrolle und Prävention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  \\u000a Das durch eine Wood-Lampe emittierte langwellige UV A-Licht (340–450?nm, Max. 365?nm) wird vor allem in der Diagnostik von\\u000a Dermatosen, die mit einer typischen Fluoreszenz einhergehen (Tinea capitis, Erythrasma, Tinea versicolor, Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Infektionen, Porphyrien und Pigmentveränderungen), eingesetzt. Neben dem Nachweis systemisch verabreichter Medikamente (Tetracyclin)\\u000a ist die Fluoreszenz unter Wood-Licht durch Zusatz von Fluoreszenzmarkern in der Applikationskontrolle von Topika angewendet\\u000a worden.

Walter Wigger-Alberti; Peter Elsner

1997-01-01

343

[Fluorescence with Wood's light. Current applications in dermatologic diagnosis, therapy follow-up and prevention].  

PubMed

The invisible long-wave ultraviolet radiation (340-450 nm, max.365 nm) produced by a Wood lamp can help to diagnose dermatoses with a characteristic fluorescence (tinea capitis, erythrasma, tinea versicolor, Pseudomonas infections, porphyrians, and pigmentary alterations). It is also used in the detection of medications that are taken systemically (tetracycline) or that are applied to the skin. Recently, a fluorescence technique with Wood light has been used as a preventive measure to monitor and quantify skin protection at the workplace and to teach workers in high-risk occupations the proper use of protective creams. PMID:9378631

Wigger-Alberti, W; Elsner, P

1997-08-01

344

Descubrimiento y selección de herbicidas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

  Históricamente, los herbicidas se han descubierto por selección al azar de la actividad sobre malezas de interés, con colecciones de químicos.  Aunque totalmente empírico, este enfoque ha sido sorprendentemente exitoso y ha producido esencialmente todos los herbicidas comerciales que hoy se usan.  Más recientemente, las compañías de agroquímicos han adoptado estrategias direccionadas, usando ensayos  in vitro, relaciones  estructura del compuesto/actividad, y ensayos de perfilamiento de  mARNs, proteínas y metabolitos.  Estos últimos enfoques, en combinación  con filtros estrictos, están diseñados para explotar avances recientes en la tecnología y para tomar ventaja de nuestro mejor entendimiento de los sistemas biológicos. 

345

Microfungal contamination of damp buildings--examples of risk constructions and risk materials.  

PubMed Central

To elucidate problems with microfungal infestation in indoor environments, a multidisciplinary collaborative pilot study, supported by a grant from the Danish Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, was performed on 72 mold-infected building materials from 23 buildings. Water leakage through roofs, rising damp, and defective plumbing installations were the main reasons for water damage with subsequent infestation of molds. From a score system assessing the bioavailability of the building materials, products most vulnerable to mold attacks were water damaged, aged organic materials containing cellulose, such as wooden materials, jute, wallpaper, and cardboard. The microfungal genera most frequently encountered were Penicillium (68%), Aspergillus (56%), Chaetomium (22%), Ulocladium, (21%), Stachybotrys (19%) and Cladosporium (15%). Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Stachybotrys chartarum were the most frequently occurring species. Under field conditions, several trichothecenes were detected in each of three commonly used building materials, heavily contaminated with S. chartarum. Under experimental conditions, four out of five isolates of S. chartarum produced satratoxin H and G when growing on new and old, very humid gypsum boards. A. versicolor produced the carcinogenic mycotoxin sterigmatocystin and 5-methoxysterigmatocystin under the same conditions.

Gravesen, S; Nielsen, P A; Iversen, R; Nielsen, K F

1999-01-01

346

Transcriptional response of lignin-degrading enzymes to 17?-ethinyloestradiol in two white rots.  

PubMed

Fungal, ligninolytic enzymes have attracted a great attention for their bioremediation capabilities. A deficient knowledge of regulation of enzyme production, however, hinders the use of ligninolytic fungi in bioremediation applications. In this work, a transcriptional analyses of laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) production by two white rots was combined with determination of pI of the enzymes and the evaluation of 17?-ethinyloestradiol (EE2) degradation to study regulation mechanisms used by fungi during EE2 degradation. In the cultures of Trametes versicolor the addition of EE2 caused an increase in laccase activity with a maximum of 34.2?±?6.7?U g?¹ of dry mycelia that was observed after 2 days of cultivation. It corresponded to a 4.9 times higher transcription levels of a laccase-encoding gene (lacB) that were detected in the cultures at the same time. Simultaneously, pI values of the fungal laccases were altered in response to the EE2 treatment. Like T.?versicolor, Irpex lacteus was also able to remove 10?mg l?¹ EE2 within 3 days of cultivation. While an increase to I.?lacteus?MnP activity and MnP gene transcription levels was observed at the later phase of the cultivation. It suggests another metabolic role of MnP but EE2 degradation. PMID:23170978

P?enosilová, L; K?esinová, Z; Amemori, A Slavíková; Cajthaml, T; Svobodová, K

2012-11-22

347

Reusing ethyl acetate and aqueous exhausted fractions of dry olive mill residue by saprobe fungi.  

PubMed

Some saprobe fungi (Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, Coriolopsis rigida, Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, Fomes sclerodermus or Pleurotus pulmonarius) were able to bioconvert the ethyl acetate fraction (DEAF) and the corresponding aqueous exhausted fraction (EAF) of dry olive mill residue (DOR), reducing their phytotoxicity on Lepidium sativum seeds. Large amount of hydroxytyrosol together with other eight monomeric phenols were found in the native DEAF fraction, which represents a good source of antioxidants. P. radiata, T. versicolor and F. sclerodermus caused an effective phytotoxicity reduction of EAF in the concentration range of 25-3 gl(-1). In particular, in the range between 12.5 and 3 gl(-1), the EAF samples inoculated with P. radiata and F. sclerodermus surprisingly stimulated the germinability of L. sativum, suggesting their use as a potential biofertilizer. This is the first report which showed the bioconversion of the above fractions in shorter time with respect to the previous findings concerning DOR. The possible implications of laccase in the decrease of DEAF and EAF phytotoxicity was also discussed. PMID:16814842

Aranda, E; García-Romera, I; Ocampo, J A; Carbone, V; Malorni, A; Sannino, F; De Martino, A; Capasso, R

2006-06-30

348

Skin diseases associated with Malassezia yeasts: facts and controversies.  

PubMed

The implication of the yeast genus Malassezia in skin diseases has been characterized by controversy, since the first description of the fungal nature of pityriasis versicolor in 1846 by Eichstedt. This is underscored by the existence of Malassezia yeasts as commensal but also by their implication in diseases with distinct absence of inflammation despite the heavy fungal load (pityriasis versicolor) or with characteristic inflammation (eg, seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, folliculitis, or psoriasis). The description of 14 Malassezia species and subsequent worldwide epidemiologic studies did not reveal pathogenic species but rather disease-associated subtypes within species. Emerging evidence demonstrates that the interaction of Malassezia yeasts with the skin is multifaceted and entails constituents of the fungal wall (melanin, lipid cover), enzymes (lipases, phospholipases), and metabolic products (indoles), as well as the cellular components of the epidermis (keratinocytes, dendritic cells, and melanocytes). Understanding the complexity of their interactions will highlight the controversies on the clinical presentation of Malassezia-associated diseases and unravel the complexity of skin homeostatic mechanisms. PMID:23806162

Gaitanis, Georgios; Velegraki, Aristea; Mayser, Peter; Bassukas, Ioannis D

349

Determination of volatile metabolites originating from mould growth on wall paper and synthetic media.  

PubMed

Microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) emitted from the mould species Penicillium expansum, P. chrysogenum, Aspergillus versicolor, A. fumigatus, A. niger and Cladosporium cladosporoides were analyzed by means of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and GCMS. The mould species were cultivated on the synthetic agar dichloran chloramphenicol (DG 18) and on wet wall paper. The production of MVOCs was monitored over several weeks to detect changes in the emission rates between the initial stage and later periods of growth. The cultivation on the synthetic agar resulted in MVOC patterns with a wide variety of signals. In contrast, the growth on wet wall paper led to changed MVOC patterns with less signals. The emission rates were drastically reduced. Components emitted by all six fungi species on wall paper were 2-pentanol and 2-pentanone. 1-Octen-3-ol was emitted by five fungi species. 2-Pentanol was only detected in considerable amounts during the first days of growth whereas 1-octen-3-ol had a more constant emission rate over the whole period of growth. On the basis of our studies some MVOCs could be proposed as specific for single fungi on wall paper, e.g. 1,3-dimethoxybenzene for A. versicolor and 2,4-pentandione for A. fumigatus. PMID:18577403

Matysik, Silke; Herbarth, Olf; Mueller, Andrea

2008-06-05

350

White-rot fungi capable of decolourising textile dyes under alkaline conditions.  

PubMed

Twelve white-rot fungal strains belonging to seven different species were screened on plates under alkaline condition to study the decolourisation of the textile dyes Reactive Black 5 and Poly R-478. Three strains of Trametes versicolor (Micoteca da Universidade do Minho (MUM) 94.04, 04.100 and 04.101) and one strain of Phanerochaete chrysosporium (MUM 94.15) showed better decolourisation results. These four strains were used for decolourisation studies in liquid culture medium. All four selected strains presented more efficient decolourisation rates on Reactive Black 5 than on Poly R-478. For both dyes on solid and liquid culture media, the decolourisation capability exhibited by these strains depended on dye concentration and pH values of the media. Finally, the decolourisation of Reactive Black 5 by T. versicolor strains MUM 94.04 and 04.100 reached 100 %. In addition, the highest white-rot fungi ligninolytic enzyme activities were found for these two strains. PMID:23008155

Ottoni, Cristiane A; Santos, Cledir; Kozakiewicz, Zofia; Lima, Nelson

2012-09-25

351

HYPOPIGMENTARY DISORDERS IN CHILDREN IN SOUTH INDIA  

PubMed Central

Background: Hypopigmentary disorders are common group of dermatoses in pediatric age group. Aim: To study the frequency and patterns of hypopigmentary disorders in children. Materials and Methods: This study was a descriptive clinical study spanning over a period of 23 months. A total of 113 children (61 boys and 52 girls) were included in this study. Results: The frequency of hypopigmentary disorders among children was 3.28 per 1000 children attending the dermatology out patient department. The mean age of the children was 7.2 years. The mean of age of onset was 7.36 years. Most common hypopigmentary disorder in our study was pityriasis alba (24.7%), followed by vitiligo (20.4%), leprosy (11.5%), nevus depigmentosus (10.18%), and tinea versicolor (6.2%). Others were hypomelanosis of Ito (5), post-inflammatory hypopigmentation (5), pityriasis rosea (4), steroid-induced hypopigmentation (4), lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (3), pityriasis lichenoides chronica (3), lichen striatus (2), oculocutaneous albinism (2), tuberous sclerosis complex (2), pigmentary mosaicism (1), and Griscelli syndrome (1). Conclusion: Pityriasis alba, vitiligo, leprosy, nevus depigmentosus and tinea versicolor are the five most common hypopigmentary disorders in children.

Sori, Tukaram; Nath, Amiya Kumar; Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Jaisankar, T J

2011-01-01

352

Microbial solubilization of coals  

SciTech Connect

Microbial solubilization of coal may serve as a first step in a process to convert low-rank coals or coal-derived products to other fuels or products. For solubilization of coal to be an economically viable technology, a mechanistic understanding of the process is essential. Leonardite, a highly oxidized, low-rank coal, has been solubilized by the intact microorganism, cell-free filtrate, and cell-free enzyme of /ital Coriolus versicolor/. A spectrophotometric conversion assay was developed to quantify the amount of biosolubilized coal. In addition, a bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6, was solubilized by a species of /ital Penicillium/, but only after the coal had been preoxidized in air. Model compounds containing coal-related functionalities have been incubated with the leonardite-degrading fungus, its cell-free filtrate, and purified enzyme. The amount of degradation was determined by gas chromatography and the degradation products were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We have also separated the cell-free filtrate of /ital C. versicolor/ into a <10,000 MW and >10,000 MW fraction by ultrafiltration techniques. Most of the coal biosolubilization activity is contained in the <10,000 MW fraction while the model compound degradation occurs in the >10,000 MW fraction. The >10,000 MW fraction appears to contain an enzyme with laccase-like activity. 10 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

Campbell, J.A.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Stewart, D.L.; Thomas, B.L.; McCulloch, M.; Wilson, B.W.; Bean, R.M.

1988-11-01

353

Wild-Type MIC Distributions and Epidemiological Cutoff Values for Caspofungin and Aspergillus spp. for the CLSI Broth Microdilution Method (M38-A2 Document)?  

PubMed Central

Clinical breakpoints have not been established for mold testing. Epidemiologic cutoff values (ECVs) are available for six Aspergillus spp. and the triazoles, but not for caspofungin. Wild-type (WT) minimal effective concentration (MEC) distributions (organisms in a species-drug combination with no acquired resistance mechanisms) were defined in order to establish ECVs for six Aspergillus spp. and caspofungin. The number of available isolates was as follows: 1,691 A. fumigatus, 432 A. flavus, 192 A. nidulans, 440 A. niger, 385 A. terreus, and 75 A. versicolor isolates. CLSI broth microdilution MEC data gathered in five independent laboratories in Canada, Europe, and the United States were aggregated for the analyses. ECVs expressed in ?g/ml that captured 95% and 99% of the modeled wild-type population were for A. fumigatus 0.5 and 1, A. flavus 0.25 and 0.5, A. nidulans 0.5 and 0.5, A. niger 0.25 and 0.25, A. terreus 0.25 and 0.5, and A. versicolor 0.25 and 0.5. Although caspofungin ECVs are not designed to predict the outcome of therapy, they may aid in the detection of strains with reduced antifungal susceptibility to this agent and acquired resistance mechanisms.

Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Fothergill, A.; Fuller, J.; Johnson, E.; Pelaez, T.; Turnidge, J.

2011-01-01

354

Wild-Type MIC Distributions and Epidemiological Cutoff Values for Amphotericin B and Aspergillus spp. for the CLSI Broth Microdilution Method (M38-A2 Document)?  

PubMed Central

Although clinical breakpoints have not been established for mold testing, epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) are available for Aspergillus spp. versus the triazoles and caspofungin. Wild-type (WT) MIC distributions (organisms in a species-drug combination with no acquired resistance mechanisms) were defined in order to establish ECVs for six Aspergillus spp. and amphotericin B. Two sets (CLSI/EUCAST broth microdilution) of available MICs were evaluated: those for A. fumigatus (3,988/833), A. flavus (793/194), A. nidulans (184/69), A. niger (673/140), A. terreus (545/266), and A. versicolor (135/22). Three sets of data were analyzed: (i) CLSI data gathered in eight independent laboratories in Canada, Europe, and the United States; (ii) EUCAST data from a single laboratory; and (iii) the combined CLSI and EUCAST data. ECVs, expressed in ?g/ml, that captured 95%, 97.5%, and 99% of the modeled wild-type population (CLSI and combined data) were as follows: for A. fumigatus, 2, 2, and 4; for A. flavus, 2, 4, and 4; for A. nidulans, 4, 4, and 4; for A. niger, 2, 2, and 2; for A. terreus, 4, 4, and 8; and for A. versicolor, 2, 2, and 2. Similar to the case for the triazoles and caspofungin, amphotericin B ECVs may aid in the detection of strains with acquired mechanisms of resistance to this agent.

Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Fothergill, A.; Fuller, J.; Ghannoum, M.; Johnson, E.; Pelaez, T.; Pfaller, M. A.; Turnidge, J.

2011-01-01

355

Phylogenetic analysis of Aspergillus species using DNA sequences from four loci.  

PubMed

DNA sequences were determined for beta tubulin (BT2), calmodulin (CF), ITS and lsu rDNA (ID) and RNA polymerase II (RPB2) from ca. 460 Aspergillus isolates. RPB2 and rDNA sequences were combined and analyzed to determine relationships in the genus and in the family Trichocomaceae. Eupenicillium species form a statistically supported clade with origins among the Aspergillus clades. A. crystallinus, A. malodoratus and H. paradoxus are members of the Eupenicillium clade. A. zonatus, A. clavatoflvus and W. spinulosa occur in a clade along with Hamigera sp. Other than these exceptional species, Aspergillus species and sections occur on three strongly supported clades that descend from a polytomy. Section Versicolores as a monophyletic group includes only A. versicolor and A. sydowii and is superfluous. The other sections were retained but modified. All four loci were used in genealogical concordance analysis of species boundaries. Fennellia flavipes and F. nivea are not conspecific with their supposed anamorphs A. flavipes and A. nivea. Synonymies were found for some species and more than 20 undescribed taxa were identified in genealogical concordance analysis. Newly discovered taxa will be described elsewhere. Possibly paralogous gene fragments were amplified with the BT2 primers in sections Nidulantes, Usti and Nigri. Use of nonhomologous sequences in genealogical concordance analysis could lead to false conclusions and so BT2 sequences were not used in analysis of those sections. PMID:18595197

Peterson, Stephen W

356

Multicenter study of isavuconazole MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for Aspergillus spp. for the CLSI M38-A2 broth microdilution method.  

PubMed

Epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) were established for the new triazole isavuconazole and Aspergillus species wild-type (WT) MIC distributions (organisms in a species-drug combination with no detectable acquired resistance mechanisms) that were defined with 855 Aspergillus fumigatus, 444 A. flavus, 106 A. nidulans, 207 A. niger, 384 A. terreus, and 75 A. versicolor species complex isolates; 22 Aspergillus section Usti isolates were also included. CLSI broth microdilution MIC data gathered in Europe, India, Mexico, and the United States were aggregated to statistically define ECVs. ECVs were 1 ?g/ml for the A. fumigatus species complex, 1 ?g/ml for the A. flavus species complex, 0.25 ?g/ml for the A. nidulans species complex, 4 ?g/ml for the A. niger species complex, 1 ?g/ml for the A. terreus species complex, and 1 ?g/ml for the A. versicolor species complex; due to the small number of isolates, an ECV was not proposed for Aspergillus section Usti. These ECVs may aid in detecting non-WT isolates with reduced susceptibility to isavuconazole due to cyp51A (an A. fumigatus species complex resistance mechanism among the triazoles) or other mutations. PMID:23716059

Espinel-Ingroff, A; Chowdhary, A; Gonzalez, G M; Lass-Flörl, C; Martin-Mazuelos, E; Meis, J; Peláez, T; Pfaller, M A; Turnidge, J

2013-05-28

357

Wild-type MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for caspofungin and Aspergillus spp. for the CLSI broth microdilution method (M38-A2 document).  

