Sample records for versicolor metabolitos secundarios

  1. Tinea Versicolor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... way it discolors their skin. We all have yeast living on our skin. When the yeast grow out of control, a person can get ... you have a fungal infection on your skin. Yeast is a type of fungus. Tinea versicolor is ...

  2. [Pityriasis versicolor and Malassezia folliculitis].

    PubMed

    Katoh, T; Irimajiri, J

    1999-01-01

    Pityriasis versicolor and malassezia folliculitis were studied clinically and mycologically. The main results were as follows: 1) The average age of pityriasis versicolor patients has gradually become higher. 2) Negative rates of Malassezia furfur after treatment were very high by direct examination but relatively low by culture. 3) Patients who were negative by culture on completion of treatment seldom recurred within 2 months. 4) We can evaluate the effectiveness of antifungal application by using Malassezia furfur as normal skin flora on the volunteer's back. 5) Malassezia furfur (orbiculare or ovale type) is detected in follicular contents of steroid acne and acne vulgaris, which makes it necessary to establish criteria for diagnosis of malassezia folliculitis. PMID:10234076

  3. Uncommon presentations of tinea versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Varada, Sowmya; Dabade, Tushar; Loo, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    Tinea versicolor (TV) is a common cutaneous fungal infection characterized by superficial scaling and a mild disturbance of skin pigmentation. It typically affects the chest, upper back, and shoulders. However, involvement of more unusual regions of the body such as the face and scalp, arms and legs, intertriginous sites, genitalia, areolae, and palms and soles has been reported. This report details two such cases observed at our institution: a 32-year-old woman with involvement of the popliteal fossa and a 16-year-old boy with involvement of the groin. The clinician must be aware of these variations in location and perform the appropriate diagnostic workup when lesions have the characteristic morphology of TV despite an unusual location. The etiology, pathophysiology, and epidemiology of TV are reviewed and current literature describing other instances of TV in uncommon locations is discussed. PMID:25126470

  4. Microreview of Pityriasis versicolor and Malassezia species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Morishita; Y. Sei

    2006-01-01

    Recently 11 Malassezia species were isolated. Attention has focused on the relationship between Malassezia species and Malassezia-related disease. The causal fungus of Pityriasis versicolor is M. globosa. The conditions of mycelial form induction are not clear for M. globosa.

  5. Transformation of Triclosan by Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus

    PubMed Central

    Hundt, Kai; Martin, Dierk; Hammer, Elke; Jonas, Ulrike; Kindermann, Markus Karl; Schauer, Frieder

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the ability of Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporous cinnabarinus to metabolize triclosan. T. versicolor produced three metabolites, 2-O-(2,4,4?-trichlorodiphenyl ether)-?-d-xylopyranoside, 2-O-(2,4,4?-trichlorodiphenyl ether)-?-d-glucopyranoside, and 2,4-dichlorophenol. P. cinnabarinus converted triclosan to 2,4,4?-trichloro-2?-methoxydiphenyl ether and the glucoside conjugate known from T. versicolor. The conjugates showed a distinctly lower cytotoxic and microbicidal activity than triclosan did. PMID:10966448

  6. Aflatoxin control in maize by Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Scarpari, Marzia; Bello, Cristiano; Pietricola, Chiara; Zaccaria, Marco; Bertocchi, Luigi; Angelucci, Alessandra; Ricciardi, Maria Rosaria; Scala, Valeria; Parroni, Alessia; Fabbri, Anna A; Reverberi, Massimo; Zjalic, Slaven; Fanelli, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a well-known ubiquitous fungus able to contaminate both in pre- and postharvest period different feed and food commodities. During their growth, these fungi can synthesise aflatoxins, secondary metabolites highly hazardous for animal and human health. The requirement of products with low impact on the environment and on human health, able to control aflatoxin production, has increased. In this work the effect of the basidiomycete Trametes versicolor on the aflatoxin production by A. flavus both in vitro and in maize, was investigated. The goal was to propose an environmental loyal tool for a significant control of aflatoxin production, in order to obtain feedstuffs and feed with a high standard of quality and safety to enhance the wellbeing of dairy cows. The presence of T. versicolor, grown on sugar beet pulp, inhibited the production of aflatoxin B1 in maize by A. flavus. Furthermore, treatment of contaminated maize with culture filtrates of T. versicolor containing ligninolytic enzymes, showed a significant reduction of the content of aflatoxin B1. PMID:25525683

  7. Roles of Adapalene in the Treatment of Pityriasis Versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tian-Wei Shi; Xiao-Kun Ren; Hong-Xing Yu; Yong-Bo Tang

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ketoconazole is a typical treatment available for pityriasis versicolor; tretinoin cream is effective, too. Adapalene gel is a tretinoin derivative and has a lower incidence of irritation compared with other topical retinoid products. However, there are no reports on adapalene gel for the treatment of pityriasis versicolor. Objective: To study the effect of adapalene gel comparing the treatment with

  8. Morphology of the Male Reproductive System of the Social Wasp, Polistes Versicolor Versicolor, with Phylogenetic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Vinícius Albano; Moreira, Jane; Lino-Neto, José

    2010-01-01

    Variation in the morphology of the adult male reproductive system among different groups of Hymenoptera offer characteristics that help studies of behavior and the evolutionary history of this group. The objective of this study was to describe the adult male reproductive system of the wasp Polistes versicolor versicolor Olivier (Vespidae: Polistini). The reproductive systems were dissected, fixed and embedded for light microscopy. In P. v. versicolor, the reproductive system includes a pair of testes, each one with three fusiform follicles. From each follicle emerges an efferent duct that later join together, forming a deferent duct. The first half of the deferent duct is enlarged and differentiated into a region specialized for sperm storage, the seminal vesicle. At the post-vesicular region of each of the deferent ducts an accessory gland emerges. The seminal vesicle and the accessory gland are covered with a capsule forming a vesicle-gland complex, also observed in some species of North American Polistes. Sperm are released from testes in bundles, which are disorganized inside seminal vesicles. In the testicular follicles, 95 spermatozoa were observed per cyst on average. PMID:20673189

  9. Culture Conditions for Mycelial Growth of Coriolus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Jo, Woo-Sik; Kang, Min-Jin; Choi, Seong-Yong; Yoo, Young-Bok; Seok, Soon-Ja; Jung, Hee-Young

    2010-09-01

    Coriolus versicolor, is one of the most popular medicinal mushrooms due its various biologically active components. This study was conducted to obtain basic information regarding the mycelial culture conditions of C. versicolor. Based on the culture, and MCM media were suitable for the mycelial growth of the mushroom. The optimum carbon and nitrogen sources were dextrin and yeast extract, respectively, and the optimum C/N ratio was 10 to 2 when 2% glucose was used. Other minor components required for optimal growth included thiamine-HCl and biotin as vitamins, succinic acid, lactic acid and citric acid as organic acids, as well as MgSO4·7H2O as mineral salts. PMID:23956654

  10. Laccase: production by Trametes versicolor and application to denim washing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nurdan Ka??kara Pazarl?o?lu; Merih Sarii?ik; Azmi Telefoncu

    2005-01-01

    Laccase activity was monitored in synthetic media supplemented with various phenolics. Phenol was the most effective inducer. The white rot basidiomycete Trametes versicolor, grown in non-induced and phenol induced conditions, was tested for production of laccase (TvLac), lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP), arylalcohol oxidase (AAO) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Although no PPO, LiP and AAO were observed in the

  11. Sterigmatocystin production by nine newly described Aspergillus species in section Versicolores grown on two different media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine recently described Aspergillus species and four known species in section Versicolores were tested for their ability to produce Nine recently described Aspergillus species and four known species in section Versicolores were tested for their ability to produce sterigmatocystin (ST) on two liquid ...

  12. Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Aloe vera (L.) Extract on High Cholesterol Fed Calotes versicolor Daudin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mamata Chandrakar; Sachin Palekar; Sudhir Chirade; Shiba Almas; M. Hafiz

    High blood cholesterol is a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke. Daily supplementation with Aloe vera (L) stimulates immune system and improves wound healing. Study on the effect of Aloe vera (L) extract on the serum cholesterol level on male Calotes versicolor Daudin was carried out in the present study. Calotes versicolor Daudin were made hypercholesterolemic by oral

  13. [Coriolus versicolor--innovation in prevention of oncogynecological diseases, especially HPV].

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, J

    2008-01-01

    Coriolus-MRL is a nutrient adjuvant, which contains biomass of the fungus Coriolus versicolor and is studied to reverse early stages of cervical cancer and to reduce risk factors of reoccurring HPV virus. PMID:19449722

  14. Naproxen degradation test to monitor Trametes versicolor activity in solid-state bioremediation processes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Caminal, Gloria

    2010-07-15

    The white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor has been studied as a potential agent for the removal of environmental pollutants. For long-time solid-phase bioremediation systems a test is required to monitor the metabolic status of T. versicolor and its degradation capability at different stages. A biodegradation test based on the percentage of degradation of a spiked model pharmaceutical (anti-inflammatory naproxen) in 24 h (ND24) is proposed to monitor the removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in sewage sludge. ND24 is intended to act as a test complementary to ergosterol quantification as specific fungal biomarker, and laccase activity as extracellular oxidative capacity of T. versicolor. For samples collected over 45 d, ND24 values did not necessarily correlate with ergosterol or laccase amounts but in most cases, they were over 30% degradation, indicating that T. versicolor may be suitable for bioremediation of sewage sludge in the studied period. PMID:20347219

  15. Applications of Trametes versicolor crude culture filtrates in detoxification of biomass pretreatment hydrolyzates.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Rajeev Kumar; Rajan, Kalavathy; Carrier, Danielle Julie

    2015-08-01

    Laccases have wide range of substrate specificity and find applications from pulp industry to waste water remediation. Laccases have also been used in combined pretreatment of biomass hydrolyzates to remove enzymatic and fermentation inhibitors. In this study, laccase production by Trametes versicolor strains isolated from different regions of the United States was induced using copper salts. T. versicolor crude culture filtrates (CCF), without any purification step, were tested for removal of model inhibitor compounds as well as in poplar and rice straw pretreatment hydrolyzates. Phenolic inhibitors were removed by 76% and 94% from the dilute acid hydrolyzates of rice straw and poplar, respectively, when incubated with the CCF for 12h, at room temperature. Xylo-oligosaccharide concentrations present in rice straw hydrolyzates were reduced by 64% when incubated with T. versicolor CCF. T. versicolor CCF could be a low cost technology for decreasing enzymatic and fermentation inhibitors. PMID:25876229

  16. Secondary metabolites from an algicolous Aspergillus versicolor strain.

    PubMed

    Miao, Feng-Ping; Li, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Xiang-Hong; Cichewicz, Robert H; Ji, Nai-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Two new compounds, asperversin A (1) and 9?-O-2(2,3-dimethylbut-3-enyl)brevianamide Q (2), and nine known compounds, brevianamide K (3), brevianamide M (4), aversin (5), 6,8-di-O-methylnidurufin (6), 6,8-di-O-methylaverufin (7), 6-O-methylaverufin (8), 5?,8?-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3?-ol (9), ergosta-7,22-diene-3?,5?,6?-triol (10), and 6?-methoxyergosta-7,22-diene-3?,5?-diol (11), were obtained from the culture of Aspergillus versicolor, an endophytic fungus isolated from the marine brown alga Sargassum thunbergii. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic techniques. Compounds 4, 7 and 8 exhibited antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphyloccocus aureus, and 7 also showed lethality against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) with an LC?? value of 0.5 ?g/mL. PMID:22363226

  17. Bioactive metabolites from biotransformation of paeonol by the white-rot basidiomycete Coriolus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Jun; Shi, Xin-Wei; Shuai, Qi; Gao, Jin-Ming; Zhang, An-Ling

    2011-08-01

    Biotransformation of paeonol (1) with the white-rot basidiomycete Coriolus versicolor afforded two metabolites, 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone (2) and 2,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone (3), which were identified by spectroscopic methods. Compound 3 showed higher antioxidative, antibacterial, antifungal activities than 1 or 2. The results demonstrate for the first time that C. versicolor has the capacities to catalyze hydroxylation and demethylation reactions on the aromatic compound. PMID:21922916

  18. A study on the therapeutic efficacy of Cassia alata, Linn. leaf extract against Pityriasis versicolor.

    PubMed

    Damodaran, S; Venkataraman, S

    1994-03-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of Cassia alata leaf extract against Pityriasis versicolor has been reported for the first time involving humans. For the collection of clinically effective antifungal compounds from the leaves of Cassia alata, a simple procedure has been devised. A 10-year human study indicates that the leaf extract can be reliably used as a herbal medicine to treat Pityriasis versicolor. The leaf extract has no side-effects. PMID:8046939

  19. Induction of laccases in Trametes versicolor by aqueous wood extracts.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Brandt; Martínez-Morales, Fernando; Tinoco, Raunel; Rojas-Trejo, Sonia; Serrano-Carreón, Leobardo; Trejo-Hernández, María R

    2014-01-01

    The induction of laccase isoforms in Trametes versicolor HEMIM-9 by aqueous extracts (AE) from softwood and hardwood was studied. Samples of sawdust of Pinus sp., Cedrela sp., and Quercus sp. were boiled in water to obtain AE. Different volumes of each AE were added to fungal cultures to determine the amount of AE needed for the induction experiments. Laccase activity was assayed every 24 h for 15 days. The addition of each AE (50 to 150 ?l) to the fungal cultures increased laccase production compared to the control (0.42 ± 0.01 U ml(-1)). The highest laccase activities detected were 1.92 ± 0.15 U ml(-1) (pine), 1.87 ± 0.26 U ml(-1) (cedar), and 1.56 ± 0.34 U ml(-1) (oak); laccase productivities were also significantly increased. Larger volumes of any AE inhibited mycelial growth. Electrophoretic analysis revealed two laccase bands (lcc1 and lcc2) for all the treatments. However, when lcc2 was analyzed by isoelectric focusing, inducer-dependent isoform patterns composed of three (pine AE), four (oak AE), and six laccase bands (cedar AE) were observed. Thus, AE from softwood and hardwood had induction effects in T. versicolor HEMIM-9, as indicated by the increase in laccase activity and different isoform patterns. All of the enzymatic extracts were able to decolorize the dye Orange II. Dye decolorization was mainly influenced by pH. The optimum pH for decolorization was pH 5 (85%), followed by pH 7 (50%) and pH 3 (15%). No significant differences in the dye decolorizing capacity were detected between the control and the differentially induced laccase extracts (oak, pine and cedar). This could be due to the catalytic activities of isoforms with pI 5.4 and 5.8, which were detected under all induction conditions. PMID:23861040

  20. Effect of Residual Lignin Type and Amount on Bleaching of Kraft Pulp by Trametes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Ian D.; Paice, Michael G.

    1994-01-01

    The white rot fungus Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor can delignify and brighten unbleached hardwood kraft pulp within a few days, but softwood kraft pulps require longer treatment. To determine the contributions of higher residual lignin contents (kappa numbers) and structural differences in lignins to the recalcitrance of softwood kraft pulps to biobleaching, we tested softwood and hardwood pulps cooked to the same kappa numbers, 26 and 12. A low-lignin-content (overcooked) softwood pulp resisted delignification by T. versicolor, but a high-lignin-content (lightly cooked) hardwood pulp was delignified at the same rate as a normal softwood pulp. Thus, the longer time taken by T. versicolor to brighten softwood kraft pulp than hardwood pulp results from the higher residual lignin content of the softwood pulp; possible differences in the structures of the residual lignins are important only when the lignin becomes highly condensed. Under the conditions used in this study, when an improved fungal inoculum was used, six different softwood pulps were all substantially brightened by T. versicolor. Softwood pulps whose lignin contents were decreased by extended modified continuous cooking or oxygen delignification to kappa numbers as low as 15 were delignified by T. versicolor at the same rate as normal softwood pulp. More intensive O2 delignification, like overcooking, decreased the susceptibility of the residual lignin in the pulps to degradation by T. versicolor. PMID:16349246

  1. Molecular Identification and Prevalence of Malassezia Species in Pityriasis Versicolor Patients From Kashan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Talaee, Rezvan; Katiraee, Farzad; Ghaderi, Maryam; Erami, Mahzad; Kazemi Alavi, Azam; Nazeri, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Malassezia species are lipophilic yeasts found on the skin surface of humans and other warm-blooded vertebrates. It is associated with various human diseases, especially pityriasis versicolor, which is a chronic superficial skin disorder. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify Malassezia species isolated from patients’ samples affected by pityriasis versicolor, using molecular methods in Kashan, Iran. Patients and Methods: A total of 140 subjects, suspected of having pityriasis versicolor from Kashan, were clinically diagnosed and then confirmed by direct microscopic examination. The scraped skin specimens were inoculated in modified Dixon’s medium. DNA was extracted from the colonies and PCR amplification was carried out for the 26s rDNA region. PCR products were used to further restriction fragment length polymorphism by CfoI enzyme. Results: Direct examination was positive in 93.3% of suspected pityriasis versicolor lesions. No statistically significant difference was observed in the frequency of Malassezia species between women and men. The highest prevalence of tinea versicolor was seen in patients 21–30 years-of-age. No difference could be seen in the frequency of Malassezia species depending on the age of the patients. In total, 65% of patients with pityriasis versicolor had hyperhidrosis. The most commonly isolated Malassezia species in the pityriasis versicolor lesions were; Malassezia globosa (66%), M. furfur (26%), M. restricta (3%), M. sympodialis (3%), and M. slooffiae (2%). Malassezia species were mainly isolated from the neck and chest. Conclusions: This study showed M. globosa to be the most common Malassezia species isolated from Malassezia skin disorders in Kashan, Iran. The PCR-RFLP method was useful in the rapid identification of the Malassezia species. By using these methods, the detection and identification of individual Malassezia species from clinical samples was substantially easier. PMID:25485051

  2. Aspergillus section Versicolores: nine new species and multilocus DNA sequence based phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Jurjevic, Zeljko; Peterson, Stephen W; Horn, Bruce W

    2012-06-01

    ?-tubulin, calmodulin, internal transcribed spacer and partial lsu-rDNA, RNA polymerase 2, DNA replication licensing factor Mcm7, and pre-rRNA processing protein Tsr1 were amplified and sequenced from numerous isolates belonging to Aspergillus sect. versicolor. The isolates were analyzed phylogenetically using the concordance model to establish species boundaries. Aspergillus austroafricanus, A. creber, A. cvjetkovicii, A. fructus, A. jensenii, A. puulaauensis, A. subversicolor, A. tennesseensis and A. venenatus are described as new species and A. amoenus, A. protuberus,A. sydowii, A. tabacinus and A. versicolor are accepted as distinct species on the basis of molecular and phenotypic differences. PCR primer pairs used to detect A. versicolor in sick building syndrome studies have a positive reaction for all of the newly described species except A. subversicolor. PMID:23155501

  3. Sterigmatocystin production by nine newly described Aspergillus species in section Versicolores grown on two different media.

    PubMed

    Jurjevi?, Zeljko; Peterson, Stephen W; Solfrizzo, Michele; Peraica, Maja

    2013-08-01

    Nine recently described Aspergillus species and four known species in section Versicolores were tested for their ability to produce sterigmatocystin on two liquid media, Czapek w/20% Sucrose Broth and Yeast Extract Broth grown in the dark for 1 week at 25 °C. Detection and quantification of ST were performed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry. Limit of detection was 3 ng/mL and limit of quantification was 10 ng/mL. Nine newly described Aspergillus species from various substrates, A. amoenus, A. creber, A. cvjetkovicii, A. fructus, A. jensenii, A. puulaauensis, A. subversicolor, A. tennesseensis and A. venenatus in section Versicolores were found to produce sterigmatocystin. Production was confirmed in recently collected isolates of A. protuberus and A. versicolor. A. austroafricanus and A. tabacinus did not produce sterigmatocystin. PMID:23417508

  4. A study on the antioxidant effect of Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide in rat brain tissues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiayu; Jin, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Liting; Yang, Linjun

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the antioxidant effect of Chinese medicine Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide on brain tissue and its mechanism in rats. SOD, MDA and GSH-Px levels in rat brain tissues were determined with SD rats as the animal model. The results showed that Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide can reduce the lipid peroxidation level in brain tissues during exhaustive exercise in rats, and can accelerate the removal of free radicals. The study concluded that its antioxidant effect is relatively apparent. PMID:24311873

  5. Potential of extracellular enzymes from Trametes versicolor F21a in Microcystis spp. degradation.

    PubMed

    Du, Jingjing; Pu, Gaozhong; Shao, Chen; Cheng, Shujun; Cai, Ji; Zhou, Liang; Jia, Yong; Tian, Xingjun

    2015-03-01

    Studies have shown that microorganisms may be used to eliminate cyanobacteria in aquatic environments. The present study showed that the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor F21a could degrade Microcystis aeruginosa. After T. versicolor F21a and Microcystis spp. were co-incubated for 60h, >96% of Microcystis spp. cells were degraded by T. versicolor F21a. The activities of extracellular enzymes showed that cellulase, ?-glucosidase, protease, and laccase were vital to Microcystis spp. degradation in the early stage (0h to 24h), while ?-glucosidase, protease, laccase, and manganese peroxidase in the late stage (24h to 60h). The positive and significant correlation of the degradation rate with these enzyme activities indicated that these enzymes were involved in the degradation rate of Microcystis spp. cells at different phases. It suggested that the extracellular enzymes released by T. versicolor F21a might be vital to Microcystis spp. degradation. The results of this study may be used to develop alternative microbial control agents for cyanobacterial control. PMID:25579906

  6. Sex and seasonal differences in the spatial terrestrial distribution of gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) populations

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Jarrett

    -breeding amphibians spend much of their lives in terres- trial habitat at some distance from aquatic breeding sites it moves. To elucidate amphibian spatial habitat requirements, we monitored gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor shown to influence amphibian species distributions (Hecnar and M'Closkey, 1996; Houlahan and Findlay

  7. Geographic host use variability and host range evolutionary dynamics in the phytophagous insect Apagomerella versicolor (Cerambycidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillermo A. LogarzoMiguel; Miguel A. Casalinuovo; Romina V. Piccinali; Karen Braun; Esteban Hasson

    2011-01-01

    The high diversity of phytophagous insects has been explained by the tendency of the group towards specialization; however,\\u000a generalism may be advantageous in some environments. The cerambycid Apagomerella versicolor exhibits intraspecific geographical variation in host use. In northern Argentina it is highly specialized on the herb Pluchea sagittalis (Asteraceae), while in central and southern areas it uses seven Asteraceae species.

  8. Identification and Speciation of Malassezia in Patients Clinically Suspected of Having Pityriasis Versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Avani; Koticha, Avani; Ubale, Milind; Wanjare, Shashir; Mehta, Preeti; Khopkar, Uday

    2013-01-01

    Background: Malassezia is a lipid-dependent yeast known to cause Pityriasis versicolor, a chronic, recurrent superficial infection of skin and present as hypopigmented or hyperpigmented lesions on areas of skin. If not diagnosed and treated, it may lead to disfigurement of the areas involved and also result in deep invasive infections. Aim: The aim of the present study was to identify and speciate Malassezia in patients clinically suspected of having Pityriasis versicolor. Materials and Methods: Total 139 patients suspected of having Pityriasis versicolor were evaluated clinically and diagnosis was done by Wood's lamp examination, confirmed mycologically by using KOH, cultivation on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and modified Dixon agar at a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai. The total duration of study was 12 months. Results: Majority of the patients were males (59.71%) in the age group of 21-30 years (33.81%) who were students (30.21%) by profession. The incidence of Malassezia in Pityriasis versicolor was 50.35%. The most common isolate was M. globosa (48.57%), followed by M. furfur (34.28%). Majority of the patients had hypopigmented lesions, with M. globosa as the predominant isolate. Neck was the most common site affected; 88.48% were Wood's lamp positive of which 56.91% of Malassezia isolates grew on culture. KOH mount was positive in 82.01% of which 61.40% Malassezia isolates grew on culture. Conclusions: The procedure of culture and antifungal testing is required to be performed as different species of Malassezia are involved in Pityriasis versicolor and susceptibility is different among different species. Thus, it would help to prevent recurrences and any systemic complications. PMID:23723483

  9. Genetic Relatedness Among Co-Foundresses of Two Desert Ants, Veromessor Pergandei and Acromyrmex Versicolor (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    E-print Network

    Hagen, Robert H.; Smith, Deborah R.; Rissing, Steven W.

    1988-09-20

    GENETIC RELATEDNESS AMONG CO-FOUNDRESSES OF TWO DESERT ANTS, VEROMESSOR PERGANDEI AND ACROMYRMEX VERSICOLOR (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE) BY ROBERT H. HAGEN, DEBORAH R. SMITH2, AND STEVEN W. RISSING Cooperative colony foundation occurs in some social... suggest ant foundress associations form without respect to relatedness. Here we report on an electro- phoretic analysis of intra-group relatedness among co-foundresses of Veromessorpergandei and Acromyrmex versicolor, two common desert ants...

  10. Production of polygalacturonase from Coriolus versicolor grown on tomato pomace and its chromatographic behaviour on immobilized metal chelates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria do Rosário Freixo; Amin Karmali; José Maria Arteiro

    2008-01-01

    Tomato pomace and pectin were used as the sole carbon sources for the production of polygalacturonase from a strain of Coriolus versicolor in submerged culture. The culture of C. versicolor grown on tomato pomace exhibited a peak of polygalacturonase activity (1,427 U\\/l) on the third day of culture with a specific\\u000a activity of 14.5 U\\/mg protein. The production of polygalacturonase by C.

  11. Role of Laccase and Low Molecular Weight Metabolites from Trametes versicolor in Dye Decolorization

    PubMed Central

    Moldes, Diego; Fernández-Fernández, María; Sanromán, M. Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    The studies regarding decolorization of dyes by laccase may not only inform about the possible application of this enzyme for environmental purposes, but also may provide important information about its reaction mechanism and the influence of several factors that could be involved. In this paper, decolorization of crystal violet and phenol red was carried out with different fractions of extracellular liquids from Trametes versicolor cultures, in order to describe the role of laccase in this reaction. Moreover, the possible role of the low molecular weight metabolites (LMWMs) also produced by the fungus was evaluated. The results confirm the existence of a nonenzymatic decolorization factor, since the nonprotein fraction of the extracellular liquids from cultures of T. versicolor has shown decolorization capability. Several experiments were performed in order to identify the main compounds related to this ability, which are probably low molecular weight peroxide compounds. PMID:22566767

  12. Sociogenetic structure of Polistes (Aphanilopterus) versicolor Olivier, 1791 colonies (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistini)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The observation of two distinct, well-defined oviposition areas in nests of the primitively eusocial wasp Polistes versicolor suggests the presence of multiple egg-layers and territorial behaviors. Electrophoretic analysis of enzyme loci in pupae from 35 colonies revealed an average observed heterozygosity of 0.10 and the existence of private polymorphisms, thereby indicating a low dispersion in this species. No evidence of diploid males was found. Phenotypic segregation analysis revealed the presence of more than one egg-laying female in 15 out of 35 colonies, as well as spatially preferential oviposition in 2 out of 13 nests, with distinct oviposition areas. Genetic relatedness estimates for brood were lower than expected for haplodiploid species under monogynous conditions (r = 0.75 for female broods and r = 0.5 for male) in 4 of those 13 nests, thereby inferring complex sociogenetic structuring in Polistes versicolor colonies. PMID:21637576

  13. Oxidation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) by Laccase of Trametes Versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrzej Majcherczyk; Christian Johannes; Aloys Hüttermann

    1998-01-01

    Laccase of Trametes versicolor was able to oxidize in vitro most of the 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) tested. Acenaphthylene was removed by 37% followed by anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene which were oxidized by 18 and 19%, respectively. Lower but significant oxidation of about 10% was found for eight additional PAH: acenaphthene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, and perylene. Naphthalene,

  14. Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformed roots of the parasitic plant Triphysaria versicolor retain parasitic competence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexey Tomilov; Natalya Tomilova; John I. Yoder

    2007-01-01

    Parasitic plants in the Orobanchaceae invade roots of neighboring plants to rob them of water and nutrients. Triphysaria is facultative parasite that parasitizes a broad range of plant species including maize and Arabidopsis. In this paper we describe transient and stable transformation systems for Triphysaria\\u000a versicolor Fischer and C. Meyer. Agrobacterium\\u000a tumefaciens and Agrobacterium\\u000a rhizogenes were both able to transiently

  15. Female mate choice in the gray treefrog ( Hyla versicolor ) in three experimental environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua J. Schwartz; Bryant W. Buchanan; H. Carl Gerhardt

    2001-01-01

    We studied female mate choice by Hyla versicolor in three venues to examine how acoustic and spatial complexity, background noise, and the calling behavior of males might influence preferences manifest in previous laboratory two-stimulus choice tests. Our laboratory-based two-stimulus choice tests with and without broadcasts of chorus noise demonstrated that females prefer long calls relative to short calls when calling

  16. Humoral immune response to Malassezia furfur in patients with pityriasis versicolor and seborrheic dermatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Silva; Olga Fischman; Zoilo Pires de Camargo

    1997-01-01

    Humoral immune responses against exoantigen components of oval, elliptic and round yeast forms of Malassezia furfur were analysed\\u000a by ELISA and Western blotting assays, using sera from patients with pityriasis versicolor (PV), seborrheic dermatitis (SD)\\u000a and healthy adults (HA), as control.\\u000a \\u000a Sera from patients with SD showed IgG anti-oval M. furfur titers ranging from 1\\/400 to 1\\/6400 showing geometric mean

  17. Brevianamides with antitubercular potential from a marine-derived isolate of Aspergillus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Song, Fuhang; Liu, Xinru; Guo, Hui; Ren, Biao; Chen, Caixia; Piggott, Andrew M; Yu, Ke; Gao, Hong; Wang, Qian; Liu, Mei; Liu, Xueting; Dai, Huanqin; Zhang, Lixin; Capon, Robert J

    2012-09-21

    An Aspergillus versicolor isolated from sediment collected from the Bohai Sea, China, yielded the new dimeric diketopiperazine brevianamide S (1), together with three new monomeric cometabolites, brevianamides T (2), U (3), and V (4). Structures were determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis. Brevianamide S exhibited selective antibacterial activity against Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), suggestive of a new mechanism of action that could inform the development of next-generation antitubercular drugs. PMID:22963079

  18. Transformation of halogen-, alkyl-, and alkoxy-substituted anilines by a lactase of Trametes versicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, T.; Liu, S.Y.; Bollag, J.M.

    1985-05-01

    The lactase of the fungus Trametes versicolor was able to polymerize various halogen-, alkyl-, and alkoxy-substituted anilines, showing substrate specificity similar to that of horseradish peroxidase, whereas the lactase of Rhizoctonia praticola was active only with p-methoxyaniline. The substrate specificities of the enzymes were determined by using gas chromatography to measure the decrease in substrate concentration during incubation. With p-chloroaniline as the substrate, the peroxidase and the Trametes lactase showed maximum activity near pH 4.2. The transformation of this substrate gave rise to a number of oligomers, ranging from dimers to pentamers, as determined by mass spectrometry. The product profiles obtained by high-pressure liquid chromatography were similar for the two enzymes. A chemical reaction was observed between p-chloroaniline and an enzymatically formed dimer, resulting in the formation of a trimer. All three enzymes oxidized p-methoxyaniline to 2-amino-5-p-anisidinobenzoquinone di-p-methoxyphenylimine, but only the T. versicolor lactase and the peroxidase caused the formation of a pentamer (2,5-di-p-anisidinobenzoquinone di-p-methoxyphenylimine). These results demonstrate that in addition to horseradish peroxidase, a T. versicolor lactase can also polymerize aniline derivatives.

  19. Desarrollo de un Método de Análisis de Metabolitos de Nitrofuranos en Tejido Animal Empleando el Sistema GC\\/PTV\\/EI\\/MSMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonia del Carmen; Soto Alvarado; Osvaldo Nicolás; Rodríguez Valdés; Guillermo Rodríguez; Ernesto Vélez López; Juan Temores Peña; Laura Renné; Velázquez Chong

    2008-01-01

    RESUMEN En el análisis de metabolitos de 5-nitrofuranos actualmente se emplean sistemas en fase líquida, acoplados a analizadores de masas\\/masas LC\\/MSMS los cuales son muy costosos. En este estudio se presenta un método alternativo en el cual se utiliza un sistema en fase gaseosa, con analizador de masa secuencial de trampa de iones y un sistema de inyección de temperatura

  20. Ecological attributes of Hepatozoon lacertilis Gupta et al., 2011 susceptibility in Indian lizards, Hemidactylus flaviviridis (Gekkonidae) and Calotes versicolor (Agamidae).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neelima; Bhaskar, Manju; Gupta, Dileep K

    2013-03-01

    Ecological attributes of haematozoan parasites are poorly understood. In this study, we report haematozoan prevalence in two species of Indian lizards, Hemidactylus flaviviridis (Family: Gekkonidae) and Calotes versicolor (Family: Agamidae) under three macro-environmental variables: host location, weight and seasonal variations. Hemidactylus flaviviridis (n= 199) and Calotes versicolor (n= 34) were sampled from Bareilly, Chandausi and Mirzapur, Uttar Pradesh, India belonging to different weight groups [Group I (0-5 gm), Group II (5-10 gm) and Group III (10-15 gm)] and during various seasons [Summer (May-July), Rainy (August-October), Winter (November-January), Spring (February-April)] of the year. A haemogregarine, Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 was discovered from both host species. Test for identity of the parasites was conducted by feeding infected Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) on infection-free H. flaviviridis and C. versicolor and blood examinations on 22(nd) day (H. flaviviridis) and 25(th) day (C. versicolor) post feeding (pf) revealed similar haematozoan parasites and were identified as Hepatozoon lacertilis Gupta et al., 2011. Infectivity from different locations indicated a prevalence of 5.26% (Bareilly) and 16.36% (Mirzapur) in H. flaviviridis whereas infectivity was comparatively higher (19.23%) in C. versicolor. In different weight groups, Group III indicated highest infectivity in both lizards being 21.42% (C. versicolor) and 17.85% (H. flaviviridis). Parasites showed highest prevalence during spring season (H. flaviviridis : 9.52%; C. versicolor : 25%). Values of significance were determined by chi-square test to compare the prevalence within different variables (host location, weight and season). The study has importance for its contribution to the knowledge on the diversity of reptilian hosts infected by haemogregarines. It is the first record of Hepatozoon infectivity in both lizard species with respect to the three macro-environmental variables. PMID:23665714

  1. Development of large-scale hatchery production techniques for the commercially important sea cucumber Holothuria scabra var. versicolor (Conand, 1986) in Queensland, Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grisilda Ivy; Daniel Azari; Beni Giraspy

    2006-01-01

    Overexploitation is an issue affecting sea cucumber fisheries worldwide. Improved management plans for existing sea cucumber populations and\\/or aquaculture of depleted stocks are considered indispensable to maintaining wild populations and sustainable fisheries. In this context, we evaluated the potential of the commercially important sea cucumber Holothuria scabra versicolor (golden sandfish) for mass culture in a hatchery. Adult H. scabra versicolor

  2. Microscopic Structural Changes in Paddy Straw Pretreated with Trichoderma reesei MTCC 164 and Coriolus versicolor MTCC 138.

    PubMed

    Phutela, Urmila Gupta; Sahni, Nidhi

    2013-06-01

    The present study reports the pretreatment of paddy straw by Trichoderma reesei MTCC 164 and Coriolus versicolor MTCC 138 to observe the changes in chemical composition and its correlation with change of surface structure, morphology and porosity of paddy straw. Compared with untreated straw, cellulose decreased by 15.9 and 19.3 % in T. reesei MTCC 164 and C. versicolor MTCC 138 pretreated paddy straw respectively. Lignin content increased by 41.4 % in T. reesei pretreated paddy straw whereas decreased by 19.1 % in C. versicolor pretreated straw. The microscopic structural changes were examined by scanning electron microscopy under reasonable conditions. Results showed that digestibility of paddy straw are increased by treating paddy straw with both the cultures. Both surface area and pore size of treated straw were increased partially due to solubilization of silica components. PMID:24426113

  3. Degradation of pharmaceuticals from membrane biological reactor sludge with Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Llorens-Blanch, Guillem; Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Lucas, Daniel; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià; Pennanen, Taina; Caminal, Gloria; Blánquez, Paqui

    2015-02-01

    Emerging contaminants are a wide group of chemical products that are found at low concentrations in the environment. These contaminants can be either natural, e.g., estrogens, or synthetics, such as pesticides and pharmaceuticals, which can enter the environment through the water and sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). The growth of Trametes versicolor on membrane biological reactor (MBR) sludge in bioslurry systems at the Erlenmeyer scale was assessed and its capacity for removing pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) was evaluated. The ability of the fungus to remove hydrochlorothiazide (HZT) from liquid media cultures was initially assessed. Consequently, different bioslurry media (complete nutrient, glucose and no-nutrient addition) and conditions (sterile and non-sterile) were tested, and the removal of spiked HZT was monitored under each condition. The highest spiked HZT removal was assessed under non-sterile conditions without nutrient addition (93.2%). Finally, the removal assessment of a broad set of pharmaceuticals was performed in non-spiked bioslurry. Under non-sterile conditions, the fungus was able to completely degrade 12 out of the 28 drugs initially detected in the MBR sludge, achieving an overall degradation of 66.9%. Subsequent microbial analysis showed that the microbial diversity increased after 15 days of treatment, but there was still some T. versicolor in the bioslurry. Results showed that T. versicolor can be used to remove PPCPs in bioslurry systems under non-sterile conditions, without extra nutrients in the media, and in matrices as complex as an MBR sludge. PMID:25563204

  4. Effects of ?-glucans from Coriolus versicolor on macrophage phagocytosis are related to the Akt and CK2/Ikaros.

    PubMed

    Kang, Se Chan; Koo, Hyun Jung; Park, Sulkyung; Lim, Jung Dae; Kim, Ye-Jin; Kim, Taeseong; Namkoong, Seung; Jang, Ki-Hyo; Pyo, Suhkneung; Jang, Seon-A; Sohn, Eun-Hwa

    2013-06-01

    Coriolus versicolor has been known to be an immune stimulator effects. For further understanding of the phagocytic activity and the intracellular mechanisms of ?-glucan from C. versicolor (CVG), we examined the phagocytic activity, phosphorylation of Akt and CK2, nucleus translocation of p65 and Ikaros activity in ?-glucan-treated macrophages using RT-PCR, western blotting, and IP assay. The role of Ikaros in regulating phagocytic effects of CVG was also determined using Ikaros dominant negative isoform cells. This study suggests that CK2/Ikaros are positive regulators and novel signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis and contributes to elucidating the mechanism underlying phagocytic activity induced by ?-glucan. PMID:23500440

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of the groundhopper Erianthus versicolor (Orthoptera: Caelifera: Eumastacoidea).

    PubMed

    Wei, Shi-Zhen; Huang, Yuan; Zheng, Zhe-Min; Deng, Wei-An; Lin, Li-Liang

    2014-10-16

    Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of Erianthus versicolor was determined. It was 15,397?bp in length and contained 73.94% AT. The gene order of tRNA(Asp) (D) and tRNA(Lys) (K) is reversed to K-D order; a trnF-like and a trnS(UCN)-like sequences are present almost in the same positions with trnF and trnS(UCN); the AT content of the A?+?T-rich region was low, only 59.97%. PMID:25319304

  6. Oxidation of Anthracene and Benzo[a]pyrene by Laccases from Trametes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Collins, P. J.; Kotterman, M.; Field, J. A.; Dobson, A.

    1996-01-01

    The in vitro oxidation of the two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene, which have ionization potentials of <=7.45 eV, is catalyzed by laccases from Trametes versicolor. Crude laccase preparations were able to oxidize both anthracene and the potent carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene. Oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene was enhanced by the addition of the cooxidant 2,2(prm1)-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), while an increased anthracene oxidizing ability was observed in the presence of the low-molecular-weight culture fluid ultrafiltrate. Two purified laccase isozymes from T. versicolor were found to have similar oxidative activities towards anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene. Oxidation of anthracene by the purified isozymes was enhanced in the presence of ABTS, while ABTS was essential for the oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene. In all cases anthraquinone was identified as the major end product of anthracene oxidation. These findings indicate that laccases may have a role in the oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by white rot fungi. PMID:16535468

  7. Proteomics investigation reveals cell death-associated proteins of basidiomycete fungus Trametes versicolor treated with Ferruginol.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Han; Yeh, Ting-Feng; Chu, Fang-Hua; Hsu, Fu-Lan; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2015-01-14

    Ferruginol has antifungal activity against wood-rot fungi (basidiomycetes). However, specific research on the antifungal mechanisms of ferruginol is scarce. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and fluorescent image analysis were employed to evaluate the differential protein expression of wood-rot fungus Trametes versicolor treated with or without ferruginol. Results from protein identification of tryptic peptides via liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-MS/MS) analyses revealed 17 protein assignments with differential expression. Downregulation of cytoskeleton ?-tubulin 3 indicates that ferruginol has potential to be used as a microtubule-disrupting agent. Downregulation of major facilitator superfamily (MFS)–multiple drug resistance (MDR) transporter and peroxiredoxin TSA1 were observed, suggesting reduction in self-defensive capabilities of T. versicolor. In addition, the proteins involved in polypeptide sorting and DNA repair were also downregulated, while heat shock proteins and autophagy-related protein 7 were upregulated. These observations reveal that such cellular dysfunction and damage caused by ferruginol lead to growth inhibition and autophagic cell death of fungi. PMID:25485628

  8. Enhanced production of laccase from Coriolus versicolor NCIM 996 by nutrient optimization using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Arockiasamy, Santhiagu; Krishnan, Indira Packialakshmi Gurusamy; Anandakrishnan, Nimalanandan; Seenivasan, Sabitha; Sambath, Agalya; Venkatasubramani, Janani Priya

    2008-12-01

    Plackett and Burman design criterion and central composite design were applied successfully for enhanced production of laccase by Coriolus versicolor NCIM 996 for the first time. Plackett and Burman design criterion was applied to screen the significance of ten nutrients on laccase production by C. versicolor NCIM 996. Out of the ten nutrients tested, starch, yeast extract, MnSO(4), MgSO(4) x 7H(2)O, and phenol were found to have significant effect on laccase production. A central composite design was applied to determine the optimum concentrations of the significant variables obtained from Plackett-Burman design. The optimized medium composition for production of laccase was (g/l): starch, 30.0; yeast extract, 4.53; MnSO(4), 0.002; MgSO(4) x 7H(2)O, 0.755; and phenol, 0.026, and the optimum laccase production was 6,590.26 (U/l), which was 7.6 times greater than the control. PMID:18459071

  9. Screening and comparison of antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Coriolus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaowen; Sun, Yanping; Zhang, Qingbo; Zhang, Hongwei; Yang, Bingyou; Wang, Zhibin; Zhu, Weiguo; Li, Bin; Wang, Qiuhong; Kuang, Haixue

    2014-08-01

    Six polysaccharide fractions (Coriolus versicolor polysaccharides: CVPS-1, CVPS-2, CVPS-3, CVPS-4, CVPS-5 and CVPS-6) were isolated and purified from the fruiting bodies of C. versicolor by ion exchange chromatography and gel chromatography. Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined by chemical methods, high performance liquid chromatography, and high-performance gel-permeation chromatography. Finally, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay, superoxide radical assay, and hydroxyl radical assay were carried out to test the antioxidant activities of CVPS in vitro. The results indicated that the six CVPS fractions were acidic heteropolysaccharides, composed of mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, glucose and fructose with different ratios. The molecular weights of CVPS-1, CVPS-2, CVPS-3, CVPS-4, CVPS-5 and CVPS-6 were 1740, 1480, 568, 880, 1260 and 1840kDa and the protein contents were 4.2%, 6.4%, 8.5%, 7.8%, 6.5% and 3.9%, respectively. Among the six fractions, CVPS with lower molecular weight, higher protein content and larger uronic acid amount, basically exhibited higher radical scavenging effects at the same concentration. Compared with other fractions, CVPS-3 exhibited the highest antioxidant activities. The effects of the molecular weight, protein content and uronic acid amount of the polysaccharides appeared to be significant on the improvement of the bioactivities. PMID:24857871

  10. Corolla morphology influences diversification rates in bifid toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores)

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Mazuecos, Mario; Blanco-Pastor, José Luis; Gómez, José M.; Vargas, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The role of flower specialization in plant speciation and evolution remains controversial. In this study the evolution of flower traits restricting access to pollinators was analysed in the bifid toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores), a monophyletic group of ?30 species and subspecies with highly specialized corollas. Methods A time-calibrated phylogeny based on both nuclear and plastid DNA sequences was obtained using a coalescent-based method, and flower morphology was characterized by means of morphometric analyses. Directional trends in flower shape evolution and trait-dependent diversification rates were jointly analysed using recently developed methods, and morphological shifts were reconstructed along the phylogeny. Pollinator surveys were conducted for a representative sample of species. Key Results A restrictive character state (narrow corolla tube) was reconstructed in the most recent common ancestor of Linaria sect. Versicolores. After its early loss in the most species-rich clade, this character state has been convergently reacquired in multiple lineages of this clade in recent times, yet it seems to have exerted a negative influence on diversification rates. Comparative analyses and pollinator surveys suggest that the narrow- and broad-tubed flowers are evolutionary optima representing divergent strategies of pollen placement on nectar-feeding insects. Conclusions The results confirm that different forms of floral specialization can lead to dissimilar evolutionary success in terms of diversification. It is additionally suggested that opposing individual-level and species-level selection pressures may have driven the evolution of pollinator-restrictive traits in bifid toadflaxes. PMID:24142920

  11. Ability of white-rot fungi to remove selected pharmaceuticals and identification of degradation products of ibuprofen by Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Pérez-Trujillo, Miriam; Vicent, Teresa; Caminal, Gloria

    2009-02-01

    A screening using four white-rot fungi (Trametes versicolor, Irpex lacteus, Ganoderma lucidum and Phanerochaete chrysosporium) was performed on the degradation of 10 mg L(-1) of ibuprofen (IBU, anti-inflammatory), clofibric acid (CLOFI, lipid regulator) and carbamazepine (CARBA, antiepileptic/analgetic) after 7 d of incubation. Whereas IBU was extensively degraded by all the fungi tested, T. versicolor was the only strain able to degrade either CLOFI (approximately 91%) and CARBA (approximately 58%), although the latter was also degraded by G. lucidum (approximately 47%). In vitro experiments using manganese peroxidase and laccase-mediator system showed that extracellular fungal enzyme systems did not appear to play a role in the first step of degradation. However, our in vivo studies using the cytochrome P450 inhibitors 1-aminobenzotriazole and piperonyl butoxide suggested that the cytochrome P450 system may be involved in the first step of CLOFI and CARBA oxidation by T. versicolor. During the very early stages of IBU degradation by T. versicolor, two hydroxylated metabolites were detected: 1-hydroxy ibuprofen and 2-hydroxy ibuprofen. These byproducts were subsequently degraded by the fungus to 1,2-dihydroxy ibuprofen, that was not reported in biological systems to date. Furthermore, these results are of particular interest because CLOFI and CARBA are highly persistent in the aquatic environment and they pass unchanged or poorly transformed in wastewater treatment plants. PMID:19062071

  12. Further Evidence for a Polymorphism in Gametic Segregation in the Tetraploid Treefrog HYLA VERSICOLOR Using a Glutamate Oxaloacetic Transaminase Locus

    PubMed Central

    Danzmann, Roy G.; Bogart, James P.

    1983-01-01

    Intra- and interspecific cross combinations between the tetraploid treefrog Hyla versicolor, and between H. versicolor and the diploid treefrog Hyla chrysoscelis were performed. Progeny phenotypes resulting from these crosses were examined electrophoretically using a polymorphic glutamate oxaloacetic transminase (GOT-1) locus, to determine the mechanism of chromosome segregation in H. versicolor, and to test theoretical expectations for isozyme expression in interspecific (2n x 4n or 4n x 2n) hybrids. In some intraspecific tetraploid crosses progeny phenotypes fit a disomic mode of segregation, whereas in other crosses a tetrasomic mode of segregation was the most probable. Additional crosses produced phenotypic ratios that conformed to either a disomic or tetrasomic mode of segregation. These results suggest that a polymorphism, with respect to segregation of gametes, exists in H. versicolor, resulting from differences in chromosome pairings during meiosis I. This polymorphism in gametic segregation occurred in both sexes. Certain crosses, however, produced phenotypic ratios that did not conform to any chromosome segregation model. Progeny phenotypes observed from most interspecific crosses conformed to expected interspecific isozyme staining intensity models. Symmetrical heterozygotes, representing either a single dose for both alternate alleles or double doses for both alternate alleles, were also observed. Such phenotypes are unexpected in triploid progeny. A null allele was postulated to account for the aberrant segregation ratios and phenotypes observed in certain intra- and interspecific crosses. PMID:6852524

  13. Starch degradation and nutrition value improvement in corn grits by solid state fermentation technique with Coriolus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mian; Zhang, Song

    2011-10-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate effect of Coriolus versicolor mycelia on degrading starch and improving nutrition value in corn grits through solid state fermentation technique. The results showed that using soybean meal as a nitrogen source, ?-amylase secreted from C. versicolor expressed 407.25U/g of activity, leading to 45.15% of starch degraded. The activity grew with fermentation time until the 15(th) day, after that the amylase was deactivated rapidly. An orthogonal experiment designed for the study illustrated that degradation rate of starch in corn grits attained to maximum, 50.51%, when 100g of corn grits, added 16g of soybean meal, were fermented by C. versicolor for 12 days, in an initial pH 5.5. After fermenting, compared to the nonfermented control, contents of amino acids, total sugar, crude fat and crude protein were increased by 21.00%, 38.45%, 55.56%, 69.15% respectively. The significant improvement of nutrition value in corn grits is probably attributed to the intense metabolism of C. versicolor. PMID:24031762

  14. Starch degradation and nutrition value improvement in corn grits by solid state fermentation technique with Coriolus versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Mian; Zhang, Song

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate effect of Coriolus versicolor mycelia on degrading starch and improving nutrition value in corn grits through solid state fermentation technique. The results showed that using soybean meal as a nitrogen source, ?-amylase secreted from C. versicolor expressed 407.25U/g of activity, leading to 45.15% of starch degraded. The activity grew with fermentation time until the 15th day, after that the amylase was deactivated rapidly. An orthogonal experiment designed for the study illustrated that degradation rate of starch in corn grits attained to maximum, 50.51%, when 100g of corn grits, added 16g of soybean meal, were fermented by C. versicolor for 12 days, in an initial pH 5.5. After fermenting, compared to the nonfermented control, contents of amino acids, total sugar, crude fat and crude protein were increased by 21.00%, 38.45%, 55.56%, 69.15% respectively. The significant improvement of nutrition value in corn grits is probably attributed to the intense metabolism of C. versicolor. PMID:24031762

  15. Bioactive anthraquinones from endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor isolated from red sea algae.

    PubMed

    Hawas, Usama W; El-Beih, Ahmed Atef; El-Halawany, Ali M

    2012-10-01

    The marine fungus Aspergillus versicolor was isolated from the inner tissue of the Red Sea green alga Halimeda opuntia. The fungus was identified by its morphology and 18s rDNA. Cultivation of this fungal strain led to a new metabolite named isorhodoptilometrin-1-methyl ether (1) along with the known compounds emodin (2), 1-methyl emodin (3), evariquinone (4), 7-hydroxyemodin 6,8-methyl ether (5), siderin (6), arugosin C (7), and variculanol (8). The structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry. The biological properties of ethyl acetate extract and compounds 1-3 and 6-8 were explored for antimicrobial activity, anti-cancer activity and inhibition of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease. PMID:23139125

  16. Enhanced laccase production by Trametes versicolor using corn steep liquor as both nitrogen source and inducer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Hu, Jian-Hua; Guo, Chen; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2014-08-01

    A highly efficient strategy for laccase production by Trametes versicolor was developed using corn steep liquor (CSL) as both a nitrogen source and a laccase inducer. At the optimal CSL concentration of 20 gL(-1), an extracellular laccase activity of 633.3 UL(-1) was produced after a culture period of only 5 days. This represented a 1.96-fold increase relative to control medium lacking CSL. The addition of crude phenolic extracts from CSL improved laccase production to 91.8% greater than the control. Sinapinic acid, present in CSL, caused a reduction in laccase production, vanillic acid and ferulic acid (also present in CSL) synergistically induced laccase production by more than 100% greater than the control medium. Vanillic acid and ferulic acid provided the main contribution to the enhancement of laccase production. This study provides a basis for understanding the induction mechanism of CSL for laccase production. PMID:24951276

  17. Role of laccase from Coriolus versicolor MTCC-138 in selective oxidation of aromatic methyl group.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Pankaj Kumar; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Bharati, Shashi Lata

    2014-01-01

    Now a day, laccases are the most promising enzymes in the area of biotechnology and synthesis. One of the best applications of laccases is the selective oxidation of aromatic methyl group to aldehyde group. Such transformations are valuable because it is difficult to stop the reaction at aldehyde stage. Chemical methods used for such biotransformations areexpensive and give poor yields. But, the laccase-catalyzed biotransformations of such type are non-expensive and yield is excellent. Authors have used crude laccase obtained from the liquid culture growth medium of fungal strain Coriolus versicolor MTCC-138 for the biotransformations of toluene, 3-nitrotoluene, and 4-chlorotoluene to benzaldehyde, 3-nitrobenzaldehyde, and 4-chlorobenzaldehyde, respectively, instead of purified laccase because purification process requires much time and cost. This communication reports that crude laccase can also be used in the place of purified laccase as effective biocatalyst. PMID:25898738

  18. Biological decolourisation of pulp mill effluent using white rot fungus Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, S V; Murthy, D V S; Swaminathan, T

    2012-07-01

    The conventional biological treatment methods employed in the pulp and paper industries are not effective in reducing the colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The white-rot fungi are reported to have the ability to biodegrade the lignin and its derivatives. This paper is focused on the biological treatment of pulp mill effluent from a bagasse-based pulp and paper industry using fungal treatment. Experiments were conducted using the white rot fungus, Trametes versicolor in shake flasks operated in batch mode with different carbon sources. The decolourisation efficiencies of 82.5% and 80.3% were obtained in the presence of 15 g/L and 5 g/L of glucose and sucrose concentrations respectively with a considerable COD reduction. The possibility of reusing the grown fungus was examined for repeated treatment studies. PMID:24749195

  19. Tinea Versicolor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... condition caused by surface (superficial) infection with a yeast that commonly lives on the skin. In the ... such as warm, oily, and moist skin, the yeast ( Malassezia ) can overgrow and cause a rash consisting ...

  20. ``Winter'' aggregations, colony cycle, and seasonal phenotypic change in the paper wasp Polistes versicolor in subtropical Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobbi, Nivar; Noll, Fernando B.; Penna, Marcelo A. H.

    2006-10-01

    Social wasps from temperate zones have clear annual colony cycles, and the young queens hibernate during winter. In the subtropics, the only previously reported evidence for the existence of “hibernation” is the facultative winter aggregations of females during harsh climate conditions. As in temperate-zone species analyzed so far, we show in this study that in the paper wasp, Polistes versicolor, a subtropical species, body size increases as an unfavorable season approaches. Our morphological studies indicate that larger females come from winter aggregations—that is, they are new queens. Multivariate analyses indicate that size is the only variable analyzed that shows a relationship to the differences. Given the absence of a harsh climate, we suggest that the occurrence of winter aggregations in tropical P. versicolor functions to allow some females to wait for better environmental conditions to start a new nest, rather than all being obliged to start a new nest as soon as they emerge.