PubMed

Clinical breakpoints have not been established for mold testing. Epidemiologic cutoff values (ECVs) are available for six Aspergillus spp. and the triazoles, but not for caspofungin. Wild-type (WT) minimal effective concentration (MEC) distributions (organisms in a species-drug combination with no acquired resistance mechanisms) were defined in order to establish ECVs for six Aspergillus spp. and caspofungin. The number of available isolates was as follows: 1,691 A. fumigatus, 432 A. flavus, 192 A. nidulans, 440 A. niger, 385 A. terreus, and 75 A. versicolor isolates. CLSI broth microdilution MEC data gathered in five independent laboratories in Canada, Europe, and the United States were aggregated for the analyses. ECVs expressed in ?g/ml that captured 95% and 99% of the modeled wild-type population were for A. fumigatus 0.5 and 1, A. flavus 0.25 and 0.5, A. nidulans 0.5 and 0.5, A. niger 0.25 and 0.25, A. terreus 0.25 and 0.5, and A. versicolor 0.25 and 0.5. Although caspofungin ECVs are not designed to predict the outcome of therapy, they may aid in the detection of strains with reduced antifungal susceptibility to this agent and acquired resistance mechanisms. PMID:21422219

Espinel-Ingroff, A; Fothergill, A; Fuller, J; Johnson, E; Pelaez, T; Turnidge, J

2011-03-21

358

[Evaluation of econazol in 594 cases of skin mycosis (author's transl)].  

PubMed

A total of 594 patients were treated with the new antimycotic agent econazol (Pevaryl). The diagnosis was proven microscopically and on culture except in cases of pityriasis versicolor where it was proven microscopically only. Econazol was given to 130 patients as a 1% solution, to 128 patients as a 1% milk, and to 336 patients as a 1% spray solution. In 333 cases of foot mycosis or eczema marginatum econazol spray powder was given in addition. As measured by the cure rate the spray solution (92%) was not significantly more effective than the milk (89%) or the simple solution (87%). Criteria for cure included negative microscopy and fungal cultures a week after treatment had ceased as well as clinical cure. A total of 90% of all cases (n = 536) could be considered as cured microscopically and on culture after an average of 3.6 weeks (pityriasis versicolor) and 4.8 weeks (tinea pedis, manus, inguinocruralis). In a further 4.4% (n = 26) the fungus could be demonstrated microscopically despite a clinical cure and in 7 of these cases culture was also positive. The cure rate was independent of the responsible pathogen. The preparations were tolerated extremely well. In 7 cases, however, transient dermatitic irritations were seen in the inguinocrural region, mainly caused by the simple solution. PMID:124247

Schwarz, K J; Much, T; Konzelmann, M

1975-07-11

359

Oxidation of the erythro and threo forms of the phenolic lignin model compound 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-1,3-propanediol by laccases and model oxidants.  

PubMed

Mixtures of equal amounts of the erythro and threo forms of the phenolic arylglycerol beta-aryl ether 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-1,3-propanediol were oxidized (i) with laccases from Trametes versicolor, Agaricus bisporus, Myceliophthora thermophila and Rhus vernicifera, (ii) with laccase-mediator systems consisting of T. versicolor laccase and ABTS or HBT, and (iii) with various model oxidants including cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate (CAN), lignin peroxidase, Fenton's reagent, and lead(IV) tetraacetate (LTA). All the laccases exhibited a similar preferential degradation of the threo form. The mediator ABTS counteracted the threo preference of laccase, but the mediator HBT did not affect it. The outer-sphere model oxidants CAN and lignin peroxidase showed a preferential degradation of the threo form. LTA and Fenton's reagent did not exhibit any stereo-preference. The results suggest that laccases of different origin, primary structure, and redox potential behave as typical outer-sphere oxidants in their interaction with the diastereomers of the arylglycerol beta-aryl ether. PMID:19646732

Bohlin, Christina; Lundquist, Knut; Jönsson, Leif J

2009-07-10

360

[First case of Malassezia globosa isolation in Serbia].  

PubMed

Today is known that genus Malassezia includes seven species: M. furfur, M. sympodialis, M. obtusa, M. globosa, M. restricta, M. sloofflae and M. pachydermatis, but role of each of the species in the pathogenesis of disease has not been elucidated yet, so further laboratory isolation and identification are necessary. We report the first case of isolation of Malassezia globosa in Serbia (Belgrade), in a patient suffering from Pityriasis versicolor. Identification of M. globosa was based on macroscopic, microscopic and biochemical characteristics. Isolation was done on Leeming and Notman medium and on mDixona agar, at 350C, during 7 days in aerobic conditions. Also the yeast's biochemical phenotype was determined as catalase (+), lipase (+), esculin degradation (-), Tween (20, 40, 60 and 80) assimilation (-). M. globosa is a lipophilic yeast of the genus Malassezia and the common member of the skin flora. In concordance with some predisponing factors M. globosa is implicated in the pathogenesis of several skin diseases (pityriasis versicolor, malassezia foliculitis, seborheic dermatitis and some forms of atopic dermatitis). In immunocompromised patients and neonates this yeast can even cause fatal systemic infections. Because the role of Malassezia spp. In pathogenesis of skin disease is not still determined, we suggest laboratory diagnosis and identification of these species as a routine diagnostic procedure. PMID:15114787

Arsi?-Arsenijevi?, Valentina; Milobratovi?, Danica; Dzami?, Aleksandar; Mitrovi?, Sanja; Radonji?, Ivana; Petkovi?, Ljubica; Kranjci?-Zec, Ivana

361

Synthetic dye decolorization by three sources of fungal laccase.  

PubMed

Decolorization of six synthetic dyes using three sources of fungal laccase with the origin of Aspergillus oryzae, Trametes versicolor, and Paraconiothyrium variabile was investigated. Among them, the enzyme from P. variabile was the most efficient which decolorized bromophenol blue (100%), commassie brilliant blue (91%), panseu-S (56%), Rimazol brilliant blue R (RBBR; 47%), Congo red (18.5%), and methylene blue (21.3%) after 3 h incubation in presence of hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT; 5 mM) as the laccase mediator. It was also observed that decolorization efficiency of all dyes was enhanced by increasing of HBT concentration from 0.1 mM to 5 mM. Laccase from A. oryzae was able to remove 53% of methylene blue and 26% of RBBR after 30 min incubation in absence of HBT, but the enzyme could not efficiently decolorize other dyes even in presence of 5 mM of HBT. In the case of laccase from T. versicolor, only RBBR was decolorized (93%) in absence of HBT after 3 h incubation. PMID:23369690

Forootanfar, Hamid; Moezzi, Atefeh; Aghaie-Khozani, Marzieh; Mahmoudjanlou, Yasaman; Ameri, Alieh; Niknejad, Farhad; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali

2012-12-15

362

Synthetic dye decolorization by three sources of fungal laccase  

PubMed Central

Decolorization of six synthetic dyes using three sources of fungal laccase with the origin of Aspergillus oryzae, Trametes versicolor, and Paraconiothyrium variabile was investigated. Among them, the enzyme from P. variabile was the most efficient which decolorized bromophenol blue (100%), commassie brilliant blue (91%), panseu-S (56%), Rimazol brilliant blue R (RBBR; 47%), Congo red (18.5%), and methylene blue (21.3%) after 3 h incubation in presence of hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT; 5 mM) as the laccase mediator. It was also observed that decolorization efficiency of all dyes was enhanced by increasing of HBT concentration from 0.1 mM to 5 mM. Laccase from A. oryzae was able to remove 53% of methylene blue and 26% of RBBR after 30 min incubation in absence of HBT, but the enzyme could not efficiently decolorize other dyes even in presence of 5 mM of HBT. In the case of laccase from T. versicolor, only RBBR was decolorized (93%) in absence of HBT after 3 h incubation.

2012-01-01

363

Biodegradation of aromatic compounds by white rot and ectomycorrhizal fungal species and the accumulation of chlorinated benzoic acid in ectomycorrhizal pine seedlings.  

PubMed

The capability of different white rot (WR, Heterobasidion annosum, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor) and ectomycorrhizal (ECM, Paxillus involutus, Suillus bovinus) fungal species to degrade different aromatic compounds and the absorption of 3-chlorobenzoic acid (3-CBA) by ECM pine seedlings was examined. The effect of aromatic compounds on the fungal biomass development varied considerably and depended on (a) the compound, (b) the external concentration, and (c) the fungal species. The highest effect on the fungal biomass development was observed for 3-CBA. Generally the tolerance of WR fungi against aromatic compounds was higher than that of the biotrophic fungal species. The capability of different fungi to degrade aromatic substances varied between the species but not generally between biotrophic and saprotrophic fungi. The highest degradation capability for aromatic compounds was detected for T. versicolor and H. annosum, whereas for Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the ECM fungi lower degradation rates were found. However, Paxillus involutus and S. bovinus showed comparable degradation rates at low concentrations of benzoic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. In contrast to liquid cultures, where no biodegradation of 3-CBA by S. bovinus was observed, mycorrhizal pines inoculated with S. bovinus showed a low capability to remove 3-CBA from soil substrates. Additional X-ray microanalytical investigations showed, that 3-CBA supplied to mycorrhizal plants was accumulated in the root cell cytoplasm and is translocated across the endodermis to the shoot of mycorrhizal pine seedlings. PMID:12363308

Dittmann, Jens; Heyser, Wolfgang; Bücking, Heike

2002-10-01

364

Gamma irradiation of cultural artifacts for disinfection using Monte Carlo simulations.  

PubMed

In this study, it has been investigated the disinfection of Korean cultural artifacts by gamma irradiation, simulating the absorbed dose distribution on the object with the Monte Carlo methodology. Fungal contamination was identified on two traditional Korean agricultural tools, Hongdukkae and Holtae, which had been stored in a museum. Nine primary species were identified from these items: Bjerkandera adusta, Dothideomycetes sp., Penicillium sp., Cladosporium tenuissimum, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium sp., Entrophospora sp., Aspergillus sydowii, and Corynascus sepedonium. However, these fungi were completely inactivated by gamma irradiation at an absorbed dose of 20kGy on the front side. Monte Carlo N Particle Transport Code was used to simulate the doses applied to these cultural artifacts, and the measured dose distributions were well predicted by the simulations. These results show that irradiation is effective for the disinfection of cultural artifacts and that dose distribution can be predicted with Monte Carlo simulations, allowing the optimization of the radiation treatment. PMID:22940410

Choi, Jong-il; Yoon, Minchul; Kim, Dongho

2012-07-17

365

Chest pain and paralysis after pulse prednisolone therapy an unusual case presentation of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is a disease characterized by recurrent episodes of paralysis and hypokalemia during a thyrotoxic state. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is a common complication of hyperthyroidism in Asian populations, but can affect other ethnic groups as well. Due to population mobility, Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is increasingly common in Western countries. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of the thyrotoxic state and potassium supplementation prevent life-threatening complications associated with hypokalemia and muscle weakness. We present a young Turkish man who developed acute flaccid paralysis after receiving pulse prednisolone therapy for treatment of Pityriasis versicolor. His muscle strength and serum potassium fully recovered after potassium replacement and treatment of the thyrotoxic state which was a consequence of underlying Graves’ disease.

Elznerova, Tereza; Dietrich, Wenke; Schrauzer, Thomas; John, Stefan

2009-01-01

366

Management of Cosmetic Embarrassment Caused by Malassezia spp. with Fruticose Lichen Cladia Using Phylogenetic Approach.  

PubMed

During anti-Malassezia screening of plants by CLSI broth microdilution method, Cladia aggregata (Swartz) Nyl. (family Cladoniaceae), a fruticose lichen from Sikkim (northeast Himalayan region), has been found effective at minimum inhibitory concentrations (mg/mL) of 2.72, 0.63, and 1.28 against yeast-like fungi namely, M. furfur, M. globosa and M. sympodialis, respectively. These test pathogens are responsible for pityriasis versicolor (PV) and seborrheic dermatitis (SD) in humans. We tried to establish the reason for variable MICs against various Malassezia spp. using bioinformatical tools, thereby reducing the cost of the experimentation. This is the first report on anti-Malassezia activity of C. aggregata and thus can serve as a potential source for the development of cosmaceuticals. PMID:24069589

Pandey, Anand; Mishra, Rohit K; Tiwari, Amit K; Kumar, Awadhesh; Bajaj, A K; Dikshit, Anupam

2013-08-29

367

Adolescent Skin: How to Keep it Healthy  

PubMed Central

In order to identify and successfully treat the age-specific problems of adolescence, the physician must have knowledge of the physiologic skin changes of adolescence. The physician should provide practical advice on the basics of skin care, including face-washing technique, cosmetic use and sun exposure, since other sources of this information may be misleading. Acne, warts, scabies, tinea versicolor and molluscum contagiosum represent common skin disorders that require an organized treatment strategy. Most teenage patients will comply with even the most complex treatment regimens if reasons for, and mechanisms of, therapy have been adequately explained. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5aFigure 5bFigure 6Figure 7

Turgeon, Eugene W.T.

1986-01-01

368

Chemical characterization and quantification of siderophores produced by marine and terrestrial aspergilli.  

PubMed

Ten aspergilli (five each from marine and terrestrial habitats) were screened for siderophore production. All test isolates produced siderophores as indicated by a positive reaction in the FeCl(3) test, chrome azurol sulphonate assay, and chrome azurol sulphonate agar plate test. Further, the test isolates were compared for their siderophore production potential and chemical characteristics. Examination of the chemical nature of the siderophores revealed that all test isolates produced hydroxamate siderophores that were trihydroxamate hexadentates. Wide-spread occurrence of siderophores in marine isolates indicate their functional role in maintaining overall productivity of coastal waters. Among all test aspergilli, marine Aspergillus versicolor was found to be the largest siderophore producer (182.5 microg/mL desferrioxamine mesylate equivalent), least siderophore production was recorded in a marine strain of Aspergillus niger (3.5 microg/mL desferrioxamine mesylate equivalent). PMID:16788730

Vala, Anjana K; Dave, B P; Dube, H C

2006-06-01

369

Regulation of Coal Polymer Degradation by Fungi  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies in our laboratory used a spectrophotometric assay to study biomimetic solubilization of leonardite by sodium oxalate. It was found, however, that in extended incubations of several days, this assay resulted in overestimation of the percent of leonardite that was solubilized. This problem did not appear to be significant for short term incubations (ie., up to -24 h) and was circumvented in long term incubations by using a gravimetric assay to assay for solubilization. In other studies during this reporting period we examined oxalate production by P. chrysosporium and T. versicolor grown in Fahreus-Reinhammar medium in agitated pelleted culture. It was found that in this system concentrations of oxalate are produced that are much lower than those that would be optimal for leonardite solubilization.

Irvin, R.L. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences; Bumpus, J.A. [University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1997-04-30

370

Dibenzyl Sulfide Metabolism by White Rot Fungi  

PubMed Central

Microbial metabolism of organosulfur compounds is of interest in the petroleum industry for in-field viscosity reduction and desulfurization. Here, dibenzyl sulfide (DBS) metabolism in white rot fungi was studied. Trametes trogii UAMH 8156, Trametes hirsuta UAMH 8165, Phanerochaete chrysosporium ATCC 24725, Trametes versicolor IFO 30340 (formerly Coriolus sp.), and Tyromyces palustris IFO 30339 all oxidized DBS to dibenzyl sulfoxide prior to oxidation to dibenzyl sulfone. The cytochrome P-450 inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole eliminated dibenzyl sulfoxide oxidation. Laccase activity (0.15 U/ml) was detected in the Trametes cultures, and concentrated culture supernatant and pure laccase catalyzed DBS oxidation to dibenzyl sulfoxide more efficiently in the presence of 2,2?-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) than in its absence. These data suggest that the first oxidation step is catalyzed by extracellular enzymes but that subsequent metabolism is cytochrome P-450 mediated.

Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Wong, Eddie T.; Dettman, Heather; Gray, Murray R.; Pickard, Michael A.

2003-01-01

371

[A study of culture-based easy identification system for Malassezia].  

PubMed

Most species of this genus are lipid-dependent yeasts, which colonize the seborrheic part of the skin, and they have been reported to be associated with pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia folliculitis, seborrheic dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis. Malassezia have been re-classified into 7 species based on molecular biological analysis of nuclear ribosomal DNA/RNA and new Malassezia species were reported. As members of the genus Malassezia share similar morphological and biochemical characteristics, it was thought to be difficult to differentiate between them based on phenotypic features. While molecular biological techniques are the most reliable methods for identification of Malassezia, they are not available in most clinical laboratories. We studied ( i ) development of an efficient isolation media and culture based easy identification system, ( ii ) the incidence of atypical biochemical features in Malassezia species and propose a culture-based easy identification system for clinically important Malassezia species, M. globosa, M. restricta, and M. furfur. PMID:22123328

Kaneko, Takamasa

2011-01-01

372

Chemical characterisation of cheese associated fungi.  

PubMed

Recent work in our laboratory has demonstrated that the most common contaminating fungi on different types of cheese are;Penicillium commune, P. nalgiovense, P. solitum, P. discolor, P. roqueforti, P. crustosum, P. nordicum andAspergillus versicolor. On blue cheese a new speciesP. caseifulvum has been discovered as a surface contaminant. A large number of known and unknown metabolites have been described from the above mentioned cheese associated fungi from both synthetic media and real samples. Based on chemotaxonomy our laboratory has discovered thatP. roqueforti should be divided into three species:P. roqueforti (from cheese),P. carneum (from meat) andP. paneum (from bread). SimilarlyP. verrucosum should be divided intoP. verrucosum (from cereals) andP. nordicum (from cheese and meat products). Both species produce ochratoxins, however, only the former species produce citrinin. PMID:23605429

Larsen, T O; Smedsgaard, J; Lund, F; Frisvad, J C; Gareis, M

2000-03-01

373

[Study on the quantitative and qualitative composition of fungi in dried medicinal plants].  

PubMed

The quantitative and qualitative composition of fungi was determined in selected dried medicinal plants purchased in one of the herbal shops in Szczecin, Poland. The samples examined were as follows: chamomile (Flos Chamomillae), peppermint (Folium Menthae piperitae), lemon balm (Folium Melissae), St. John's wort (Herba Hyperici), and two herbal mixtures. The fungal composition depended on the specified sample. Xerophilic fungi, i.e. Eurotium amstelodami, E. herbariorum, E. rubrum and Wallemia sebi were isolated from dried medicinal plants. E. amstelodami was the predominating species. The prevailing thermophilic and thermotolerant species were Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis and Aspergillus fumigatus. Pink and white yeasts were also numerous in some samples. Except for Aspergillus niger, mesophilic and toxigenous species were found to occur infrequently in the samples. However, Aspergillus versicolor was found to occur abundantly in lemon balm. PMID:16610669

Janda, Katarzyna; Ulfig, Krzysztof

2005-01-01

374

Biological solubilization of low-rank coal  

SciTech Connect

Low-ranked coals have been solubilized using cell-free extracts derived from liquid cultures of the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. The coal solubilizing agent (CSA) has been separated from the broth components and purified by several analytical techniques including rotary evaporation, reverse osmosis, and solvent extraction. The recrystallized CSA retains coal solubilizing activity. Results from polarography, FTIR, and x-ray crystallography confirm that the purified CSA crystals responsible for coal-solubilization are ammonium oxalate monohydrate. The mechanism of solubilization has been deduced to involve removal of divalent cations (particularly iron FE(III)) from low-rank coals. This is followed by dissolution of the macromolecular coal structure. 38 figs., 9 tabs.