  1. Transformation of N ??, N ??-dimethyl- N ?-(hydroxyphenyl)ureas by laccase from the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Jolivalt; A. Raynal; E. Caminade; B. Kokel; F. Le Goffic; C. Mougin

    1999-01-01

    Transformation of N?,N?-dimethyl-N-(hydroxyphenyl)ureas was assayed in the presence of purified laccase produced by the fungus Trametes versicolor. The para- and ortho-hydroxyphenyl derivatives were enzymatically transformed, whereas the meta derivative was not. The performance of laccase-mediated transformation depended on the pH, with an optimum for the para-derivative degradation rate at pH 5. The pH also influenced the nature of the reaction

  2. A review of research on the protein-bound polysaccharide (polysaccharopeptide, PSP) from the mushroom Coriolus versicolor (basidiomycetes: Polyporaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. B. Ng

    1998-01-01

    1.1. Protein-bound polysaccharides, designated as PSK and PSP, have been isolated from the CM-101 strain and the COV-1 strain, respectively, of the mushroom Coriolus versicolor. This article aims at summarizing existing research findings about PSP since information on PSK is well documented.2.2. PSP possesses a molecular weight of approximately 100 kDa. Glutamic and aspartic acids are abundant in its polypeptide

  3. Differential Patterns of Accumulation and Depuration of Dietary Selenium and Vanadium During Metamorphosis in the Gray Treefrog ( Hyla versicolor )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher L. Rowe; Andrew Heyes; Jessica Hilton

    2011-01-01

    Selenium (Se) and vanadium (V) are contaminants commonly found in aquatic systems affected by wastes derived from fossil fuels.\\u000a To examine their effects on a widely distributed species of amphibian, we exposed gray tree frogs (Hyla versicolor) to Se (as SeO2) or V (as NaVO3) in their diet from the early larval period to metamorphosis. Concentrations of Se in Se-enriched

  4. Transformation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by the white rot fungi Panus tigrinus and Coriolus versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Leontievsky; N. M. Myasoedova; B. P. Baskunov; C. S. Evans; L. A. Golovleva

    2000-01-01

    The toxicity of thirteen isomers of mono-, di-, tri- and pentachlorophenols was tested in potato-dextrose agar cultures of the white rot fungi Panus tigrinus and Coriolus versicolor. 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) was chosen for further study of its toxicity and transformation in liquid cultures of these fungi. Two schemes of 2,4,6-TCP addition were tested to minimize its toxic effect to fungal cultures:

  5. Adsorption of Trametes versicolor laccase to soil iron and aluminum minerals: enzyme activity, kinetics and stability studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue; Jiang, Ying; Jiao, Jiaguo; Liu, Manqiang; Hu, Feng; Griffiths, Bryan S; Li, Huixin

    2014-02-01

    Laccases play an important role in the degradation of soil phenol or phenol-like substance and can be potentially used in soil remediation through immobilization. Iron and aluminum minerals can adsorb extracellular enzymes in soil environment. In the present study, we investigated the adsorptive interaction of laccase, from the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor, with soil iron and aluminum minerals and characterized the properties of the enzyme after adsorption to minerals. Results showed that both soil iron and aluminum minerals adsorbed great amount of laccase, independent of the mineral specific surface areas. Adsorbed laccases retained 26-64% of the activity of the free enzyme. Compared to the free laccase, all adsorbed laccases showed higher Km values and lower Vmax values, indicating a reduced enzyme-substrate affinity and a lower rate of substrate conversion in reactions catalyzed by the adsorbed laccase. Adsorbed laccases exhibited increased catalytic activities compared to the free laccase at low pH, implying the suitable application of iron and aluminum mineral-adsorbed T. versicolor laccase in soil bioremediation, especially in acid soils. In terms of the thermal profiles, adsorbed laccases showed decreased thermal stability and higher temperature sensitivity relative to the free laccase. Moreover, adsorption improved the resistance of laccase to proteolysis and extended the lifespan of laccase. Our results implied that adsorbed T. versicolor laccase on soil iron and aluminum minerals had promising potential in soil remediation. PMID:24225344

  6. Bioconversion of xylose, hexoses and biomass to ethanol by a new isolate of the white rot basidiomycete Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kenji; Uchii, Atsushi; Kanawaku, Ryuichi; Yanase, Hideshi

    2014-01-01

    Second-generation bioethanol production requires the development of economically feasible and sustainable processes that use renewable lignocellulosic biomass as a starting material. However, the microbial fermentation of xylose, which is the principal pentose sugar in hemicellulose, is a limiting factor in developing such processes. Here, a strain of the white rot basidiomycete Trametes versicolor that was capable of efficiently fermenting xylose was newly isolated and characterized. This strain, designated KT9427, was capable of assimilating and converting xylose to ethanol under anaerobic conditions with a yield of 0.44 g ethanol per 1 g of sugar consumed. In culture medium containing low yeast extract concentrations, xylose consumption and ethanol productivity were enhanced. Adjusting the initial pH between 3.0 and 5.0 did not markedly influence xylose fermentation. T. versicolor KT9427 also produced ethanol from glucose, mannose, fructose, cellobiose and maltose at yields ranging from 0.45 to 0.49 g ethanol per 1 g of sugar consumed. In addition, strain KT9427 exhibited favourable conversion of non-pretreated starch, cellulose, xylan, wheat bran and rice straw into ethanol compared to common recombinant yeast strains. Taken together, the present findings suggest that T. versicolor KT9427 is a promising candidate for environmentally friendly ethanol production directly from lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:24624317

  7. The secretome of Trametes versicolor grown on tomato juice medium and purification of the secreted oxidoreductases including a versatile peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Carabajal, Maira; Kellner, Harald; Levin, Laura; Jehmlich, Nico; Hofrichter, Martin; Ullrich, René

    2013-10-10

    The present work was carried out with the aim to analyze the secretome of Trametes versicolor BAFC 2234 grown on tomato juice medium supplemented with copper and manganese. T. versicolor BAFC 2234 was selected among diverse wood dwelling agaricomycetes from Argentina by its ability to cause a strong white rot on hardwood and in addition to show high tolerance toward phenolic compounds. A considerable number of the identified proteins were related to the degradation/modification of lignocelluloses. Hydrolases, peroxidases and phenoloxidases were the most abundant enzymes produced under the above-mentioned culture conditions. The lignin-modifying oxidoreductases laccase, manganese peroxidase (MnP) and versatile peroxidase (VP) were successfully purified - the latter for the first time from T. versicolor. The native VP protein has a molecular mass of 45kDa and an isoelectric point of pH 3.7. The study clearly shows that complex plant-based media being rich in phenolics, such as tomato juice, can stimulate the secretion of a broad set of extracellular lignocellulolytic enzymes. Using such natural products as fungal culture media may give the opportunity to investigate plant biomass decomposition as well as the biodegradation of organic pollutants in an environment close to nature. PMID:23948257

  8. Solid-state fermentation of rapeseed meal with the white-rot fungi trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    ?uchowski, Jerzy; Pecio, ?ukasz; Jaszek, Magdalena; Stochmal, Anna

    2013-12-01

    Rapeseed meal is valuable high-protein forage, but its nutritional value is significantly reduced by the presence of a number of antinutrients, including phenolic compounds. Solid-state fermentation with white-rot fungi was used to decrease the sinapic acid concentration of rapeseed meal. After 7 days of growth of Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus, the sinapic acid content of rapeseed meal was reduced by 59.9 and 74.5 %, respectively. At the end of the experiment, sinapic acid concentration of T. versicolor cultures decreased by 93%of the initial value; in the case of cultures of P. ostreatus, 93.2 % reduction was observed. Moreover, cultivation of white-rot fungi on rapeseed meal resulted in the intensive production of extracellular laccase, particularly strong during the late phases of growth of T. versicolor. The obtained results confirm that both fungal species may effectively be used to decompose antinutritional phenolics of rapeseed meal. Rapeseed meal may also find use as an inexpensive and efficient substrate for a biotechnological production of laccase by white-rot fungi. PMID:24022781

  9. Biochemical response of crayfish Astacus leptodactylus exposed to textile wastewater treated by indigenous white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Aksu, Onder; Yildirim, Nuran Cikcikoglu; Yildirim, Numan; Danabas, Durali; Danabas, Seval

    2015-02-01

    The discharge of textile effluents into the environment without appropriate treatment poses a serious threat for the aquatic organisms. The present study was undertaken to investigate biochemical response of crayfish Astacus leptodactylus exposed to textile wastewater (TW) treated by indigenous white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor. Glutathione S-transferase (GST), cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) levels in hepatopancreas and abdomen tissues of crayfish exposed to untreated, treated, and diluted rates (1/10) in both TW during 24 and 96 h were tested. Physiochemical parameters (electrical conductivity (EC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH, and total dissolved solid (TDS)) of TW were determined before and after treatment. Physiochemical parameters of TW decreased after treatment. The GST activity and AchE were generally increased, but CYP1A1 activity was decreased in hepatopancreas tissue of crayfish exposed to different kinds of untreated TW. After treatment by indigenous white rot fungus (C. versicolor), GST and CYP1A1 activities were returned to control values, while AchE activities were increasing further. In this study, only GST and CYP1A1 activities of A. leptodactylus confirmed the efficiency of TW treatment with C. versicolor. PMID:25226834

  10. Identification of Malassezia Species Isolated from Patients with Pityriasis Versicolor Using PCR-RFLP Method in Markazi Province, Central Iran

    PubMed Central

    DIDEHDAR, Mojtaba; MEHBOD, Amir Sayed Ali; ESLAMIRAD, Zahra; MOSAYEBI, Mahdi; HAJIHOSSEIN, Reza; GHORBANZADE, Behzad; KHAZAEI, Mahmoud Reza

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The lipophilic yeasts of Malassezia species are members of the normal skin microbial that are cause of pityriasis versicolor. Pityriasis versicolor is a common superficial fungal infection with world-wide distribution. The phenotypic methods for identification of Malassezia species usually are time consuming and unreliable to differentiate newly identified species. But DNA-based techniques rapidly and accurately identified Malassezia species. The purpose of this study was isolation and identification of Malassezia Species from patients with pityriasis versicolor by molecular methods in Markazi Province, Central Iran in 2012. Methods Mycologic examinations including direct microscopy and culture were performed on clinical samples. DNA extraction was performed from colonies. The ITS1 region of rDNA from isolates of Malassezia species were amplified by PCR reaction. The PCR were digested by Cfo I enzyme. Results From 70 skin samples, were microscopically positive for Malassezia elements, 60 samples were grown on culture medium (85.7%). Using PCR-RFLP method, that was performed on 60 isolates, 37(61.6%) M. globosa, 14(23.3%) M. furfur, 5(8.4%) M. sympodialis and 4(6.7%) M. restrictawere identified. In one case was isolated M. globosa along with M. restricta. Conclusion The PCR-RFLP method is a useful and reliable technique for identification of differentiation of Malas-sezia species.

  11. Purification and Characterization of Cellobiose Dehydrogenases from the White Rot Fungus Trametes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Roy, B. P.; Dumonceaux, T.; Koukoulas, A. A.; Archibald, F. S.

    1996-01-01

    The white rot fungus Trametes versicolor degrades lignocellulosic material at least in part by oxidizing the lignin via a number of secreted oxidative and peroxidative enzymes. An extracellular reductive enzyme, cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH), oxidizes cellobiose and reduces insoluble Mn(IV)O(inf2), commonly found as dark deposits in decaying wood, to form Mn(III), a powerful lignin-oxidizing agent. CDH also reduces ortho-quinones and produces sugar acids which can promote manganese peroxidase and therefore ligninolytic activity. To better understand the role of CDH in lignin degradation, proteins exhibiting cellobiose-dependent quinone-reducing activity were isolated and purified from cultures of T. versicolor. Two distinct proteins were isolated; the proteins had apparent molecular weights of 97,000 and 81,000 and isoelectric points of 4.2 and 6.4, respectively. The larger CDH (CDH 4.2) contained both flavin and heme cofactors, whereas the smaller contained only a flavin (CDH 6.4). These CDH enzymes were rapidly reduced by cellobiose and lactose and somewhat more slowly by cellulose and certain cello-oligosaccharides. Both glycoproteins were able to reduce a very wide range of quinones and organic radical species but differed in their ability to reduce metal ion complexes. Temperature and pH optima for CDH 4.2 were affected by the reduced substrate. Although CDH 4.2 showed rather high substrate specificity among the ortho-quinones, it could also rapidly reduce a structurally very diverse collection of other species, from negatively charged triiodide ions to positively charged hexaquo ferric ions. CDH 6.4 showed a higher K(infm) and a lower V(infmax) and turnover number than did CDH 4.2 for all substrates tested. Furthermore, CDH 6.4 did not reduce the transition metals Fe(III), Cu(II), and Mn(III) at concentrations likely to be physiologically relevant, while CDH 4.2 was able to rapidly reduce even very low concentrations of these ions. The reduction of Fe(III) and Cu(II) by CDH 4.2 may be important in sustaining a Fenton's-type reaction, which produces hydroxyl radicals that can cleave both lignin and cellulose. Unlike the CDH proteins from Phanerochaete chrysosporium, CDH 4.2 and CDH 6.4 are unable to produce hydrogen peroxide. PMID:16535462

  12. Production of polygalacturonase from Coriolus versicolor grown on tomato pomace and its chromatographic behaviour on immobilized metal chelates.

    PubMed

    do Rosário Freixo, Maria; Karmali, Amin; Arteiro, José Maria

    2008-06-01

    Tomato pomace and pectin were used as the sole carbon sources for the production of polygalacturonase from a strain of Coriolus versicolor in submerged culture. The culture of C. versicolor grown on tomato pomace exhibited a peak of polygalacturonase activity (1,427 U/l) on the third day of culture with a specific activity of 14.5 U/mg protein. The production of polygalacturonase by C. versicolor grown on pectin as a sole carbon source increased with the time of cultivation, reaching a maximum activity of 3,207 U/l of fermentation broth with a specific activity of 248 U/mg protein. The levels of different isoenzymes of polygalacturonase produced during the culture growth were analysed by native PAGE. Differential chromatographic behaviour of lignocellulosic enzymes produced by C. versicolor (i.e. polygalacturonase, xylanase and laccase) was studied on immobilized metal chelates. The effect of ligand concentration, pH, the length of spacer arm and the nature of metal ion were studied for enzyme adsorption on immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). The adsorption of these lignocellulosic enzymes onto immobilized metal chelates was pH-dependent since an increase in protein adsorption was observed as the pH was increased from 6.0 to 8.0. The adsorption of polygalacturonase as well as other enzymes to immobilized metal chelates was due to coordination of histidine residues which are available at the protein surface since the presence of imidazole in the equilibration buffer abolished the adsorption of the enzyme to immobilized metal chelates. A one-step purification of polygalacturonase from C. versicolor was devised by using a column of Sepharose 6B-EPI 30-IDA-Cu(II) and purified enzyme exhibited a specific activity of about 150 U/mg protein, final recovery of enzyme activity of 100% and a purification factor of about 10. The use of short spacer arm and the presence of imidazole in equilibration buffer exhibited a higher selectivity for purification of polygalacturonase on this column with a high purification factor. The purified enzyme preparation was analysed by SDS-PAGE as well as by "in situ" detection of enzyme activity. PMID:18253772

  13. Enzyme-Catalyzed Oxidation of 17?-Estradiol Using Immobilized Laccase from Trametes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Cardinal-Watkins, Chantale; Nicell, Jim A.

    2011-01-01

    Many natural and synthetic estrogens are amenable to oxidation through the catalytic action of oxidative enzymes such as the fungal laccase Trametes versicolor. This study focused on characterizing the conversion of estradiol (E2) using laccase that had been immobilized by covalent bonding onto silica beads contained in a bench-scale continuous-flow packed bed reactor. Conversion of E2 accomplished in the reactor declined when the temperature of the system was changed from room temperature to just above freezing at pH 5 as a result of a reduced rate of reaction rather than inactivation of the enzyme. Similarly, conversion increased when the system was brought to warmer temperatures. E2 conversion increased when the pH of the influent to the immobilized laccase reactor was changed from pH 7 to pH 5, but longer-term experiments showed that the enzyme is more stable at pH 7. Results also showed that the immobilized laccase maintained its activity when treating a constant supply of aqueous E2 at a low mean residence time over a 12-hour period and when treating a constant supply of aqueous E2 at a high mean residence time over a period of 9 days. PMID:21869925

  14. Agrococcus versicolor sp. nov., an actinobacterium associated with the phyllosphere of potato plants.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Undine; Schumann, Peter; Ulrich, Andreas

    2008-12-01

    The taxonomic position of a group of actinobacterial strains isolated from the phyllosphere of potato plants was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Although the similarity values for their 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested an intermediate position between Microbacterium and Agrococcus, the phylogenetic tree demonstrated a clear clustering of the representative strain, K 114/01(T), within the genus Agrococcus. The presence of 2,4-diaminobutyric acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain K 114/01(T) substantiated the affiliation to the genus Agrococcus. An analysis performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry revealed highly similar spectral patterns for the isolated strains, which, together with their conformity regarding a multitude of phenotypic features, supported their affiliation to the same species. Differences in several physiological features, peptidoglycan and menaquinone composition and whole-cell fatty acid profiles enabled discrimination of the phyllosphere isolates with respect to recognized Agrococcus species. As the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values were below 97 %, the strains isolated from the phyllosphere of potato plants represent a novel species of the genus Agrococcus, for which the name Agrococcus versicolor sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is K 114/01(T) (=DSM 19812(T) =LMG 24386(T)). PMID:19060068

  15. Manganese Peroxidase, Produced by Trametes versicolor during Pulp Bleaching, Demethylates and Delignifies Kraft Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Paice, M. G.; Reid, I. D.; Bourbonnais, R.; Archibald, F. S.; Jurasek, L.

    1993-01-01

    Previous work has shown that Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor bleaches kraft pulp brownstock with the concomitant release of methanol. In this work, the fungus is shown to produce both laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) but not lignin peroxidase during pulp bleaching. MnP production was enhanced by the presence of pulp and/or Mn(II) ions. The maximum level of secreted MnP was coincident with the maximum rate of fungal bleaching. Culture filtrates isolated from bleaching cultures produced Mn(II)- and hydrogen peroxide-dependent pulp demethylation and delignification. Laccase and MnP were separated by ion-exchange chromatography. Purified MnP alone produced most of the demethylation and delignification exhibited by the culture filtrates. On the basis of the methanol released and the total and phenolic methoxyl contents of the pulp, it appears that MnP shows a preference for the oxidation of phenolic lignin substructures. The extensive increase in brightness observed in the fungus-treated pulp was not found with MnP alone. Therefore, either the MnP effect must be optimized or other enzymes or compounds from the fungus are also required for brightening. Images PMID:16348850

  16. Development of a bioreactor system for the decolorization of dyes by Coriolus versicolor f. antarcticus.

    PubMed

    Diorio, L A; Mercuri, A A; Nahabedian, D E; Forchiassin, F

    2008-05-01

    Decolorization of 100 microM malachite green (MG) by Coriolus versicolor f. antarcticus using a two-phase bioreactor, was investigated. In the first phase the decolorization ability of this fungus, growing under conditions of solid-state fermentation (SSF), was proved; in the second phase the capacity of the enzymes present in extracts from the solid residues was exploited. During the first phase using the same culture in the bioreactor, five consecutive charges were made, each with 75 ml of 100 microM MG solution, at 28 degrees C. Each cycle ended when MG solution reached a decolorization of 50%, at this time the bioreactor was discharged to a stainless steel coil at 50 degrees C, initiating the second phase of decolorization. Time required in order to reach 50% decolorization during the first phase varied between 25 and 65 min, with an average retention time of 48 min. The second stage had a retention time of 120 min. Residual MG after this phase varied from 0% to 6.3%. The role of laccase and Mn-peroxidase in MG decolorization is discussed. Toxicity of MG solutions before and after decolorization treatments was assayed using Lumbriculus variegatus as test organism. PMID:18359061

  17. Purification of a novel pepsin inhibitor from Coriolus versicolor and its biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Qiu-Ping; Sun, Ying; Tian, Ya-Ping; Zhou, Nan-Di

    2012-03-01

    A novel pepsin inhibitor was isolated from Coriolus versicolor. The purification was carried out by a 2-step ultrafiltration followed by DEAE-52 and Mono Q ion-exchange chromatography. SDS-PAGE and gel filtration chromatography analysis showed that the isolated inhibitor was a 22.3 kDa protein with a single subunit. Heat stability of this inhibitor was estimated and only 7% of its inhibitory activity lost after treatment at 98 °C. The inhibitor was more specific against pepsin than several other proteases. The dissociation constant (K(i)) and concentration required for 50% pepsin inhibition (IC50) were 5.84 × 10(-5) M and 26.26 ?g/mL, respectively. Apparent decrease of ?-helix and increase of random coil were observed in the circular dichroism spectra of pepsin when an equimolar amount of the inhibitor was added. The inhibition mechanism of this inhibitor differs from the reported aspartic protease inhibitors, according to the secondary structure and the kinetic studies of this inhibitor. PMID:22384953

  18. Separation, purification, and ?-glucosidase inhibition of polysaccharides from Coriolus versicolor LH1 mycelia.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wen-kuang; Hsu, Tai-hao; Lin, Fang-yi; Cheng, Yuan-kai; Yang, John Po-wen

    2013-01-30

    Intracellular polysaccharides (iPs) were separated and purified from Coriolus versicolor LH1 mycelia and characterized for their ?-glucosidase inhibitory properties. Three iP fractions (iPL-F5-2-1, iPL-F5-4-1, and iPL-F5-5-1) were extracted, separated, and purified from LH1 mycelia using microwave extraction technology, a DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B column, a Diaion HP20 macroporous adsorption column, and a Sephadex™ G-50 gel-permeation column. The principal constituents of iPL-F5-2-1, iPL-F5-4-1, and iPL-F5-5-1 were saponins and polyphenoic compound mixtures. The enzyme inhibition activity, IC(50) values, of these three fractions were 1.7, 1.8, and 0.8 mg/mL, respectively. The ?-glucosidase inhibitory properties were related to the presence of ?-(1,4) glycosidic linkages in the polysaccharide structure and the total relative percentage of d-glucose and d-galactose in the structure of polysaccharides, other than triterpenoids. PMID:23218298

  19. Production and structural analysis of the polysaccharide secreted by Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor ATCC 200801.

    PubMed

    Rau, Udo; Kuenz, Anja; Wray, Victor; Nimtz, Manfred; Wrenger, Julika; Cicek, Hasan

    2009-01-01

    Trametes versicolor ATCC 200801 secretes 4.1 g L(-1) of exopolysaccharide (EPS) when synthetic minimal medium and low-shear bioreactor cultivation technique are used. Structural and compositional analyses by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy yielded predominantly glucose and small amounts of galactose, mannose, arabinose, and xylose. The main EPS is composed of beta-1,3/beta-1,6-linked D-glucose molecules which is identical with Schizophyllan but does not possess a triple helical arrangement as secondary structure. Two molar mass fractions were detected by size exclusion chromatography yielding weight-average molecular weights of 4,100 and 2.6 kDa. Protein content varies between 2-3.6% (w/w). The exopolysaccharide is different in the nature of the glycosidic linkage, composition of monosaccharides, protein content, and weight-average molecular weight compared to the well-known polysaccharopeptide (PSP) and polysaccharopeptide Krestin (PSK). PMID:18800181

  20. Potential antidiabetic activity of extracellular polysaccharides in submerged fermentation culture of Coriolus versicolor LH1.

    PubMed

    Yang, John Powen; Hsu, Taihao; Lin, Fangyi; Hsu, Wenkuang; Chen, Yucheng

    2012-09-01

    The separation and purification of extracellular polysaccharides from Coriolus versicolor LH1 were investigated along with their ?-glucosidase inhibition properties. Three polysaccharide fractions (ePS-F2-1, ePS-F3-1, and ePS-F4-1) were separated from the culture medium of LH1 using a DEAE anion-exchange column and a Sephadex™ G-50 gel filtration column. Their chemical compositions was determined. On the basis of an ?-glucosidase inhibition assay, the enzyme inhibition activities of ePS-F2-1, ePS-F3-1, and ePS-F4-1 were investigated. Among these, ePS-F4-1 had the highest enzyme inhibition effects on ?-glucosidase. According to the results of the chemical component analysis, ePS-F3-1 and ePS-F4-1 are the polysaccharides which are combined with triterpenoides, and ePS-F2-1 is complexed with proteins and triterpenoides. PMID:24751027

  1. Microbial transformations of diosgenin by the white-rot basidiomycete Coriolus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guang-Wei; Gao, Jin-Ming; Shi, Xin-Wei; Zhang, Qiang; Wei, Shao-Peng; Ding, Kan

    2011-10-28

    Microbial transformation of diosgenin (3?-hydroxy-5-spirostene) using white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor afforded four previously unreported polyhydroxylated steroids, 25(R)-spirost-5-en-3?,7?,15?,21-tetraol (5), 25(R)-spirost-5-en-3?,7?,12?,21-tetrol (6), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3?,7?,12?,21-tetraol (7), and (25R)-spirost-5-en-3?,7?,11?,21-tetraol (8), along with three known congeners, 25(R)-spirost-5-en-3?,7?-diol (2), 25(R)-spirost-5-en-3?,7?,21-triol (3), and 25(R)-spirost-5-en-3?,7?,12?-triol (4). These structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR as well as HR-ESIMS analysis. In addition, we provide evidence for two new microbial hydroxylations of diosgenin: C-21 primary carbon hydroxylation and C-15 hydroxylation. The 3?-hydroxyl group and double bond in the B-ring of diosgenin were found to be important structural determinants for their activity. PMID:21985022

  2. Simple fabrication of polymer-based Trametes versicolor laccase for decolorization of malachite green.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Shujuan; Pan, Bingcai; Hua, Ming; Zhao, Xin

    2012-07-01

    A highly efficient and stable biocatalyst (denoted D201_Lac) was fabricated by encapsulating Trametes versicolor laccase within a macroporous and strongly basic exchange resin D201 through a simple adsorption process. Transmission electron micrographs and Fourier transform infrared spectra of the resultant D201_Lac proved that nanosized laccase clusters were embedded into the inner nano-pores/channels of D201. As compared to the free laccase, D201_Lac showed enhanced resistance in the pH range of 3-7 or at temperature of 30-60°C. Besides, negligible laccase was leached out from the host polymer D201 in solution of pH 3-7 and NaCl concentration up to 0.5M, which might be attributed to the electrostatic attraction and the possible twining between long-chain laccase and the cross-linking host resin. Continuous seven-cycle batch decoloration of malachite green demonstrates that decoloration efficiency of D201_Lac kept constant for more than 320-h operation. PMID:22169216

  3. Overexpression and characterization of laccase from Trametes versicolor in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Pei, J; Zhao, L; Xie, J; Cao, F; Wang, G

    2014-01-01

    A laccase-encoding gene of Trametes versicolor, lccA, was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris X33. The lccA gene consists ofa 1560 bp open reading frame encoding 519 amino acids, which was classified into family copper blue oxidase. To improve the expression level of recombinant laccase in P. pastoris, conditions of the fermentation were optimized by the single factor experiments. The optimal fermentation conditions for the laccase production in shake flask cultivation using BMGY medium were obtained: the optimal initial pH 7.0, the presence of 0.5 mM Cu2+, 0.6% methanol added into the culture every 24 h. The laccase activity was up to 11.972 U/L under optimal conditions after 16 days of induction in a medium with 4% peptone. After 100 h of large scale production in 5 L fermenter the enzyme activity reached 18.123 U/L. The recombinant laccase was purified by ultrafiltration and (NH4)2SO4 precipitation showing a single band on SDS-PAGE, which had a molecular mass of 58 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature for the laccase were pH 2.0 and 50 degrees C with 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) as a substrate. The recombinant laccase was stable over a pH range of 2.0-7.0. The K(m) and the V(max) value of LccA were 0.43 mM and 82.3 U/mg for ABTS, respectively. PMID:25272733

  4. Influence of treatment conditions on the oxidation of micropollutants by Trametes versicolor laccase.

    PubMed

    Margot, Jonas; Maillard, Julien; Rossi, Luca; Barry, D A; Holliger, Christof

    2013-09-25

    Many organic compounds present at low concentrations in municipal wastewater, such as various pharmaceuticals and biocides, are recalcitrant in conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). To improve their biodegradation, oxidoreductase enzymes such as laccases were tested. The goal was to find optimal conditions for the transformation of two anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals (diclofenac (DFC) and mefenamic acid (MFA)), one biocide (triclosan (TCN)) and one plastic additive (bisphenol A (BPA)) by Trametes versicolor laccase. Experiments were conducted in spiked solutions at different pH values (from 3 to 9), enzyme concentrations (70-1400 Ul(-1)), reaction times (0-26 hours) and temperatures (10, 25 and 40°C) following a Doehlert experimental design. A semi-empirical model was developed to understand better the combined effects of the four factors and to determine optimal values. This model was able to fit well the experimental data (R(2)>0.97) and showed good predictive ability. All four factors had a significant effect on the micropollutant oxidation with the greatest influence shown by pH. Results for single compounds were different from those obtained for mixtures of micropollutants. For instance, DFC transformation occurred at much higher rates in mixtures under alkaline conditions. Optimal conditions were compound-dependent, but were found to be between pH 4.5 to 6.5 and between 25°C to more than 40°C. A laccase concentration of 730 Ul(-1) was sufficient to obtain a high removal rate (>90%) of the four individual compounds (range of times: 40 min to 5 hours), showing the potential of laccases to improve biodegradation of environmentally persistent compounds. PMID:23831273

  5. Interaction between perchlorate and iodine in the metamorphosis of Hyla versicolor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.; Harvey, G.; Nzengung, V.

    2003-01-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) is a water-soluble, inorganic anion that is often combined with ammonium, potassium or other cations for use in industry and agriculture. Ammonium perchlorate, for example, is a potent oxidizer and is used in various military applications including rocket fuel. It has also been found in an historically widely used fertilizer, Chilean nitrate and in other fertilizers. It has been found in ground and surface waters of over 30 states and is considered a human health risk. Because of its similar atomic radius and volume, perchlorate competes with iodide for thyroid uptake and storage and thereby inhibits production of thyroid hormones. Amphibians may be particularly affected by perchlorate because they rely on the thyroid for metamorphosis. This study exposed early larval Hyla versicolor to concentrations of perchlorate ranging from 2.2 to 50 ppm to determine the effects of perchlorate on a native amphibian. In addition, three controls, 0 perchlorate, 0 perchlorate with 0.10 ppm iodide (C + I) and 50 ppm perchlorate + 0.10 ppm iodide (50 + I) were tested. Mortality (< 11% with all treatments) and growth appeared to be unaffected by perchlorate. Inhibition of development started with 2.2 ppm perchlorate and little or no development occurred at 22.9 ppm and above. This inhibition was particularly apparent at the latter stages of development including hindlimb formation and metamorphosis. The estimated EC50 for total inhibition of metamorphosis at 70 days of treatment was 3.63 ppm. There was no evidence of inhibition of development with the 50 + I, C + I, or controls, indicating that the presence of small concentrations of iodide could counter the effects of perchlorate. When tadpoles that had been inhibited by perchlorate were subsequently treated with iodide, development through prometamorphosis progressed but mortality was very high.

  6. Interaction between perchlorate and iodine in the metamorphosis of Hyla versicolor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Harvey, G.; Nzengung, V.

    2003-01-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) is a water-soluble, inorganic anion that is often combined with ammonium, potassium or other cations for use in industry and agriculture. Ammonium perchlorate, for example, is a potent oxidizer and is used in various military applications including rocket fuel. It has also been found in an historically widely used fertilizer, Chilean nitrate and in other fertilizers. It has been found in ground and surface waters of over 30 states and is considered a human health risk. Because of its similar atomic radius and volume, perchlorate competes with iodide for thyroid uptake and storage and thereby inhibits production of thyroid hormones. Amphibians may be particularly affected by perchlorate because they rely on the thyroid for metamorphosis. This study exposed early larval Hyla versicolor to concentrations of perchlorate ranging from 2.2 to 50 ppm to determine the effects of perchlorate on a native amphibian. In addition, three controls, 0 perchlorate, 0 perchlorate with 0.10 ppm iodide (C + I) and 50 ppm perchlorate + 0.10 ppm iodide (50 + I) were tested. Mortality (<11% with all treatments) and growth appeared to be unaffected by perchlorate. Inhibition of development started with 2.2 ppm perchlorate and little or no development occurred at 22.9 ppm and above. This inhibition was particularly apparent at the latter stages of development including hindlimb formation and metamorphosis. The estimated EC50 for total inhibition of metamorphosis at 70 days of treatment was 3.63 ppm. There was no evidence of inhibition of development with the 50 + I, C + I, or controls, indicating that the presence of small concentrations of iodide could counter the effects of perchlorate. When tadpoles that had been inhibited by perchlorate were subsequently treated with iodide, development through prometamorphosis progressed but mortality was very high.

  7. Metabolite secretion, Fe(3+)-reducing activity and wood degradation by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor ATCC 20869.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, André; Gavioli, Daniela; Ferraz, André

    2014-11-01

    Trametes versicolor is a promising white-rot fungus for the biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. In the present work, T. versicolor ATCC 20869 was grown on Pinus taeda wood chips under solid-state fermentation conditions to examine the wood-degrading mechanisms employed by this fungus. Samples that were subjected to fungal pretreatment for one-, two- and four-week periods were investigated. The average mass loss ranged from 5 % to 8 % (m m(-)(1)). The polysaccharides were preferentially degraded: hemicellulose and glucan losses reached 13.4 % and 6.9 % (m m(-)(1)) after four weeks of cultivation, respectively. Crude enzyme extracts were obtained and assayed using specific substrates and their enzymatic activities were measured. Xylanases were the predominant enzymes, while cellobiohydrolase activities were marginally detected. Endoglucanase activity, ?-glucosidase activity, and wood glucan losses increased up to the second week of biodegradation and remained constant after that time. Although no lignin-degrading enzyme activity was detected, the lignin loss reached 7.5 % (m m(-)(1)). Soluble oxalic acid was detected in trace quantities. After the first week of biodegradation, the Fe(3+)-reducing activity steadily increased with time, but the activity levels were always lower than those observed in the undecayed wood. The progressive wood polymer degradation appeared related to the secretion of hydrolytic enzymes, as well as to Fe(3+)-reducing activity, which was restored in the cultures after the first week of biodegradation. PMID:25442296

  8. Non conventional biological treatment based on Trametes versicolor for the elimination of recalcitrant anticancer drugs in hospital wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ferrando-Climent, Laura; Cruz-Morató, Carles; Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Vicent, Teresa; Sarrà, Montserrat; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià

    2015-10-01

    This work presents a study about the elimination of anticancer drugs, a group of pollutants considered recalcitrant during conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment, using a biological treatment based on the fungus Trametes versicolor. A 10-L fluidized bed bioreactor inoculated with this fungus was set up in order to evaluate the removal of 10 selected anticancer drugs in real hospital wastewater. Almost all the tested anticancer drugs were completely removed from the wastewater at the end of the batch experiment (8days) with the exception of Ifosfamide and Tamoxifen. These two recalcitrant compounds, together with Cyclophosphamide, were selected for further studies to test their degradability by T. versicolor under optimal growth conditions. Cyclophosphamide and Ifosfamide were inalterable during batch experiments both at high and low concentration, whereas Tamoxifen exhibited a decrease in its concentration along the treatment. Two positional isomers of a hydroxylated form of Tamoxifen were identified during this experiment using a high resolution mass spectrometry based on ultra-high performance chromatography coupled to an Orbitrap detector (LTQ-Velos Orbitrap). Finally the identified transformation products of Tamoxifen were monitored in the bioreactor run with real hospital wastewater. PMID:25911328

  9. The Synergistic Beneficial Effects of Ginkgo Flavonoid and Coriolus versicolor Polysaccharide for Memory Improvements in a Mouse Model of Dementia.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xianying; Jiang, Yan; Ji, Hui; Zhao, Linguo; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhenzhong; Ding, Gang

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the combination of Ginkgo flavonoid (GF) and Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide (CVP) in the prevention and treatment of a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). GF is a traditional health product, and CVP is the main active ingredient of the medicinal fungus Coriolus versicolor. The Morris water maze test, the Y maze, and the step-through test showed that the combinational use of CVP and GF synergistically improved memory in a mouse model of AD. Based on H&E staining analysis, the combination of CVP and GF decreased the severity of the pathological findings in the brain. Given that the expression of IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-? was downregulated, the inflammation response in AD mice was considered to be inhibited. The downregulation of GFAP further demonstrated that inflammation was reduced in the brain of AD mice following treatment. Moreover, the expression levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were elevated in the brains of treated mice, indicating that oxidation levels were reduced upon the combination treatment. Our results provide new insights into the efficient utilization of traditional medicine for preventing dementia. PMID:25821476

  10. Degradation of naproxen and carbamazepine in spiked sludge by slurry and solid-phase Trametes versicolor systems.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Caminal, Gloria

    2010-04-01

    Growth and activity of the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor on sewage sludge were assessed in bioslurry and solid-phase systems. Bioslurry cultures with different loads of sludge (10%, 25% and 38%, w/v) were performed. A lag phase of at least 2 d appeared in the 25 and 38%-cultures, however, the total fungal biomass was higher for the latter and lower for the 10%-culture after 30 d, as revealed by ergosterol determination. Detectable laccase activity levels were found in the 10 and 25%-cultures (up to 1308 and 2588 AUL(-1), respectively) while it was negligible in the 38%-culture. Important levels of ergosterol and laccase were obtained over a 60 d period in sludge solid-phase cultures amended with different concentrations of wheat straw pellets as lignocellulosic bulking material. Degradation experiments in 25%-bioslurry cultures spiked with naproxene (NAP, analgesic) and carbamazepine (CBZ, antiepileptic) showed depletion of around 47% and 57% within 24h, respectively. Complete depletion of NAP and around 48% for CBZ were achieved within 72 h in sludge solid cultures with 38% bulking material. CBZ degradation is especially remarkable due to its high persistence in wastewater treatment plants. Results showed that T. versicolor may be an interesting bioremediation agent for elimination of emerging pollutants in sewage sludge. PMID:20031398

  11. Effects of Lycium barbarum extract on production and immunomodulatory activity of the extracellular polysaccharopeptides from submerged fermentation culture of Coriolus versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fang-Yi Lin; Yiu-Kay Lai; Hao-Chen Yu; Nan-Yin Chen; Chi-Yue Chang; Hui-Chen Lo; Tai-Hao Hsu

    2008-01-01

    Polysaccharopeptides (PSPs) from Coriolus versicolor have been used as immunomodulatory and anticancer agents. However, most studies have concentrated on the mycelial PSPs and not those in the fermented broth. On the other hand, Lycium barbarum fruit has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine for two millennia. Its extract contains various nutrients, minerals, and also polysaccharide–protein complexes, which are

  12. Isolation, structure elucidation, and biomimetic total synthesis of versicolamide B and the isolation of antipodal (-)-stephacidin A and (+)-notoamide B from Aspergillus versicolor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new prenylated indole alkaloid, versicolamide B, was isolated from cultures of Aspergillus versicolor NRRL 35600. The structure was assigned by 2D NMR data, and confirmed by a biomimetic total synthesis. Versicolamide B is the first member of the paraherquamide-stephacidin family of alkaloids fo...

  13. Effects of Lycium barbarum extract on production and immunomodulatory activity of the extracellular polysaccharopeptides from submerged fermentation culture of Coriolus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fang-Yi; Lai, Yiu-Kay; Yu, Hao-Chen; Chen, Nan-Yin; Chang, Chi-Yue; Lo, Hui-Chen; Hsu, Tai-Hao

    2008-09-15

    Polysaccharopeptides (PSPs) from Coriolus versicolor have been used as immunomodulatory and anticancer agents. However, most studies have concentrated on the mycelial PSPs and not those in the fermented broth. On the other hand, Lycium barbarum fruit has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine for two millennia. Its extract contains various nutrients, minerals, and also polysaccharide-protein complexes, which are proven to be bioactive. Herein we report the effects of L. barbarum fruit extract on the mycelial growth and extracellular PSP (ePSP) production of C. versicolor LH1 by using a submerged fermentation process in 20l fermenters. Fermentation production of C. versicolor biomass and its ePSP were augmented in the presence of L. barbarum extract. The ePSP such obtained differs from those obtained with normal culture medium in terms of simple sugar composition and protein content but shows similar overall chemical structures as analyzed by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. Moreover, the ePSP from C. versicolor cultured with supplementary L. barbarum extract exhibits significant immunomodulatory activity as judged by its effects on the production of nitric oxide and several cytokines by murine RAW264.7 macrophages. PMID:26049238

  14. Comparison of two laccases from Trametes versicolor for application in the decolorization of dyes.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Ge, Lin; Cai, Junli; Pei, Jianjun; Xie, Jingcong; Zhao, Linguo

    2014-04-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that laccases exhibit great potential for use in several industrial and environmental applications. In this paper, two laccase isoenzyme genes, lccB and lccC, were cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The sequence analysis indicated that the lccB and lccC genes consisted of 1,563 and 1,584 bp, and their open reading frames encoded 520 and 527 amino acids, respectively. They had 72.7% degree of identity in nucleotides and 86.7% in amino acids. The expression levels of LccB and LccC were up to 32,479 and 34,231 U/l, respectively. The recombinant laccases were purified by ultrafiltration and (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, showing a single band on SDS-PAGE, which had a molecular mass of 58 kDa. The optimal pH and temperature for LccB were 2.0 and 55°C with 2,2'-azino-bis-[3-ethylbenzthiazolinesulfonic acid (ABTS) as a substrate, whereas LccC exhibited optimal pH and temperature at 3.0 and 60°C. The apparent kinetic parameters of LccB were 0.43 mM for ABTS with a Vmax value of 51.28 U/mg, and the Km and Vmax values for LccC were 0.29 mM and 62.89 U/mg. The recombinant laccases were able to decolorize five types of dyes. Acid Violet 43 (100 g/ml) was completely decolorized by LccB or LccC (2 U/ml), and the decolorization of Reactive Blue KN-R (100 g/ml) was 91.6% by LccC (2 U/ml). Thus, the study characterizes useful laccase isoenzymes from T. versicolor that have the capability of being incorporated into the treatment of similar azo and anthraquinone dyes from dyeing industries. PMID:24448164

  15. UTILIZACIÓN DE RESIDUOS DE PLÁTANO PARA LA PRODUCCIÓN DE METABOLITOS SECUNDARIOS POR FERMENTACIÓN EN ESTADO SÓLIDO CON EL HONGO Lentinus crinitus UTILIZATION OF PLANTAIN WASTE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF SECONDARY ME TABOLITES BY SOLID SUBSTRATE FERMENTATION USING THE FUNGI Lentinus crinitus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GRANDA R. Diana; JIMÉNEZ T. Gloria; REVISTA DE LA FACULTAD DE QUÍMICA

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the production of secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical and alimentary interest from plantain waste used as substrate in a solid state fermentation process with the white root fungi Lentinus crinitus . The production of metabolites is studied during the growth of the microorganism for a period of 21 days, in a system con-

  16. Control of oral human papillomavirus (HPV) by medicinal mushrooms, Trametes versicolor and Ganoderma lucidum: a preliminary clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Donatini, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    This preliminary randomized study investigated the efficacy of medicinal mushrooms, Trametes versicolor (TV), Ganoderma lucidum (GL), and Laetiporus sulphureus (LS), on the clearance of oral human papillomavirus (HPV, serotypes 16 and 18). Among 472 patients who underwent oral swabs for gingivitis, 61 patients were positive for HPV16 or HPV18. Twenty patients were included in group 1 (LS) and 41 patients were included in group 2 (TV+GL) for 2 months. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HPV was performed at inclusion and after 2 months. In group 1, the clearance was equal to 5% after 2 months of treatment. In group 2, the clearance was equal to 88% (P<0.001). The detection of HPV16 or HPV18 could become relevant in routine since positivity is frequent and because a harmless and costless treatment may exist. The use of TV+GL for the clearance of oral HPV deserves further investigation. PMID:25271984

  17. Biogenic silver nanoparticles associated with silver chloride nanoparticles (Ag@AgCl) produced by laccase from Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Durán, Nelson; Cuevas, Raphael; Cordi, Livia; Rubilar, Olga; Diez, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, semi-purified laccase from Trametes versicolor was applied for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles, and the properties of the produced nanoparticles were characterized. All of the analyses of the spectra indicated silver nanoparticle formation. A complete characterization of the silver nanoparticles showed that a complex of silver nanoparticles and silver ions was produced, with the majority of the particles having a Ag(2+) chemical structure. A hypothetical mechanistic scheme was proposed, suggesting that the main pathway that was used was the interaction of silver ions with the T1 site of laccase, producing silver nanoparticles with the concomitant inactivation of laccase activity and posterior complexing with silver ions. PMID:25485188

  18. Image analysis technique as a tool to identify morphological changes in Trametes versicolor pellets according to exopolysaccharide or laccase production.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Ana P M; Silva, Rui P; Amaral, António L; Ferreira, Eugénio C; Xavier, Ana M R B

    2014-02-01

    Image analysis technique was applied to identify morphological changes of pellets from white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor on agitated submerged cultures during the production of exopolysaccharide (EPS) or ligninolytic enzymes. Batch tests with four different experimental conditions were carried out. Two different culture media were used, namely yeast medium or Trametes defined medium and the addition of lignolytic inducers as xylidine or pulp and paper industrial effluent were evaluated. Laccase activity, EPS production, and final biomass contents were determined for batch assays and the pellets morphology was assessed by image analysis techniques. The obtained data allowed establishing the choice of the metabolic pathways according to the experimental conditions, either for laccase enzymatic production in the Trametes defined medium, or for EPS production in the rich Yeast Medium experiments. Furthermore, the image processing and analysis methodology allowed for a better comprehension of the physiological phenomena with respect to the corresponding pellets morphological stages. PMID:24338251

  19. Production, purification and biochemical characterization of two laccase isoforms produced by Trametes versicolor grown on oak sawdust.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Morales, Fernando; Bertrand, Brandt; Pasión Nava, Angélica A; Tinoco, Raunel; Acosta-Urdapilleta, Lourdes; Trejo-Hernández, María R

    2015-02-01

    Two laccase isoforms (lcc1 and lcc2) produced by Trametes versicolor, grown on oak sawdust under solid-state fermentation conditions, were purified and characterized. The two isoforms showed significant biochemical differences. Lcc1 and lcc2 had MWs of 60 and 100 kDa, respectively. Both isoforms had maximal activity at pH 3 with ABTS and 2,6-dimethyloxyphenol (DMP). Lcc1 was the most attractive isoform due to its greater affinity towards all the laccase substrates used. Lcc1 had Km values of 12, 10, 15 and 17 mM towards ABTS, DMP, guaiacol and syringaldazine, respectively. Lcc2 had equivalent values of 45, 47, 15 and 39 mM. The biochemical properties of lcc1 substantiate the potential of this enzyme for application in the treatment of contaminated water with low pH values and high phenolic content. PMID:25257594

  20. Secondary metabolites of a deep sea derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor CXCTD-06-6a and their bioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xianglan; Cai, Shengxin; Zhu, Tianjiao; Gu, Qianqun; Li, Dehai; Luan, Yepeng

    2014-08-01

    In order to obtain novel secondary metabolites, a deep sea inhabiting fungus Aspergillus versicolor CXCTD-06-6a was investigated. One new diketopiperazine brevianamide W ( 1a), as well as five known diketopiperazine alkaloids, diketopiperazine V ( 1b), brevianamide Q ( 2), brevianamide R ( 3), brevianamide K ( 4), and brevianamide E ( 5), were isolated from the EtOAc extract of the fermentation broth. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopy techniques (NMR, MS). The six compounds exhibited moderate radical scavenging activity against DPPH with clearance ratio of 55.0% ( 1a and 1b), 53.7% ( 2), 46.2% ( 3), 61.4% ( 4) and 19.3% ( 5) at a concentration of 13.9 ?mol L-1, respectively; while the positive control ascorbic acid showed a ratio of 70.3% at the concentration of 28.4 ?mol L-1.

  1. Production of laccase from Trametes versicolor by solid-state fermentation using olive leaves as a phenolic substrate.

    PubMed

    Aydino?lu, Tu?ba; Sargin, Sayit

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether olive leaves were feasible as a substrate for laccase production by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor FPRL 28A INI under solid-state fermentation conditions. Different experiments were conducted to select the variables that allow obtaining high levels of laccase activity. In particular, the effects of the initial moisture content, substrate particle size, supplementation with inorganic and organic nitrogen sources were evaluated. Highest laccase activity (276.62 ± 25.67 U/g dry substrate) was achieved with 80 % initial moisture content and 1.4-1.6 mm particle size of the substrate supplemented with yeast extract (1 % (w/w) nitrogen). Such a high activity was obtained without any addition of inducers. PMID:22763778

  2. Historical Isolation versus Recent Long-Distance Connections between Europe and Africa in Bifid Toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores)

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Mazuecos, Mario; Vargas, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Background Due to its complex, dynamic and well-known paleogeography, the Mediterranean region provides an ideal framework to study the colonization history of plant lineages. The genus Linaria has its diversity centre in the Mediterranean region, both in Europe and Africa. The last land connection between both continental plates occurred during the Messinian Salinity Crisis, in the late Miocene (5.96 to 5.33 Ma). Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the colonization history of Linaria sect. Versicolores (bifid toadflaxes), which includes c. 22 species distributed across the Mediterranean, including Europe and Africa. Two cpDNA regions (rpl32-trnLUAG and trnK-matK) were sequenced from 66 samples of Linaria. We conducted phylogenetic, dating, biogeographic and phylogeographic analyses to reconstruct colonization patterns in space and time. Four major clades were found: two of them exclusively contain Iberian samples, while the other two include northern African samples together with some European samples. The bifid toadflaxes have been split in African and European clades since the late Miocene, and most lineage and speciation differentiation occurred during the Pliocene and Quaternary. We have strongly inferred four events of post-Messinian colonization following long-distance dispersal from northern Africa to the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Greece. Conclusions/Significance The current distribution of Linaria sect. Versicolores lineages is explained by both ancient isolation between African and European populations and recent events of long-distance dispersal over sea barriers. This result provides new evidence for the biogeographic complexity of the Mediterranean region. PMID:21779399

  3. The effect of pH on the transformation of syringic and vanillic acids by the laccases of Rhizoctonia praticola and Trametes versicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Leonowicz; R. U. Edgehill; J.-M. Bollag

    1984-01-01

    Laccases (benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductases, EC 1.10.3.2) from Rhizoctonia praticola and Trametes versicolor formed different products from syringic and vanillic acids at different pH values, but both enzymes generated the same chemicals at a particular pH. The products were separated by thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography. Four compounds were determined from syringic acid (m\\/z 168, 334, 350 and 486) at pH

  4. Removal of copper(II) ions from synthetic solution and real wastewater by the combined action of dried Trametes versicolor cells and montmorillonite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sibel Tunali Akar; Tamer Akar; Zerrin Kaynak; Burcu Anilan; Ahmet Cabuk; Özge Tabak; Temir A. Demir; Tevfik Gedikbey

    2009-01-01

    A combination of white rot fungi Trametes versicolor and montmorillonite type clay was studied for its ability to remove copper(II) ions from copper contaminated solutions. The effects of process parameters i.e. pH, sorbent dosage, contact time and temperature on the biosorption were examined. Reasonably rapid metal sequester rate was obtained. Maximum copper(II) biosorption capacity was found as 9.89×10?4 mol g?1(62.80 mg g?1)

  5. Transformation of 2-hydroxydibenzofuran by laccases of the white rot fungi Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus and characterization of oligomerization products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrike Jonas; Elke Hammer; Frieder Schauer; Jean-Marc Bollag

    1998-01-01

    Laccase, a ligninolytic enzyme, was secreted by each ofthe white rot fungi Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus cinnabarinusduring growth in a nitrogen-rich medium under agitated conditions. Afteraddition of 2-hydroxydibenzofuran to cell-freesupernatants of the cultures, yellow precipitates wereformed. These precipitates were poorly soluble in waterand therefore readily separated from the supernatant. Theproducts formed were more hydrophobic than thesubstrate, as indicated by their

  6. Protective Effect of Coriolus versicolor Cultivated in Citrus Extract Against Nitric Oxide-Induced Apoptosis in Human Neuroblastoma SK-N-MC Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Chul; Kim, Youn-Sub; Lee, Jin-Woo; Seo, Jin-Hee; Ji, Eun-Sang; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Yong-Il; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2011-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive free radical and a messenger molecule in many physiological functions. However, excessive NO is believed to be a mediator of neurotoxicity. The medicinal plant Coriolus versicolor is known to possess anti-tumor and immune-potentiating activities. In this study, we investigated whether Coriolus versicolor possesses a protective effect against NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced apoptosis in the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-MC. We utilized 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, DNA fragmentation assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot analysis, and caspase-3 enzyme activity assay in SK-N-MC cells. MTT assay showed that SNP treatment significantly reduces the viability of cells, and the viabilities of cells pre-treated with the aqueous extract of Coriolus versicolor cultivated in citrus extract (CVE(citrus)) was increased. However, aqueous extract of Coriolus versicolor cultivated in synthetic medium (CVE(synthetic)) showed no protective effect and aqueous citrus extract (CE) had a little protective effect. The cell treated with SNP exhibited several apoptotic features, while those pre-treated for 1 h with CVE(citrus) prior to SNP expose showed reduced apoptotic features. The cells pre-treated for 1 h with CVE(citrus) prior to SNP expose inhibited p53 and Bax expressions and caspase-3 enzyme activity up-regulated by SNP. We showed that CVE(citrus) exerts a protective effect against SNP-induced apoptosis in SK-N-MC cells. Our study suggests that CVE(citrus) has therapeutic value in the treatment of a variety of NO-induced brain diseases. PMID:22110367

  7. Trametes versicolor Protein YZP Activates Regulatory B Lymphocytes – Gene Identification through De Novo Assembly and Function Analysis in a Murine Acute Colitis Model

    PubMed Central

    Kuan, Yen-Chou; Wu, Ying-Jou; Hung, Chih-Liang; Sheu, Fuu

    2013-01-01

    Background Trametes versicolor (Yun-Zhi) is a medicinal fungus used as a chemotherapy co-treatment to enhance anti-tumor immunity. Although the efficacies of T. versicolor extracts have been documented, the active ingredients and mechanisms underlying the actions of these extracts remain uncharacterized. Results We purified a new protein, YZP, from the fruiting bodies of T. versicolor and identified the gene encoding YZP using RNA-seq and de novo assembly technologies. YZP is a 12-kDa non-glycosylated protein comprising 139 amino acids, including an 18-amino acids signal peptide. YZP induced a greater than 60-fold increase in IL-10 secretion in mice B lymphocytes; moreover, YZP specifically triggered the differentiation of CD1d+ B cells into IL-10-producing regulatory B cells (Bregs) and enhanced the expression of CD1d. YZP-induced B cells suppressed approximately 40% of the LPS-activated macrophage production of inflammatory cytokines in a mixed leukocyte reaction and significantly alleviated the disease activity and colonic inflammation in a DSS-induced acute colitis murine model. Furthermore, YZP activated Breg function via interaction with TLR2 and TLR4 and up-regulation of the TLR-mediated signaling pathway. Conclusions We purified a novel Breg-stimulating protein, YZP, from T. versicolor and developed an advanced approach combining RNA-seq and de novo assembly technologies.to clone its gene. We demonstrated that YZP activated CD1d+ Breg differentiation through TLR2/4-mediated signaling pathway, and the YZP-stimulated B cells exhibited anti-inflammatory efficacies in vitro and in murine acute colitis models. PMID:24019869

  8. The endemic Genista versicolor from Sierra Nevada National Park in Spain is nodulated by putative new Bradyrhizobium species and a novel symbiovar (sierranevadense).

    PubMed

    Cobo-Díaz, José F; Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Fernández-González, Antonio J; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Toro, Nicolás; Velázquez, Encarna; Fernández-López, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Genista versicolor is an endemic legume from Sierra Nevada National Park which constitutes one of the UNESCO-recognized Biosphere Reserves. In the present study, a collection of strains nodulating this legume was analysed in characteristic soils of this ecosystem. Most strains nodulating G. versicolor belonged to rrs group I within the genus Bradyrhizobium and only one strain, named GV137, belonged to rrs group II from which only a single species, B. retamae, has been described in Europe to date. Strain GV137, and some strains from rrs group I, belonged to putative new species of Bradyrhizobium, although most strains from group I belonged to B. canariense, according to the ITS fragment and atpD gene analysis. This result contrasted with those obtained in Genista tinctoria in Northeast Europe whose endosymbionts were identified as B. japonicum. The analysis of the symbiotic nodC and nifH genes carried by G. versicolor-nodulating strains showed that most of them belonged to symbiovar genistearum, as did those isolated from G. tinctoria. Nevertheless, strain GV137, belonging to rrs group II, formed a divergent lineage that constituted a novel symbiovar within the genus Bradyrhizobium for which the name sierranevadense is proposed. This finding showed that the Genisteae are not restrictive legumes only nodulated by symbiovar genistearum, since Genista is a promiscuous legume nodulated by at least two symbiovars of Bradyrhizobium, as occurs in Retama species. PMID:24268094

  9. Effect of Coriolus versicolor supplemented diet on innate immune response and disease resistance in kelp grouper Epinephelus bruneus against Listonella anguillarum.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Kim, Man-Chul; Kim, Ju-Sang; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2012-02-01

    The effect of Coriolus versicolor extract supplemented diets on innate immune response and disease resistance in kelp grouper, Epinephelus bruneus against Listonella anguillarum, is reported. Kelp grouper were divided into four groups of 25 each and fed with C. versicolor enriched diets at 0% (control), 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1.0% level. After 30 days of feeding, all fish were injected interaperitoneally (i.p.) with 50 ?l of L. anguillarum (4.7 × 10(7) CFU) to investigate the immune parameters at weeks 1, 2, and 4. The reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species production were significantly enhanced in fish fed with 0.1% and 1.0% supplementation diets from weeks 1-4 when compared to the non enriched diet fed and infected control. The phagocytic activity significantly increased with 0.1% and 1.0% diets on weeks 2 and 4. The leucocyte myeloperoxidase content, lysozyme activity, and total protein level significantly increased when fed with 0.1% and 1.0% supplementation diets from weeks 1-4. The cumulative mortality was 35% and 45% in 1.0% and 0.1% enriched diet fed groups whereas it was 55% and 80% in 0.01% and 0% groups respectively. The present results suggest that diets enriched with C. versicolor at 0.1% or 1.0% level positively enhance the innate immune system and affords protection from L. anguillarum. PMID:22155010

  10. Anti-tumor effect of Coriolus versicolor methanol extract against mouse B16 melanoma cells: in vitro and in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Harhaji, Lj; Mijatovi?, S; Maksimovi?-Ivani?, D; Stojanovi?, I; Momcilovi?, M; Maksimovi?, V; Tufegdzi?, S; Marjanovi?, Z; Mostarica-Stojkovi?, M; Vucini?, Z; Stosi?-Grujici?, S

    2008-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown immunostimulatory and anti-tumor effects of water and standardized aqueous ethanol extracts derived from the medicinal mushroom, Coriolus versicolor, but the biological activity of methanol extracts has not been examined so far. In the present study we investigated the anti-tumor effect of C. versicolor methanol extract (which contains terpenoids and polyphenols) on B16 mouse melanoma cells both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro treatment of the cells with the methanol extract (25-1600 microg/ml) reduced melanoma cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, in the presence of the methanol extract (200 microg/ml, concentration IC(50)) the proliferation of B16 cells was arrested in the G(0)/G(1) phase of the cell cycle, followed by both apoptotic and secondary necrotic cell death. In vivo methanol extract treatment (i.p. 50 mg/kg, for 14 days) inhibited tumor growth in C57BL/6 mice inoculated with syngeneic B16 tumor cells. Moreover, peritoneal macrophages collected 21 days after tumor implantation from methanol extract-treated animals exerted stronger tumoristatic activity ex vivo than macrophages from control melanoma-bearing mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate that C. versicolor methanol extract exerts pronounced anti-melanoma activity, both directly through antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects on tumor cells and indirectly through promotion of macrophage anti-tumor activity. PMID:18313195

  11. Bioconversion of D-glucose into D-glucosone by glucose 2-oxidase from Coriolus versicolor at moderate pressures.

    PubMed

    Karmali, Amin; Coelho, José

    2011-04-01

    Glucose 2-oxidase (pyranose oxidase, pyranose:oxygen-2-oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.3.10) from Coriolus versicolor catalyses the oxidation of D-glucose at carbon 2 in the presence of molecular O? producing D-glucosone (2-keto-glucose and D-arabino-2-hexosulose) and H?O?. It was used to convert D-glucose into D-glucosone at moderate pressures (i.e. up to 150 bar) with compressed air in a modified commercial batch reactor. Several parameters affecting biocatalysis at moderate pressures were investigated as follows: pressure, [enzyme], [glucose], pH, temperature, nature of fluid and the presence of catalase. Glucose 2-oxidase was purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography on epoxy-activated Sepharose 6B-IDA-Cu(II) column at pH 6.0. The rate of bioconversion of D-glucose increased with the pressure since an increase in the pressure with compressed air resulted in higher rates of conversion. On the other hand, the presence of catalase increased the rate of reaction which strongly suggests that H?O? acted as inhibitor for this reaction. The rate of bioconversion of D-glucose by glucose 2-oxidase in the presence of either nitrogen or supercritical CO? at 110 bar was very low compared with the use of compressed air at the same pressure. The optimum temperature (55 °C) and pH (5.0) of D-glucose bioconversion as well as kinetic parameters for this enzyme were determined under moderate pressure. The activation energy (E (a)) was 32.08 kJ?mol?¹ and kinetic parameters (V(max), K(m), K(cat) and K(cat)/K(m)) for this bioconversion were 8.8 U?mg?¹ protein, 2.95 mM, 30.81 s?¹ and 10,444.06 s?¹?M?¹, respectively. The biomass of C. versicolor as well as the cell-free extract containing glucose 2-oxidase activity were also useful for bioconversion of D-glucose at moderate pressures. The enzyme was apparently stable at moderate pressures since such pressures did not affect significantly the enzyme activity. PMID:20872184

  12. In vitro chemopreventive effects of plant polysaccharides (Aloe barbadensis miller, Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum and Coriolus versicolor).