Cohen, M.S.

1991-07-01

375

Precursor recognition by kinetic pulse-labeling in a toxigenic aflatoxin B1-producing strain of Aspergillus.  

PubMed Central

Kinetic pulse-labeling of aflatoxin pathway compounds was carried out in Aspergillus parasiticus, beginning with radioactive acetate. Norsolorinic acid, averufin, versicolorin A, and sterigmatocystin (all known as compounds which can be incorporated into the aflatoxin molecule) were radiotraced to follow their order of appearance. Aflatoxin species B1, B2, G1, and G2 were included. Norsolorinic acid and averufin appeared as early transient intermediates followed in order by versicolorin A, aflatoxins, and sterigmatocystin. To date, a mutually confirming array of results has been obtained with established precursors in wild-type strains of A. parasiticus and A. versicolor (as well as with an aflatoxin pathway mutant of A. parasiticus), which together establish a practical methodology for recognition of new pathway intermediates. The kinetic of pulse-labeling for sterigmatocystin in relation to aflatoxins suggests that duel branchlets may exist to flatoxins; i.e., sterigmatocystin may not be an obligatory aflatoxin precursor. Images

Zamir, L O; Hufford, K D

1981-01-01

376

Fungal flora on board the Mir-Space Station, identification by morphological features and ribosomal DNA sequences.  

PubMed

This report is on the morphological and molecular biological identification, using 18S- and ITS1-rDNA sequences, of the "space fungi" isolated on board the Russian Mir-Space Station as the major constituents of the fungal flora. The six fungal strains were isolated from air by using an air sampler or from condensation. Strains were identified as Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus versicolor, or Penicillium sp. by both methods. The species of space fungi were common saprophytic fungi in our living environment, potential pathogens, and allergens. This study concluded that the environment on board the space station Mir allows the growth of potentially pathogenic fungi as true in residential areas on the earth. Therefore, to prevent infection or other health disorders caused by these fungi, easy and reliable methods should be established to survey the fungal flora in a space station. PMID:11471823

Makimura, K; Hanazawa, R; Takatori, K; Tamura, Y; Fujisaki, R; Nishiyama, Y; Abe, S; Uchida, K; Kawamura, Y; Ezaki, T; Yamaguchi, H

2001-01-01

377

Bugs as drugs, Part 1: Insects: the "new" alternative medicine for the 21st century?  

PubMed

Insects and insect-derived products have been widely used in folk healing in many parts of the world since ancient times. Promising treatments have at least preliminarily been studied experimentally. Maggots and honey have been used to heal chronic and post-surgical wounds and have been shown to be comparable to conventional dressings in numerous settings. Honey has also been applied to treat burns. Honey has been combined with beeswax in the care of several dermatologic disorders, including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, tinea, pityriasis versicolor, and diaper dermatitis. Royal jelly has been used to treat postmenopausal symptoms. Bee and ant venom have reduced the number of swollen joints in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Propolis, a hive sealant made by bees, has been utilized to cure aphthous stomatitis. Cantharidin, a derivative of the bodies of blister beetles, has been applied to treat warts and molluscum contagiosum. Combining insects with conventional treatments may provide further benefit. PMID:20806997

Cherniack, E Paul

2010-07-01

378

Skin manifestations of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in Cairo, Egypt.  

PubMed

We assessed the dermatological manifestations associated with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and their association with liver status. Of 155 patients with chronic HCV infection in Cairo, Egypt, 71 (45.8%) had dermatological manifestations: pruritus without evident skin lesions (21.3%), pigmented purpuric eruption (5.2%), aphthous ulcer and lichen planus (3.9% each), leukocytoclastic vasculitis (2.6%), psoriasis (1.9%), tinea versicolor (1.3%) and other conditions (5.8%). Shrunken liver, splenomegaly and ascites were significantly associated with the presence of skin lesions (relative risk 8.0, 2.7 and 1.8 respectively), and shrunken liver was significantly associated with pruritus (relative risk 2.1). Sex was not associated with any of the skin lesions. PMID:19731785

Raslan, H M Z; Ezzat, W M; Abd El Hamid, M F; Emam, H; Amre, K S

379

Other fungi causing onychomycosis.  

PubMed

Nondermatophyte onychomycosis account for 2% to 12% of all nail fungal infections and can be caused by a wide range of fungi, mainly Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Aspergillus versicolor, A. flavus, A. niger, A. fumigatus, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum and Scytalidium spp. Among the predisposing factors are footwear, hyperhidrosis, local trauma, peripheral circulatory disease, and immunosuppression. These nondermatophyte fungi lack the keratinolytic capacity of dermatophytes, but they still can infect alone or in combination with the latter. Because most are considered laboratory contaminants, special criteria have been created for the correct diagnosis of nondermatophyte onychomycosis. The etiologic agent does not determine the clinical pattern of nail invasion, but superficial onychomycosis is frequently observed; leukonychia and melanonychia can also be clinical manifestations. PMID:20347658

Moreno, Gabriela; Arenas, Roberto

2010-03-01

380

[Early description of a pulmonary aspergillosis 1847 from Greifswald].  

PubMed

In 1847 the student of medicine Theodor Sluyter (1817-1895) from Greifswald published his thesis in Berlin including the first well-documented case of human pulmonary aspergillosis. In 1856 Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902) classified the depicted fungi as an Aspergillus species. Possibly Carl Ferdinand Eichstedt (1816-1892) carried out the autopsy. He is known by the first description of a fungus as the cause of pityriasis versicolor in 1846. Further involved scientists from Greifswald were Wilhelm Baum (1799-1883), Theodor Litzmann (1815-1890) and the botanist Johann Konrad Schauer (1813-1848). Their curricula vitae are given in further details as well the curriculum of T. Sluyter. PMID:12955852

Knoke, M; Bernhardt, Hannelore; Schwesinger, G

2003-01-01

381

Management of Cosmetic Embarrassment Caused by Malassezia spp. with Fruticose Lichen Cladia Using Phylogenetic Approach  

PubMed Central

During anti-Malassezia screening of plants by CLSI broth microdilution method, Cladia aggregata (Swartz) Nyl. (family Cladoniaceae), a fruticose lichen from Sikkim (northeast Himalayan region), has been found effective at minimum inhibitory concentrations (mg/mL) of 2.72, 0.63, and 1.28 against yeast-like fungi namely, M. furfur, M. globosa and M. sympodialis, respectively. These test pathogens are responsible for pityriasis versicolor (PV) and seborrheic dermatitis (SD) in humans. We tried to establish the reason for variable MICs against various Malassezia spp. using bioinformatical tools, thereby reducing the cost of the experimentation. This is the first report on anti-Malassezia activity of C. aggregata and thus can serve as a potential source for the development of cosmaceuticals.

Pandey, Anand; Mishra, Rohit K.; Tiwari, Amit K.; Kumar, Awadhesh; Bajaj, A. K.; Dikshit, Anupam

2013-01-01

382

Biological pretreatment of corn stover with ligninolytic enzyme for high efficient enzymatic hydrolysis.  

PubMed

Aiming at increasing the efficiency of transferring corn stover into sugars, a biological pretreatment was developed and investigated in this study. The protocol was characterized by the pretreatment with crude ligninolytic enzymes from Phanerochete chrysosporium and Coridus versicolor to break the lignin structure in corn stover, followed by a washing procedure to eliminate the inhibition of ligninolytic enzyme on cellulase. By a 2 d-pretreatment, sugar yield from corn stover hydrolysis could be increased by 50.2% (up to 323mg/g) compared with that of the control. X-ray diffractometry and FT-IR analysis revealed that biological pretreatment could partially remove the lignin of corn stover, and consequently enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of cellulose and hemeicellulose. In addition, the amount of microbial inhibitors, such as acetic acid and furfural, were much lower in biological pretreatment than that in acid pretreatment. This study provided a promising pretreatment method for biotransformation of corn stovers. PMID:23896439

Wang, Feng-Qin; Xie, Hui; Chen, Wei; Wang, En-Tao; Du, Feng-Guang; Song, An-Dong

2013-07-10

383

Composition and antimicrobial activity of Seseli globiferum essential oil.  

PubMed

The essential oil from aerial parts of Seseli globiferum Vis. obtained by hydrodistillation with Clevenger-type apparatus was analyzed by GC-MS. Twenty-eight compounds were identified, representing 99.4% of the total oil. The main components of the oil were sabinene (38.0%), alpha-pinene (21.2%) and beta-phellandrene (13.5%). The microbial growth inhibitory properties of the isolated essential oil were determined using the broth microdilution method against seven bacterial species: Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 13311), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Enterobacter cloacae (clinical isolates), Bacillus cereus (clinical isolates), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228), Micrococcus flavus (ATCC 10240) and three fungal species: Aspergillus niger (ATCC 6275), Aspergillus versicolor (ATCC 11730), Trichoderma viride (IAM 5061) and Penicillium funiculosum (ATCC 36839). The essential oil showed activity against bacteria P. aeruginosa, followed by M flavus, L. monocytigenes and E. coli, and all investigated fungal species. PMID:21922927

Jana?kovi?, Peda; Sokovi?, Marina; Vujisi?, Ljubodrag; Vajs, Vlatka; Vuckovi?, Ivan; Krivosej, Zoran; Marin, Petar D

2011-08-01

384

Mycotoxin-producing potential of fungi associated with qat (Catha edulis) leaves in Yemen.  

PubMed

Forty-four fungal species belonging to 20 genera were isolated from 30 samples of qat leaves. The most frequent genera were Aspergillus, Alternaria, Penicillium, and Cladosporium followed by Fusarium, Drechslera, Chaetomium, and Mucor. The most prevalent species in above genera were Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A fumigatus, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium chrysogenum, P. citrinum, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and Fusarium verticillioides. From these fungi, 17 species (39%) related to 7 genera (35%) proved to be true endophytes. Eleven out of 75 isolates were mycotoxigenic. A. alternata produced alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether whereas A. flavus produced aflatoxins B1 and B2. Ochratoxin A, sterigmatocystin, citrinin and T-2 toxin were produced by A. ochraceus, A. versicolor, P. citrinum and F. oxysporum, respectively. The presence of such toxigenic fungi associated with qat leaves is considered to be a threat to public health. PMID:11347273

Mahmoud, A L

2000-01-01

385

Bacterial-fungal interactions enhance power generation in microbial fuel cells and drive dye decolourisation by an ex situ and in situ electro-Fenton process.  

PubMed

In this work, the potential for sustainable energy production from wastes has been exploited using a combination fungus-bacterium in microbial fuel cell (MFC) and electro-Fenton technology. The fungus Trametes versicolor was grown with Shewanella oneidensis so that the bacterium would use the networks of the fungus to transport the electrons to the anode. This system generated stable electricity that was enhanced when the electro-Fenton reactions occurred in the cathode chamber. This configuration reached a stable voltage of approximately 1000mV. Thus, the dual benefits of the in situ-designed MFC electro-Fenton, the simultaneous dye decolourisation and the electricity generation, were demonstrated. Moreover, the generated power was effectively used to drive an ex situ electro-Fenton process in batch and continuous mode. This newly developed MFC fungus-bacterium with an in situ electro-Fenton system can ensure a high power output and a continuous degradation of organic pollutants. PMID:24035817

Fernández de Dios, María Ángeles; Del Campo, Araceli González; Fernández, Francisco Jesús; Rodrigo, Manuel; Pazos, Marta; Sanromán, María Ángeles

2013-08-22

386

Improvement of Foreign-Protein Production in Aspergillus niger var. awamori by Constitutive Induction of the Unfolded-Protein Response  

PubMed Central

Unfolded-protein response (UPR) denotes the upregulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident chaperone and foldase genes and numerous other genes involved in secretory functions during the accumulation of unfolded proteins into the ER. Overexpression of individual foldases and chaperones has been used in attempts to improve protein production in different production systems. We describe here a novel strategy to improve foreign-protein production. We show that the constitutive induction of the UPR pathway in Aspergillus niger var. awamori can be achieved by expressing the activated form of the transcription factor hacA. This induction enhances the production of Trametes versicolor laccase by up to sevenfold and of bovine preprochymosin by up to 2.8-fold in this biotechnically important fungus. The regulatory range of UPR was studied by analyzing the mRNA levels of novel A. niger var. awamori genes involved in different secretory functions. This revealed both similarities and differences to corresponding studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Valkonen, Mari; Ward, Michael; Wang, Huaming; Penttila, Merja; Saloheimo, Markku

2003-01-01

387

Laccase immobilized onto poly(GMA-MAA) microspheres for p-benzenediol removal from wastewater.  

PubMed

Enzymes have already been extensively applied to degrade various organic pollutants in industrial wastewater, and how to improve the stability and reusability of the enzymes is critical to their practical application. In this study, poly(glycidyl methacrylate-methacrylic acid), poly(GMA-MAA), microspheres were prepared by suspension polymerization, and were used as a new support to immobilize Trametes versicolor laccase. The maximum loading capacity to immobilize enzyme reached as high as 44.78 mg protein/g support. The stability and reusability of laccase were greatly improved after immobilization on the microspheres. While the immobilized laccase was used as catalyst to remove p-benzenediol from wastewater, the removal efficiency reached 88.5%. PMID:23676400

Li, Congcong; Lou, Yuhong; Wan, Yazhen; Wang, Weiqiang; Yao, Jilei; Zhang, Bing

2013-01-01

388

The Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC). Contribution to cross-cultural research methods from a study of leprosy and mental health.  

PubMed

The Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) has been developed to elicit illness-related perceptions, beliefs, and practices in a cultural study of leprosy and mental health in Bombay. Leprosy is an especially appropriate disorder for studying the inter-relationship of culture, mental health and medical illness because of deeply rooted cultural meanings, the emotional burden, and underuse of effective therapy. Fifty per cent of 56 recently diagnosed leprosy out-patients, 37% of 19 controls with another stigmatised dermatological condition (vitiligo), but only 8% of 12 controls with a comparable non-stigmatised condition (tinea versicolor) met DSM-III-R criteria for an axis I depressive, anxiety or somatoform disorder. Belief in a humoral (traditional) cause of illness predicted better attendance at clinic. PMID:1617366

Weiss, M G; Doongaji, D R; Siddhartha, S; Wypij, D; Pathare, S; Bhatawdekar, M; Bhave, A; Sheth, A; Fernandes, R

1992-06-01

389

Antifungal Activity of 10 Guadeloupean Plants.  

PubMed

Screening of the antifungal activities of ten Guadeloupean plants was undertaken to find new extracts and formulations against superficial mycoses such as onychomycosis, athlete's foot, Pityriasis versicolor, as well as the deep fungal infection Pneumocystis pneumonia. For the first time, the CMI of these plant extracts [cyclohexane, ethanol and ethanol/water (1:1, v/v)] was determined against five dermatophytes, five Candida species, Scytalidium dimidiatum, a Malassezia sp. strain and Pneumocystis carinii. Cytotoxicity tests of the most active extracts were also performed on an HaCat keratinocyte cell line. Results suggest that the extracts of Bursera simaruba, Cedrela odorata, Enterolobium cyclocarpum and Pluchea carolinensis have interesting activities and could be good candidates for developing antifungal formulations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23280633

Biabiany, Murielle; Roumy, Vincent; Hennebelle, Thierry; François, Nadine; Sendid, Boualem; Pottier, Muriel; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Rouaud, Isabelle; Lohézic-Le Dévéhat, Françoise; Joseph, Henry; Bourgeois, Paul; Sahpaz, Sevser; Bailleul, François

2012-12-27

390

The complete mitochondrial genome of Chrysolophus pictus (Galliformes: Phasianidae) and a phylogenetic analysis with related species.  

PubMed

The 16,678 bp mitochondrial genome of the Chrysolophus pictus has been sequenced in this paper. To determine the phylogentic position of C. pictus with related species within Phasianidae, the phylogenetic tree was reconstructed with the concatenated nucleotide dataset of the 12 heavy-strand-encoded protein genes. The phylogenetic analysis was carried out using maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods. MP and BI phylogenetic trees here showed similar topology and consistently suggested that C. pictus shared a close relationship with Phasianus versicolor. The results also showed that the Meleagris gallopavo possessed a basal phylogenetic position within Phasianidae, which may imply that it should be classified into the Phasianidae. PMID:22165827

Li, Hui-Min; Shi, Jing-Ping; Zeng, De-Long; Zeng, Zhen-Hua; Qin, Xin-Min

2011-10-01

391

Distribution and mycotoxin-producing ability of some fungal isolates from the air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research was carried out on presence and prevalence of common fungal air spores at locations in Croatia. The sampling method employed in the study was by exposure 350 of Petri agar plates to the air for 10 min. Approximately 3400 colonies were found and mould spores belonging to 22 fungal genera were identified. Cladosporium (44.7%), Penicillium (34.4%), Alternaria (26.3%), Aspergillus (21.6%) and Absidia (12.2%) were the most prevalent fungi encountered. Investigation of toxigenic potential of airborne fungi isolates of genera Aspergillus, Fusarium and Trichoderma showed 16.9% mycotoxin-producing strains. The production of aflatoxin B 1 by A. flavus sterigmatocystin by A. versicolor zearalenon and T-2 toxin by F. graminearum and diacetoscirpenol by strains of T. viride were obtained.

Cvetni?, Zdenka; Pepeljnjak, S.

392

Screening for ligninolytic enzymes from autochthonous fungi and applications for decolorization of Remazole Marine Blue  

PubMed Central

This study presents new and alternative fungal strains for the production of ligninolytic enzymes which have great potential to use in industrial and biotechnological processes. Thirty autochthonous fungal strains were harvested from Bornova-Izmir in Turkiye. In the fresh fruitbody extracts laccase, manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase activities, which are the principal enzymes responsible for ligninocellulose degradation by Basidiomycetes, were screened. Spores of some of the basidiomycetes species such as Cortinarius sp., Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Abortiporus biennis, Lyophyllum subglobisporium, Ramaria stricta, Ganoderma carnosum, Lactarius delicious ve Lepista nuda were isolated and investigated optimum cultivation conditions in submerged fermentation for high yields of ligninolytic enzyme production. In addition, isolated fungal strains were monitored on agar plates whether having the capability of decolorization of a textile dye Remazol Marine Blue.