    PubMed

    Kim, H S; Kacew, S; Lee, B M

    1999-08-01

    A plant polysaccharide, Aloe gel extract, was reported to have an inhibitory effect on benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-DNA adduct formation in vitro and in vivo. Hence, chemopreventive effects of plant polysaccharides [Aloe barbadensis Miller (APS), Lentinus edodes (LPS), Ganoderma lucidum (GPS) and Coriolus versicolor (CPS)] were compared using in vitro short-term screening methods associated with both initiation and promotion processes in carcinogenesis. In B[a]P-DNA adduct formation, APS (180 micrograms/ml) was the most effective in inhibition of B[a]P binding to DNA in mouse liver cells. Oxidative DNA damage (by 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine) was significantly decreased by APS (180 micrograms/ml) and CPS (180 micrograms/ml). In induction of glutathione S-transferase activity, GPS was found to be the most effective among plant polysaccharides. In screening anti-tumor promoting effects, APS (180 micrograms/ml) significantly inhibited phorbol myristic acetate (PMA)-induced ornithine decarboxylase activity in Balb/3T3 cells. In addition, APS significantly inhibited PMA-induced tyrosine kinase activity in human leukemic cells. APS and CPS significantly inhibited superoxide anion formation. These results suggest that some plant polysaccharides produced both anti-genotoxic and anti-tumor promoting activities in in vitro models and, therefore, might be considered as potential agents for cancer chemoprevention. PMID:10426820

  13. An analysis of the Malassezia species distribution in the skin of patients with pityriasis versicolor in Chengdu, China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhen; Ran, Yuping; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Min; Wan, Huiying; Li, Conghui

    2014-01-01

    Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a common clinical problem associated with Malassezia species (Malassezia spp.). Controversies remain regarding the specific species involved in the development of PV. This study analyzed the difference in Malassezia spp. distribution in lesional and nonlesional skin in Chinese PV patients. A paired design was applied. Lesional and nonlesional scales from 24 cases were collected; real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect 10 different Malassezia spp. In lesional skin, the highest detection rates were for M. globosa (95.8%), M. restricta (91.7%), and M. sympodialis (50.0%). In nonlesional skin, the highest detection rates were for M. globosa (87.5%), M. restricta (79.2%), and M. dermatis (33.3%). A significant difference in the detection rate was only found for M. sympodialis (50.8% versus 20.8%, P = 0.04). Compared with nonlesional skin, the amount of M. globosa, M. restricta, and M. sympodialis in lesional skin was significantly higher (3.8 ± 1.3,??2.5 ± 1.1, and 3.2 ± 1.6 times higher, resp.). The results of this study do not indicate that M. globosa and M. restricta are directly correlated with PV development; however, M. sympodialis is more likely related to PV development in Chinese individuals. PMID:25177714

  14. Purification an ?-galactosidase from Coriolus versicolor with acid-resistant and good degradation ability on raffinose family oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Du, Fang; Liu, Qin; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, TziBin

    2014-04-01

    An acid-tolerant ?-galactosidase (CVGI) was isolated from the fruiting bodies of Coriolus versicolor with a 229-fold of purification and a specific activity of 398.6 units mg?¹. It was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme gave a single band corresponding to a molecular mass of 40 kDa in SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. The ?-galactosidase was identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and its inner peptides were sequenced by ESI-MS/MS. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme were determined as 60 °C and 3.0, respectively. The enzyme was very stable at a temperature range of 4-50 °C and at a pH range of 2-5. Among the metal ions tested, Cu²?, Cd²? and Hg²? ions have been shown to partially inhibit the activity of ?-galactosidase, while the activity of CVGI was completely inactivated by Ag? ions. N-bromosuccinamide inhibited enzyme activity by 100 %, indicating the importance of tryptophan residue(s) at or near the active site. CVGI had wide substrate specificity (p-nitrophenyl galactoside, melidiose, raffinose and stachyose). After treatment with CVGI, raffinose family oligosaccharide was hydrolyzed effectively to yield galactose and sucrose. The results showed that the general properties of the enzyme offer potential for use of this ?-galactosidase in several production processes. PMID:24197787

  15. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by laccase from Trametes versicolor covalently immobilized on amino-functionalized SBA-15.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Luis Fernando; Morales, Gabriel; Sanz, Raquel

    2015-10-01

    A covalent immobilization method based on glutaraldehyde and amino-functionalized SBA-15 supports has been successfully applied to covalently and stably immobilize laccase from Trametes versicolor. The resultant biocatalysts displayed high incorporation yields of enzyme and led to excellent biodegradation rates of selected HPAs models, i.e. naphthalene, phenanthrene and anthracene, in water. The nature of the hydrocarbon chain accompanying the amino group has been shown as determinant for the immobilization as well as for the activity and reusability of the materials. Thus, alkyl moieties displayed higher enzyme loadings than phenyl moieties, being more adequate the larger n-butyl tethering residue likely due to its higher mobility. Using the aminobutyl-based laccase-SBA-15, 82%, 73%, and 55% conversion of naphthalene, phenanthrene and anthracene, respectively, were achieved after 48h, very close to the values obtained with free laccase under the same reaction conditions. On the other hand, aminopropyl-based laccase-SBA-15 biocatalysts displayed the best reusability properties, retaining higher activity after four repeated uses than the corresponding aminobutyl-based materials. PMID:26048814

  16. An Analysis of the Malassezia Species Distribution in the Skin of Patients with Pityriasis Versicolor in Chengdu, China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhen; Ran, Yuping; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Min; Wan, Huiying; Li, Conghui

    2014-01-01

    Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a common clinical problem associated with Malassezia species (Malassezia spp.). Controversies remain regarding the specific species involved in the development of PV. This study analyzed the difference in Malassezia spp. distribution in lesional and nonlesional skin in Chinese PV patients. A paired design was applied. Lesional and nonlesional scales from 24 cases were collected; real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect 10 different Malassezia spp. In lesional skin, the highest detection rates were for M. globosa (95.8%), M. restricta (91.7%), and M. sympodialis (50.0%). In nonlesional skin, the highest detection rates were for M. globosa (87.5%), M. restricta (79.2%), and M. dermatis (33.3%). A significant difference in the detection rate was only found for M. sympodialis (50.8% versus 20.8%, P = 0.04). Compared with nonlesional skin, the amount of M. globosa, M. restricta, and M. sympodialis in lesional skin was significantly higher (3.8 ± 1.3,??2.5 ± 1.1, and 3.2 ± 1.6 times higher, resp.). The results of this study do not indicate that M. globosa and M. restricta are directly correlated with PV development; however, M. sympodialis is more likely related to PV development in Chinese individuals. PMID:25177714

  17. The TvPirin Gene Is Necessary for Haustorium Development in the Parasitic Plant Triphysaria versicolor1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Bandaranayake, Pradeepa C.G.; Tomilov, Alexey; Tomilova, Natalya B.; Ngo, Quy A.; Wickett, Norman; dePamphilis, Claude W.; Yoder, John I.

    2012-01-01

    The rhizosphere is teemed with organisms that coordinate their symbioses using chemical signals traversing between the host root and symbionts. Chemical signals also mediate interactions between roots of different plants, perhaps the most obvious being those between parasitic Orobanchaceae and their plant hosts. Parasitic plants use specific molecules provided by host roots to initiate the development of haustoria, invasive structures critical for plant parasitism. We took a transcriptomics approach to identify parasitic plant genes associated with host factor recognition and haustorium signaling and previously identified a gene, TvPirin, which is transcriptionally up-regulated in roots of the parasitic plant Triphysaria versicolor after being exposed to the haustorium-inducing molecule 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone (DMBQ). Because TvPirin shares homology with proteins associated with environmental signaling in some plants, we hypothesized that TvPirin may function in host factor recognition in parasitic plants. We tested the function of TvPirin in T. versicolor roots using hairpin-mediated RNA interference. Reducing TvPirin transcripts in T. versicolor roots resulted in significantly less haustoria development in response to DMBQ exposure. We determined the transcript levels of other root expressed transcripts and found that several had reduced basal levels of gene expression but were similarly regulated by quinone exposure. Phylogenic investigations showed that TvPirin homologs are present in most flowering plants, and we found no evidence of parasite-specific gene duplication or expansion. We propose that TvPirin is a generalized transcription factor associated with the expression of a number of genes, some of which are involved in haustorium development. PMID:22128136

  18. The molecular composition of lignin in spruce decayed by white-rot fungi ( Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor) using pyrolysis-GC–MS and thermochemolysis with tetramethylammonium hydroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher H Vane

    2003-01-01

    Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC–MS) and off-line thermochemolysis with tetramethylammonium hydroxide followed by GC–MS were used in the molecular characterisation of lignin in spruce wood decayed by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor. Mono-methoxyphenols were the main pyrolysis products from the undegraded lignin. Py-GC–MS provided qualitative evidence that 2-methoxy-4-(prop-2-enal)phenol and trans-2-methoxy-4-(1-hydroxy-prop-2-enyl)phenol content decreased whereas 1,2-dihydroxybenzene increased in intensity relative to other products

  19. The use of Trametes versicolor laccase for the polymerization of aniline in the presence of vesicles as templates.

    PubMed

    Junker, Katja; Kissner, Reinhard; Rakvin, Boris; Guo, Zengwei; Willeke, Martin; Busato, Stephan; Weber, Thomas; Walde, Peter

    2014-02-01

    The enzymatic polymerization of aniline to polyaniline (PANI) with Trametes versicolor laccase (TvL) as catalyst and dioxygen (O?) as oxidant was investigated in an aqueous medium containing unilamellar vesicles with an average diameter of about 80 nm formed from AOT (=sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate). Compared to the same reaction carried out with horseradish peroxidase isoenzyme C (HRPC) as catalyst and hydrogen peroxide (H?O?) as oxidant, notable differences were found in the kinetics of the reaction, as well as in the characteristics of the PANI obtained. Under comparable optimal conditions, which are pH 3.5 for TvL/O? and pH 4.3 for HRPC/H?O?, the reaction with TvL/O? was much slower than with HRPC/H?O?, i.e. ?27 days vs. 1 day reaction time to reach equilibrium with >90% yield at 25 °C. Although in both cases, aniline monomer coupling occurred mainly via the carbon atom in para position of aniline, UV-vis-NIR absorption and EPR measurements indicate that the reaction with TvL/O? yielded mainly overoxidized products (with ?(max)=730 nm). These products had a lower amount of unpaired electrons if compared with the products obtained with HRPC/H?O? (with ?(max)?1000 nm, which is characteristic for the polaron state of PANI-ES, the emeraldine salt form of PANI). Similarly to previous findings with HRPC/H?O?, enzyme inactivation occurred during the polymerization also in the case of TvL/O?. Since the aqueous PANI-vesicle suspensions obtained are of high colloidal stability, they can be used directly as ink in a conventional thermal inkjet printer for printing on paper or on surface treated polyimide films. Printed PANI-ES patterns on paper changed colour from green (emeraldine salt) to blue (emeraldine base) upon exposure to ammonia gas, demonstrating the expected ammonia sensing properties. PMID:24411448

  20. Kinetic evidence for the interactive inhibition of laccase from Trametes versicolor by pH and chloride.

    PubMed

    Raseda, Nasrin; Hong, Soonho; Kwon, O Yul; Ryu, Keungarp

    2014-12-28

    The interactive inhibitory effects of pH and chloride on the catalysis of laccase from Trametes versicolor were investigated by studying the alteration of inhibition characteristics of sodium chloride at different pHs for the oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid). At pH 3.0, the addition of sodium chloride (50 mM) brought about a 40-fold increase in Km(app) and a 4-fold decrease in Vmax(app). As the pH increased to 7.0, the inhibitory effects of sodium chloride became significantly weakened. The mixed-inhibition mechanism was successfully used to quantitatively estimate the competitive and uncompetitive inhibition strengths by chloride at two different pHs (pH 3.0 and 6.0). At pH 3.0, the competitive inhibition constant, Ki, was 0.35 mM, whereas the uncompetitive inhibition constant, Ki', was 18.1 mM, indicating that the major cause of the laccase inhibition by chloride is due to the competitive inhibition step. At a higher pH of 6.0, where the inhibition of the laccase by hydroxide ions takes effect, the inhibition of the laccase by chloride diminished to a great extent, showing increased values of both the competitive inhibition constant (Ki= 23.7 mM) and uncompetitive inhibition constant (Ki' = 324 mM). These kinetic results evidenced that the hydroxide anion and chloride share a common mechanism to inhibit the laccase activity. PMID:25152059

  1. Polysaccharide peptides from Coriolus versicolor competitively inhibit model cytochrome P450 enzyme probe substrates metabolism in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Yeung, John H K; Or, Penelope M Y

    2012-03-15

    Polysaccharide peptide (PSP), isolated from COV-1 strain of Coriolus versicolor, is commonly used as an adjunct in cancer chemotherapy or health supplement in China. Previous studies have shown that PSP decreased antipyrine clearance and inhibited rat CYP2C11-mediated tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation and in human CYP2C9. In this study, the effects of the water extractable fraction of PSP on the metabolism of model CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 probe substrates were investigated in pooled human liver microsomes. PSP (1.25-20?M) dose-dependently decreased CYP1A2-mediated metabolism of phenacetin to paracetamol (IC(50) 19.7?M) and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of testosterone to 6?-hydroxytestosterone (IC(20) 7.06?M). Enzyme kinetics studies showed the inhibition of CYP1A2 activity was competitive and concentration-dependent (K(i)=18.4?M). Inhibition of testosterone to 6?-hydroxytestosterone was also competitive and concentration-dependent (K(i)=31.8?M). Metabolism of dextromethorphan to dextrorphan (CYP2D6-mediated) and chlorzoxazone to 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone (CYP2E1-mediated) was only minimally inhibited by PSP, with IC(20) values at 15.6?M and 11.9?M, respectively. This study demonstrated that PSP competitively inhibited the CYP1A2- and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of model probe substrates in human liver microsomes in vitro. The relatively high K(i) values for CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 would suggest a low potential for PSP to cause herb-drug interaction related to these CYP isoforms. PMID:22305191

  2. Differential patterns of accumulation and depuration of dietary selenium and vanadium during metamorphosis in the Gray Treefrog (Hyla versicolor).

    PubMed

    Rowe, Christopher L; Heyes, Andrew; Hilton, Jessica

    2011-02-01

    Selenium (Se) and vanadium (V) are contaminants commonly found in aquatic systems affected by wastes derived from fossil fuels. To examine their effects on a widely distributed species of amphibian, we exposed gray tree frogs (Hyla versicolor) to Se (as SeO?) or V (as NaVO?) in their diet from the early larval period to metamorphosis. Concentrations of Se in Se-enriched food were 1.0 (Se control), 7.5 (Se low), and 32.7 (Se high) ?g/g dw. Concentrations of V in V-enriched food were 3.0 (V control), 132.1 (V low), and 485.7 (V high) ?g/g dw. Although we observed bioaccumulation of both metals throughout the larval period, no effects on growth, survival, metabolic rate, or lipid content were observed. Se concentrations in tissues did not vary among life stages, neither in Se low nor Se high treatments, such that maximum accumulation had occurred by the mid-larval period. In addition, there was no evidence of depuration of Se in either the Se low or the Se high treatments during metamorphosis. A strikingly different pattern of accumulation and depuration occurred in V-exposed individuals. In treatments V low and V high, maximum body burdens occurred in "premetamorphs" (i.e., animals with developed forelimbs but in which tail resorption had not begun), whereas body burdens in animals having completed metamorphosis were much lower and similar to those in larvae. These results suggest that compared with Se-exposed animals, V-exposed animals were able to depurate a substantial amount of accumulated V during the metamorphic period. In an ecologic context, it appears that amphibians exposed to Se during the larval period may serve as a vector of the metal to terrestrial predators, yet potential transfer of accumulated V to predators would largely be restricted to the aquatic habitat. PMID:20878520

  3. Mycochemical Investigation of the Turkey Tail Medicinal Mushroom Trametes versicolor (Higher Basidiomycetes): A Potential Application of the Isolated Compounds in Documented Pharmacological Studies.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Emran; Sadat-Ebrahimi, Seyed Esmaeel; Mousazadeh, Saeed Ali; Amanzadeh, Yaghoub

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the chemical properties of the n-hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts of the fruiting body of the medicinal mushroom Trametes versicolor. The study led to the isolation of 5 sterols, 2 triterpene derivatives, 1 hydroquinone-derived aromatic compound, and, finally, 1 cerebroside and 1 triglyceride derivative. These compounds were identified for first time in T. versicolor and were named as follows: 4-isobutoxyphenyl palmitate (5), N-D-2'-hydroxyheptanoic-1-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-9-methyl-4,8-sphinga-dienine(cerebroside) (6), 3?-linoleyloxyergosta-7,22-diene (7), 3?-linoleyloxyergosta-7-ene (8), and betulinic acid (9). Other compounds elucidated in our study were ergosterol (1), ergosterol peroxide (2), trilinolein (3), ergosta-7, 22-dien-3?-ol (4), and betuline (10). These compounds were obtained via column or thin-layer chromatography before being identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analyses and infrared data. In addition, the beneficial pharmacological effects of the compounds are described here. PMID:25954909

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of N-alkyl-beta-D-glucosylamines on the growth of two wood fungi, Coriolus versicolor and Poria placenta.

    PubMed

    Muhizi, Théoneste; Coma, Véronique; Grelier, Stéphane

    2008-09-22

    Various glucosylamines were synthesized from glucose and different alkyl amine compounds. These amino compounds are beta-D-glucopyranosylamine (GPA), N-ethyl-beta-D-glucopyranosylamine (EtGPA), N-butyl-beta-D-glucopyranosylamine (BuGPA), N-hexyl-beta-D-glucopyranosylamine (HeGPA), N-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranosylamine (OcGPA), N-dodecyl-beta-D-glucopyranosylamine (DoGPA), N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosylamine (HEtGPA) and N,N-di(2-hydroxyethyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosylamine (DHEtGPA). They were tested for their antifungal activity against the growth of Coriolus versicolor and Poria placenta. An improvement of the antifungal activity with the increase of alkyl chain length was observed. DoGPA exhibited the best antifungal activity against both strains. It completely inhibited the fungal growth at 0.01x10(-3)molmL(-1) and 0.0075x10(-3)molmL(-1) for C. versicolor and P. placenta, respectively. For other glucosylamines higher concentrations were needed for complete inhibition of fungi. PMID:18694571

  5. Coriolus versicolor suppresses inflammatory bowel disease by Inhibiting the expression of STAT1 and STAT6 associated with IFN-? and IL-4 expression.

    PubMed

    Lim, Beong Ou

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the effects of Coriolus versicolor extract (CVE) on infl?ammatory bowel disease (IBD), ulcerative colitis was induced in male BALb/c mice by administering drinking water containing dextran-sulfate sodium (DSS). The mice were divided into the following four experimental groups: control, DSS-induced colitis, CVE treatment and CVE treatment + DSS-induced colitis. Mice receiving DSS treatment developed clinical and macroscopic signs of ulcerative colitis. However, treatment with CVE relieved the symptoms of IBD, including the decrease in body and organ weight. The levels of serum, spleen and mesenteric lymph node IgE in the CVE-treated groups was lower compared with the untreated groups. The antiinfl?ammatory response upon CVE treatment correlated with the reduced expression of TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6. Also, there was a significant reduction in the expression of STAT1 and STAT6 molecules, thereby leading to lower IFN-? and IL-4 expression. Therefore, the antiinfl?ammatory effects of Coriolus versicolor can be explained by its ability to inhibit certain proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:21796702

  6. Environmental biodegradability of [¹?C] single-walled carbon nanotubes by Trametes versicolor and natural microbial cultures found in New Bedford Harbor sediment and aerated wastewater treatment plant sludge.

    PubMed

    Parks, Ashley N; Chandler, G Thomas; Ho, Kay T; Burgess, Robert M; Ferguson, P Lee

    2015-02-01

    Little is known about environmental biodegradability or biotransformations of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Because of their strong association with aquatic organic matter, detailed knowledge of the ultimate fate and persistence of SWNT requires investigation of possible biotransformations (i.e., biodegradation) in environmental media. In the present study, [(14)C]SWNT were utilized to track biodegradation over 6 mo by pure liquid culture of the fungus Trametes versicolor and mixed bacterial isolates from field-collected sediment or aerated wastewater treatment plant sludge. The mixed cultures were chosen as more environmentally relevant media where SWNT will likely be deposited under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Activity of [(14)C] was assessed in solid, aqueous, and (14)CO2 gaseous phases to determine amounts of intact SWNT, partially soluble SWNT degradation products, and mineralized SWNT, respectively, during the 6 mo of the experiment. Mass balances based on radiocarbon activity were approximately 100% over 6 mo, and no significant degradation of SWNT was observed. Approximately 99% of the [(14)C] activity remained in the solid phase, 0.8% in the aqueous phase, and less than 0.1% was mineralized to (14)CO2, regardless of culture type. These results suggest that SWNT are not readily biodegraded by pure fungal cultures or environmental microbial communities, and are likely persistent in environmental media. PMID:25352477

  7. Microbiological transformation of L-tyrosine to L-dopa from methanol pretreated biomass of a novel Coriolus versicolor under submerged culture.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sikander; Rizvi, Nazia

    2014-02-01

    The present study is concerned with the microbiological transformation of L-tyrosine to L-dopa by a newly isolated turkey tail mushroom Coriolus versicolor DOB-4. As tyrosinase (catechol oxidase, EC 1.10.3.1) is an extracellular enzyme, therefore biomass was used as an enzyme source in the reaction mixture. Biomass particles were pretreated with methanol and oven dried at 105 °C for 2 h. The optimal L-dopa production was achieved when 1.5 mg/ml L-tyrosine was used as the basal substrate. Thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis depicted that citric acid supports higher substrate conversion and product formation rates. A noticeable enhancement was observed when process parameters viz. L-tyrosine concentration (1.5 mg/ml), citric acid (1.5 mg/ml), time of incubation (50 min), and reaction temperature (60 °C) were optimized using Plackett-Burman design. The maximum production of L-dopa was found to be 0.872 mg/ml with L-tyrosine consumption of 1.002 mg/ml. The model terms were found highly significant (HS, p ? 0.05), suggesting the potential commercial utility of the culture (df = 3, LSD = 0.342). PMID:24326681

  8. Effect of Coriolus versicolor polysaccharides on the hematological and biochemical parameters and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila in allogynogenetic crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-xin; Pang, Su-feng; Chen, Xiao-xuan; Yu, Yan-mei; Zhou, Jin-min; Chen, Xi; Pang, Li-jiao

    2013-04-01

    The effect of dietary intake of Coriolus versicolor Polysaccharides (CVP) on the hematological and biochemical indices of Allogynogenetic crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) was investigated. Fish were fed CVP supplemented diets (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 g CVP kg(-1)) for 56 days. The RBC, WBC counts, hemoglobin content, ESR in blood and TP, ALT, AST, ALP, GLU, CHO, TG, and BUN in serum were measured on day 0, 14, 28, 42, and 56. After feeding of 56 days, fish were infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortalities were recorded. The results indicated that feeding crucian carp with suitable dose of CVP enhanced the RBC, WBC counts, hemoglobin and TP content, ALP activity, and decreased the ESR, ALT, AST, GLU, CHO, TG and BUN. There was no effect in fish at low dose (0.25 g kg(-1)). Unexpectedly, the higher CVP dose used here (2.0 and 4.0 g kg(-1)) has a negative effect in fish. The results of challenge experiment indicated that a moderate level of CVP in the diet (1.0 g kg(-1)) was the most effective to enhance the survival of fish after infected with A. hydrophila. In summary, the use of CVP, as dietary supplements, can improve the innate defense of crucian carp providing resistance to pathogens. PMID:22791194

  9. Coriolus versicolor mushroom polysaccharides exert immunoregulatory effects on mouse B cells via membrane Ig and TLR-4 to activate the MAPK and NF-?B signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu-fa; Zhuang, Tai-feng; Si, Yan-mei; Qi, Ke-yan; Zhao, Juan

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the immunopotentiating effects and immune receptors for Coriolus versicolor mushroom polysaccharides (CVP), a Chinese medicinal fungus that exerts anti-tumor activities by enhancing host immunity. Proliferation assays were used to determine whether CVP could activate splenocytes. Flow cytometry analysis and IgM and IgG detection were used to characterize CVP-binding cells. Immune receptors were analyzed in immunoprecipitation and western blot assays. The downstream signaling pathways were identified by western blotting or immunostaining. CVP significantly stimulated the proliferation of mouse splenocytes. Fluorescence-labeled CVP (fl-CVP) selectively stained mouse B cells, but not T cells. CVP induced the production of IgM and IgG1 with or without exogenous IL-4. Membrane Ig (B cell antigen-receptor, BCR) was identified as a CVP-binding protein in immunoprecipitation and western blot experiments. CVP-induced B cell proliferation could be significantly inhibited by anti-mouse immunoglobulin (Ig) blocking antibody (Fab) or in cells from TLR4-mutant mice (C3H/HeJ). Phosphorylation of ERK-1/2 and p38 MAPK were clearly increased in a time-dependent manner, as was the nuclear translocation of the cytosolic NF-?B p65 subunit after CVP stimulation. Together, we demonstrate that CVP can bind and induce B cell activation using membrane Ig and TLR-4 as potential immune receptors. CVP activates mouse B cells through the MAPK and NF-?B signaling pathways. PMID:25480394

  10. Comparative efficacy and tolerability of Ketomousse (ketoconazole foam 1%) and ketoconazole cream 2% in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor: results of a prospective, multicentre, randomised study.

    PubMed

    Di Fonzo, E M; Martini, P; Mazzatenta, C; Lotti, L; Alvino, S

    2008-11-01

    Ketomousse (K), a new thermophobic formulation (ketoconazole 1%), has proven its efficacy in the treatment of dandruff, caused by the same agent as pityriasis versicolor (PV). The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of K thermophobic foam vs. ketoconazole cream 2% (N) in the treatment of PV. Forty-six patients (22 in K and 24 in N group) with PV involving no more than 15% of the total trunk surface were randomly assigned for treatment either with K or N once daily for 14 days. Three weeks after the completion of treatment, improvement rate and side-effects were evaluated by clinical and mycological examination (Wood's light). Follow-up was available for 81% of subjects. Complete resolution was observed in five patients (29%) in K group and in nine (47%) in N group (P = 0.291). One patient in the N group reported urticaria while no adverse events were reported for K. Both products were cosmetically acceptable with respect to feasibility of application and formulation with a preference for K. Ketomousse (1% ketoconazole) provides an equal efficacy and tolerability compared to ketoconazole cream 2%. Therefore, Ketomousse could be considered an excellent therapeutic option in the treatment of PV. PMID:18422916

  11. In vivo and in vitro anti-tumor and anti-metastasis effects of Coriolus versicolor aqueous extract on mouse mammary 4T1 carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ke-Wang; Yue, Grace Gar-Lee; Ko, Chun-Hay; Lee, Julia Kin-Ming; Gao, Si; Li, Long-Fei; Li, Gang; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Ping-Chung; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2014-01-01

    Coriolus versicolor (CV), a medicinal mushroom widely consumed in Asian countries, has been demonstrated to be effective in stimulation of immune system and inhibition of tumor growth. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-tumor and anti-metastasis effects of CV aqueous extract in mouse mammary carcinoma 4T1 cells and in 4T1-tumor bearing mouse model. Our results showed that CV aqueous extract (0.125-2 mg/ml) did not inhibit 4T1 cell proliferation while the non-cytotoxic dose of CV extract (1-2 mg/ml) significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion (p<0.05). Besides, the enzyme activities and protein levels of MMP-9 were suppressed by CV extract significantly. Animal studies showed that CV aqueous extract (1 g/kg, orally-fed daily for 4 weeks) was effective in decreasing the tumor weight by 36%, and decreased the lung metastasis by 70.8% against untreated control. Besides, micro-CT analysis of the tumor-bearing mice tibias indicated that CV extract was effective in bone protection against breast cancer-induced bone destruction as the bone volume was significantly increased. On the other hand, CV aqueous extract treatments resulted in remarkable immunomodulatory effects, which was reflected by the augmentation of IL-2, 6, 12, TNF-? and IFN-? productions from the spleen lymphocytes of CV-treated tumor-bearing mice. In conclusion, our results demonstrated for the first time that the CV aqueous extract exhibited anti-tumor, anti-metastasis and immunomodulation effects in metastatic breast cancer mouse model, and could protect the bone from breast cancer-induced bone destruction. These findings provided scientific evidences for the clinical application of CV aqueous extract in breast cancer patients. PMID:24856767

  12. Polysaccharide peptides from Coriolus versicolor competitively inhibit tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation in specific human CYP2C9 isoform and pooled human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Yeung, John H K; Or, Penelope M Y

    2011-10-15

    Polysaccharide peptide (PSP), isolated from COV-1 strain of Coriolus versicolor, is commonly used as an adjunct in cancer chemotherapy in China. Previous studies have shown that PSP decreased antipyrine clearance and inhibited CYP2C11-mediated tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation in the rat both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, the effects of water extractable fraction of PSP on tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation was investigated in pooled human liver microsomes and in specific human CYP2C9 isoform. PSP (2.5-20?M) dose-dependently decreased the biotransformation of tolbutamide to 4-hydroxy-tolbutamide. Enzyme kinetics studies showed inhibition of tolbutamide 4-hydroxylase activity was competitive and concentration-dependent. In pooled human liver microsomes, PSP had a K(i) value of 14.2?M compared to sulfaphenazole, a human CYP2C9 inhibitor, showed a K(i) value of 0.32?M. In human CYP2C9 isoform, the K(i) value of PSP was 29.5?M and the K(i) value of sulfaphenazole was 0.04?M. This study demonstrated that PSP can competitively inhibit tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation in both pooled human liver microsomes and specific human CYP2C9 in vitro. This study compliments previous findings in the rat that PSP can inhibit human tolbutamide 4-hydroxylase, but the relatively high K(i) values in human CYP2C9 would suggest a low potential for PSP to cause herb-drug interaction. PMID:21757329

  13. Regulation of cell cycle transition and induction of apoptosis in HL-60 leukemia cells by the combination of Coriolus versicolor and Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Tze-Chen; Wu, Joseph M

    2013-07-01

    Medicinal mushrooms have served as the mainstay of treatment for a variety of human illnesses in Asian countries, mostly as supplements by cancer patients. Extracts prepared from Trametes versicolor under the trade name of I'm-Yunity exhibit anti-tumorigenic activities, as supported by inhibition of the proliferation and induction of apoptosis in malignant cells. Similar effects have also been observed for the Reishi mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. The two mushrooms exert their medicinal activities primarily through a family of polysaccharo-peptides. Despite the common identity in their bioactive ingredients, whether their combination might elicit an expanded efficacy and mechanism has not been investigated. In the present study, we investigated similarities and differences between extracts prepared from I'm-Yunity and from a formulation denoted I'm-Yunity-Too combining I'm-Yunity and Ganoderma lucidum. By assaying their anti-proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects using human promyelocytic HL-60 cells, we found that the ethanolic extract of I'm-Yunity-Too was more active in inducing cell death compared to I'm-Yunity, based on measured changes in the expression of caspase 3 and Bax. Moreover, ethanolic extracts of I'm-Yunity-Too exhibited more potent activity compared to its aqueous extracts with regard to suppression of the growth and induction of apoptosis, as assayed by the more pronounced downregulation of phosphorylation of Rb and increased cleavage of poly(ADP?ribose) polymerase (PARP) from its native 112-kDa form to the inactive 89-kDa product. These results suggested that the chemopreventive potential of I'm-Yunity may be enhanced by adding Ganoderma lucidum and that their bioactive ingre-dients potentially exhibit mechanistic synergism suggesting a more efficacious adjunct in chemotherapy. PMID:23670292

  14. Biodegradation of the X-ray contrast agent iopromide and the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ofloxacin by the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor in hospital wastewaters and identification of degradation products.