Erden, Emre; Ucar, M. Cigdem; Gezer, Tekin; Pazarlioglu, Nurdan Kasikara

2009-01-01

393

[Study of dermatomycosis and survey of pathogens in troops of Hainan area].  

PubMed

Subtropical area is the prevalent area of dermatomycosis with natural conditions suptable for the growth and proliferation of fungi causing suterficial dermatomycosis. Dermatomycosis not only brings about certain sufferings to the military personnel in peacetime, but also causes nonbattle loss in manpower in war time. In the present work, a survey of dermatomycosis in Hainan subtropical area of China and isolation of the pathogens were carried out. The results were as follows: The morbidity of superficial dermatomycosis was 34.1% and it was manifested clinically as tinea pedis, tinea versicolor, tinea corporis, tinea axillaris, tinea cruris, etc.; The main pathogen causing dermatomycosis in this area was Trichophyton rubrum which accounted for 50.4% of the pathogens isolated and the next was Trichophyton gypseum which accounted for 20.3%; Trichophyton rubrum could cause dermatomycosis of many sites of the body in this area, but the main lesious were tinea corporis and tinea cruris. PMID:9863207

Suo, J; Li, H; Liang, J; Chen, S; Yu, R

1997-08-01

394

Preparation of starch-sodium lignosulfonate graft copolymers via laccase catalysis and characterization of antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

Graft copolymers of waxy maize starch and sodium lignosulfonate (SLS) were prepared by Trametes versicolor laccase catalysis in aqueous solution. Amount of SLS grafted based on phenol analysis was 0.5% and 1.0% in the absence and presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT), respectively. Starch-SLS graft copolymers were effective antioxidants as judged by 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. The presence of laccase caused a reduction in starch molecular weight although a cross-linked gel fraction was also observed when HBT was present. This new method for preparing starch chemically modified with phenolic compounds is simple and the resulting antioxidant polymers have potential in food, cosmetic and packaging applications. PMID:23121948

Shogren, Randal L; Biswas, Atanu

2012-08-31

395

The lipophilic yeasts: state of the art and prospects.  

PubMed

Malassezia yeasts (lipophilic yeasts), have been classified to include seven species. Although molecular methods such as sequencing of RNA and karyotyping were used to determine the species, traditional techniques are also being explored for their identification. These include studies of morphology and the utilization of individual lipids. Reports now show the predominance of individual species recovered from normal skin and from patients with diseases such as pityriasis versicolor and seborrhoeic dermatitis. The majority of systemic infections reported have been in the bloodstream of premature neonates. Clusters of cases have occurred and molecular techniques employed to study the epidemiology. With the development of discriminatory methods to determine individual species and strains present in disease and in nature, our understanding of the pathogenicity and the epidemiology of this genus can be advanced. PMID:11204169

Midgley, G

2000-01-01

396

White-Rot Basidiomycete-mediated Decomposition of C60 Fullerol  

PubMed Central

Industrially produced carbon-based nanomaterials (CNM), including fullerenes and nanotubes, will be introduced into the environment in increasing amounts in the next decades. One likely environmental chemical transformation of C60 is oxidation to C60 fullerol through both abiotic- and biotic-mediated means. Unfortunately, knowledge of the environmental fate of oxidized CNM is lacking. This study used bulk and compound specific 13C stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry techniques and spectroradiometry analysis to examine the ability of two white rot basidiomycete fungi (Phlebia tremellosa and Trametes versicolor) to metabolize and degrade an oxygenated CNM, C60 fullerol. After 32 weeks of decay, both fungi were able to bleach and oxidize fullerol to CO2. Additionally, the fungi incorporated minor amounts of the fullerol carbon into lipid biomass. These findings are significant in that they represent the first report of direct biodegradation and utilization of any fullerene derivative and provide valuable information about the possible environmental fates of other CNM.

Schreiner, Kathryn M.; Filley, Timothy R.; Blanchette, Robert A.; Bowen, Brenda Beitler; Bolskar, Robert D.; Hockaday, William C.; Masiello, Caroline A.; Raebiger, James W.

2009-01-01

397

Laccase production by some Phlebia species.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to examine the ability of four species of the genus Phlebia, viz. P. floridensis, P. brevispora, P. radiata and P. fascicularia, to produce the ligninolytic enzyme laccase in liquid culture. P. floridensis was the most active species that even surpassed laccase production by Trametes versicolor, and was chosen for further study. Among several carbon sources tested, malt extract turned out to be the best medium for subsequent laccase concentration by ammonium sulfate precipitation. Specific enzyme activity increased 12-fold during this procedure and a K(m) value of 0.33 mM was calculated for the resulting laccase preparation using guaiacol as the substrate. Concentrated laccase from P. floridensis was relatively thermostable and retained 70% and 15% of its activity after 1 h preincubation at 50 degrees C and 60 degrees C, respectively. PMID:12362400

Arora, Daljit S; Rampal, Poonam

2002-01-01

398

Treatment of tetracycline antibiotics by laccase in the presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole.  

PubMed

Tetracycline antibiotics are widely used in human and veterinary medicine; however, residual amounts of these antibiotics in the environment are of concern since they could contribute to selection of resistant bacteria. In this study, tetracycline (TC), chlortetracycline (CTC), doxycycline (DC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) were treated with laccase from the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor in the presence of the redox mediator 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT). High performance liquid chromatography demonstrated that DC and CTC were completely eliminated after 15 min, while TC and CTC were eliminated after 1 h. This system also resulted in a complete loss of inhibition of growth of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis and the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata with decreasing tetracycline antibiotic concentration. These results suggest that the laccase-HBT system is effective in eliminating tetracycline antibiotics and removing their ecotoxicity. PMID:22071243

Suda, Tomoyo; Hata, Takayuki; Kawai, Shingo; Okamura, Hideo; Nishida, Tomoaki

2011-10-20

399

Development and optimization of single and combined detoxification processes to improve the fermentability of lignocellulose hydrolyzates.  

PubMed

In this work, an enzyme catalyzed detoxification process of lignocellulose hydrolyzates with immobilized laccase from Trametes versicolor was developed and optimized. Further, the immobilized laccase significantly reduced the amount of toxic phenolic compounds in the xylan rich fraction (XRF) by polymerization within 1h. The insoluble products precipitated onto the carrier surface and could be reversible resolubilized by an aqueous ethanol solution. Consequently, an in situ product removal could be realized. The reusability of the immobilized laccase could be additionally shown. The reaction kinetics could be described by a reversible Michaelis Menten equation giving the prerequisite for scaling up the process. In a second step, the organic acids, hydroxymethylfurfural and phenolic acids could be further removed by employing an anion exchanger. Both, the laccase and the laccase+anion exchanger treatment enhanced successfully the fermentability of an organosolv wheat straw fraction. PMID:23454802

Ludwig, Daniel; Amann, Manfred; Hirth, Thomas; Rupp, Steffen; Zibek, Susanne

2013-01-23

400

Visualization of aerocolloidal biological particles using 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent concerns over the possible use of airborne biological particles as weapons of mass destruction have significantly increased the attention that researchers are giving to this threat. The size of these particles, ranging from a fraction of a micrometer to several tens of micrometers, allows them to travel over long distances before settling out of the airstreams carrying these particles. Furthermore, the odd shapes of many of these particles along with uncertainties about their light scattering characteristics make detection and tracking quite a challenge. In the present paper, results are reported on the visualization of airborne biological particles using two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV). These initial results show the utility of PIV in illuminating and tracking airborne biological particles. A compressed air nebulizer is used to aerosolize the biological particles inside a Plexiglas test section. The biological particles prepared for the nebulizer are first inoculated and cultured onto agar media, gypsum board, and acoustic ceiling tile to achieve an abundant growth of spores. A colloidal suspension of biological particles is then made using sterilized, de-ionized water and a mild surfactant to de-agglomerate the biological particles in the suspension. The concentration of biological particles in the colloidal suspension is determined using a hemacytometer. In the visualization experiments, images are captured for polystyrene latex (PSL) test particles, liquid water droplets, and spores of the fungal species Aspergillus versicolor. During the PIV system operation, two successive images are captured with a time delay of 50 ?m to develop flow field velocities of the PSL test particles, liquid water droplets, and the A. versicolor spores.

Hall, Carsie A., III; Masabattula, Sree; Akyuzlu, Kazim M.; Russo, Edwin P.; Klich, Maren A.

2003-12-01

401

Wild-Type MIC Distributions and Epidemiological Cutoff Values for the Triazoles and Six Aspergillus spp. for the CLSI Broth Microdilution Method (M38-A2 Document)?  

PubMed Central

Clinical breakpoints have not been established for mold testing. Wild-type (WT) MIC distributions (organisms in a species/drug combination with no detectable acquired resistance mechanisms) were defined in order to establish epidemiologic cutoff values (ECVs) for five Aspergillus spp. and itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Also, we have expanded prior ECV data for Aspergillus fumigatus. The number of available isolates varied according to the species/triazole combination as follows: 1,684 to 2,815 for A. fumigatus, 323 to 592 for A. flavus, 131 to 143 for A. nidulans, 366 to 520 for A. niger, 330 to 462 for A. terreus, and 45 to 84 for A. versicolor. CLSI broth microdilution MIC data gathered in five independent laboratories in Europe and the United States were aggregated for the analyses. ECVs expressed in ?g/ml were as follows (percentages of isolates for which MICs were equal to or less than the ECV are in parentheses): A. fumigatus, itraconazole, 1 (98.8%); posaconazole, 0.5 (99.2%); voriconazole, 1 (97.7%); A. flavus, itraconazole, 1 (99.6%); posaconazole, 0.25 (95%); voriconazole, 1 (98.1%); A. nidulans, itraconazole, 1 (95%); posaconazole, 1 (97.7%); voriconazole, 2 (99.3%); A. niger, itraconazole, 2 (100%); posaconazole, 0.5 (96.9%); voriconazole, 2 (99.4%); A. terreus, itraconazole, 1 (100%); posaconazole, 0.5 (99.7%); voriconazole, 1 (99.1%); A. versicolor, itraconazole, 2 (100%); posaconazole, 1 (not applicable); voriconazole, 2 (97.5%). Although ECVs do not predict therapy outcome as clinical breakpoints do, they may aid in detection of azole resistance (non-WT MIC) due to cyp51A mutations, a resistance mechanism in some Aspergillus spp. These ECVs should be considered for inclusion in the future CLSI M38-A2 document revision.

Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Diekema, D. J.; Fothergill, A.; Johnson, E.; Pelaez, T.; Pfaller, M. A.; Rinaldi, M. G.; Canton, E.; Turnidge, J.

2010-01-01

402

Phylogenetic Diversity and Cosymbiosis in the Bioluminescent Symbioses of "Photobacterium mandapamensis"? †  

PubMed Central

“Photobacterium mandapamensis” (proposed name) and Photobacterium leiognathi are closely related, phenotypically similar marine bacteria that form bioluminescent symbioses with marine animals. Despite their similarity, however, these bacteria can be distinguished phylogenetically by sequence divergence of their luminescence genes, luxCDAB(F)E, by the presence (P. mandapamensis) or the absence (P. leiognathi) of luxF and, as shown here, by the sequence divergence of genes involved in the synthesis of riboflavin, ribBHA. To gain insight into the possibility that P. mandapamensis and P. leiognathi are ecologically distinct, we used these phylogenetic criteria to determine the incidence of P. mandapamensis as a bioluminescent symbiont of marine animals. Five fish species, Acropoma japonicum (Perciformes, Acropomatidae), Photopectoralis panayensis and Photopectoralis bindus (Perciformes, Leiognathidae), Siphamia versicolor (Perciformes, Apogonidae), and Gadella jordani (Gadiformes, Moridae), were found to harbor P. mandapamensis in their light organs. Specimens of A. japonicus, P. panayensis, and P. bindus harbored P. mandapamensis and P. leiognathi together as cosymbionts of the same light organ. Regardless of cosymbiosis, P. mandapamensis was the predominant symbiont of A. japonicum, and it was the apparently exclusive symbiont of S. versicolor and G. jordani. In contrast, P. leiognathi was found to be the predominant symbiont of P. panayensis and P. bindus, and it appears to be the exclusive symbiont of other leiognathid fishes and a loliginid squid. A phylogenetic test for cospeciation revealed no evidence of codivergence between P. mandapamensis and its host fishes, indicating that coevolution apparently is not the basis for this bacterium's host preferences. These results, which are the first report of bacterial cosymbiosis in fish light organs and the first demonstration that P. leiognathi is not the exclusive light organ symbiont of leiognathid fishes, demonstrate that the host species ranges of P. mandapamensis and P. leiognathi are substantially distinct. The host range difference underscores possible differences in the environmental distributions and physiologies of these two bacterial species.

Kaeding, Allison J.; Ast, Jennifer C.; Pearce, Meghan M.; Urbanczyk, Henryk; Kimura, Seishi; Endo, Hiromitsu; Nakamura, Masaru; Dunlap, Paul V.

2007-01-01

403

Parallel female preferences for call duration in a diploid ancestor of an allotetraploid treefrog  

PubMed Central

The gray treefrog species complex (Hyla chrysoscelis and H. versicolor) comprises a single allotetraploid species (H. versicolor) that arose multiple times from hybrid matings between an extant diploid species (H. chrysoscelis) and at least two other extinct diploid treefrogs. While previous studies have investigated female preferences for call duration in the tetraploid, we know little about these preferences in its putative diploid anscestors. Here, I report results from two-choice phonotaxis experiments investigating call duration preferences in H. chrysoscelis. Females preferred an average-length call over shorter-than-average calls (0.5–2.0 standard deviations [SD] below average), and they preferred longer-than-average calls over average or shorter-than-average calls if the difference in pulse number was at least 2.0 SD. When the amplitude of the longer alternative was attenuated by 6 dB, females still preferred an average-length call over a shorter-than-average call, but there was no preference for longer-than-average calls over an average call. In the presence of chorus noise, female preferences for both average and longer-than-average calls over shorter alternatives were weakened or reversed. Together, the results from this study reveal patterns of female preferences for call duration that are strikingly similar among two members of a species complex with a novel evolutionary history. In both species, female preferences are directional, nonlinear, and limited by environmental noise. Furthermore, these results also highlight the need for caution in studies of sexual selection when extrapolating from patterns of female preference obtained under ideal laboratory conditions to conclusions about how those preferences are expressed in the real world.

Bee, Mark A.

2008-01-01

404

Wild-type MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for the triazoles and six Aspergillus spp. for the CLSI broth microdilution method (M38-A2 document).  

PubMed

Clinical breakpoints have not been established for mold testing. Wild-type (WT) MIC distributions (organisms in a species/drug combination with no detectable acquired resistance mechanisms) were defined in order to establish epidemiologic cutoff values (ECVs) for five Aspergillus spp. and itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Also, we have expanded prior ECV data for Aspergillus fumigatus. The number of available isolates varied according to the species/triazole combination as follows: 1,684 to 2,815 for A. fumigatus, 323 to 592 for A. flavus, 131 to 143 for A. nidulans, 366 to 520 for A. niger, 330 to 462 for A. terreus, and 45 to 84 for A. versicolor. CLSI broth microdilution MIC data gathered in five independent laboratories in Europe and the United States were aggregated for the analyses. ECVs expressed in microg/ml were as follows (percentages of isolates for which MICs were equal to or less than the ECV are in parentheses): A. fumigatus, itraconazole, 1 (98.8%); posaconazole, 0.5 (99.2%); voriconazole, 1 (97.7%); A. flavus, itraconazole, 1 (99.6%); posaconazole, 0.25 (95%); voriconazole, 1 (98.1%); A. nidulans, itraconazole, 1 (95%); posaconazole, 1 (97.7%); voriconazole, 2 (99.3%); A. niger, itraconazole, 2 (100%); posaconazole, 0.5 (96.9%); voriconazole, 2 (99.4%); A. terreus, itraconazole, 1 (100%); posaconazole, 0.5 (99.7%); voriconazole, 1 (99.1%); A. versicolor, itraconazole, 2 (100%); posaconazole, 1 (not applicable); voriconazole, 2 (97.5%). Although ECVs do not predict therapy outcome as clinical breakpoints do, they may aid in detection of azole resistance (non-WT MIC) due to cyp51A mutations, a resistance mechanism in some Aspergillus spp. These ECVs should be considered for inclusion in the future CLSI M38-A2 document revision. PMID:20592159

Espinel-Ingroff, A; Diekema, D J; Fothergill, A; Johnson, E; Pelaez, T; Pfaller, M A; Rinaldi, M G; Canton, E; Turnidge, J

2010-06-30

405

Intersex gonads in frogs: understanding the time course of natural development and role of endocrine disruptors.  

PubMed

The paucity of data on sexual development of anuran amphibians has played an important role in the recent controversy over atrazine exposure. Although some studies have demonstrated the presence of abnormal gonads in control treatments, others have not, leading to varying interpretations of the effects of atrazine exposure on sexual development. However, the timing of development varies among anuran amphibians such that, at any snapshot in time, different species may exhibit different stages of sexual differentiation. We examined three species representing each of the differentiation rates (Bufo americanus=retarded rate; Hyla versicolor=basic rate; Rana sphenocephala=accelerated rate), to examine the natural time course of sexual development along with the influence of atrazine exposure. For each species, exposure to atrazine (1, 3, 10, 30 parts per billion), 17-beta-estradiol or control water occurred throughout larval life. Gonad histology was performed at 3-week intervals during the larval period or at a juvenile stage to examine the proportion of males, females, underdeveloped testes, testicular oocytes (TO; testes with 0-30% oocytes), and ovotestes (OVTs; testes with>30% oocytes). Our results illustrate that a phase of intersex gonads (TO or OVT) is normal during R. sphenocephala sexual development, a species representing the accelerated differentiation rate. Further, intersex gonads were found in juvenile stages of B. americanus and H. versicolor, representing retarded and basic rates, respectively, suggesting that a phase of intersex may be common regardless of differentiation rate. Moreover, these data highlight the importance of longitudinal studies rather than snapshots in time. PMID:19588491

Storrs-Méndez, Sara I; Semlitsch, Raymond D

2010-01-15

406

Laccase activity in soils: considerations for the measurement of enzyme activity.  

PubMed

Laccases (benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductases, EC 1.10.3.2) are copper-containing enzymes that catalyze the oxidative conversion of a variety of chemicals, such as mono-, oligo-, and polyphenols and aromatic amines. Laccases have been proposed to participate in the transformation of organic matter and xenobiotics as well as microbial interactions. Several laccase assays have been proposed and used in soils. Here, we show that the optimal pH conditions for the laccase substrates 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, pH 3-5), 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (4-5.5), L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA; 4-6), guaiacol (3.5-5), 4-methylcatechol (3.5-5), and syringaldazine (5.5-7.0) are similar between purified laccases from Trametes versicolor and Pyricularia sp. and soil extracts; the substrate affinities of purified enzymes (K(M)) and soil extracts were also similar. The laccase assays showed specificity overlap with tyrosinase and ligninolytic peroxidases when hydrogen peroxide is present. The ABTS oxidation assay is able to reliably detect the presence of 13.5 pg mL(-1) or 0.199×10(-12) mol mL(-1) of T. versicolor laccase, which is three times more sensitive than the 2,6-dimethoxyphenol-based assay and more than 40 times more sensitive than any of the other assays. The low molecular mass soil-derived compounds and the isolated fulvic and humic acids influence the laccase assays and should be removed from the soil extracts before measurements of the enzyme activity are performed. PMID:22475148

Eichlerová, Ivana; Šnajdr, Jaroslav; Baldrian, Petr

2012-04-02

407

Biological treatment of the effluent from a bleached kraft pulp mill using basidiomycete and zygomycete fungi.  

PubMed

Three white-rot fungi (Pleurotus sajor caju, Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium) and one soft-rot fungi (Rhizopus oryzae) species confirmed their potential for future applications in the biological treatment of effluents derived from the secondary treatment of a bleached kraft pulp mill processing Eucalyptus globulus. Among the four species P. sajor caju and R. oryzae were the most effective in the biodegradation of organic compounds present in the effluent, being responsible for the reduction of relative absorbance (25-46% at 250 nm and 72-74% at 465 nm) and of chemical oxygen demand levels (74 to 81%) after 10 days of incubation. Laccase (Lac), lignin (Lip) and manganese peroxidases (MnP) expression varied among fungal species, where Lac and LiP activities were correlated with the degradation of organic compounds in the effluent treated with P. sajor caju. The first two axes of a principal component analysis explained 88.9% of the total variation among sub-samples treated with the four fungus species, after different incubation periods. All the variables measured contributed positively to the first component except for the MnP enzyme activity which was the only variable contributing negatively to the first component. Absorbances at 465 nm, LiP and Lac enzyme activities were the variables with more weight on the second component. P. sajor caju revealed to be the only species able to perform the biological treatment without promoting an increment in the toxicity of the effluent to the Vibrio fischeri, as it was assessed by the Microtox assay. The opposite was recorded for the treatments with the other three species of fungus. EC(50-5 min) values ranging between 28 and 57% (effluent concentrations) were recorded even after 10 to 13 days of treatment with P. chrysosporium, R. oryzae or with T. versicolor. PMID:19269018

Freitas, A C; Ferreira, F; Costa, A M; Pereira, R; Antunes, S C; Gonçalves, F; Rocha-Santos, T A P; Diniz, M S; Castro, L; Peres, I; Duarte, A C

2009-03-06

408

Immunomodulation and anti-cancer activity of polysaccharide-protein complexes.  

PubMed

In the last three decades, numerous polysaccharides and polysaccharide-protein complexes have been isolated from mushrooms and used as a source of therapeutic agents. The most promising biopharmacological activities of these biopolymers are their immunomodulation and anti-cancer effects. They are mainly present as glucans with different types of glycosidic linkages such as (1-->3), (1-->6)-beta-glucans and (1-->3)-alpha-glucans, and as true herteroglycans, while others mostly bind to protein residues as polysaccharide-protein complexes. Three antitumor mushroom polysaccharides, i.e. lentinan, schizophyllan and protein-bound polysaccharide (PSK, Krestin), isolated respectively, from Lentinus edodes, Schizophyllum commune and Coriolus versicolor, have become large market items in Japan. Lentinan and schizophyllan are pure beta-glucans, whereas PSK is a protein-bound beta-glucan. A polysaccharide peptide (PSP), isolated from a strain of Coriolus versicolor in China, has also been widely used as an anti-cancer and immunomodulatory agent. Although the mechansim of their antitumor action is still not completely clear, these polysaccharides and polysaccharide-protein complexes are suggested to enhance cell-mediated immune responses in vivo and in vitro and act as biological response modifiers. Potentiation of the host defense system may result in the activation of many kinds of immune cells that are vitally important for the maintenance of homeostasis. Polysaccharides or polysaccharide-protein complexes are considered as multi-cytokine inducers that are able to induce gene expression of vaious immunomodulatory cytokines and cytokine receptors. Some interesting studies focus on investigation of the relationship between their structure and antitumor activity, elucidation of their antitumor mechanism at the molecular level, and improvement of their various biological activities by chemical modifications. PMID:10702635

Ooi, V E; Liu, F

2000-07-01

409

[Intratumoral administration of biological preparations--recommendation for integrative medicine].  

PubMed

The antitumor effect of biological preparations was examined in a double grafted tumor system. PSK is a hot water extract of cultured mycelia from Coliolus versicolor. Its protein content is about 38% and the main glycoside portion of PSK is beta-D-glucan. Lentinan is purified from fruit bodies of Lentinus edodes and is a beta-1, 3-glucan. Cepharanthin is an extract from the root of Stephania cepharantha HAYATA, consisting of 4 kinds of biscoclaurine alkaloids. TAHEEBO tea is a hot water extract of Tabebuia avellanedae, the active ingredient of which is naphthoquinones. If protein-bound polysaccharides were to be used in Western medicine, these polysaccharides would be purified, but purified beta-glucan loses its beneficial effects. Similarly, when raw Cepharanthin is purified to isolate its active ingredient (an alkaloid cepharanthine), its anti-tumor effect is weakened. Clear IAP induction was observed in serum of mice treated with extracts of Coliolus versicolor and Stephania cepharantha. However, IAP induction was not observed in the serum of mice treated with purified beta-glucan or purified alkaloid. This suggests that macrophages may recognize extracts but not purified substances. In Western medicine, purified substances with known chemical structures are recognized as drugs, but overdoses of these drugs are toxic to the body, thus adverse reactions are always an issue. In Chinese medicine, mixtures containing several crude drugs are recognized as drugs, whose active ingredients are not identified. In integrative medicine, drugs are extracts that contain active ingredients with known structures and functions. We propose a Japanese version of integrative medicine which is neither Western nor Chinese. PMID:11707968

Ebina, T

2001-10-01

410

[In Process Citation].  

PubMed

Los queloides son cicatrices de aspecto tumoral que pueden aparecer hasta varios años después de la herida original, y se extienden más allá de los confines de ésta. La  oreja prominente es la deformidad auricular estética más frecuente. La otoplastia para su corrección logra resultados altamente satisfactorios. Sin embargo, no está exenta de complicaciones, entre las que hay que considerar el desarrollo de queloides. Existen muchas técnicas para la extirpación y la posterior cobertura. La técnica del colgajo queloideo consiste en la escisión del queloide preservando una capa delgada de su cubierta cutánea, unida por un pedículo a la piel normal, para reparar el defecto. El colgajo queloideo es una solución sencilla y efectiva para cobertura de defectos importantes tras la extirpación completa de grandes queloides. Se presenta un caso clínico ilustrativo, secundario a otoplastia, del empleo de dicho procedimiento. PMID:24008539

Pérez-Espadero, A; Escudero Nafs, F J

2013-09-06

411

Fungi and bacteria in mould-damaged and non-damaged office environments in a subarctic climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fungi and bacterial levels of the indoor air environments of 77 office buildings were measured in winter and a comparison was made between the buildings with microbe sources in their structures and those without such sources. Penicillium, yeasts, Cladosporium and non-sporing isolates were the commonest fungi detected in the indoor air and in settled dust, in both the mould-damaged and control buildings. Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus glaucus and Stachybotrys chartarium were found only in environmental samples from the mould-damaged buildings. Some other fungi, with growth requiring of water activity, aw, above 0.85, occurred in both the reference and mould-damaged buildings, but such fungi were commoner in the latter type of buildings. The airborne concentrations of Penicillium, Aspergillus versicolor and yeasts were the best indicators of mould damage in the buildings studied. Penicillium species and A. versicolor were also the most abundant fungi in the material samples. This study showed that the fungi concentrations were very low (2-45 cfu m -3 90% of the concentrations being <15 cfu m -3) in the indoor air of the normal office buildings. Although the concentration range of airborne fungi was wider for the mould-damaged buildings (2-2470 cfu m -3), only about 20% of the samples exceeded 100 cfu m -3. The concentrations of airborne bacteria ranged from 12 to 540 cfu m -3 in the control buildings and from 14 to 1550 cfu m -3 in the mould-damaged buildings. A statistical analysis of the results indicated that bacteria levels are generally <600 cfu m -3 in office buildings in winter and fungi levels are <50 cfu m -3. These normal levels are applicable to subarctic climates for urban, modern office buildings when measurements are made using a six-stage impactor. These levels should not be used in evaluations of health risks, but elevated levels may indicate the presence of abnormal microbe sources in indoor air and a need for additional environmental investigations.

Salonen, Heidi; Lappalainen, Sanna; Lindroos, Outi; Harju, Riitta; Reijula, Kari

412

The spectrum of dermatological disorders among primary school children in Dar es Salaam  

PubMed Central

Background Dermatologic disorders are common in many countries but the spectrum varies greatly. Many studies have reported a significant burden of skin diseases in school children. The objective of this study was to determine the current spectrum of dermatological disorders in primary school children in Dar es Salaam city. Methods Primary school children were recruited by multistage sampling. Detailed interview, dermatological examination and appropriate laboratory investigations were performed. Data was analyzed using the 'Statistical Package for Social Sciences' (SPSS) program version 10.0 and EPI6. A p-value of < 0.5 was significant. Results A total of 420 children were recruited (51% males; mean age 11.4 ± 2.8 years; range 6-19 years). The overall point prevalence of any skin disorder was 57.3% and it was 61.9% and 52.6% in males and females respectively (p = 0.05). Infectious dermatoses accounted for 30.4% with superficial fungal infections (dermatophytoses and pityriasis versicolor) being the commonest (20%). Dermatophytoses were diagnosed in 11.4% (48/420); the prevalence in males and females being 12.6% and 10.1% respectively (p = 0.41) and higher (21.8%) in the age-group 6-10 years (p = 0.045). Fungal cultures were positive in 42/48 children (88%). All three dermatophyte genera were isolated. Tinea capitis was the commonest disease among culture-positive dermatophytoses (30/42; 71.4%) with an overall prevalence of 7.1% (30/420) followed by tinea pedis (11/42; 26.1%) whose overall prevalence was 2.6%. Microsporum canis was common in tinea capitis (14/30; 46.7%) followed by Trichophyton violaceum (6/30; 20%). Trichophyton rubrum was common in tinea pedis (5/11; 45.5%). Thirty six children (8.6%) had pityriasis versicolor which was more prevalent (6/27; 22.l2%) in the age group 16-19 years (p = 0.0004). The other common infectious dermatoses were pyodermas (4%) and pediculosis capitis (3.6%). Common non-infectious dermatoses were: acne vulgaris (36.4%), non-specific dermatoses (10.7%), non-specific ulcers (5%) and atopic eczema (2.6%). Rare conditions (prevalence < 1%) included: vitiligo, alopecia areata and intertrigo. The majority of the affected children (67.2%) did not seek any medical assistance. Conclusions Skin disorders are common in primary school children; infectious dermatoses are still rampant and many children do not seek medical assistance.

2010-01-01

413

New species in Aspergillus section Terrei  

PubMed Central

Section Terrei of Aspergillus was studied using a polyphasic approach including sequence analysis of parts of the ?-tubulin and calmodulin genes and the ITS region, macro- and micromorphological analyses and examination of extrolite profiles to describe three new species in this section. Based on phylogenetic analysis of calmodulin and ?-tubulin sequences seven lineages were observed among isolates that have previously been treated as A. terreus and its subspecies by Raper & Fennell (1965) and others. Aspergillus alabamensis, A. terreus var. floccosus, A. terreus var. africanus, A. terreus var. aureus, A. hortai and A. terreus NRRL 4017 all represent distinct lineages from the A. terreus clade. Among them, A. terreus var. floccosus, A. terreus NRRL 4017 and A. terreus var. aureus could also be distinguished from A. terreus by using ITS sequence data. New names are proposed for A. terreus var. floccosus, A. terreus var. africanus, A. terreus var. aureus, while Aspergillus hortai is recognised at species level. Aspergillus terreus NRRL 4017 is described as the new species A. pseudoterreus. Also included in section Terrei are some species formerly placed in sections Flavipedes and Versicolores. A. clade including the type isolate of A. niveus (CBS 115.27) constitutes a lineage closely related to A. carneus. Fennellia nivea, the hypothesized teleomorph is not related to this clade. Aspergillus allahabadii, A. niveus var. indicus, and two species originally placed in section Versicolores, A. ambiguus and A. microcysticus, also form well-defined lineages on all trees. Species in Aspergillus section Terrei are producers of a diverse array of secondary metabolites. However, many of the species in the section produce different combinations of the following metabolites: acetylaranotin, asperphenamate, aspochalamins, aspulvinones, asteltoxin, asterric acid, asterriquinones, aszonalenins, atrovenetins, butyrolactones, citreoisocoumarins, citreoviridins, citrinins, decaturins, fulvic acid, geodins, gregatins, mevinolins, serantrypinone, terreic acid (only the precursor 3,6-dihydroxytoluquinone found), terreins, terrequinones, terretonins and territrems. The cholesterol-lowering agent mevinolin was found in A. terreus and A. neoafricanus only. The hepatotoxic extrolite citrinin was found in eight species: A. alabamensis, A. allahabadii, A. carneus, A. floccosus, A. hortai, A. neoindicus, A. niveus and A. pseudoterreus. The neurotoxic extrolite citreoviridin was found in five species: A. neoafricanus, A. aureoterreus, A. pseudoterreus, A. terreus and A. neoniveus. Territrems, tremorgenic extrolites, were found in some strains of A. alabamensis and A. terreus.

Samson, R.A.; Peterson, S.W.; Frisvad, J.C.; Varga, J.

2011-01-01

414

New species in Aspergillus section Terrei.  

PubMed

Section Terrei of Aspergillus was studied using a polyphasic approach including sequence analysis of parts of the ?-tubulin and calmodulin genes and the ITS region, macro- and micromorphological analyses and examination of extrolite profiles to describe three new species in this section. Based on phylogenetic analysis of calmodulin and ?-tubulin sequences seven lineages were observed among isolates that have previously been treated as A. terreus and its subspecies by Raper & Fennell (1965) and others. Aspergillus alabamensis, A. terreus var. floccosus, A. terreus var. africanus, A. terreus var. aureus, A. hortai and A. terreus NRRL 4017 all represent distinct lineages from the A. terreus clade. Among them, A. terreus var. floccosus, A. terreus NRRL 4017 and A. terreus var. aureus could also be distinguished from A. terreus by using ITS sequence data. New names are proposed for A. terreus var. floccosus, A. terreus var. africanus, A. terreus var. aureus, while Aspergillus hortai is recognised at species level. Aspergillus terreus NRRL 4017 is described as the new species A. pseudoterreus. Also included in section Terrei are some species formerly placed in sections Flavipedes and Versicolores. A. clade including the type isolate of A. niveus (CBS 115.27) constitutes a lineage closely related to A. carneus. Fennellia nivea, the hypothesized teleomorph is not related to this clade. Aspergillus allahabadii, A. niveus var. indicus, and two species originally placed in section Versicolores, A. ambiguus and A. microcysticus, also form well-defined lineages on all trees. Species in Aspergillus section Terrei are producers of a diverse array of secondary metabolites. However, many of the species in the section produce different combinations of the following metabolites: acetylaranotin, asperphenamate, aspochalamins, aspulvinones, asteltoxin, asterric acid, asterriquinones, aszonalenins, atrovenetins, butyrolactones, citreoisocoumarins, citreoviridins, citrinins, decaturins, fulvic acid, geodins, gregatins, mevinolins, serantrypinone, terreic acid (only the precursor 3,6-dihydroxytoluquinone found), terreins, terrequinones, terretonins and territrems. The cholesterol-lowering agent mevinolin was found in A. terreus and A. neoafricanus only. The hepatotoxic extrolite citrinin was found in eight species: A. alabamensis, A. allahabadii, A. carneus, A. floccosus, A. hortai, A. neoindicus, A. niveus and A. pseudoterreus. The neurotoxic extrolite citreoviridin was found in five species: A. neoafricanus, A. aureoterreus, A. pseudoterreus, A. terreus and A. neoniveus. Territrems, tremorgenic extrolites, were found in some strains of A. alabamensis and A. terreus. PMID:21892242

Samson, R A; Peterson, S W; Frisvad, J C; Varga, J

2011-06-30

415

Fungal post-treatment of pulp mill effluents for the removal of recalcitrant pollutants.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to evaluate the post-treatment of an anaerobic recalcitrant effluent (anaerobically-treated weak black liquor, AnE) in an aerobic, upflow reactor packed with "biocubes" of Trametes versicolor immobilized onto small cubes of holm oak wood. The treated effluent (named anaerobic effluent; AnE) from an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor was fed to an up-flow aerobic fungal packed bed reactor (PBR). Two HRT were tested in this unit, namely 5 and 2.5days; the PBR operated 60days at 5-day HRT and 35days at 2.5-day HRT. The aerobic packed bench scale reactor was a glass column 1.5L total geometric volume containing 0.75L biocubes of T. versicolor immobilized onto holm oak wood small cubes of 5mm side. The reactor was operated at 25 degrees C. The pH of the AnE was adjusted to 4.5 before feeding; no carbohydrates or other soluble carbon source was supplemented. The fungal packed bed bioreactor averaged organic matter removals of 30% and 32% COD basis, during an experimental run of 60days at 5-day HRT and 35days at 2.5-day HRT, respectively. Colour and ligninoids contents were removed at higher percentages (69% and 54% respectively, average of both HRT). There was no significant difference between reactor performance at 5- and 2.5-day HRT, so, operation at 2.5-day HRT is recommended since reactor throughput is double. Activity of manganese peroxidase and laccase was found during the entire operation of the fungal PBR whereas lignin peroxidase activity practically disappeared in the second operation period. In general, enzyme activities were higher in the first period of operation (5-day HRT) than at 2.5-day HRT. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the few works that demonstrated extended performance (3months) of a fungal bioreactor for the treatment of a recalcitrant wastewater with no supplementation of glucose or other expensive, soluble carbohydrate. PMID:19010664

Ortega-Clemente, Alfredo; Caffarel-Méndez, S; Ponce-Noyola, M T; Barrera-Córtes, J; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M

2008-11-17

416

Mycoflora and ochratoxin A producing strains of Aspergillus in Algerian wheat.  