    PubMed

    Gros, Meritxell; Cruz-Morato, Carles; Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Longrée, Philipp; Singer, Heinz; Sarrà, Montserrat; Hollender, Juliane; Vicent, Teresa; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes the degradation of the X-ray contrast agent iopromide (IOP) and the antibiotic ofloxacin (OFLOX) by the white-rot-fungus Trametes versicolor. Batch studies in synthetic medium revealed that between 60 and 80% of IOP and OFLOX were removed when spiked at approximately 12 mg L(-1) and 10 mg L(-1), respectively. A significant number of transformation products (TPs) were identified for both pharmaceuticals, confirming their degradation. IOP TPs were attributed to two principal reactions: (i) sequential deiodination of the aromatic ring and (ii) N-dealkylation of the amide at the hydroxylated side chain of the molecule. On the other hand, OFLOX transformation products were attributed mainly to the oxidation, hydroxylation and cleavage of the piperazine ring. Experiments in 10 L-bioreactor with fungal biomass fluidized by air pulses operated in batch achieved high percentage of degradation of IOP and OFLOX when load with sterile (87% IOP, 98.5% OFLOX) and unsterile (65.4% IOP, 99% OFLOX) hospital wastewater (HWW) at their real concentration (?g L(-1) level). Some of the most relevant IOP and OFLOX TPs identified in synthetic medium were also detected in bioreactor samples. Acute toxicity tests indicated a reduction of the toxicity in the final culture broth from both experiments in synthetic medium and in batch bioreactor. PMID:24867600

  15. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Embryonic and Larval Exposure of Hyla versicolor to Stormwater Pond Sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrianne B. Brand; Joel W. Snodgrass; Matthew T. Gallagher; Ryan E. Casey; Robin Van Meter

    2010-01-01

    Stormwater ponds are common features of modern stormwater management practices. Stormwater ponds often retain standing water\\u000a for extended periods of time, develop vegetative characteristics similar to natural wetlands, and attract wildlife. However,\\u000a because stormwater ponds are designed to capture pollutants, wildlife that utilize ponds might be exposed to pollutants and\\u000a suffer toxicological effects. To investigate the toxicity of stormwater pond

  16. Electrophysiological responses of four fungivorous coleoptera to volatiles of Trametes versicolor : implications for host selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Drilling; Konrad Dettner

    2009-01-01

    Fungi of the genus Trametes are known as important wood decomposers and are colonized by various species of Coleoptera and other arthropods. The aim\\u000a of the present study was to investigate the importance of volatile chemical compounds as key attraction factors in recognition\\u000a and host selection by species of Erotylidae (Dacne bipustulata, Tritoma bipustulata) as well as Cisidae (Sulcacis affinis)

  17. Systematics of the Garden Lizards, Calotes versicolor Group (Reptilia, Squamata, Agamidae), in Myanmar

    E-print Network

    Schulte, Jim

    to the fence-row, roadside and garden habitats created by humans. Our collaborative (CAS-NWCD-SI5) survey and inventory of the Burmese herpetofauna have enabled us to document the distribution of these lizards and many other amphibians and reptiles, and critically, to obtain tissue samples and adequate voucher series

  18. Synthesis and effect of modification on methacylate - acrylate microspheres for Trametes versicolor laccase enzyme immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazlan, Siti Zulaikha; Hanifah, Sharina Abu

    2014-09-01

    Immobilization of laccase on the modified copolymer methacrylate-acrylate microspheres was studied. A poly (glycidyl methacrylate-co-n-butyl acrylate) microsphere consists of epoxy groups were synthesized using suspension photocuring technique. The epoxy group in poly (GMA-nBA) microspheres were converted into amino groups with aldehyde group. Laccase immobilization is based on having the amino groups on the enzyme surface and aldehyde group on the microspheres via covalent binding. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis proved the successful surface modification on microspheres. The FTIR spectrum shows the characteristic peaks at 1646 cm-1 assigned to the conformation of the polymerization that took place between monomer GMA and nBA respectively. In addition, after modification, FTIR peaks that assigned to the epoxy ring (844 cm-1 and 904 cm-1) were decreased. The results obtained from FTIR method signify good agreement with the epoxy content method. Hence, the activity of the laccase-immobilized microspheres increased upon increasing the epoxy content. Furthermore, poly (GMA-nBA) exhibited uniform microspheres with below 2 ?m surface. Immobilized enzyme showed a broader pH profile and higher temperature compared native enzyme.

  19. Cloning and Expression of Laccase from Trametes versicolor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a Novel Vector System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The long-term goal of this research is to increase efficiency and decrease cost of ethanol fermentation of lignocellulosic feedstocks by combining pre-treatment using laccase enzyme and subsequent fermentation to ethanol through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation paradigms. The first st...

  20. Potential of acetylacetone as a mediator for Trametes versicolor laccase in enzymatic transformation of organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Sun, Hongfei; Zhang, Shujuan; Wu, Bingdang; Pan, Bingcai

    2015-07-01

    Low-cost and environmentally friendly mediators could facilitate the application of laccase (EC 1.10.3.2) in variant biotechnological processes. Acetylacetone (AA) represents an inexpensive and low toxic small molecular diketone that has been proven as an effective mediator for laccase in free radical polymerization. However, the potential of AA as a mediator for laccase in pollutant detoxification and/or degradation is still unknown. In this work, the roles of AA in laccase-induced polymerization and transformation were investigated. AA was demonstrated to be a highly efficient mediator in the laccase-induced grafting copolymerization of acrylamide and chitosan. The efficacy of AA in the laccase-induced decoloration of malachite green (MG) was compared with that of the widely used 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT). The laccase-AA system had the highest turnover number (TON, 39.1 ?mol/U), followed by the laccase-only system (28.5 ?mol/U), while the TON of the laccase-HBT system was the lowest (14.9 ?mol/U). The pseudo-first-order transformation rate constant (k 1) of MG in the laccase-AA system was up to 0.283 h(-1) under the given conditions, while the k 1 of AA caused by laccase was only 0.008 h(-1). In the five-cycle run, the concentration of AA remained stable. The larger TON of the laccase-AA system and the stability of AA in the cycling runs demonstrate that AA was more recyclable than HBT in the LMS, leading to a prolonged serving life of laccase. These results suggest that AA might be a potential redox mediator for laccase. PMID:25772881

  1. Plan de estudios de nivel secundario para adultos (Study Plan for Adult Secondary Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boletin del Centro Nacional de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa, Parte II: Informaciones, 1970

    1970-01-01

    This document describes an experimental, multinational plan for adult secondary education sponsored through the Organization of American States and the Argentine Ministry of Culture and Education. General and specific goals of the program are listed here along with details of the proposed curriculum and areas of study, entrance requirements,…

  2. Pgina 1 de 2 Efectos secundarios de los medicamentos contra el VIH --Osteonecrosis,

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    osteoporosis Osteonecrosis, osteopenia y osteoporosis ¿Qué es la osteonecrosis y cuáles son sus síntomas huesos y reducir los riesgos de caídas. ¿Qué son la osteopenia y la osteoporosis y cuáles son sus pérdida de hueso es grave, la afección se llama osteoporosis. No hay síntomas obvios en las primeras

  3. Aldehyde PEGylation of laccase from Trametes versicolor in route to increase its stability: effect on enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Mayolo-Deloisa, Karla; González-González, Mirna; Simental-Martínez, Jesús; Rito-Palomares, Marco

    2015-03-01

    Laccase is a multicopper oxidase that catalyzes the oxidation of phenolic compounds. Laccase can be used in bioremediation, beverage (wine, fruit juice, and beer) processing, ascorbic acid determination, sugar beet pectin gelation baking, and as a biosensor. Recently, the antiproliferative activity of laccase toward tumor cells has been reported. Because of the potential applications of this enzyme, the efforts for enhancing and stabilizing its activity have increased. Thus, the PEGylation of laccase can be an alternative. PEGylation is the covalent attachment of one or more molecules of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) to a protein. Normally, during the PEGylation reaction, the activity is reduced but the stability increases; thus, it is important to minimize the loss of activity. In this work, the effects of molar ratio (1:4, 1:8, and 1:12), concentration of laccase (6 and 12?mg/ml), reaction time (4 and 17?h), molecular weight, and type of mPEG (20, 30, 40?kDa and 40?kDa-branched) were analyzed. The activity was measured using three substrates: ABTS, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, and syringaldazine. The best conditions for laccase PEGylation were 12?mg/ml of laccase, molar ratio 1:4, and 4?h reaction time. Under these conditions, the enzyme was able to maintain nearly 100% of its enzymatic activity with ABTS. The PEGylation of laccase has not been extensively explored, so it is important to analyze the effects of this bioconjugation in route to produce a robust modified enzyme. PMID:25652594

  4. Degradation of pharmaceuticals in non-sterile urban wastewater by Trametes versicolor in a fluidized bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Morató, Carles; Ferrando-Climent, Laura; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià; Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Vicent, Teresa; Sarrà, Montserrat

    2013-09-15

    The constant detection of pharmaceuticals (PhACs) in the environment demonstrates the inefficiency of conventional wastewater treatment plants to completely remove them from wastewaters. So far, many studies have shown the feasibility of using white rot fungi to remove these contaminants. However, none of them have studied the degradation of several PhACs in real urban wastewater under non-sterile conditions, where mixtures of contaminants presents at low concentrations (ng L(-1) to ?g L(-1)) as well as other active microorganisms are present. In this work, a batch fluidized bed bioreactor was used to study, for the first time, the degradation of PhACs present in urban wastewaters at their pre-existent concentrations under non-sterile conditions. Glucose and ammonium tartrate were continuously supplied as carbon and nitrogen source, respectively, and pH was maintained at 4.5. Complete removal of 7 out of the 10 initially detected PhACs was achieved in non-sterile treatment, while only 2 were partially removed and 1 of the PhACs analyzed increased its concentration. In addition, Microtox test showed an important reduction of toxicity in the wastewater after the treatment. PMID:23866144

  5. Biodegradation of the analgesic naproxen by Trametes versicolor and identification of intermediates using HPLC-DAD-MS and NMR.

    PubMed

    Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Pérez-Trujillo, Miriam; Blánquez, Paqui; Vicent, Teresa; Caminal, Gloria

    2010-04-01

    The white-rot fungus Trametes vesicolor degraded naproxen (10 mg L(-1)) in a liquid medium to non-detectable levels after 6h. When naproxen was added in the range of concentrations typically found in the environment (55 microg L(-1)), it was almost completely degraded (95%) after 5h. In vitro degradation experiments with purified laccase and purified laccase plus mediator 1-hydroxybenzotriazol showed slight and almost complete naproxen degradation, respectively. A noticeable inhibition on naproxen degradation was also observed when the cytochrome P450 inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole was added to the fungal cultures. These data suggest that both enzymatic systems could play a role in naproxen degradation. 2-(6-hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl)propanoic acid and 1-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl)ethanone were structurally elucidated by HPLC-DAD-MS and NMR as degradation intermediates of naproxen. After 6h of incubation, both parent compound and intermediates disappeared from the medium. The non-toxicity of the treated medium was confirmed by Microtox test. PMID:20004093

  6. Biomarker Analysis of American Toad (Anaxyrus Americanus) and Grey Tree Frog (Hyla Versicolor) Tadpoles Following Exposure to Atrazine

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better understand the mode of action of atrazine in amphibians, we utilized mass spectrometry-based metabolomics to investigate the biochemical changes in two species of larval amphibians exposed to atrazine. Our objectives were to 1) Use changes in endogenous metabolites to f...

  7. The influence of commercial diets on growth and survival in the commercially important sea cucumber Holothuria scabra var. versicolor (Conand, 1986) (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Azari; Beni Giraspy; Grisilda Ivy

    2008-01-01

    There has been enormous commercial interest in culturing tropical sea cucumbers in countries where sea cucumber populations have been overexploited. The production of sea cucumber juveniles in the hatch- ery requires suitable feeds to maximize survival rates and promote somatic growth. However, so far no research has evaluated the relative efficacy of commercially available feeds for promoting somatic growth and

  8. TRANSFORMATION OF 2-HYDROXYDIBENZOFURAN BY LACCASES OF THE WHITE ROT FUNGI TRAMETES VERSICOLOR AND PYCNOPORUS CINNABARINUS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF OLIGOMERIZATION PRODUCTS. (R823847)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. Role for toll-like receptor 4 in TNF-alpha secretion by murine macrophages in response to polysaccharide Krestin, a Trametes versicolor mushroom extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa A. Price; Cynthia A. Wenner; Daniel T. Sloper; Joel W. Slaton; Jeffrey P. Novack

    2010-01-01

    Woody fungi and yeast preparations show promise in cancer treatment by activating anti-tumor immune responses. Macrophages (J774A.1) were treated with PSK, Reishi extract, scleroglucan or vehicle control. Pre-incubation with TLR4 blocking antibody inhibited TNF-alpha secretion by both J774A.1 cells and primary splenocytes but had inconclusive effect on scleroglucan-induced secretion of TNF-alpha. PSK induced TNF-alpha and IL-6 secretion by wild type

  10. Role for toll-like receptor 4 in TNF-alpha secretion by murine macrophages in response to polysaccharide Krestin, a Trametes versicolor mushroom extract.

    PubMed

    Price, Lisa A; Wenner, Cynthia A; Sloper, Daniel T; Slaton, Joel W; Novack, Jeffrey P

    2010-10-01

    Woody fungi and yeast preparations show promise in cancer treatment by activating anti-tumor immune responses. Macrophages (J774A.1) were treated with PSK, Reishi extract, scleroglucan or vehicle control. Pre-incubation with TLR4 blocking antibody inhibited TNF-alpha secretion by both J774A.1 cells and primary splenocytes but had inconclusive effect on scleroglucan-induced secretion of TNF-alpha. PSK induced TNF-alpha and IL-6 secretion by wild type but not by TLR4-deficient peritoneal macrophages. We conclude that constituents from PSK act as ligands for TLR4 receptors leading to induction of TNF-alpha and IL-6 inflammatory cytokines. Receptor-mediated differences may be due to structural differences in beta glucans or non-glucan constituents. PMID:20550956

  11. Oxidation of aromatic alcohols by laccase from Trametes versicolor mediated by the 2,2?-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) cation radical and dication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Majcherczyk; C. Johannes; A. Hüttermann

    1999-01-01

    Oxidation of aromatic alcohols, such as non-phenolic lignin model compounds, by oxidised species of 2,2?-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic\\u000a acid) (ABTS) has been investigated. The cation radical and dication formed from ABTS were both capable of oxidising aromatic\\u000a alcohols to aldehydes. The reactions terminated at the level of the aldehyde and no acids were formed. The cation radical\\u000a and dication worked in a cycle

  12. Estilo de Liderazgo de Maestros y Maestras de Salud Escolar del Nivel Secundario en la Implantacion del Programa de Educacion en Salud Escolar en Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosario Arroyo, Luis Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Health education school programs have a planned activity structure that focus on developing awareness on the need of keeping an adequate integral health, through the teaching and learning processes within an appropriate methodological context that promotes students full development. It is expected that school health teachers are effective leaders;…

  13. A Rating of Plants with Reference to their Relative Resistance or Susceptibility to Phymatotrichum Root Rot.

    E-print Network

    Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph); Ezekiel, Walter N. (Walter Naphtali)

    1936-01-01

    ...................... Japanese Ins .- ........... - I. missouriensis .---.---- Rqc-ky Mountain ins - .......................... I. versicolor .---....--------- Blueflag iris ......... - I. xiphium Spanish iris ................ - Nemastylis acuta .......... Celestials...

  14. Cytogenomic Analyses of the genus Sorghum 

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Jason C.

    2011-08-08

    (FISH) analyses of sorghum genomic bacterial artificial chromosome clones and multi-BAC cocktail probes to mitotic chromosomes of S. angustum, S. versicolor, S. brachypodum and S. intrans; and [2] to augment the BAC-FISH findings by comparing telomeric...

  15. Laboratory research on the efficacy of chlorine dioxide fumigation for the remediation of mold-contaminated buildings--conference paper

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project was to determine the efficacy ofCl02 fumigation to inactivate viable mold, mycotoxins, and allergens on building materials. Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus Jumigatus, Chaetomium globosum, and Stachybotrys chartarum were indivi...

  16. Observer Name(s) & contact info Circle the zone you are in

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    # - Number of species observed in sighting Common Name Scientific Name Easting 1 Painted Turtle Chrysemys picta 2 Gray Tree Frog Hyla versicolor 3 Diamondback Terrapin Malaclemys terrapin 4 Red-Spotted Newt

  17. www.carleton.ca/~kbstorey ADAPTATIONS TO COLD

    E-print Network

    Storey, Kenneth B.

    - GARTER SNAKES - LIZARDS (some) Garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis Painted turtle hatchlings Chrysemys picta marginata #12;12/19/2012 7 Box turtle, Terrapene carolina "OSCAR" GRAY TREE FROG Hyla versicolor

  18. Accumulation and degradation of dead-end metabolites during treatment of soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with five strains of white-rot fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. E. Andersson; T. Henrysson

    1996-01-01

    The white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor PRL 572, Trametes versicolor MUCL 28407, Pleurotus ostreatus MUCL 29527, Pleurotus sajor-caju MUCL 29757 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium DSM 1556 were investigated for their ability to degrade the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) anthracene, benz[a]anthracene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene in soil. The fungi were grown on wheat straw and mixed with artificially contaminated soil. The results of this\\u000a study

  19. Comparison of white-rot fungi cultures for decolorization of textile dyestuffs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Kapdan; F. Kargi; G. McMullan; R. Marchant

    2000-01-01

    Four different white rot fungi cultures were used for decolorization of five different textile dyestuffs. Phanerochaeta chrysosporium 671.71, P. chrysosporium MUCL, Coriolus versicolor and C. versicolor MUCL cultures effectively decolorized Everzol Yellow 4GL, Everzol Red RBN, D. Orange K-GL, Everdirect Supra yellow PG and Everzol Turquoise Blue G textile dyestuffs in shake flasks within 9 days of incubation period. Decolorization

  20. Embryonic thermosensitivity and hatchling morphology differ between two coexisting lizards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Yan-Fu; Li, Hong; Gao, Jian-Fang; Ji, Xiang

    2011-07-01

    We incubated eggs of two coexisting lizards, Phrynocephalus frontalis and Phrynocephalus versicolor, at three constant temperatures (24, 28 and 32 °C) to examine whether they differ in embryonic thermosensitivity and hatchling morphology. Eggs incubated at the three temperatures produced morphologically different hatchlings in P. versicolor but not in P. frontalis. Snout-vent length (SVL), body mass and head width were greater in P. versicolor hatchlings from the 24 °C treatment than those from the 32 °C treatment when accounting for differences in initial egg mass, and tail length was smaller in P. versicolor hatchlings from the 24 °C treatment than those from the 32 °C treatment when accounting for differences in final egg mass. Body mass, head length, head width, tail length, fore-limb length and hind-limb length were greater in P. frontalis hatchlings than in P. versicolor hatchling when accounting for differences in initial or final egg mass. Moreover, P. frontalis females produce larger hatchlings than do P. versicolor females of the same SVL not only by laying larger eggs, but also by investing more dry materials (and thus, more energy) into the egg. Given a link between interspecific competition (and niche restriction) and morphology, it seems likely that morphological differences at hatching may facilitate the coexistence of the two lizards. The two lizards differed in embryonic thermosensitivity and water uptake by eggs during incubation, suggesting that they use different microhabitats in the area of sympatry.

  1. Functional genomics of a generalist parasitic plant: Laser microdissection of host-parasite interface reveals host-specific patterns of parasite gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Orobanchaceae is the only plant family with members representing the full range of parasitic lifestyles plus a free-living lineage sister to all parasitic lineages, Lindenbergia. A generalist member of this family, and an important parasitic plant model, Triphysaria versicolor regularly feeds upon a wide range of host plants. Here, we compare de novo assembled transcriptomes generated from laser micro-dissected tissues at the host-parasite interface to uncover details of the largely uncharacterized interaction between parasitic plants and their hosts. Results The interaction of Triphysaria with the distantly related hosts Zea mays and Medicago truncatula reveals dramatic host-specific gene expression patterns. Relative to above ground tissues, gene families are disproportionally represented at the interface including enrichment for transcription factors and genes of unknown function. Quantitative Real-Time PCR of a T. versicolor ?-expansin shows strong differential (120x) upregulation in response to the monocot host Z. mays; a result that is concordant with our read count estimates. Pathogenesis-related proteins, other cell wall modifying enzymes, and orthologs of genes with unknown function (annotated as such in sequenced plant genomes) are among the parasite genes highly expressed by T. versicolor at the parasite-host interface. Conclusions Laser capture microdissection makes it possible to sample the small region of cells at the epicenter of parasite host interactions. The results of our analysis suggest that T. versicolor’s generalist strategy involves a reliance on overlapping but distinct gene sets, depending upon the host plant it is parasitizing. The massive upregulation of a T. versicolor ?-expansin is suggestive of a mechanism for parasite success on grass hosts. In this preliminary study of the interface transcriptomes, we have shown that T. versicolor, and the Orobanchaceae in general, provide excellent opportunities for the characterization of plant genes with unknown functions. PMID:23302495

  2. Copper inducing effect on laccase production of white rot fungi native from Misiones (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Fonseca, María I; Shimizu, Ernesto; Zapata, Pedro D; Villalba, Laura L

    2010-05-01

    Fungi may be selected as models for gene expression studies and further adaptation for biotechnological enzyme production. The aim of this work was to evaluate laccase production and to analyze the effect of Cu(2+) on selected fungi natives of Misiones, Ganoderma applanatum (strain F), Peniophora sp. (BAFC 633), Pycnoporus sanguineus (BAFC 2126) and Coriolus versicolor f. antarcticus (BAFC 266). Fungi secretion system of G. applanatum, Peniophora sp., P. sanguineus and C. versicolor f. antarcticus is sensitive to stimulation by copper. Biomass values of G. applanatum, Peniophora sp. and C. versicolor f. antarcticus did not show differences between treatments. P. sanguineus biomass underwent a dramatic growth inhibition with 1mM Cu(2+) and marked delay in growth with 0.5mM Cu(2+). Proteins were increased with copper in Peniophora sp., C. versicolor and G. applanatum. G. applanatum and Peniophora sp. reached the highest enzyme activity at 10th day equivalent to 49.2-fold and 19.7-fold higher than the control samples, respectively. Copper produced an increase of constitutive laccases in all fungi and an additional inducible isoenzyme in Peniophora sp., C. versicolor f. antarcticus and G. applanatum. PMID:25919631

  3. Using Plasma-liPid metabolites to index Changes in liPid ReseRves of fRee-living lesseR sCaUP (AythyA Affinis)

    E-print Network

    Afton, Alan D.

    CaUP (AythyA Affinis) Michael J. anteau1,3 and alan d. afton2 1 School of Renewable Natural Resources ( xu ) k ( ) 22 L Su (Aythya affinis; 600­1,000 ). T xu 75% (F = 28.85, = 2 1, accepted 14 July 2007. K : Aythya affinis, , , L Su, , , . Uso de Metabolitos Lipídicos del Plasma como un

  4. Effect of different carbon sources on decolourisation of an industrial textile dye under alkaline-saline conditions.

    PubMed

    Ottoni, Cristiane; Lima, Luis; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    White-rot fungal strains of Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium were selected to study the decolourisation of the textile dye, Reactive Black 5, under alkaline-saline conditions. Free and immobilised T. versicolor cells showed 100 % decolourisation in the growth medium supplemented with 15 g l(-1) NaCl, pH 9.5 at 30 °C in liquid batch culture. Continuous culture experiments were performed in a fixed-bed reactor using free and immobilised T. versicolor cells and allowed 85-100 % dye decolourisation. The immobilisation conditions for the biomass and the additional supply of carbon sources improved the decolourisation performance during a long-term trial of 40 days. Lignin peroxidase, laccase and glyoxal oxidase activities were detected during the experiments. The laccase activity varied depending on carbon source utilized and glycerol-enhanced laccase activity compared to sucrose during extended growth. PMID:23982200

  5. Food partitioning of leaf-eating mangrove crabs ( Sesarminae): Experimental and stable isotope ( 13C and 15N) evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Ditte K.; Kristensen, Erik; Mangion, Perrine

    2010-05-01

    The feasibility of mangrove leaves as a full diet for sesarmid crabs has been questioned for decades. Since these leaves are nitrogen-poor, sesarmids probably obtain nitrogen from other sources to sustain growth. The aim of this study was to assess the food partitioning of the sesarmid species Neoepisesarma versicolor with emphasis on nitrogen allocation. The preference for animal tissue when crabs were pre-fed diets of different nitrogen content was determined in the laboratory. Furthermore, the possible in situ diet composition of N. versicolor was established from carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signature ( ?13C and ?15N) of freshly caught individuals and their potential food sources, using a concentration-dependent mixing model. N. versicolor showed significantly higher feeding preferences for fish meat when pre-fed leaf material without than with access to meat, indicating that this crab species can meet its nitrogen demand by ingesting animal tissue. The stable isotope mixing model based on in situ materials suggests that the diet of N. versicolor consists of ˜60% leaves in terms of biomass, leaving ˜40% for other sources such as animal tissue and benthic microorganisms. The biomass contribution from animal tissues, in form of e.g. other crustaceans and fish carcasses, was found to account for ˜15%. Despite the relative low biomass fraction, animal food sources may contribute with up to half of the nitrogen in the diet of N. versicolor. The quantity of ingested sediment most likely exceeds that of animal tissues. However, due to the low concentration of assimilable microalgae and other microorganism, we propose that sediment associated sources are less important as a nitrogen source for N. versicolor than hitherto presumed.

  6. Species delimitation in Trametes: a comparison of ITS, RPB1, RPB2 and TEF1 gene phylogenies.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Alexis; Justo, Alfredo; Hibbett, David S

    2014-01-01

    Trametes is a cosmopolitan genus of white rot polypores, including the "turkey tail" fungus, T. versicolor. Although Trametes is one of the most familiar genera of polypores, its species-level taxonomy is unsettled. The ITS region is the most commonly used molecular marker for species delimitation in fungi, but it has been shown to have a low molecular variation in Trametes resulting in poorly resolved phylogenies and unclear species boundaries, especially in the T. versicolor species complex (T. versicolor sensu stricto, T. ochracea, T. pubescens, T. ectypa). Here we evaluate the performance of three protein-coding genes (TEF1, RPB1, RPB2) for species delimitation and phylogenetic reconstruction in Trametes. We obtained 59 TEF1, 34 RPB1 and 55 RPB2 sequences from 69 individuals, focusing on the T. versicolor complex and performed phylogenetic analyses with maximum likelihood and parsimony methods. All three protein-coding genes outperformed ITS for separating species in the T. versicolor complex. The multigene phylogenetic analysis shows the highest amount of resolution and supported nodes separating T. ectypa, T. ochracea, T. pubescens and T. versicolor with strong support. In addition three slineages are resolved in the species complex of T. elegans. The T. elegans complex includes three species: T. elegans (based on material from Puerto Rico, Belize, the Philippines), T. aesculi (from North America) and T. repanda (from Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Venezuela). The utility of gene markers varies, with TEF1 having the highest PCR and sequencing success rate and RPB1 offering the best backbone resolution for the genus. PMID:24898532

  7. [Investigation and identification of original plants of Herba Dianthi produced in Shandong].

    PubMed

    Zhou, F; Li, J; Zhang, Z; Li, J

    1997-06-01

    The original plant of Herba Dianthi in Shandong are divided into 4 species and 2 varieties by investigation and classified identification. Of them Dianthus shandongensis J. X. Li et F. Q. Zhou is a new species and D. chinensis L. var. versicolor (Fich. ex Link) Y. C. Ma is a new recorder in Shandong. D. chinensis L. is the most important source of Herba Dianthi in Shandong and the D. chinensis L. var. versicolor and D. chinensis L. var. liaotungensis Y. C. Chu, occasionally is D. shandongensis, D. superbus L. and D. longicalyx Miq. Haven't grown into commercial medicinal materials. PMID:12572471

  8. Qu es un ensayo clnico sobre la infeccin por el VIH/SIDA?

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    efectos secundarios imprevisibles. · Es posible que los protocolos exijan al paciente bastante tiempo y frecuentes viajes al sitio del ensayo. Un servicio del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos de los estudio? · ¿Cuánto tiempo durará el estudio? · ¿Quién me presta

  9. Investigacin Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional

    E-print Network

    moleculares microbianos en suelos. Ana Carmela Ramos Valdivia Biotecnología del metabolismo secundario y la y de plantas de especies americanas y su producción a nivel de biorreactor. Graciano Calva Calva

  10. FTIR studies of the changes in wood chemistry following decay by brown-rot and white-rot fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K Pandey; A. J Pitman

    2003-01-01

    A Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic study of changes in chemistry of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) decayed by Coniophora puteana ((Schumacher) Karsten), Coriolus versicolor ((L.) Quelet) and Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Burdsall) is presented. Wood was exposed to fungi for different durations up to 12 weeks, with decay assessed through weight loss and FTIR. The

  11. Studies on the solubilization of German coal by fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Reiss

    1992-01-01

    Summary The capability of seven basidiomycetes (Trametes versicolor, Poria placenta, Pleurotus florida, P. ostreatus, P. sajor-caju, P. eryngii, Stropharia sp.), one ascomycete (Chaetomium globosum) and five hyphomycetes and moulds (Humicola grisea, Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus terreus, Paecilomyces varioti, Papulaspora immersa) to solubilize medium and high volatile bituminous coals (types A and B) as well as four types of lignite B from

  12. ENHANCED ENZYMATIC REMOVAL OF CHLOROPHENOLS IN THE PRESENCE OF CO-SUBSTRATES. (R823847)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of reactive co-substrates such as guaiacol and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol on the removal of chlorinated phenols by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and a laccase from the fungus Trametes versicolor was investigated. Addition of 50 mM guaiacol enhanced the precipitation of 4-ch...