PubMed

Wheat is a basic staple food for very large segments of the population of Algeria. The aim of this study is to analyse ochratoxin A (OTA)-producing mould and OTA-contaminated wheat. To evaluate the mycoflora and the potential for OTA production by Aspergillus strains, a total of 85 samples of wheat destined for human consumption were collected from two regions in Algeria (Tizi Ouzou and Setif) during the following phases: preharvest, storage in silos, and after processing. The mean value counts of fungi ranged from 275 to 1277 CFU g(-1). The dominant genus was Aspergillus, predominantly A. flavus, A. niger and A. versicolor. The other isolated species were A. ochraceus, A. alliaceus, A. carbonarius, A. terreus, A. fumigatus, A. candidus and Aspergillus spp. The occurrence and the levels of the genus Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternaria and Mucor were substantially lower than those of Aspergillus. The storage in silos shows high levels of Aspergillus (66 to 84%), especially A. flavus, but A. niger and other fungi were isolated at relatively low percentages. Equal distribution of the fungal contamination into the bran, flour and semolina fractions was observed from Flour Mill and Semolina Mill. The genus Aspergillus remained present at high levels at several phases of the production process. In addition, the ability to produce OTA by 135 isolates belonging to eleven species of Aspergillus and 23 isolates of Penicillium spp. was analyzed using fluorescent detection-based HPLC. Thus, it was found that 51 isolates (32.3%) were ochratoxigenic. All isolated strains of A. ochraceus (12) and A. alliaceus (6) produced OTA at concentrations ranging from 0.23 to 11.50 microg g(-1). Most of the A. carbonarius strains (80%) were OTA producers (0.01 to 9.35 microg g(-1)), whereas A. terreus (50%), A. niger (28%), A. fumigatus (40%), A. versicolor (18%) and Penicillium spp. (21.7%) were low level producers (0.01 to 0.07 microg g(-1)). The concentration of OTA was determined in 30 samples of wheat. OTA was detected in 12 (40%) of the samples at levels ranging from 0.21 to 41.55 microg kg(-1). PMID:18083262

Riba, A; Mokrane, S; Mathieu, F; Lebrihi, A; Sabaou, N

2007-11-29

417

Detection of betanodaviruses in apparently healthy aquarium fishes and invertebrates  

PubMed Central

Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in cultured marine fish. A total of 237 apparently healthy aquarium fish, marine (65 species) and freshwater (12 species) fishes and marine invertebrates (4 species), which were stocked in a commercial aquarium in Seoul, South Korea, were collected from November 2005 to February 2006. The brains of the fish and other tissues of the invertebrates were examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested PCR to detect betanodavirus. Positive nested PCR results were obtained from the brains of 8 marine fish species (shrimp fish Aeoliscus strigatus, milkfish Chanos chanos, three spot damsel Dascyllus trimaculatus, Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus, pinecone fish Monocentris japonica, blue ribbon eel Rhinomuraena quaesita, look down fish Selene vomer, yellow tang Zebrasoma flavesenes), 1 marine invertebrate species (spiny lobster Pamulirus versicolor), and 2 freshwater fish species (South American leaf fish Monocirrhus polyacanthus and red piranha Pygocentrus nattereri). The detection rate in nested PCR was 11/237 (4.64%). These subclinically infected aquarium fish and invertebrates may constitute an inoculum source of betanodaviruses for cultured fishes in the Korean Peninsula.

Gomez, Dennis Kaw; Lim, Dong Joo; Baeck, Gun Wook; Youn, Hee Jeong; Shin, Nam Shik; Youn, Hwa Young; Hwang, Cheol Yong; Park, Jun Hong

2006-01-01

418

Role of ethylene in the senescence of isolated hibiscus petals.  

PubMed

Senescence of petals isolated from flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (cv Pink Versicolor) was associated with increased ethylene production. Exposure to ethylene (10 microliters per liter) accelerated the onset of senescence, as indicated by petal in-rolling, and stimulated ethylene production. Senescence was also hastened by basal application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). Aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis, effectively inhibited ethylene production by petals and delayed petal in-rolling. In marked contrast to these results with mature petals, immature petals isolated from flowers the day before flower opening did not respond to ethylene in terms of an increase in ethylene production or petal in-rolling. Furthermore, treatment with silver thiosulfate the day before flower opening effectively prevented petal senescence, while silver thiosulfate treatment on the morning of flower opening was ineffective. Application of ACC to both immature and mature petals greatly stimulated ethylene production indicating the presence of an active ethylene-forming enzyme in both tissues. Immature petals contained less free ACC than mature, presenescent petals and appeared to possess a more active system for converting ACC into its conjugated form. Thus, while the nature of the lack of responsiveness of immature petals to ethylene is unknown, ethylene production in hibiscus petals appears to be regulated by the control over ACC availability. PMID:16664472

Woodson, W R; Hanchey, S H; Chisholm, D N

1985-11-01

419

Role of Ethylene in the Senescence of Isolated Hibiscus Petals 1  

PubMed Central

Senescence of petals isolated from flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (cv Pink Versicolor) was associated with increased ethylene production. Exposure to ethylene (10 microliters per liter) accelerated the onset of senescence, as indicated by petal in-rolling, and stimulated ethylene production. Senescence was also hastened by basal application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). Aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis, effectively inhibited ethylene production by petals and delayed petal in-rolling. In marked contrast to these results with mature petals, immature petals isolated from flowers the day before flower opening did not respond to ethylene in terms of an increase in ethylene production or petal in-rolling. Furthermore, treatment with silver thiosulfate the day before flower opening effectively prevented petal senescence, while silver thiosulfate treatment on the morning of flower opening was ineffective. Application of ACC to both immature and mature petals greatly stimulated ethylene production indicating the presence of an active ethylene-forming enzyme in both tissues. Immature petals contained less free ACC than mature, presenescent petals and appeared to possess a more active system for converting ACC into its conjugated form. Thus, while the nature of the lack of responsiveness of immature petals to ethylene is unknown, ethylene production in hibiscus petals appears to be regulated by the control over ACC availability.

Woodson, William R.; Hanchey, Susan H.; Chisholm, Duane N.

1985-01-01

420

A 96-well electrochemical method for the screening of enzymatic activities.  

PubMed

The rapid electrochemical screening of enzyme activities in bioelectronics is still a challenging issue. In order to solve this problem, we propose to use a 96-well electrochemical assay. This system is composed of 96 screen-printed electrodes on a printed circuit board adapted from a commercial system (carbon is used as the working electrode and silver chloride as the counter/reference electrode). The associated device allows for the measurements on the 96 electrodes to be performed within a few seconds. In this work, we demonstrate the validity of the screening method with the commercial laccase from the fungus Trametes versicolor. The signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) is found to be the best way to analyze the electrochemical signals. The S/N follows a saturation-like mechanism with a dynamic linear range of two decades ranging from 0.5 to 75 ng of laccase (corresponding to enzymatic activities from 62 × 10(-6) to 9.37 × 10(-3) ?mol min(-1)) and a sensitivity of 3027 ?g(-1) at +100 mV versus Ag/AgCl. Laccase inhibitors (azide and fluoride anions), pH optima, and interfering molecules could also be identified within a few minutes. PMID:23461701

Abdellaoui, Sofiène; Noiriel, Alexandre; Henkens, Robert; Bonaventura, Celia; Blum, Loïc J; Doumèche, Bastien

2013-03-19

421

Production and degradation of oxalic acid by brown rot fungi  

SciTech Connect

Our results show that all of the brown rot fungi tested produce oxalic acid in liquid as well as in semisolid cultures. Gloeophyllum trabeum, which accumulates the lowest amount of oxalic acid during decay of pine holocellulose, showed the highest polysaccharide-depolymerizing activity. Semisolid cultures inoculated with this fungus rapidly converted {sup 14}C-labeled oxalic acid to CO{sub 2} during cellulose depolymerization. The other brown rot fungi also oxidized {sup 14}C-labeled oxalic acid, although less rapidly. In contrast, semisolid cultures inoculated with the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor did not significantly catabolize the acid and did not depolymerize the holocellulose during decay. Semisolid cultures of G. trabeum amended with desferrioxamine, a specific iron-chelating agent, were unable to lower the degree of polymerization of cellulose or to oxidize {sup 14}C-labeled oxalic acid to the extent or at the rate that control cultures did. These results suggest that both iron and oxalic acid are involved in cellulose depolymerization by brown rot fungi.

Espejo, E.; Agosin, E. (Catholic Univ. of Chile, Santiago (Chile))

1991-07-01

422

[Leprosy in the municipality of Buriticupu, State of Maranhão: active search among the student population].  

PubMed

This study had the aim of determining the coefficient of leprosy detection among the student population of the municipality of Buriticupu, State of Maranhão. An active case search method was used, covering a population of 14,653 students, in 53 schools within the municipal network. Clinical examination gave rise to a leprosy diagnosis for 20 students, which represents a detection coefficient of 13.6/10,000 students. Cutaneous lymph bacilloscopy was performed on all cases, and it was positive in two samples. The predominant clinical form was the indeterminate form, with 12 cases (60%), followed by the tuberculoid form, with five (25%) and the dimorphous form with two (10%). Biopsies were then taken from the lesions of 11 patients, and histopathological analysis showed common findings of hyperkeratosis, mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate and ectasia of vessels and isolated arrector pili muscles. The study also enabled identification of some other infectious skin diseases: pityriasis versicolor in 793, scabies in 361 and dermatophytosis in 119. A variety of nonspecific conditions were also detected, such as scars, nevi and excoriation, in 1,020 students. PMID:18200420

Silva, Antonio Rafael da; Portela, Edson Gustavo Lima; Matos, Wilma Batista de; Silva, Camila Cristina Bastos; Gonçalves, Eloisa da Graça do Rosario

423

Protection of Wood from Microorganisms by Laccase-Catalyzed Iodination  

PubMed Central

In the present work, Norway spruce wood (Picea abies L.) was reacted with a commercial Trametes versicolor laccase in the presence of potassium iodide salt or the phenolic compounds thymol and isoeugenol to impart an antimicrobial property to the wood surface. In order to assess the efficacy of the wood treatment, a leaching of the iodinated and polymerized wood and two biotests including bacteria, a yeast, blue stain fungi, and wood decay fungi were performed. After laccase-catalyzed oxidation of the phenols, the antimicrobial effect was significantly reduced. In contrast, the enzymatic oxidation of iodide (I?) to iodine (I2) in the presence of wood led to an enhanced resistance of the wood surface against all microorganisms, even after exposure to leaching. The efficiency of the enzymatic wood iodination was comparable to that of a chemical wood preservative, VP 7/260a. The modification of the lignocellulose by the laccase-catalyzed iodination was assessed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) technique. The intensities of the selected lignin-associated bands and carbohydrate reference bands were analyzed, and the results indicated a structural change in the lignin matrix. The results suggest that the laccase-catalyzed iodination of the wood surface presents an efficient and ecofriendly method for wood protection.

Engel, J.; Thony-Meyer, L.; Schwarze, F. W. M. R.; Ihssen, J.

2012-01-01

424

Ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species on grapes from Chilean vineyards and Aspergillus threshold levels on grapes.  

PubMed

This study reports the incidence of ochratoxigenic strains of Aspergillus on Chilean grapes (Vitis vinifera) and wineries, and production of OTA levels in wines with grapes having different levels of contamination with OTA-producing Aspergillus carbonarius was studied. A. carbonarius, A. niger, A. niveus, A. paradoxus, A. versicolor, A. wentii, and A. westerdijkiae were identified on apparently healthy clusters of red and white grape cultivars. However, A. carbonarius and A. niger were the most frequently identified species, more abundant on red than white grape cultivars. Aspergillus spp. populations increased between veraison and harvest, but the isolation frequencies were relatively low over the entire growing season. At the winery, A. carbonarius, A. niger and A. westerdijkiae were occasionally found in the air, exclusively during winemaking. OTA-producing strains were only found among isolates of A. carbonarius, A. niger, A. wenti, and A. westerdijkiae, producing 2 to 17 microg/L of OTA in liquid medium; however, A. westerdijkiae produced the highest OTA concentration in vitro. Red wines elaborated with 0.5% of grapes infected with an OTA-producing strain of A. carbonarius (Aspuc-SB36) exceeded the 2 microg/L of OTA tolerance established for wines by the European Community. Therefore, a threshold below 0.5% infected berries is proposed for red wines. ELISA tests proved to be useful for detecting OTA in broth culture as in wine samples. PMID:19464066

Díaz, Gonzalo A; Torres, René; Vega, Mario; Latorre, Bernardo A

2009-04-24

425

Three-dimensional organization of three-domain copper oxidases: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

“Blue” copper-containing proteins are multidomain proteins that utilize a unique redox property of copper ions. Among other blue multicopper oxidases, three-domain oxidases belong to the group of proteins that exhibit a wide variety of compositions in amino acid sequences, functions, and occurrences in organisms. This paper presents a review of the data obtained from X-ray diffraction investigations of the three-dimensional structures of three-domain multicopper oxidases, such as the ascorbate oxidase catalyzing oxidation of ascorbate to dehydroascorbate and its three derivatives; the multicopper oxidase CueO (the laccase homologue); the laccases isolated from the basidiomycetes Coprinus cinereus, Trametes versicolor, Coriolus zonatus, Cerrena maxima, and Rigidoporus lignosus and the ascomycete Melanocarpus albomyces; and the bacterial laccases CotA from the endospore coats of Bacillus subtilis. A comparison of the molecular structures of the laccases of different origins demonstrates that, structurally, these objects are highly conservative. This obviously indicates that the catalytic activity of the enzymes under consideration is characterized by similar mechanisms.

Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Zhukova, Yu. N.; Lyashenko, A. V.; Za?tsev, V. N.; Mikha?lov, A. M.

2008-01-01

426

Survival of Microorganisms under the Extreme Conditions of the Atacama Desert  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spores of Bacillus subtilis, conidia of Aspergillus niger, versicolor and ochraceus andcells of Deinococcus radiodurans have been exposed in the dark at two locations (at about 23°S and 24°S) in the Atacama Desert for up to 15 months. B. subtilis spores (survival ˜15%) and A. niger conidia (survival ˜30%) outlived the other species. The survival of the conidiaand spores species was only slightly poorer than that of thecorresponding laboratory controls. However, the Deinococcus radiodurans cells did not survive the desertexposure, because they are readily inactivated at relativehumidities between 40 and 80% which typically occurduring desert nights. Cellular monolayers of the dry sporesand conidia have in addition been exposed to the full sunlight for up to several hours. The solar fluences causing 63% loss in viability (F37-values) have been determined.These F37-values are compared with those determined atother global locations such as Punta Arenas (53°S), Key Largo (25°N) or Mainz (50°N) during the same season. Thesolar UVB radiation kills even the most resistantmicroorganisms within a few hours due to DNA damages. Thedata are also discussed with respect to possible similaritiesbetween the climatic conditions of the recent Atacama Desertand the deserts of early Mars.

Dose, Klaus; Bieger-Dose, Angelika; Ernst, Birgit; Feister, Uwe; Gómez-Silva, Benito; Klein, Anke; Risi, Sergio; Stridde, Christine

2001-06-01

427

Comparative assessment of bioremediation approaches to highly recalcitrant PAH degradation in a real industrial polluted soil.  

PubMed

High recalcitrant characteristics and low bioavailability rates due to aging processes can hinder high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) bioremediation in real industrial polluted soils. With the aim of reducing the residual fraction of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and (HMW-PAHs) in creosote-contaminated soil remaining after a 180-d treatment in a pilot-scale biopile, either biostimulation (BS) of indigenous microbial populations with a lignocellulosic substrate (LS) or fungal bioaugmentation with two strains of white-rot fungi (WRF) (i.e., Trametes versicolor and Lentinus tigrinus) were comparatively tested. The impact of bivalent manganese ions and two mobilizing agents (MAs) (i.e., Soybean Oil and Brij 30) on the degradation performances of biostimulated and bioaugmented microcosms was also compared. The results reveal soil colonization by both WRF strains was clearly hampered by an active native soil microbiota. In fact, a proper enhancement of native microbiota by means of LS amendment promoted the highest biodegradation of HMW-PAHs, even of those with five aromatic rings after 60 days of treatment, but HMW-PAH-degrading bacteria were specifically inhibited when non-ionic surfactant Brij 30 was amended. Effects of bioaugmentation and other additives such as non-ionic surfactants on the degrading capability of autochthonous soil microbiota should be evaluated in polluted soils before scaling up the remediation process at field scale. PMID:23416485

Lladó, S; Covino, S; Solanas, A M; Viñas, M; Petruccioli, M; D'annibale, A

2013-01-18

428

Characterization of the Fungal Microbiota (Mycobiome) in Healthy and Dandruff-Afflicted Human Scalps  

PubMed Central

The human scalp harbors a vast community of microbial mutualists, the composition of which is difficult to elucidate as many of the microorganisms are not culturable using current culture techniques. Dandruff, a common scalp disorder, is known as a causative factor of a mild seborrheic dermatitis as well as pityriasis versicolor, seborrheic dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis. Lipophilic yeast Malassezia is widely accepted to play a role in dandruff, but relatively few comprehensive studies have been reported. In order to investigate fungal biota and genetic resources of dandruff, we amplified the 26S rRNA gene from samples of healthy scalps and dandruff-afflicted scalps. The sequences were analyzed by a high throughput method using a GS-FLX 454 pyrosequencer. Of the 74,811 total sequence reads, Basidiomycota (Filobasidium spp.) was the most common phylum associated with dandruff. In contrast, Ascomycota (Acremonium spp.) was common in the healthy scalps. Our results elucidate the distribution of fungal communities associated with dandruff and provide new avenues for the potential prevention and treatment of dandruff.

Park, Hee Kuk; Ha, Myung-Ho; Park, Sang-Gue; Kim, Myeung Nam; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Wonyong

2012-01-01

429

The Malassezia genus in skin and systemic diseases.  