  13. Bilirubin oxidase bioelectrocatalytic cathodes: the impact of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Milton, Ross D; Giroud, Fabien; Thumser, Alfred E; Minteer, Shelley D; Slade, Robert C T

    2014-01-01

    Mediator-less, direct electro-catalytic reduction of oxygen to water by bilirubin oxidase (Myrothecium sp.) was obtained on anthracene-modified, multi-walled carbon nanotubes. H2O2 was found to significantly and irreversibly affect the electro-catalytic activity of bilirubin oxidase, whereas similar electrodes comprised of laccase (Trametes versicolor) were reversibly inhibited. PMID:24185735

  14. The relative effects of road traffic and forest cover on anuran populations

    E-print Network

    associations with traffic density than with forest cover ­ Bufo americanus, Rana pipiens, and Hyla versicolor; two species ­ Pseudacris cru- cifer and Rana sylvatica ­ showed stronger associations with forest cover than with traffic; while Rana clamitans showed similar associations with traffic and forest cover

  15. [Cutaneous Malassezia infections and Malassezia associated dermatoses : An update].

    PubMed

    Nenoff, P; Krüger, C; Mayser, P

    2015-06-01

    The lipophilic yeast fungus Malassezia (M.) spp. is the only fungal genus or species which is part of the physiological human microbiome. Today, at least 14 different Malassezia species are known; most of them can only be identified using molecular biological techniques. As a facultative pathogenic microorganism, Malassezia represents the causative agent both of superficial cutaneous infections and of blood stream infections. Pityriasis versicolor is the probably most frequent infection caused by Malassezia. Less common, Malassezia folliculitis occurs. There is only an episodic report on Malassezia-induced onychomycosis. Seborrhoeic dermatitis represents a Malassezia-associated inflammatory dermatosis. In addition, Malassezia allergenes should be considered as the trigger of "Head-Neck"-type atopic dermatitis. Ketoconazole possesses the strongest in vitro activity against Malassezia, and represents the treatment of choice for topical therapy of pityriasis versicolor. Alternatives include other azole antifungals but also the allylamine terbinafine and the hydroxypyridone antifungal agent ciclopirox olamine. "Antiseborrhoeic" agents, e.g. zinc pyrithione, selenium disulfide, and salicylic acid, are also effective in pityriasis versicolor. The drug of choice for oral treatment of pityriasis versicolor is itraconazole; an effective alternative represents fluconazole. Seborrhoeic dermatitis is best treated with topical medication, including topical corticosteroids and antifungal agents like ketoconazole or sertaconazole. Calcineurin inhibitors, e.g. pimecrolimus and tacrolimus, are reliable in seborrhoeic dermatitis, however are used off-label. PMID:25968082

  16. The influence of fungal food quality on the growth and fecundity of Folsomia candida (Collembola: Isotomidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Booth; J. M. Anderson

    1979-01-01

    The Basidiomycete fungi Coriolus versicolor and Hypholoma fasciculare were grown in liquid media containing 2, 20, 200 and 2,000 ppm nitrogen (as asparagine) and fed to cultures of Folsomia candida. Collembola feeding on both species of fungi exhibited trends of increased moulting and egg laying rates up to 200 ppm N and an inhibition of growth and fecundity at 2,000

  17. The effects of collembola grazing on microbial activity in decomposing leaf litter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. G. Hanlon; J. M. Anderson

    1979-01-01

    Ground leaf litter was inoculated with the fungus Coriolus versicolor and incubated in respirometers for 6 days (“fresh” cultures) or 33 days (“senescent” cultures) before different number of Folsomia candida were added. Grazing by 5 animals stimulated O2 consumption in both series of cultures but 10, 15 or 20 animals inhibited microbial respiration. The stimulatory effect was less marked in

  18. Comparative study on the durability of heat-treated White Birch (Betula papyrifera) subjected to the attack of brown and white rot fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serge Lekounougou; Duygu Kocaefe

    2012-01-01

    The effect of heat treatment on decay resistance of white birch was evaluated for different incubation periods ranging from 2 to 12 weeks using three species of brown rot and one species of white rot fungus. The results of weight loss tests showed that the white rot fungus, Trametes versicolor, effectively degraded the untreated wood (73.5%). While the degradation of

  19. Potential for bioremediation of agro-industrial effluents with high loads of pesticides by selected fungi.

    PubMed

    Karas, Panagiotis A; Perruchon, Chiara; Exarhou, Katerina; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2011-02-01

    Wastewaters from the fruit packaging industry contain a high pesticide load and require treatment before their environmental discharge. We provide first evidence for the potential bioremediation of these wastewaters. Three white rot fungi (WRF) (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus) and an Aspergillus niger strain were tested in straw extract medium (StEM) and soil extract medium (SEM) for degrading the pesticides thiabendazole (TBZ), imazalil (IMZ), thiophanate methyl (TM), ortho-phenylphenol (OPP), diphenylamine (DPA) and chlorpyrifos (CHL). Peroxidase (LiP, MnP) and laccase (Lac) activity was also determined to investigate their involvement in pesticide degradation. T. versicolor and P. ostreatus were the most efficient degraders and degraded all pesticides (10 mg l?¹) except TBZ, with maximum efficiency in StEM. The phenolic pesticides OPP and DPA were rapidly degraded by these two fungi with a concurrent increase in MnP and Lac activity. In contrast, these enzymes were not associated with the degradation of CHL, IMZ and TM implying the involvement of other enzymes. T. versicolor degraded spillage-level pesticide concentrations (50 mg l?¹) either fully (DPA, OPP) or partially (TBZ, IMZ). The fungus was also able to rapidly degrade a mixture of TM/DPA (50 mg l?¹), whereas it failed to degrade IMZ and TBZ when supplied in a mixture with OPP. Overall, T. versicolor and P. ostreatus showed great potential for the bioremediation of wastewaters from the fruit packaging industry. However, degradation of TBZ should be also achieved before further scaling up. PMID:20635121

  20. 2Haustorium Initiation and Early 3Development

    E-print Network

    Yoder, John I.

    . Yoder 54.1 Introduction 6The ability to develop invasive haustoria is the key feature of parasiticTriphysaria versicolor (Jamison and Yoder 2001; Bandaranayake et al. 2010). P.C.G. Bandaranayake Department of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka e-mail: pgunathilake@ucdavis.edu J.I. Yoder (*) Department of Plant

  1. Immobilized Peroxidase as a Valuable Tool in the Remediation of Aromatic Pollutants and Xenobiotic Compounds: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qayyum Husain; Roland Ulber

    2011-01-01

    The authors attempted to survey literature based on the role of immobilized peroxidases in the treatment and remediation of various types of organic pollutants present in wastewater. Peroxidases from fungal (Caldariomyces fumago, Lentinula edodes, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus pulmonarius, Aspergillus oryzae, Trametes versicolor, Chrysonilia sitophila [TFB-27441]) and plant sources (horseradish, turnip, tomato, soybean, bitter gourd, white radish chayote, and Saccharum uvarum)

  2. Trypsin-Like Proteinases and Trypsin Inhibitors in Fruiting Bodies of Higher Fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Gzogyan; M. T. Proskuryakov; E. V. Ievleva; T. A. Valueva

    2005-01-01

    The activity of trypsin-like proteinases and trypsin inhibitors was measured in fruiting bodies of various species of basidial fungi (Basidiomycetes). Fruiting bodies of all fungi contained these enzymes, with the exceptions of polypore (Coriolus versicolor (Fr.) Karst) and hedgehog fungus (Hericium erinaceus (Fr.) Quel), belonging to the families Polyporaceae and Hericiaceae, respectively, in which the enzyme activities were barely detectable.

  3. Antimetastatic and Immunomodulating Effect of Water Extracts From Various Mushrooms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung-Soo Ronald Han; Chong-Kwan Cho; Yeon-Weol Lee; Hwa-Seung Yoo

    2009-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate inhibitory effects against lung metastasis and promotion of splenocytes by water extracts from various mushrooms including Armillaria mellea, Grifola frondosa, Garnoderma frondosa, Codyceps militaris, Hericium erinaceus, Coriolus versicolor, Agaricus Blazei with Lycium Chinense Miller (known as M8). Analysis of carbohydrate using HPTLC showed that ?-glucan and pachyman were some of the major components of

  4. Wide distribution of cellobiose-oxidizing enzymes in wood-rot fungus indicates a physiological importance in lignocellulosics degradation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Fang; Yinbo Qu; Peiji Gao

    1997-01-01

    When grown on lignocellulosic materials, cellobiose-oxidizing enzyme activities were detected in Coriolus versicolor, Flammalina velutipes, Ganoderma gibbasum, Hericium erinaceus, Neurospora crassa and Schizophyllum commune. No cellobiose-oxidizing enzyme activities were detected in 14 other cellulolytic fungi which are recognized as having no or very low lignin-degrading ability.

  5. Decolorization of a kraft mill effluent with fungal mycelium immobilized in calcium alginate gel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Livernoche; L. Jurasek I; M. Desrochers; I. A. Veliky

    1981-01-01

    A white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor was immobilized by entrapment in calcium alginate beads. Treatment of a kraft mill effluent with the immobilized fungus in the presence of sucrose resulted in 80% loss of color of the effluent within 3 days. The minimal concentration of sucrose required for the decolorization was 10 mM. Other carbon sources (xylose, glucose, glycerol, and ethanol)

  6. Attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy of white-rot decayed beech wood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Behbood Mohebby

    2005-01-01

    Small blocks of beech wood were exposed to the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor for a period of 84 days to investigate chemical alteration in decayed wood by infrared spectroscopy. Decayed samples were analyzed at 2 week intervals by using attenuated total teflection (ATR) infrared spectroscopy as a rapid method. Analyses showed that chemical alteration in wood began after the second

  7. MITOCHONDRIAL DNA VARIATION POPULATION STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION OF THE COMMON GRACKLE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quiscalus Quiscula; Robert M. Zink; William L. Rootes; Donna L. Dittmann

    Abstract. The Common,Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula) includes two phenotypically dif- ferentiated forms, the Purple Grackle (Q. q. quiscula), which breeds along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States, and the Bronzed Grackle (Q. q. versicolor), which occurs over the rest of eastern North America. These grackles meet and hybridize in a zone that stretches from northeastern to the extreme

  8. MITOCHONDRIAL DNA VARIATION, POPULATION STRUCTURE, AND EVOLUTION OF THE COMMON GRACKLE (QUISCALUS QUISCULA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT M. ZINK; WILLIAM L. ROOTES; DONNA L. DITTMANN

    The Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula) includes two phenotypically dif- ferentiated forms, the Purple Grackle (Q. q. quiscula), which breeds along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States, and the Bronzed Grackle (Q. q. versicolor), which occurs over the rest of eastern North America. These grackles meet and hybridize in a zone that stretches from northeastern to the extreme

  9. Transformation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by free and immobilized fungal laccase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Leontievsky; N. Myasoedova; B. Baskunov; L. Golovleva; C. Bucke; C. Evans

    2001-01-01

    Laccase from the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor was immobilized on Celite R-637 by covalent binding with glutaraldehyde. After a sharp primary decline in activity (up to 50%), the retained enzyme activity was stable over a storage period of 33 days at 4°C. A comparative study of soluble and immobilized laccases revealed the increased resistance of immobilized enzyme to the

  10. Zur Kenntnis der Entwicklung des Parietalauges und des Feinbaues der Epiphyse der Reptilien

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Otto Preisler

    1942-01-01

    1.Die Feststellung des kontinuierlichen Zusammenhanges von Parietalauge und distalem Ende der Epiphyse bei Calotes versicolor beweist, daß Stirnauge und Epiphyse in engsten genetischen Beziehungen zueinander stehen. Die auch mit älteren Beobachtungen von Francotte und v. Klinkowström nicht vereinbare Behauptung von Studnicka, Parietalauge und Epiphyse seien zwei voneinander unabhängige Bildungen, kann somit nicht länger Allgemeingültigkeit beanspruchen. Das Parietalauge stellt mindestens bei

  11. The decolourisation of a chemical industry effluent by white rot fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S Knapp; P. S Newby

    1999-01-01

    A wide range of strains of white rot fungi have been shown to be effective in the decolourisation of a chemical industry effluent containing a diazo-linked chromophore. The five most effective strains were selected for further study, all could give ca. 70–80% decolourisation. Of these the best were strains of Coriolus versicolor. All five strains could decolourise the effluent at

  12. Parrot conservation in the lesser antilles with some comparison to the Puerto Rican efforts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas D. Potts; G. Wesley Burnett

    1996-01-01

    There are four endemic species of Amazona parrots in the Lesser Antilles, namely the imperial or Sisserou parrot Amazona imperialis and the red-necked or Jaco parrot A. arausiaca of the Commonwealth of Dominica, the St Lucia parrot A. versicolor of St Lucia, and the St Vincent parrot A. guildingii of St Vincent and The Grenadines. Seven other endemic members of

  13. Allergic Respiratory Disease and Fungal Remediation in a Building in a Subtropical Climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Q. Jarvis; Philip R. Morey

    2001-01-01

    An outbreak of allergic respiratory disease occurred in a new building that was characterized from initial occupancy by the presence of extensive visible mold (especially Aspergillus versicolor) on interior surfaces. Epidemiological study of the occupants of both the affected building and a comparison neighboring structure indicated high rates of respiratory and other symptoms among persons working in the affected building.

  14. Circular Polarization of Transmitted Light by Sapphirinidae Copepods

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Joseph

    observed occurring naturally only near the water surface [3,4]. Among animals, the production of circularly. versicolor firefly larvae, in reflections from beetles of the Scarabaeidae family, in Panulirus argus microfibril layers in the exocuticle of beetles belonging to the Scarabaeidae family is usually left handed [5

  15. Effects of Disease and Pond Drying on Gray Tree Frog Growth, Development, and Survival

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph M. Kiesecker; David K. Skelly

    2001-01-01

    Pathogens have important effects on host growth, behavior, and population dynamics. Nevertheless, the impact of parasitic infection on host populations may be strong- ly context dependent. For example, the outcome of host-pathogen interactions may be subject to change based on the level of abiotic stress experienced by the host. In northeastern Connecticut, USA, larvae of the gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor)

  16. Identification of Different Malassezia Species Isolated from Patients with Malassezia Infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Khosravi; S. Eidi; F. Katiraee; T. Ziglari; M. Bayat; M. Nissiani

    3 Abstract: Yeasts of the genus Malassezia are known as the microflora of human skin and that of many warm- blooded animals; but the different Malassezia species can induce superficial skin infections. Best known and most frequent is pityriasis versicolor (PV), a chronic and recurrent skin disease occurring primarily in hot and humid climates. The purpose of the present study

  17. Antimicrobial and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Cecropin A(1-8)–Magainin2(1-12) Hybrid Peptide Analog P5 against Malassezia furfur Infection in Human Keratinocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunhyo Ryu; Soon-Yong Choi; Samudra Acharya; Young-Jin Chun; Catherine Gurley; Cheryl A Armstrong; Peter I Song; Beom-Joon Kim

    2011-01-01

    The lipophilic fungus Malassezia furfur (M. furfur) is a commensal microbe associated with several chronic diseases such as pityriasis versicolor, folliculitis, and seborrheic dermatitis. Because M. furfur-related diseases are difficult to treat and require prolonged use of medications, the treatment for M. furfur-related skin diseases is supposed to gain control over M. furfur growth and the inflammation associated with it,

  18. A New Isolate of the Genus Malassezia Based on the Sequence Analysis of 26S and ITS1 in Ribosomal DNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hossein Mirhendi; Ali Zia; Kuichi Makimura

    Malassezia species considered to be the etiological agents of pityriasis versicolor and Malassezia follicolitis in humans. Recently, on the basis of molecular data, four new spe- cies were added to the genus. In total, 11 species have been described and accepted so far. In this study we describe a new isolate of Malassezia based on the nucleotide se- quence of

  19. The Effects of Malassezia Yeasts on Cytokine Production by Human Keratinocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinichi Watanabe; Rui Kano; Hiroko Sato; Yuka Nakamura; Atsuhiko Hasegawa

    2001-01-01

    Yeasts of Malassezia, members of the microbiologic flora of the skin, cause pityriasis versicolor and have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of other superficial dermatoses; the most important ones are seborrheic dermatitis, folliculitis, and atopic dermatitis. The mechanisms by which the yeasts cause these dermatoses¸ however, are not yet clear, and there have been no studies on the interaction

  20. Skin diseases associated with Malassezia species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aditya K. Gupta; Roma Batra; Robyn Bluhm; Teun Boekhout; Thomas L. Dawson

    2004-01-01

    The yeasts of the genus Malassezia have been associated with a number of diseases affecting the human skin, such as pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia (Pityrosporum) folliculitis, seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and—less commonly—with other dermatologic disorders such as confluent and reticulated papillomatosis, onychomycosis, and transient acantholytic dermatosis. Although Malassezia yeasts are a part of the normal microflora, under certain

  1. Can Differences in Host Behavior Drive Patterns of Disease Prevalence in Tadpoles?

    PubMed Central

    Venesky, Matthew D.; Kerby, Jacob L.; Storfer, Andrew; Parris, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Differences in host behavior and resistance to disease can influence the outcome of host-pathogen interactions. We capitalized on the variation in aggregation behavior of Fowler's toads (Anaxyrus [?=?Bufo] fowleri) and grey treefrogs (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles and tested for differences in transmission of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and host-specific fitness consequences (i.e., life history traits that imply fitness) of infection in single-species amphibian mesocosms. On average, A. fowleri mesocosms supported higher Bd prevalences and infection intensities relative to H. versicolor mesocosms. Higher Bd prevalence in A. fowleri mesocosms may result, in part, from higher intraspecific transmission due to the aggregation of tadpoles raised in Bd treatments. We also found that, independent of species, tadpoles raised in the presence of Bd were smaller and less developed than tadpoles raised in disease-free conditions. Our results indicate that aggregation behavior might increase Bd prevalence and that A. fowleri tadpoles carry heavier infections relative to H. versicolor tadpoles. However, our results demonstrate that Bd appears to negatively impact larval growth and developmental rates of A. fowleri and H. versicolor similarly, even in the absence of high Bd prevalence. PMID:21949824

  2. Investigation of growth responses in saprophytic fungi to charred biomass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippa L. Ascough; Craig J. Sturrock; Michael I. Bird

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a study testing the response of two saprophytic white-rot fungi species, Pleurotus pulmonarius and Coriolus versicolor, to charred biomass (charcoal) as a growth substrate. We used a combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, elemental abundance measurements, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (C and N) to investigate fungal colonisation of control and incubated samples of

  3. Quantitative structure-activity relationship of antifungal activity of rosin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Nguyen, Thi Thanh Hien; Li, Shujun; Liang, Tao; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Jian

    2015-01-15

    To develop new rosin-based wood preservatives with good antifungal activity, 24 rosin derivatives were synthesized, bioassay tested with Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum, and subjected to analysis of their quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). A QSAR analysis using Ampac 9.2.1 and Codessa 2.7.16 software built two QSAR models of antifungal ratio for T. versicolor and G. trabeum with values of R(2)=0.9740 and 0.9692, respectively. Based on the models, tri-N-(3-hydroabietoxy-2-hydroxy) propyl-triethyl ammonium chloride was designed and the bioassay test result proved its better inhibitory effect against the two selected fungi as expected. PMID:25466709

  4. Concerted electron/proton transfer mechanism in the oxidation of phenols by laccase.

    PubMed

    Galli, Carlo; Madzak, Catherine; Vadalà, Raffaella; Jolivalt, Claude; Gentili, Patrizia

    2013-12-16

    This study aimed to assess structural requirements in the enzyme/substrate interactions that are responsible for tuning the enzymatic reactivity. To better assess the role of the aspartic residue in the substrate-binding pocket of basidiomycete-type laccases, we compared the catalytic efficiency of wild-type enzymes to that of a mutant in which carboxylic acid residue Asp206 was changed to alanine. Oxidation efficiency towards phenolic substrates by laccases of Trametes villosa, Trametes versicolor and a T. versicolor D206A mutant was studied at two pH values. By the Hammett approach and Marcus analysis, we obtained unambiguous evidence that the oxidation takes place by a concerted electron/proton transfer (EPT) mechanism, and that at pH 5 (optimum pH for enzyme activity) the phenolic proton is transferred to Asp206 during the concerted electron/proton transfer process. PMID:24151197

  5. A protein from Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis C.J. Mou with strong removal activity against the natural steroid hormone, estriol: purification, characterization, and identification as a laccase.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Shintani, Kayo; Nakanishi-Anjyuin, Akiko; Nakazawa, Masami; Kusuda, Mizuho; Nakatani, Fumiki; Kawaguchi, Takashi; Tsujiyama, Sho-Ichi; Kawanishi, Masanobu; Yagi, Takashi; Miyatake, Kazutaka

    2012-12-10

    A protein with strong removal activity against the natural estrogen estriol was purified from a culture supernatant of Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis C.J. Mou. The protein was characterized as a laccase and had a molecular mass of 60kDa on SDS-PAGE. The enzyme was most active at pH 7.0 and 50°C. The partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme showed homology with laccases from mushrooms, such as Pleurotus ostreatus, Coriolus versicolor (current name: Trametes versicolor), Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, and P. eryngii. A recombinant yeast assay confirmed that laccase treatment was very efficient for removing the estrogenic activity of steroid estrogens. Our results suggest that the enzyme may be applicable as a potential factor for removing natural steroid hormones. PMID:23040398

  6. Evidence-based Danish guidelines for the treatment of Malassezia-related skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Hald, Marianne; Arendrup, Maiken C; Svejgaard, Else L; Lindskov, Rune; Foged, Erik K; Saunte, Ditte Marie L

    2015-01-01

    Internationally approved guidelines for the diagnosis and management of Malassezia-related skin diseases are lacking. Therefore, a panel of experts consisting of dermatologists and a microbiologist under the auspices of the Danish Society of Dermatology undertook a data review and compiled guidelines for the diagnostic procedures and management of pityriasis versicolor, seborrhoeic dermatitis and Malassezia folliculitis. Main recommendations in most cases of pityriasis versicolor and seborrhoeic dermatitis include topical treatment which has been shown to be sufficient. As first choice, treatment should be based on topical antifungal medication. A short course of topical corticosteroid or topical calcineurin inhibitors has an anti-inflammatory effect in seborrhoeic dermatitis. Systemic antifungal therapy may be indicated for widespread lesions or lesions refractory to topical treatment. Maintenance therapy is often necessary to prevent relapses. In the treatment of Malassezia folliculitis systemic antifungal treatment is probably more effective than topical treatment but a combination may be favourable. PMID:24556907

  7. Microbial conversion of low-rank coal: characterization of biodegraded product

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. W. Wilson; R. M. Bean; J. A. Franz; B. L. Thomas; M. S. Cohen; H. Aronson; E. T. Jr. Gray

    2009-01-01

    The authors have characterized products obtained from the action of the fungus Polyporus versicolor on oxidized North Dakota (ND) lignite. These analyses showed that, compared to feed coal, the bioconverted materials had higher hydrogen:carbon and oxygen:carbon ratios, but were proportionately lower in aliphatic hydrogen, as determined by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The acid-precipitated extract was dissolved in dilute base and analyzed

  8. Bacterial versus fungal laccase: potential for micropollutant degradation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Relatively high concentrations of micropollutants in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents underscore the necessity to develop additional treatment steps prior to discharge of treated wastewater. Microorganisms that produce unspecific oxidative enzymes such as laccases are a potential means to improve biodegradation of these compounds. Four strains of the bacterial genus Streptomyces (S. cyaneus, S. ipomoea, S. griseus and S. psammoticus) and the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor were studied for their ability to produce active extracellular laccase in biologically treated wastewater with different carbon sources. Among the Streptomyces strains evaluated, only S. cyaneus produced extracellular laccase with sufficient activity to envisage its potential use in WWTPs. Laccase activity produced by T. versicolor was more than 20 times greater, the highest activity being observed with ash branches as the sole carbon source. The laccase preparation of S. cyaneus (abbreviated LSc) and commercial laccase from T. versicolor (LTv) were further compared in terms of their activity at different pH and temperatures, their stability, their substrate range, and their micropollutant oxidation efficiency. LSc and LTv showed highest activities under acidic conditions (around pH 3 to 5), but LTv was active over wider pH and temperature ranges than LSc, especially at near-neutral pH and between 10 and 25°C (typical conditions found in WWTPs). LTv was also less affected by pH inactivation. Both laccase preparations oxidized the three micropollutants tested, bisphenol A, diclofenac and mefenamic acid, with faster degradation kinetics observed for LTv. Overall, T. versicolor appeared to be the better candidate to remove micropollutants from wastewater in a dedicated post-treatment step. PMID:24152339

  9. Fermentation of millet to produce kamu a Nigerian starch-cake food.

    PubMed

    Oyeyiola, G P

    1991-03-01

    Microorganisms present in the unfermented grains of millet at the Initial stage of steeping and after sieving at the initial stage of souring for the preparation of kamu were moulds (Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillim nigricans and Rhizopus stolonifer), bacteria (Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactobaclllus plantarum) and a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Only the bacteria and yeast persisted to the end of the steeping period. These, together with another yeast, Candida krusel, brought about the final souring of kamu. PMID:24424932

  10. Bacterial versus fungal laccase: potential for micropollutant degradation.

    PubMed

    Margot, Jonas; Bennati-Granier, Chloé; Maillard, Julien; Blánquez, Paqui; Barry, David A; Holliger, Christof

    2013-01-01

    Relatively high concentrations of micropollutants in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents underscore the necessity to develop additional treatment steps prior to discharge of treated wastewater. Microorganisms that produce unspecific oxidative enzymes such as laccases are a potential means to improve biodegradation of these compounds. Four strains of the bacterial genus Streptomyces (S. cyaneus, S. ipomoea, S. griseus and S. psammoticus) and the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor were studied for their ability to produce active extracellular laccase in biologically treated wastewater with different carbon sources. Among the Streptomyces strains evaluated, only S. cyaneus produced extracellular laccase with sufficient activity to envisage its potential use in WWTPs. Laccase activity produced by T. versicolor was more than 20 times greater, the highest activity being observed with ash branches as the sole carbon source. The laccase preparation of S. cyaneus (abbreviated LSc) and commercial laccase from T. versicolor (LTv) were further compared in terms of their activity at different pH and temperatures, their stability, their substrate range, and their micropollutant oxidation efficiency. LSc and LTv showed highest activities under acidic conditions (around pH 3 to 5), but LTv was active over wider pH and temperature ranges than LSc, especially at near-neutral pH and between 10 and 25°C (typical conditions found in WWTPs). LTv was also less affected by pH inactivation. Both laccase preparations oxidized the three micropollutants tested, bisphenol A, diclofenac and mefenamic acid, with faster degradation kinetics observed for LTv. Overall, T. versicolor appeared to be the better candidate to remove micropollutants from wastewater in a dedicated post-treatment step. PMID:24152339

  11. Biodelignification and humification of horticultural plant residues by fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María José Lopez; Maria del Carmen Vargas-García; Francisca Suárez-Estrella; Joaquín Moreno

    2006-01-01

    The degradation of lignin in mixtures of horticultural plant residues with different C\\/N ratios by lignocellulolytic fungi was evaluated. Sterile sun-dried horticultural wastes were inoculated with Coriolus versicolor, Phanerochaete flavido-alba and Trichoderma koningii under controlled laboratory conditions and the fungal ligninolytic abilities compared and correlated with the humification process. The three fungi enhanced the formation of polymerized molecules, showing a

  12. Selection for early flowering in progenies of interspecific crosses of ten species in the genus Dianthus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. D. Sparnaaij; H. J. J. Koehorst-van Putten

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-seven progenies of interspecific crosses, involving ten Dianthus spieces (D. caryophyllus, D. chinensis, D. superbus, D. barbatus, D. japonicus, D. brachyzonus, D. versicolor, D. trifasciculatus, D. serotinus and D. knappii) and some complex interspecific hybrids (Diantini genotypes and D. ‘Allwoodii’ selections) were grown from seed under 8 hr days at two light intensities: 12 W\\/m2 and 22 W\\/m2. Observations on

  13. Application of chemical and physical agents in model systems to controlling phenoloxidase enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonella De Leonardis; Giuseppe Lustrato; Vincenzo Macciola; Giancarlo Ranalli

    2010-01-01

    Several chemical and physical anti-browning agents are studied in different model systems in which caffeic acid (as substrate)\\u000a and laccase from Trametes versicolor (LAC) and polyphenoloxidase from sunflower seeds (PPO) (as enzymes) are used to emulate the browning reaction. Temperature\\u000a and low electric current were the tested physical agents, while acetic acid, sodium acetate, sodium chloride and, finally,\\u000a sodium bisulfite