PubMed

In the last 15 years, the genus Malassezia has been a topic of intense basic research on taxonomy, physiology, biochemistry, ecology, immunology, and metabolomics. Currently, the genus encompasses 14 species. The 1996 revision of the genus resulted in seven accepted taxa: M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. sympodialis, M. globosa, M. obtusa, M. restricta, and M. slooffiae. In the last decade, seven new taxa isolated from healthy and lesional human and animal skin have been accepted: M. dermatis, M. japonica, M. yamatoensis, M. nana, M. caprae, M. equina, and M. cuniculi. However, forthcoming multidisciplinary research is expected to show the etiopathological relationships between these new species and skin diseases. Hitherto, basic and clinical research has established etiological links between Malassezia yeasts, pityriasis versicolor, and sepsis of neonates and immunocompromised individuals. Their role in aggravating seborrheic dermatitis, dandruff, folliculitis, and onychomycosis, though often supported by histopathological evidence and favorable antifungal therapeutic outcomes, remains under investigation. A close association between skin and Malassezia IgE binding allergens in atopic eczema has been shown, while laboratory data support a role in psoriasis exacerbations. Finally, metabolomic research resulted in the proposal of a hypothesis on the contribution of Malassezia-synthesized aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands to basal cell carcinoma through UV radiation-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:22232373

Gaitanis, Georgios; Magiatis, Prokopios; Hantschke, Markus; Bassukas, Ioannis D; Velegraki, Aristea

2012-01-01

430

Characterization of the fungal microbiota (mycobiome) in healthy and dandruff-afflicted human scalps.  

PubMed

The human scalp harbors a vast community of microbial mutualists, the composition of which is difficult to elucidate as many of the microorganisms are not culturable using current culture techniques. Dandruff, a common scalp disorder, is known as a causative factor of a mild seborrheic dermatitis as well as pityriasis versicolor, seborrheic dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis. Lipophilic yeast Malassezia is widely accepted to play a role in dandruff, but relatively few comprehensive studies have been reported. In order to investigate fungal biota and genetic resources of dandruff, we amplified the 26S rRNA gene from samples of healthy scalps and dandruff-afflicted scalps. The sequences were analyzed by a high throughput method using a GS-FLX 454 pyrosequencer. Of the 74,811 total sequence reads, Basidiomycota (Filobasidium spp.) was the most common phylum associated with dandruff. In contrast, Ascomycota (Acremonium spp.) was common in the healthy scalps. Our results elucidate the distribution of fungal communities associated with dandruff and provide new avenues for the potential prevention and treatment of dandruff. PMID:22393454

Park, Hee Kuk; Ha, Myung-Ho; Park, Sang-Gue; Kim, Myeung Nam; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Wonyong

2012-02-29

431

Proceedings: Fourteenth annual EPRI conference on fuel science  

SciTech Connect

EPRI's Fourteenth Annual Contractors' Conference on Fuel Science was held on May 18--19, 1989 in Palo Alto, CA. The conference featured results of work on coal science, coal liquefaction, methanol production, and coal oil coprocessing and coal upgrading. The following topics were discussed: recent development in coal liquefaction at the Wilsonville Clean Coal Research Center; British coal's liquid solvent extraction (LSE) process; feedstock reactivity in coal/oil co-processing; utility applications for coal-oil coprocessed fuels; effect of coal rank and quality on two-stage liquefaction; organic sulfur compounds in coals; the perchloroethylene refining process of high-sulfur coals; extraction of sulfur coals; extraction of sulfur from coal; agglomeration of bituminous and subbituminous coals; solubilization of coals by cell-free extracts derived from polyporus versicolor; remediation technologies and services; preliminary results from proof-of-concept testing of heavy liquid cyclone cleaning technology; clean-up of soil contaminated with tarry/oily organics; midwest ore processing company's coal benefication technology: recent prep plant, scale and laboratory activities; combustion characterization of coal-oil agglomerate fuels; status report on the liquid phase methanol project; biomimetic catalysis; hydroxylation of C{sub 2} {minus} C{sub 3} and cycloc{sub 6} hydrocarbons with Fe cluster catalysts as models for methane monooxygenase enzyme; methanol production scenarios; and modeling studies of the BNL low temperature methanol catalyst. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

Not Available

1990-05-01

432

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of alcoholic extracts of Rumex dentatus L.  

PubMed

In-vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of various concentrations ranging from 150 to 500 ?g/ml of alcoholic (methanol and ethanol) extracts of Rumex dentatus were analyzed on different clinical bacterial strains (Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus) and fungal strains (Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus flavus, Acremonium spp., Penicillium dimorphosporum, Candida albicans, Candida kruesie, Candida parapsilosis) using agar disk diffusion method and broth dilution method (MIC and MBC determination) for antimicrobial activity and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assay, Riboflavin photo-oxidation assay, deoxyribose assay, lipid peroxidation assay for antioxidant activity. The extracts showed maximum inhibitory effect against K. pneumonia and P. aeruginosa with no activity against S. typhimurium from among the bacterial strains while as in case of the fungal strains the maximum effect was observed against C. albicans by both the extracts. MIC and MBC values determined for active fractions of the extracts against some bacterial strains (S. flexneri, K. pneumonia and E. coli) revealed that the test organisms were inhibited by all the extracts with methanol showing lower values of both MIC and MBC indicating it as a better antimicrobial agent. The antioxidant activity showed that the extracts exhibited scavenging effect in concentration-dependent manner on superoxide anion radicals and hydroxyl radicals leading to the conclusion that the plant has got a broad spectrum antimicrobial and antioxidant activity and could be a potential alternative for treating various diseases. PMID:23415966

Humeera, Nisa; Kamili, Azra N; Bandh, Suhaib A; Amin, Shajr-ul-; Lone, Bashir A; Gousia, Nisa

2013-02-13

433

Genomic relationships between maize and its wild relatives  

PubMed

Recent molecular studies confirm the long-held theory that maize is a tetraploid, but the identity of the ancestral diploid species remains an enigma. The various hypotheses were investigated using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Total genomic DNA from 10 wild relatives of maize were used as probes onto maize chromosomes to see if this could identify the ancestral genome donors in maize. While none of the taxa hybridized to a subset of chromosomes, genomic DNA from Zea mays ssp. mexicana, Z. mays ssp. parviglumis, Z. diploperennis, Tripsacum dactyloides and Coix lacryma-jobi all showed a similar hybridization pattern consisting of a dispersed signal over all maize chromosomes. Moreover, the first four species also showed highly localized subtelomeric signal on the long arms of maize chromosomes 5, 6, 7, and 8. In contrast, three Sorghum species tested (S. bicolor, S. halapense, and S. versicolor) only showed hybridization at the nucleolar organizer region. In light of recent data on retrotransposon occurrence in maize, the results may provide insights into the timing of speciation of Zea, Tripsacum, and Coix. Data obtained from the tetraploid Z. perennis strongly supported its taxonomic separation from the diploid Z. diploperennis. PMID:10659788

Takahashi; Marshall; Bennett; Leitch

1999-12-01

434

Molecular analysis of Malassezia microflora in seborrheic dermatitis patients: comparison with other diseases and healthy subjects.  

PubMed

Malassezia species colonize the skin of normal and various pathological conditions including pityriasis versicolor (PV), seborrhoeic dermatitis (SD) and atopic dermatitis (AD). To elucidate the pathogenic role of Malassezia species in SD, Malassezia microflora of 31 Japanese SD patients was analyzed using a PCR-based, culture-independent method. Nested PCR assay using the primers in the rRNA gene indicated that the major Malassezia species in SD were M. globosa and M. restricta, found in 93 and 74% of the patients, respectively. The detection rate and number of each species varied similarly in SD, PV and healthy subjects (HSs), whereas AD showed higher values. Real-time PCR assay showed that the lesional skin harbored approximately three times the population of genus Malassezia found in nonlesional skin (P<0.05), and that M. restricta is a significantly more common species than M. globosa in SD (P<0.005). Genotypic analysis of the rRNA gene showed that the M. globosa and M. restricta from SD patients fell into specific clusters, and could be distinguished from those collected from HSs, but not from those colleted from AD patients. Our results indicate that certain strains of M. restricta occur in the lesional skin of SD patients. PMID:17671514

Tajima, Mami; Sugita, Takashi; Nishikawa, Akemi; Tsuboi, Ryoji

2007-08-02

435

Identification of Malassezia pachydermatis from healthy and diseased human skin.  

PubMed

Malassezia pachydermatis is the only species in the genus Malassezia that is classically considered to be zoophilic. This yeast is only occasionally isolated from human skin, although it has been found to cause septic epidemics, especially in neonates. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of M. pachydermatis on the skin of patients with Malassezia-associated diseases and of healthy subjects. One hundred and sixty skin scrapings from patients with pityriasis versicolor (PV), seborrhoeic dermatitis (SD), psoriasis (PS) and healthy individuals, forty each, were inoculated into Sabouraud dextrose agar and into modified Dixon agar. The yeasts isolated were identified according to their macroscopic and microscopic features and physiological properties. M. globosa was the most commonly isolated species in lesional skin of PV (65%) and PS (55%), M. restricta in lesional skin of SD (27.5%), while M. sympodialis was the predominant species recovered from healthy skin, representing 30% of the isolates. Zoophilic species, M. pachydermatis was identified in only one case, from the lesional skin of SD. The results of our study confirm that M. pachydermatis is not a member of the normal human flora and its presence on human skin is rare and indicates transmission from an external source. PMID:20380109

Prohic, Asja; Kasumagic-Halilovic, Emina

2009-01-01

436

Pramiconazole, a triazole compound for the treatment of fungal infections.  

PubMed

Pramiconazole from Barrier Therapeutics Inc is a new addition to the family of triazole antifungal agents that act by inhibiting fungal cell membrane ergosterol synthesis, thereby leading to increased cell permeability and destruction. Barrier Therapeutics was developing an oral formulation of pramiconazole for the potential treatment of seborrheic dermatitis (erythematosquamous skin disease), onychomycosis and dermatomycosis (including tinea versicolor, tinea pedis and tinea cruris/corporis). In preclinical studies, pramiconazole exhibited similar or superior antifungal activity to ketoconazole and itraconazole, and selectively inhibited ergosterol synthesis with a broad spectrum activity. Pramiconazole was absorbed rapidly and had a long half-life, allowing for once-daily dosing. In phase I and II clinical trials, pramiconazole reduced the growth of Candida albicans, Malassezia globosa, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum, and was generally well tolerated. At the time of publication, Barrier Therapeutics had suspended the development of pramiconazole as part of a series of cost-cutting initiatives; the company had also been acquired by Stiefel Laboratories Inc. No formal announcement had been made regarding the further development of pramiconazole. The results of studies performed to date suggest that pramiconazole may be useful in the treatment of dermatomycoses when oral treatment is mandated. Promising preclinical and early phase II clinical data warrant the further development of the drug in larger clinical trials. PMID:18763217

Geria, Aanand N; Scheinfeld, Noah S

2008-09-01

437

Selection of plants for optimization of vegetative filter strips treating runoff from turfgrass.  

PubMed

Runoff from turf environments, such as golf courses, is of increasing concern due to the associated chemical contamination of lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and ground water. Pesticide runoff due to fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides used to maintain golf courses in acceptable playing condition is a particular concern. One possible approach to mitigate such contamination is through the implementation of effective vegetative filter strips (VFS) on golf courses and other recreational turf environments. The objective of the current study was to screen ten aesthetically acceptable plant species for their ability to remove four commonly-used and degradable pesticides: chlorpyrifos (CP), chlorothalonil (CT), pendimethalin (PE), and propiconazole (PR) from soil in a greenhouse setting, thus providing invaluable information as to the species composition that would be most efficacious for use in VFS surrounding turf environments. Our results revealed that blue flag iris (Iris versicolor) (76% CP, 94% CT, 48% PE, and 33% PR were lost from soil after 3 mo of plant growth), eastern gama grass (Tripsacum dactyloides) (47% CP, 95% CT, 17% PE, and 22% PR were lost from soil after 3 mo of plant growth), and big blue stem (Andropogon gerardii) (52% CP, 91% CT, 19% PE, and 30% PR were lost from soil after 3 mo of plant growth) were excellent candidates for the optimization of VFS as buffer zones abutting turf environments. Blue flag iris was most effective at removing selected pesticides from soil and had the highest aesthetic value of the plants tested. PMID:18689747

Smith, Katy E; Putnam, Raymond A; Phaneuf, Clifford; Lanza, Guy R; Dhankher, Om P; Clark, John M

2008-08-08

438

Biodegradation of tetrabromobisphenol A by oxidases in basidiomycetous fungi and estrogenic activity of the biotransformation products.  

PubMed

Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) degradation was investigated using white rot fungi and their oxidative enzymes. Strains of the Trametes, Pleurotus, Bjerkandera and Dichomitus genera eliminated almost 1 mM TBBPA within 4 days. Laccase, whose role in TBBPA degradation was demonstrated in fungal cultures, was applied to TBBPA degradation alone and in combination with cellobiose dehydrogenase from Sclerotium rolfsii. Purified laccase from Trametes versicolor degraded approximately 2 mM TBBPA within 5 h, while the addition of cellobiose dehydrogenase increased the degradation rate to almost 2.5 mM within 3 h. Laccase was used to prepare TBBPA metabolites 2,6-dibromo-4-(2-hydroxypropane-2-yl) phenol (1), 2,6-dibromo-4-(2-methoxypropane-2-yl) phenol (2) and 1-(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphen-1-yl)-2,2',6,6'-tetrabromo-4,4'-isopropylidene diphenol (3). As compounds 1 and 3 were identical to the TBBPA metabolites prepared by using rat and human liver fractions (Zalko et al., 2006), laccase can provide a simple means of preparing these metabolites for toxicity studies. Products 1 and 2 exhibited estrogenic effects, unlike TBBPA, but lower cell toxicity. PMID:21865031

Uhnáková, Bronislava; Ludwig, Roland; P?knicová, Jana; Homolka, Ladislav; Lisá, Ludmila; Šulc, Miroslav; Pet?í?ková, Alena; Elzeinová, Fatima; Pelantová, Helena; Monti, Daniela; K?en, Vladimír; Haltrich, Dietmar; Martínková, Ludmila

2011-07-26

439

Microfungi in cultivated fields in Eski?ehir provience (Turkey).  

PubMed

The soil microfungi flora was investigated in four locations of Eski?ehir (Turkey). 56 soil samples were seasonaly collected from 14 stations in the areas of Karacahöyük, Bahçecik, OGU I, and OGU II. A total of 110 species belonging to 32 genera were encountered including Absidia, Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Beauveria, Botryoderma, Chaetomium, Chrysosporium, Cladosporium, Eupenicillium, Eurotium, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gliocladium, Gonytrichum, Metarrhizium, Mucor, Myrothecium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Phoma, Plectosphaerella, Rhizoctania, Rhizopus, Scopulariopsis, Septonema, Stachybotrys, Trichocladium, Trichoderma, Ulocladium, Verticillium, and Wardomyces. Twenty five species were more frequent (all locations) while twenty seven species were rare (only one sample). Mainly, Acremonium kiliense, Aspergillus ochraceus, A. terricola var. americanus, A. versicolor, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Gliocladium roseum, Penicillium chrysogenum, P. corylophum, P. expansum, P. griseofulvum, P. implicatum, P. restrictum, and Stachybotrys chartarum were the most common and abundant microfungi in all locations. Five species Aspergillus subsessilis, A. terreus var. africanus, Eupenicillium egyptiacum, Paecilomyces ramosus, and Penicillium novae-zeelandiae are likely to be newly recorded for Turkey. The microfungi number in Eski?ehir soils was between 25,000-234,000 CFU/g (mean value at 126,375 CFU/g). PMID:16028200

Demirel, Rasime; Ilhan, Semra; Asan, Ahmet; Kinaci, Engin; Oner, Setenay

2005-01-01

440

Assessment of anti-inflammatory, lipid peroxidation and acute toxicity of extracts obtained from wild higher basidiomycetes mushrooms collected from Akure (southwest Nigeria).  

PubMed

Ethanolic extracts of three wild medicinal mushrooms, namely Lenzites betulina (LET), Trametes versicolor (TET), and Coriolopsis polyzona (CET), collected from Akure, southwest Nigeria, were assessed for their lipid peroxidation, anti-inflammatory, and acute toxicity effects. The inhibition of the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) by extracts was concentration dependent and ranged from 86.99% to 92.18% at 1000 µg/ mL. The IC50 of the extracts was also in the range of 222.81 µg/mL to 737.13 µg/mL. The anti-inflammatory effect measured by inhibition of mice ear edema was higher and significantly different (P ? 0.05) than the control. The acute toxicity test also revealed tolerance to the three ethanolic extracts by Artemia salina at concentrations of 10 µg/mL to 1000 µg/mL, except for ethanolic extracts of LET and TET, which exhibited toxicity against this invertebrate at 1000 µg/mL. This research has shown that ethanolic extracts of these three macrofungi could be good sources of safe and effective antioxidant and antinflammatory agents for biopharmaceutical exploitation. PMID:23510251

Oyetayo, Victor O; Nieto-Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez, Baldomero Esquivel; Jimenez, Manuel

2012-01-01

441

Comparison of 3 methods for the determination of sinapic acid ester content in enzymatically treated canola meals.  

PubMed

The enzymatic reduction of sinapic acid ester content in canola meal using polyphenol oxidase from the fungus T. versicolor was investigated. To determine the effectiveness of this new process, the results obtained using two spectrophotometric methods and an HPLC analytical method for assaying sinapic acid ester content in the treated and untreated meals were compared. It was found that all the methods gave practically the same results when the samples from untreated canola meals were analysed. However, both of the spectrophotometric methods overestimated the sinapic acid ester content in the enzymatically treated meal by 7%-20%, as compared to the results obtained using HPLC. It was found that the sensitivity limits for the spectrophotometric methods used for the determination of sinapic acid ester content in enzymatically treated canola meals were 2.67 g and 1.47 g phenolics/kg meal for the direct and chemical spectrophotometric methods respectively. A correlation between the results obtained using the spectrophotometric and HPLC methods is given. The enzymatic treatment resulted in a negligible amount of phenolics in the treated meal. PMID:8785038

Lacki, K; Duvnjak, Z

1996-05-01

442

The Role of L-DOPA on Melanization and Mycelial Production in Malassezia Furfur  

PubMed Central

Melanins are synthesized by organisms of all biological kingdoms and comprise a heterogeneous class of natural pigments. Certain of these polymers have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several important human fungal pathogens. This study investigated whether the fungal skin pathogen Malassezia furfur produces melanin or melanin-like compounds. A melanin-binding monoclonal antibody (MAb) labelled in vitro cultivated yeast cells of M. furfur. In addition, melanization of Malassezia yeasts and hyphae was detected by anti-melanin MAb in scrapings from patients with pityriasis versicolor. Treatment of Malassezia yeasts with proteolytic enzymes, denaturant and concentrated hot acid yielded dark particles and electron spin resonance spectroscopy revealed that these particles contained a stable free radical compound, consistent with their identification as melanins. Malassezia yeasts required phenolic compounds, such as L-DOPA, in order to synthesize melanin. L-DOPA also triggered hyphal formation in vitro when combined with kojic acid, a tyrosinase inhibitor, in a dose-dependent manner. In this respect, L-DOPA is thought to be an essential substance that is linked to both melanization and yeast-mycelial transformation in M. furfur. In summary, M. furfur can produce melanin or melanin-like compounds in vitro and in vivo, and the DOPA melanin pathway is involved in cell wall melanization.

Youngchim, Sirida; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Pornsuwan, Soraya; Kajiwara, Susumu; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch

2013-01-01

443

Biodegradation of DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane] by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

PubMed Central

Extensive biodegradation of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by disappearance and mineralization of [14C]DDT in nutrient nitrogen-deficient cultures. Mass balance studies demonstrated the formation of polar and water-soluble metabolites during degradation. Hexane-extractable metabolites identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry included 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDD), 2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol (dicofol), 2,2-dichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol (FW-152), and 4,4'-dichlorobenzophenone (DBP). DDD was the first metabolite observed; it appeared after 3 days of incubation and disappeared from culture upon continued incubation. This, as well as the fact that [14C]dicofol was mineralized, demonstrates that intermediates formed during DDT degradation are also metabolized. These results demonstrate that the pathway for DDT degradation in P. chrysosporium is clearly different from the major pathway proposed for microbial or environmental degradation of DDT. Like P. chrysosporium ME-446 and BKM-F-1767, the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Phellinus weirii, and Polyporus versicolor also mineralized DDT.

Bumpus, J A; Aust, S D

1987-01-01

444

Mass Spectrometry-Based Strategy for Direct Detection and Quantification of Some Mycotoxins Produced by Stachybotrys and Aspergillus spp. in Indoor Environments?  

PubMed Central

Dampness in buildings has been linked to adverse health effects, but the specific causative agents are unknown. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by molds and toxic to higher vertebrates. In this study, mass spectrometry was used to demonstrate the presence of mycotoxins predominantly produced by Aspergillus spp. and Stachybotrys spp. in buildings with either ongoing dampness or a history of water damage. Verrucarol and trichodermol, hydrolysis products of macrocyclic trichothecenes (including satratoxins), and trichodermin, predominately produced by Stachybotrys chartarum, were analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, whereas sterigmatocystin (mainly produced by Aspergillus versicolor), satratoxin G, and satratoxin H were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. These mycotoxin analytes were demonstrated in 45 of 62 building material samples studied, in three of eight settled dust samples, and in five of eight cultures of airborne dust samples. This is the first report on the use of tandem mass spectrometry for demonstrating mycotoxins in dust settled on surfaces above floor level in damp buildings. The direct detection of the highly toxic sterigmatocystin and macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxins in indoor environments is important due to their potential health impacts.

Bloom, Erica; Bal, Karol; Nyman, Eva; Must, Aime; Larsson, Lennart

2007-01-01

445

Skin changes in patients with chronic renal failure.  

PubMed

Management of patients with renal failure remains a major problem in poor-resource nations. Cutaneous manifestations in this group of patients are varied and remain helpful in differentiating acute from chronic renal failure (CRF). We studied the prevalence and pattern of skin disorders in patients with CRF at The University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, during the period between May 2006 and February 2007. Relevant information was collected with the aid of a questionnaire. The patients were then examined for skin disorders. One hundred and twenty patients who met the inclusion criteria were recruited into the study. The mean age of the CRF patients was 43.12 ± 15.38 years, while that of the control subjects was 43.13 ± 15.38 years. Seventy-six of the 120 patients (63.3%) were on chronic hemodialysis while 44 (36.5%) were on conservative management. A total of 107 patients (89.1%) had at least one skin problem. The skin disorders seen include xerosis in 72 (60%), pruritus in 32 (26.7%), hyperpigmentation, icthyosis and pityriasis versicolor in nine patients each (7.5%), either singly or in combination. Pallor of the skin was seen in three of the patients (2.5%), while uremic frost was seen in one (0.8%). Nail changes were seen in 48 patients (40%). We conclude that xerosis, pruritus, pigmentary and nail changes were the most common skin disorders in patients with CRF in our environment. PMID:21422624

Falodun, Olarenwaju; Ogunbiyi, Adebola; Salako, Babatunde; George, Ade Kunle

2011-03-01

446

The application of dermal papillary rings in dermatology by in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) allows noninvasive visualization of human skin in vivo, without needing to fix or section the tissue. Melanocytes and pigmented keratinocytes at the level of the basal layer form bright dermal papillary rings which are readily amenable to identify in confocal images. Our purpose was to explore the role of dermal papillary rings in assessment of lesion location, the diagnosis, differential diagnosis of lesions and assessment of therapeutic efficacy by in vivo CLSM. Seventy-one patients were imaged with the VivaScope 1500 reflectance confocal microscope provided by Lucid, Inc. The results indicate that dermal papillary rings can assess the location of lesion; the application of dermal papillary rings can provide diagnostic support and differential diagnosis for vitiligo, nevus depigmentosus, tinea versicolor, halo nevus, common nevi, and assess the therapeutic efficacy of NBUVB phototherapy plus topical 0.1 percent tacrolimus ointment for vitiligo. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the dermal papillary rings play an important role in the assessment the location of lesion, diagnosis, differential diagnosis of lesions and assessment of therapeutic efficacy by in vivo CLSM. CLSM may be a promising tool for noninvasive examination in dermatology. However, larger studies are needed to expand the application of dermal papillary rings in dermatology.

Xiang, W. Z.; Xu, A. E.; Xu, J.; Bi, Z. G.; Shang, Y. B.; Ren, Q. S.

2010-08-01

447

Historical aspects of dermatomycoses.  

PubMed

Physicians have been aware of superficial fungal infections for centuries, but the causal agents and treatments of fungal infections remained unknown until the mid-1800s, when numerous important findings were reported. Among the relevant researchers in the field of superficial mycoses were Remak, who found the fungal nature of favus in 1837; Berg, who reported oral candidosis in 1841; and Wilkinson, who described vaginal candidosis in 1849. Tinea versicolor was described clinically in 1846 by Eichstedt, and its etiologic agent was identified in 1853. Beigel reported white piedra in 1856, and Cerqueira, tinea nigra in 1891. The book Les Tiegnes was published by Sabouraud in 1910, and black piedra infection was described by Horta in 1911. In 1927, Nannizzi reported the description of the sexual state of Microsporum gypseum. The current classification of dermatophytes was published by Emmons in 1934, and the taxonomy of yeast fungi was described by Lodder and Kreger-van Rij in 1952. Finally, the successful treatment of tinea capitis with griseofulvin by Gentles in 1958 saved many patients with tinea capitis from permanent hair loss, a common side effect after treatment with thallium. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. PMID:20347652

Negroni, Ricardo

2010-03-01

448

Malassezia: is it a pulmonary pathogen in the stem cell transplant population?  

PubMed

Malassezia furfur is a yeast that can cause a variety of infections, most commonly in normal hosts, and also in immunocompromised hosts. This yeast typically colonizes the skin, and is the causative agent of tinea versicolor. However, in immunocompromised hosts, it can more commonly cause catheter-related fungemia or folliculitis. Pulmonary infections from Malassezia have not been commonly recognized. Unlike many other common opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised hosts, neutropenia and the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics do not appear to be significant risk factors for Malassezia infections in the stem cell transplant (SCT) population. Additionally, disseminated infection, despite fungemia, is uncommon. A series of patients who underwent SCT at the University of Minnesota between 2004 and 2006 were reviewed for the occurrence of suspected Malassezia infections in the post-transplant period. Four cases of possible pulmonary M. furfur infection were identified in our SCT recipients. The clinical characteristics of these patients, the infections, treatment, and outcome are described. In addition, we discuss the possible pathogenicity of this yeast in the pulmonary setting. PMID:19497074

Blaes, A H; Cavert, W P; Morrison, V A

2009-05-11

449

Study of dermatoses in kidney transplant patients*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The increasing in the number of kidney transplant recipients has favored, more frequently than before, the emergence of dermatoses and warranted their study through subsequent publications. OBJECTIVES to evaluate the frequency of dermatoses in kidney transplant recipients. METHODS kidney transplant recipients with suspected dermatoses between March 1st 2009 and June 30th 2010. RESULTS 53 patients (28 males and 25 females), aged between 22 and 69 (mean age = 45 years) were evaluated. Most of them came from the cities of Ceilândia, Samambaia and São Sebastião/DF, and had already been transplanted for 5 to 10 years before (37.7%); 62.3% were recipients of living donors and 83% were prednisone-treated. The most prevalent dermatoses were of fungal (45.3%) and viral (39.6%) etiologies. Among the non-melanoma malignant neoplasms, the basal cell carcinoma prevailed (six cases), in spite of the low incidence. Concerning fungal dermatoses, 12 cases of onychomycosis, five of pityriasis versicolor and four of pityrosporum folliculitis were reported. For diagnosis, in most cases (64.2%), laboratory examinations (mycological and histopathological) were performed. CONCLUSION cutaneous manifestations in kidney transplant recipients are generally secondary to immunosuppression. The infectious dermatoses, especially those of fungal origin, are frequently found in kidney transplant recipients and their occurrence increases progressively according to the time elapsed from the transplantation, which makes follow-up important.

de Lima, Alexandre Moretti; da Rocha, Sheila Pereira; Reis Filho, Eugenio Galdino de Mendonca; Eid, Danglades Resende Macedo; Reis, Carmelia Matos Santiago

2013-01-01

450

Lewandowsky and lutz dysplasia: report of two cases in a family.  

PubMed

Lewandowsky and Lutz dysplasia, also known as epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), is an inherited disorder in which there is widespread and persistent infection with human papilloma virus, defect in cell-mediated immunity and propensity for malignant transformation. Differential clinical and histopathologic evolutions of lesions in two cases of familial EV are compared and discussed in detail. Cases were followed up for 7 years. Detailed history, clinical features and investigations, including skin biopsy from different sites at different times, were examined. Generalized pityriasis versicolor like hypopigmented lesions in both the cases, together with variable pigmented nodular actinic keratosis like lesions on sun-exposed areas, were present. Multiple skin biopsies done from various sites on different occasions revealed features typical of EV along with lesions, i.e., actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease, basal and squamous cell carcinoma, in the elder sibling. However, skin biopsy of the other sibling showed features of EV and seborrheic keratosis only till date. This study reveals that the disease progression is variable among two individuals of the same family. Malignant lesions were seen only on sun-exposed areas and may be associated with other skin lesions or infections such as angiokeratoma of Fordyce and tinea cruris, as seen in this report. PMID:21716545

Bhutoria, Bhawna; Shome, Kaushik; Ghosh, Sulekha; Bose, Koushik; Datta, Chhanda; Bhattacharya, Subodh

2011-03-01

451

Comparison of superficial mycosis treatment using Butenafine and Bifonazole nitrate clinical efficacy.  

PubMed

Superficial fungal infections are commonly encountered by the physician. And the continuously changing epidemiology of invasive fungal infections results in the need for an expanded armamentarium of antifungal therapies. This study was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Butenafine (BTF) versus Bifonazole (BFZ) in the treatment of superficial mycosis in a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial. Of 96 patients, 48 applied (BTF) cream and 48 applied (BFZ) cream for 2 weeks to tinea versicolor, corporis and cruris treat, while tinea of feet & hands was treated for 4 weeks duration. Efficacy was assessed after the end of treatment and 2 weeks later. At the end of therapy, we find somewhat more patients using (BTF) than using (BFZ) had a mycologic cure ((BTF), 87.5%; (BFZ) 83.3%) and effective clinical response ((BTF), 91.7%; (BFZ), 83.3%). (BTF) provides rapid and persistent antifungal activity and symptom relief in patients with superficial mycosis during treatment. And patients continued to improve for at least 2 weeks after treatment. The Rates of mycologic cure and effective treatment with (BTF) were higher than with (BFZ) at cessation of treatment and 2 weeks later. However, no significant difference found between the two drugs (p> 0.05). PMID:23283047

Abdul Bari, Mohammed A

2012-11-11

452

[Fungal nail infections - an update. Part 2 - From the causative agent to diagnosis - conventional and molecular procedures].  

PubMed

Trichophyton (T.) rubrum is the most frequently isolated dermatophyte in onychomycosis, both in Germany and worldwide. T. interdigitale (formerly T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale) follows in second place. A further however rarely isolated dermatophyte in onychomycosis is Epidermophyton floccosum. Candida parapsilosis, Candida guilliermondii, and Candida albicans, followed by Trichosporon spp. are the most important yeasts which are found in onychomycosis. The molds most often responsible include Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, and several Aspergillus species, e. g. Aspergillus versicolor, and Fusarium spp. These so called non-dermatophyte molds (NDM) are increasingly isolated as emerging pathogens in onychomycosis. The diagnosis of onychomycosis should be verified in the mycology laboratory. Conventional diagnostic methods include the direct examination, ideally using fluorescence staining with Calcofluor® or Blancophor®, and culture. However, new molecular biological methods primarily employing the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for direct detection of dermatophyte DNA in skin scrapings and nail samples have been introduced into routine mycological diagnostics. The diagnostic sensitivity is higher when both conventional and molecular procedures are combined. PMID:22037818

Nenoff, P; Ginter-Hanselmayer, G; Tietz, H-J

2012-02-01

453

LEWANDOWSKY AND LUTZ DYSPLASIA: REPORT OF TWO CASES IN A FAMILY  

PubMed Central

Lewandowsky and Lutz dysplasia, also known as epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), is an inherited disorder in which there is widespread and persistent infection with human papilloma virus, defect in cell-mediated immunity and propensity for malignant transformation. Differential clinical and histopathologic evolutions of lesions in two cases of familial EV are compared and discussed in detail. Cases were followed up for 7 years. Detailed history, clinical features and investigations, including skin biopsy from different sites at different times, were examined. Generalized pityriasis versicolor like hypopigmented lesions in both the cases, together with variable pigmented nodular actinic keratosis like lesions on sun-exposed areas, were present. Multiple skin biopsies done from various sites on different occasions revealed features typical of EV along with lesions, i.e., actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease, basal and squamous cell carcinoma, in the elder sibling. However, skin biopsy of the other sibling showed features of EV and seborrheic keratosis only till date. This study reveals that the disease progression is variable among two individuals of the same family. Malignant lesions were seen only on sun-exposed areas and may be associated with other skin lesions or infections such as angiokeratoma of Fordyce and tinea cruris, as seen in this report.

Bhutoria, Bhawna; Shome, Kaushik; Ghosh, Sulekha; Bose, Koushik; Datta, Chhanda; Bhattacharya, Subodh

2011-01-01

454

Photodynamic therapy in the treatment of superficial mycoses: an evidence-based evaluation.  

PubMed

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is effective in the destruction of fungi. In order to evaluate the efficacy and safety of PDT for superficial mycoses, we performed an evidence-based review of published literature. Database of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library was searched until March 2010. English-language articles evaluating the efficacy and safety of PDT for superficial mycoses were included. No randomized clinical trials were found. Seven reports described the antifungal effect of PDT against 63 superficial mycoses patients. Eight of 10 (80%) tinea cruris patients and 6 of 10 (60%) tinea pedis were led to mycological cure after 1-3 treatments. Unfortunately, only 4 (40%) tinea cruris patients and 3 (30%) tinea pedis had a persist healing at the 8-week follow-up. Six of the 9 (66.7%) foot-interdigital mycoses patients recovered clinically and microbiologically after 1 or 4 treatments. Only 2 patients (22.2%) had a persist healing at the 8-week follow-up. Eleven of 30 (36.6%) onychomycosis patients were cure for 18 months after treatment, and 3 onychomycosis patients were all cure in other 2 reports. The therapeutic effect of PDT for one pityriasis versicolor patients was well. Overall tolerability of PDT was good. Therefore, it is unclear what PDT's place for superficial mycoses will be. Further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy of PDT to treat superficial mycoses. It is also important to optimize treatment protocols in order to cope with recurrence. PMID:20526681

Qiao, Jianjun; Li, Ruoyu; Ding, Yingguo; Fang, Hong

2010-06-05

455

Electrochemical studies of a truncated laccase produced in Pichia pastoris  

SciTech Connect

The cDNA that encodes an isoform is laccase from Trametes versicolor (LCCI), as well as a truncated version (LCCIa), was subcloned and expressed by using the yeast Pichia pastoris as the heterologous host. The amino acid sequence of LCCIa is identical to that of LCCI except that the final 11 amino acids at the C terminus of LCCI are replaced with a single cysteine residue. This modification was introduced for the purpose of improving the kinetics of electron transfer between an electrode and the copper-containing active site of laccase. The two laccases (LCCI and LCCIa) are compared in terms of their relative activity with two substrates that have different redox potentials. Results from electrochemical studies on solutions containing LCCI and LCCIa indicate that the redox potential of the active site of LCCIa is shifted to more negative values (411 mV versus normal hydrogen electrode voltage) than that found in other fungal laccases. In addition, replacing the 11 codons at the C terminus of the laccase gene with a single cysteine codon influences the rate of heterogeneous electron transfer between and electrode and the copper-containing active site. These results demonstrate for the first time that the rate of electron transfer between an oxidoreductase and an electrode can be enhanced by changes to the primary structure of a protein via site-directed mutagenesis.

Gelo-Pujic, M.; Kim, H.H.; Butlin, N.G.; Palmore, G.T.R.

1999-12-01

456

Applications of micellar enzymology to clean coal technology  

SciTech Connect

This project is designed to develop methods for pre-combustion coal remediation by implementing recent advances in enzyme biochemistry. The novel approach of this study is incorporation of hydrophilic oxidative enzymes in reverse micelles in an organic solvent. Enzymes from commercial sources or microbial extracts are being investigated for their capacity to remove organic sulfur from coal by oxidation of the sulfur groups, splitting of C-S bonds and loss of sulfur as sulfuric acid Dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethlyphenylsulfide (EPS) are serving as models of organic sulfur-containing components of coal in initial studies. A goal of this project is to define a reverse micelle system that optimizes the catalytic activity of enzymes toward desulfurization of model compounds and ultimately coal samples. Among the variables which will be examined are the surfactant, the solvent, the water:surfactant ration and the pH and ionic strength of the aqueous phase. Studies were carried out with HRP, Type I RZ=1.2 and Type VI RZ=3.2 and laccase from Polyporus versicolor. Substrates for HRP assays included hydrogen peroxide, DBT, DBT sulfoxide, and DBT sulfone. Buffers included sodium phosphate. For formation of reverse micelle solutions the surfactant AOT, di(2-ethyl-hexyl)s