  14. COMMON TIMBER NATURAL DURABILITY STUDY IN THE BAJO APURE IN VENEZUELA II: Congrio (Swartzia sericea) y salado (Vochysia lehmanii)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Otón Holmquist; Aurora Cadenas; Pietro Pietrantonio; Andrea Piña; Alfredo Maggiorani; Lilian Bracamonte

    Following the standars of the American Society for Testing and Materials (A.S.T.M.) D: 2017-81, the natural durability of two important timbers from Bajo Apure, Venezuela, Swartzia sericea Vogel, Papilonaceae (Congrio) and Vochysia lehmanii Hieron., Vochysiaceae (Salado) were determined. Besides the two decay fungi specified by the international method Gloeophyllum trabeum and Trametes versicolor, two common wood rotters of the area

  15. A quantitative structure–antifungal activity relationship study of oxygenated aromatic essential oil compounds using data structuring and PLS regression analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karmen Voda; Bojana Boh; Margareta Vrta?nik

    2004-01-01

    Twenty two oxygenated aromatic essential oil compounds were chosen for the study of the antifungal activity against two wood-decaying fungi, the white-rot Trametes versicolor, which mainly metabolizes lignin, and the brown-rot Coniophoha puteana, which digests cellulose in plant cell walls. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by the agar dilution method, using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the solvent for the

  16. Quantification of ultraviolet protective effects of pityriacitrin in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Gambichler; H.-J. Krämer; S. Boms; M. Skrygan; N. S. Tomi; P. Altmeyer; P. Mayser

    2007-01-01

    Pityriacitrin (PIT), produced by Malassezia yeasts, is an UV absorbing substance that might cause hypopigmentation in pityriasis versicolor alba. We aimed to investigate\\u000a the UV protective effect of PIT in humans using in vitro and in vivo test methods. Spectrophotometry of PIT cream and the\\u000a vehicle was performed in the wavelength range from 290 to 400 nm. UV transmission and the

  17. Koji fermentation based on extracellular peptidases of Flammulina velutipes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Grimrath; P. Berends; S. Rabe; R. G. Berger; D. Linke

    2011-01-01

    A total of 28 basidiomycetes and 16 substrates were investigated to detect extracellular peptidases for the hydrolysis of\\u000a wheat gluten as a complex Koji substrate. In a first screening, basidiomycetes were grown in submerged cultures containing\\u000a gluten as only carbon and nitrogen source. Growth rate, protein concentration and peptidase activity were monitored. Flammulina velutipes, Armillaria mellea, Trametes versicolor, Meripilus giganteus,

  18. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity evolution during decolorization of dyes by White Rot Fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophie Vanhulle; Marie Trovaslet; Estelle Enaud; Mathias Lucas; Marc Sonveaux; Cony Decock; Rob Onderwater; Yves-Jacques Schneider; Anne-Marie Corbisier

    2008-01-01

    White Rot Fungi (WRF) are able to decolorize dyes through the use of relatively non-specific extracellular oxidative enzymes.\\u000a Nevertheless, decolorization does not imply that the resulting metabolites are less toxic than the parent molecules. The aim\\u000a of the present study was to evaluate the detoxification potential of six strains (Pycnoporus sanguineus, Perenniporia tephropora, Perenniporia ochroleuca, Trametes versicolor, Coriolopsis polyzona and

  19. Survey of viable airborne fungal propagules in French wine cellars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joël Simeray; Danielle Mandin; Mariette Mercier; Jean-Pierre Chaumont

    2001-01-01

    A study was carried out of the viable airbornemycological flora of 12 wine cellars in the Arboisregion in France. Results show that there wereconsiderable variations in the quantities ofpropagules: from 57 to 2547 CFU m-3. There was arelatively large number of species (48), which aremore frequently recovered from certain cellar types.The most common were Cladosporium sphaerospermum,Aspergillus versicolor, A. restrictus, Penicilliumglabrum,

  20. Antifungal Activities of Three Supercritical Fluid Extracted Cedar Oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tianchuan Du; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse

    The antifungal activities of three supercritical CO2 (SCC) extracted cedar oils, Port-Orford-cedar (POC) (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana), Alaska yellow cedar (AYC) (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), and Eastern red cedar (ERC) (Juniperus virginiana L), were evaluated against two common wood decay fungi, brown-rot fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum) and white-rot fungi (Trametes versicolor). The statistical analysis showed that SCC extracted cedar oils had higher antifungal activities othan

  1. Decolorization of reactive dyes by immobilized laccase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricio Peralta-Zamora; Cláudia M. Pereira; Elaine R. L. Tiburtius; Sandra G. Moraes; Maria A. Rosa; Rosana C. Minussi; Nelson Durán

    2003-01-01

    Immobilization of laccase by Trametes versicolor on silica chemically modified with imidazol groups, amberlite IRA-400, glass–ceramic chemically modified with carbodiimide\\/glutaraldehyde and by aminoprolyltriethoxysilane\\/glutaraldehyde and montmorillonite modified by aminoprolyltriethoxysilane\\/glutaraldehyde were afforded. These supports were used in the decolorization of textile reactive dyes (Remazol Brilliant Blue R, Remazol Black B, Reactive Orange 122 and Reactive Red 251). One of the most efficient

  2. Propionibacterium acnes and the Pathogenesis of Progressive Macular Hypomelanosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wiete Westerhof; Germaine N. Relyveld; Melanie M. Kingswijk; Peter de Man; Henk E. Menke

    Background: Progressive macular hypomelanosis is a common hypopigmentation mainly on the central parts of the trunk, predominantly in young adults, especially women. It is often mistaken for pityriasis versicolor and pityriasis alba. It occurs in all races and has been de- scribed in many parts of the world. We discovered fol- licularredfluorescencerestrictedtolesionalskin.Wesus- pected a relation with a porphyrin-producing bacteria residinginsebumofthepilosebaceousduct,andwethere-

  3. The use of sulfur in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Nicol, Karyn

    2004-01-01

    Sulfur has antifungal, antibacterial, and keratolytic activity. In the past, its use was widespread in dermatological disorders such as acne vulgaris, rosacea, seborrheic dermatitis, dandruff, pityriasis versicolor, scabies, and warts. Adverse events associated with topically applied sulfur are rare and mainly involve mild application site reactions. Sulfur, used alone or in combination with agents such as sodium sulfacetamide or salicylic acid, has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of many dermatological conditions. PMID:15303787

  4. Evaluation of the toxicological properties and hepatoprotective effects of PAIN002, a mixture of herbal extracts, in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung-Hwan Kim; Jeong-Hyeon Lim; In-Sik Shin; Changjong Moon; Soo-Hyun Park; Sung-Ho Kim; Jung-Sik Lee; Eun-Hye Kwon; Jong-Choon Kim

    2010-01-01

    The short-term toxicity of PAI-N002, a mixture of Schizandra chinensis, Astragalus membranaceus, Artemisia capillaris, and Coriolus versicolor extracts (1 : 1 : 1 : 1), was evaluated in rats. This study also investigated the protective effect of PAI-N002 on liver injury induced\\u000a by the co-administration of ethanol and carbon tetrachloride (EC) in rats. PAI-N002 was virtually non-toxic to rats after

  5. Beyond spaghetti and meatballs: skin diseases associated with the Malassezia yeasts.

    PubMed

    Levin, Nikki A

    2009-01-01

    Malassezia are common lipid-dependent fungi that grow on the sebaceous areas of human skin, including the face, scalp, and upper trunk. Although Malassezia are a part of the normal human skin flora, they may also cause or exacerbate several skin diseases, including tinea versicolor, Pityrosporum folliculitis, and seborrheic dermatitis. Topical antifungals are the mainstay of treating Malassezia-related diseases. Chronic prophylaxis is often required to prevent recurrences. PMID:19283956

  6. [Malassezia related diseases].

    PubMed

    Sei, Yoshihiro

    2006-01-01

    The genus Malassezia is now divided into eleven species. Different species initiate or aggravate different skin diseases. In seborroheic dermatitis, M. restricta play an important role, while in atopic dermatitis, M. globosa and/or M. restricta are major cutaneous microflora. M. globosa is a causative species of tinea versicolor, and this species is also a causative species of malassezia folliculitis. We should therefore obtain better knowledge of the ecological and pathogenic roles of malassezia. PMID:16699486

  7. Malassezia Baillon, emerging clinical yeasts.

    PubMed

    Batra, Roma; Boekhout, Teun; Guého, Eveline; Cabañes, F Javier; Dawson, Thomas L; Gupta, Aditya K

    2005-12-01

    The human and animal pathogenic yeast genus Malassezia has received considerable attention in recent years from dermatologists, other clinicians, veterinarians and mycologists. Some points highlighted in this review include recent advances in the technological developments related to detection, identification, and classification of Malassezia species. The clinical association of Malassezia species with a number of mammalian dermatological diseases including dandruff, seborrhoeic dermatitis, pityriasis versicolor, psoriasis, folliculitis and otitis is also discussed. PMID:16084129

  8. Malassezia furfur invasiveness in a keratinocyte cell line (HaCat): effects on cytoskeleton and on adhesion molecule and cytokine expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Baroni; B. Perfetto; I. Paoletti; E. Ruocco; N. Canozo; M. Orlando; E. Buommino

    2001-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract The lipophilic yeast Malassezia furfur is a member of the cutaneous microbiota, also associated with several chronic diseases such as pityriasis versicolor, folliculitis,\\u000a seborrhoeic dermatitis, and some forms of atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and confluent and reticulate papillomatosis. In this\\u000a study we determined the immunomodulatory and invasive capacity of M. furfur in a human keratinocyte cell culture, HaCat. At a

  9. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of 18 plants used in Congo Brazzaville traditional medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. F. Mbatchi; B. Mbatchi; J. T. Banzouzi; T. Bansimba; G. F. Nsonde Ntandou; J.-M. Ouamba; A. Berry; F. Benoit-Vical

    2006-01-01

    Sixty-six extracts of 18 plants commonly used by traditional healers in Congo Brazzaville for the treatment of malaria have been investigated for in vitro antiplasmodial activity. Ethanolic and dichloromethane extracts of 7 among the 18 studied plants were moderately active (10?g\\/mlversicolor (leaves), Pseudospondias microcarpa

  10. Synergistic wood preservatives involving EDTA, irganox 1076 and 2-hydroxypyridine- N-oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mabicka; S. Dumarçay; N. Rouhier; M. Linder; J. P. Jacquot; P. Gérardin; E. Gelhaye

    2005-01-01

    The efficiency of 2-hydroxypyridine-N-oxide (2-HPNO) against wood degradation by the white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor was demonstrated by monitoring weight loss of treated and untreated wood blocks. The fungistatic properties of 2-HPNO are related to the presence of the hydroxamic acid function as shown using several analogs. Using response surface methodology, strongly significant synergy was observed between either the chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetic

  11. Chemical polymorphism and antifungal activity of essential oils from leaves of different provenances of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Liu, Ju-Yun; Hsui, Yen-Ray; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2006-01-01

    The essential oils isolated from nine geographical provenances of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.) leaves were examined by GC-MS and their chemical constituents were compared. According to GC-MS and cluster analyses the leaf essential oils of the nine provenances and their relative contents were classified into six chemotypes-cinnamaldehyde type, cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type, cinnamyl acetate type, linalool type, camphor type and mixed type. In addition, the antifungal activities of leaf essential oils and their constituents from six chemotypes of indigenous cinnamon were investigated in this study. Results from the antifungal tests demonstrated that the leaf essential oils of cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type had an excellent inhibitory effect against white-rot fungi, Trametes versicolor and Lenzites betulina and brown-rot fungus Laetiporus sulphureus. The antifungal indices of leaf essential oils from these two chemotypes at the level of 200 micro/ml against T. versicolor, L. betulina and L. sulphureus were all 100%. Among them, the IC(50) (50% of inhibitory concentrations) value of the essential oil of cinnamaldehyde type leaf against L. sulphureus was 52-59microg/ml. Cinnamaldehyde possessed the strongest antifungal activities in comparison with other constituents of the essential oils from cinnamaldehyde type leaf, at the level of 100microg/ml its antifungal indices against T. versicolor, L. betulina and L. sulphureus were 100%. The IC50 values of cinnamaldehyde against T. versicolor, L. betulina and L. sulphureus were 73, 74 and 73microg/ml, respectively. PMID:16171686

  12. Laccase induction in fungi and laccase/N-OH mediator systems applied in paper mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Minussi, Rosana C; Pastore, Gláucia M; Durán, Nelson

    2007-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in extracellular enzymes from white rot fungi, such as lignin and manganese peroxidases, and laccases, due to their potential to degrade both highly toxic phenolic compounds and lignin. The optimum cultivation conditions for laccase production in semi-solid and liquid medium by Trametes versicolor, Trametes villosa, Lentinula edodes and Botrytis cinerea and the effects of laccase mediator system in E1 effluent were studied. The higher laccase activity (12756 U) was obtained in a liquid culture of T. versicolor in the presence of 1 mM of 2,5-xylidine and 0.4 mM copper salt as inducers. The effluent biotreatments were not efficient in decolorization with any fungal laccases studied. Maximum phenol reduction was approximately 23% in the absence of mediators from T. versicolor. The presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole did not increase phenol reduction. However, acetohydroxamic acid, which was not degraded by laccase, acted very efficiently on E1 effluent, reducing 70% and 73% of the total phenol and total organic carbon, respectively. Therefore, acetohydroxamic acid could be applied as a mediator for laccase bioremediation in E1 effluent. PMID:16376074

  13. Evaluation of biotechnological potentials of some industrial fungi in economical lipid accumulation and biofuel production as a field of use.

    PubMed

    Karatay, Sevgi Ertu?rul; Dönmez, Gönül

    2014-01-01

    Considering the vast number of scientific reports on various potential uses of fungi, there was an attempt to select the best lipid producer of some fungi at optimized conditions (Aspergillus versicolor, Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus arrhizus, Tramates versicolor). The aim was to offer new fields of use to the industries already culturing and using such materials. Aspergillus versicolor mycelia were found to be accumulating the highest amount of lipids. Experiments to improve lipid accumulation and transesterification properties were performed in molasses medium; the first steps were testing the effects of different pH values and different nitrogen sources on lipid accumulation. Various concentrations of KNO(3) (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 gL(-1)) and molasses (6%, 8%, 10%) were tried in order to find the optimum carbon and nitrogen requirements. Maximum lipid content was 22.8% in the samples containing 6% molasses solution and 1.0 gL(-1) KNO(3) at pH 4 after 10 days of incubation. The highest fatty acid ethyl ester yield of these samples was 77% (5.0 ethanol:oil, 0.4 sulfuric acid:oil at 30°C for 6 hr). Since the crude lipids were rich in C16 and C18 fatty acids, this was considered as suitable feedstock for biodiesel production. PMID:24320234

  14. Decolorization of the metal textile dye Lanaset Grey G by immobilized white-rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Daâssi, Dalel; Mechichi, Tahar; Nasri, Moncef; Rodriguez-Couto, Susana

    2013-11-15

    In this paper we studied the ability of four Tunisian-isolated fungi (i.e. Coriolopsis gallica, Bjerkandera adusta, Trametes versicolor and Trametes trogii) immobilized into Ca-alginate beads to decolorize the metal textile dye Lanaset Grey G (LG). The effect of different operational conditions, such as initial dye concentration, temperature, pH, beads/medium ratio and agitation, on dye decolorization by the immobilized fungi was investigated. Maximal decolorization percentages of 88.7%, 89.3%, 82.1% and 81.3% for C. gallica, B. adusta, T. versicolor and T. trogii were attained, respectively, when operating at an initial LG concentration of 150 mg/L, pH values of 5.0-6.0, temperatures of 40-45 °C and a beads/medium ratio of 20% (w/v) in static conditions after 72 h of incubation. Subsequently, the re-usability of the immobilized fungi was evaluated. After three decolorization cycles, the decolorization percentage of free cell cultures dropped to values below 36%, while decolorization percentages of about 75%, 70%, 60% and 68% were obtained by the immobilized cultures of C. gallica, B. adusta, T. versicolor and T. trogii, respectively. PMID:23978620

  15. Descubrimiento y selección de herbicidas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Históricamente, los herbicidas se han descubierto por selección al azar de la actividad sobre malezas de interés, con colecciones de químicos.  Aunque totalmente empírico, este enfoque ha sido sorprendentemente exitoso y ha producido esencialmente todos los herbicidas comerciales que hoy se usan.  Más recientemente, las compañías de agroquímicos han adoptado estrategias direccionadas, usando ensayos  in vitro, relaciones  estructura del compuesto/actividad, y ensayos de perfilamiento de  mARNs, proteínas y metabolitos.  Estos últimos enfoques, en combinación  con filtros estrictos, están diseñados para explotar avances recientes en la tecnología y para tomar ventaja de nuestro mejor entendimiento de los sistemas biológicos.

  16. Hoja informativa sobre la calidad del aire interior

    E-print Network

    · Moho · Polen · Caspa del pelo de los animales · Humo secundario del tabaco · Formaldehído · Monóxido de deshumidificador para ayudar a controlar el moho. · Limpie para eliminar el polvo y el pelo de los animales. · Arregle las fugas de agua para evitar el moho. · Use spray contra insectos solo cuando sea absolutamente

  17. Mitos acerca de Gardasil Inquietudes se interponen entre la vacuna contra el virus de papiloma humano y las

    E-print Network

    Quirk, Gregory J.

    , realizó en la Isla estudios conducentes a la aprobación de la vacuna. "Mucha gente tiene mucha reserva estudios para su aprobación -antes del 2000- y luego de ésta, los efectos secundarios que más se han), además de fiebre, náuseas, mareos, vómitos y desmayos. Sólo en algunos casos se han reportado reacciones

  18. Problemas sexuales y de fecundidad (hombres)

    Cancer.gov

    Muchos tratamientos del cáncer y algunos tipos de cáncer pueden causar efectos secundarios relacionados con la sexualidad y con la fecundidad. Ya sea que usted tenga o no estos problemas depende del tipo de tratamiento que recibe, de su edad al tiempo del tratamiento y del tiempo que ha pasado desde el tratamiento.

  19. MORFOLOGÍA Y ANATOMÍA DE NÚCULAS DE MARRUBIUM (LAMIACEAE) EN EL SUROESTE DE ESPAÑA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. MARTÍN MOSQUERO; R. JUAN; Y J. PASTOR

    Resumen. Se estudia la micromorfología y anatomía de núculas de Marrubium vulgare, en el suroeste de España, tanto al microscopio óptico como al microscopio electrónico de barrido. Anatómicamente su epicarpo se caracteriza por los engrosamien- tos secundarios de las paredes celulares y por los gránulos intensamente teñidos en la pared tangencial interna. Finalmente se indica el sistema de dispersión. Summary.

  20. Identification of a laccase from Ganoderma lucidum CBS 229.93 having potential for enhancing cellulase catalyzed lignocellulose degradation.

    PubMed

    Sitarz, Anna K; Mikkelsen, Jørn D; Højrup, Peter; Meyer, Anne S

    2013-12-10

    Based on a differential pre-screening of 44 white-rot fungi on a lignocellulose-supplemented minimal medium, four basidiomycetes were selected for further study: Ganoderma lucidum, Polyporus brumalis, Polyporus ciliatus and Trametes versicolor. Only G. lucidum was able to grow vividly on malt extract or minimal media supplemented with alkali lignin. When grown on malt extract or minimal medium supplemented with lignocellulose (sugar cane bagasse), the crude G. lucidum protein extract exhibited high laccase activity, ?3U/mL toward syringaldazine. This activity was 13-17 fold higher than the corresponding activities of the crude protein extracts of P. brumalis, P. ciliatus and T. versicolor. Native PAGE electrophoresis of the crude G. lucidum extract confirmed the presence of an active laccase. The G. lucidum laccase had a molecular weight of ?62.5kDa, and a Km value of 0.107mM (determined on ABTS). A partial amino acid sequence analysis of four short de novo sequenced peptides, defined after trypsin digest analysis using MALDI-TOF MS/MS analysis, revealed 64-100% homology to sequences in related laccases in the UniProt database, but also indicated that certain sequence stretches had low homology. Addition of the laccase-rich G. lucidum broth to lignocellulosic biomass (pretreated sugar cane bagasse) together with a state-of-the-art cellulase enzyme preparation (Cellic™CTec1) produced significantly increased cellulolytic yields, which were also better than those obtained with a T. versicolor laccase addition, indicating that the laccase from G. lucidum has unique properties that may be momentous in lignocellulosic biomass conversion. PMID:24315640

  1. Evaluation of fungal- and photo-degradation as potential treatments for the removal of sunscreens BP3 and BP1.

    PubMed

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Olivares, Alba; Piña, Benjamin; Blánquez, Paqui; Vicent, Teresa; Caminal, Gloria; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2012-06-15

    Photodecomposition might be regarded as one of the most important abiotic factors affecting the fate of UV absorbing compounds in the environment and photocatalysis has been suggested as an effective method to degrade organic pollutants. However, UV filters transformation appears to be a complex process, barely addressed to date. The white rot fungus Trametes versicolor is considered as a promising alternative to conventional aerobic bacterial degradation, as it is able to metabolise a wide range of xenobiotics. This study focused on both degradation processes of two widely used UV filters, benzophenone-3 (BP3) and benzophenone-1 (BP1). Fungal treatment resulted in the degradation of more than 99% for both sunscreens in less than 24 h, whereas photodegradation was very inefficient, especially for BP3, which remained unaltered upon 24 h of simulated sunlight irradiation. Analysis of metabolic compounds generated showed BP1 as a minor by-product of BP3 degradation by T. versicolor while the main intermediate metabolites were glycoconjugate derivatives. BP1 and BP3 showed a weak, but significant estrogenic activity (EC50 values of 0.058 mg/L and 12.5 mg/L, respectively) when tested by recombinant yeast assay (RYA), being BP1 200-folds more estrogenic than BP3. Estrogenic activity was eliminated during T. versicolor degradation of both compounds, showing that none of the resulting metabolites possessed significant estrogenic activity at the concentrations produced. These results demonstrate the suitability of this method to degrade both sunscreen agents and to eliminate estrogenic activity. PMID:22542301

  2. [Preparation and biological properties of basidiomycete aqueous extracts and their mycelial compositions].

    PubMed

    Bukhman, V M; Treshchalina, E M; Krasnopol'skaia, L M; Isakova, E B; Sedakova, L A; Avtonomova, A V; Leont'eva, M I; Soboleva, N Iu; Belitski?, I V; Bakanov, A V

    2007-01-01

    The basidiomycetes Ganoderma lucidum, Hericium erinaceus, Lentinus edodes and Trametes versicolor were used for preparation of aqueous extracts. A polysaccharide preparation (VPG) was isolated from the G. lucidum aqueous extracts. The mycelium was grown under submerged conditions according to an original procedure. Preliminary exposure of mice with tumors to cyclosphosphamide in a low dose for prolonged elimination of T-suppressors and rapid recovery of T-killers induced an increase in the efficacy of the H. erinaceus and L. edodes extracts. Investigation of the aqueous extracts and VPG on different tumor strain lines for the potential Modifiers of Biological Response (Ca755, s/c P388, s-180) demonstrated antitumor activity and satisfactory tolerabily after oral administration. Inhibition of the tumor growth by the H. erinaceus and T. versicolor extracts and VPG amounted to 88-99% and that of s-180 treated with the L. edodes aqueous extract amounted to 66-75%. Compositions 1, 2, 4 amd 5 were significantly more active by the duration and value of the effect on the animal tumor nodes as compared to the aqueous extracts and VPG included to the compositions and composition 4. Composition 5 (T. versicolor + H. erinaceus + G. Lucidum) proved to be the most efficient by all the criteria. The results of the design of the technologies for cultivation of the mycelum of the medicinal basidiomycetes, investigation of the antumor properties of the extracts and polysaccharide fraction of the mycelium and development of efficient compositions on their basis are summarized. Composition 5 proved to be the most promising for the clinical trials. PMID:18461802

  3. Evaluation of ten wild nigerian mushrooms for amylase and cellulase activities.

    PubMed

    Jonathan, Segun Gbolagade; Adeoyo, Olusegun Richard

    2011-06-01

    Amylases and cellulases are important enzymes that can be utilized for various biological activities. Ten different wild Nigerian mushrooms (Agaricus blazei, Agaricus sp., Corilopsis occidentalis, Coriolus versicolor, Termitomyces clypeatus, Termitomyces globulus, Pleurotus tuber-regium, Podoscypha bolleana, Pogonomyces hydnoides, and Nothopanus hygrophanus) were assayed for production of these secondary metabolites. The results revealed that most of the tested wild fungi demonstrated very good amylase and cellulase activities. With the incorporation of carboxymethyl-cellulose (a carbon source) into the culture medium, Agaricus blazei had the highest amylolytic activity of 0.60 unit/mL (at 25?, pH 6.8). This was followed in order by P. tuber-regium and Agaricus sp. with 0.42 and 0.39 unit/mL, respectively (p ? 0.05). Maltose and sucrose supplementation into the submerged liquid medium made N. hygrophanus and P. hydnoides to exhibit very low amylase activities of 0.09 and 0.11 unit/mL, respectively. Introducing peptone (an organic nitrogen source) into the basal medium enhanced the ability of C. versicolor to produce a cellulase value of 0.74 unit/mL. Other organic nitrogen sources that supported good cellulase activities were yeast extract and urea. Sodium nitrate (inorganic nitrogen source) generally inhibited cellulase production in all mushrooms. The best carbon source was carboxymethyl-cellulose, which promoted very high cellulase activity of 0.67 unit/mL in C. versicolor, which was followed in order by P. tuber-regium, T. chypeatus, and C. occidentalis (p ? 0.05). Sucrose was the poorest carbon compound, supporting the lowest values of 0.01, 0.01, and 0.14 unit/mL in P. hydnoides, A. blazei, and Agaricus sp., respectively. PMID:22783085

  4. Regulation of coal polymer degradation by fungi. Tenth Quartery report, October 1996--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.L. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences; Bumpus, J.A. [Univ. of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-01-28

    It has long been known that low rank coal such as leonardite can be solubilized by strong base (>pH 12). Recent discoveries have also shown that leonardite is solubilized by Lewis bases at considerably lower pH values and by fungi that secrete certain Lewis bases (i.e., oxalate ion). During the current reporting period we have studied the ability of a strong base (sodium hydroxide, pH 12), and two fungi, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor, to solubilize Argonne Premium Coals. In general, Argonne Premium Coals were relatively resistant to base mediated solubilization. However, when these coals were preoxidized (150{degrees}C for seven days), substantial amounts of several coals were solubilized. Most affected were the Lewiston-Stockton bituminous coal, the Beulah-Zap lignite, the Wyodak-Anderson subbituminous coal and the Blind Canyon bituminous coal. Argonne Premium Coals were previously shown by us to be relatively resistant to solubilization by sodium oxalate. When preoxidized coals were treated with sodium oxalate, only the Beulah-Zap lignite was substantially solubilized. Although very small amounts of the other preoxidized coals were solubilized by treatment with oxalate, the small amount of solubilization that did take place was generally increased relative to that observed for coals that were not preoxidized. None of the Argonne Premium Coals were solubilized by P. chrysosporium or T. versicolor. Of considerable interest, however, is the observation that P. chrysosporium and T. versicolor mediated extensive solubilization of Lewiston-Stockton bituminous coal, the Beulah-Zap lignite and the Wyodak-Anderson subbituminous coal.

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of the ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus (Galliformes: Phasianidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Xifeng; Ren, Qiongqiong; Kan, Xianzhao; Qian, Chaoju; Li, Xixi; Qian, Min

    2013-04-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Phasianus colchicus is 16,692 bp in length and composed of 13 typical protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and 1 putative control region. One extra nucleotide "C" is present in nad3 of P. colchicus, which is found in many other birds and is thought not to be translated. All protein-coding, rRNA, and tRNA genes have more than 99.0% nucleotide sequence similarity with the previously reported individual, except for cox3 and tRNA (Pro) genes which has more similarity with Phasianus versicolor. PMID:22950703

  6. Efficient direct oxygen reduction by laccases attached and oriented on pyrene-functionalized polypyrrole/carbon nanotube electrodes.

    PubMed

    Lalaoui, Noémie; Elouarzaki, Kamal; Le Goff, Alan; Holzinger, Michael; Cosnier, Serge

    2013-10-18

    We report the functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes by oxidative electropolymerization of pyrrole monomers bearing pyrene and N-hydroxysuccinimide groups. Both polymers were applied to the immobilization and electrical wiring of Trametes versicolor laccase via chemical grafting or non-covalent binding. A "pseudo" host-guest interaction of polymerized pyrene with a hydrophobic cavity of laccase was used for the oriented enzyme immobilization on MWCNT electrodes. The latter leads to higher catalytic current for oxygen reduction (1.85 mA cm(-2)) and higher electroenzymatic stability (50% after one month). PMID:23994955

  7. Laccase-mediator system for alcohol oxidation to carbonyls or carboxylic acids: toward a sustainable synthesis of profens.

    PubMed

    Galletti, Paola; Pori, Matteo; Funiciello, Federica; Soldati, Roberto; Ballardini, Alberto; Giacomini, Daria

    2014-09-01

    By combining two green and efficient catalysts, such as the commercially available enzyme laccase from Trametes versicolor and the stable free radical 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO), the oxidation in water of some primary alcohols to the corresponding carboxylic acids or aldehydes and of selected secondary alcohols to ketones can be accomplished. The range of applicability of bio-oxidation is widened by applying the optimized protocol to the oxidation of enantiomerically pure 2-arylpropanols (profenols) into the corresponding 2-arylpropionic acids (profens), in high yields and with complete retention of configuration. PMID:25044433

  8. Bayesian inference on mixture models and their applications

    E-print Network

    Chang, Ilsung

    2006-08-16

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 16 Scatter plot of Iris data. Sepal length on the horizontal axis and sepal width on the vertical axis. The circles are the class of Iris setosa and the cross indicates Iris virginica. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 17 Plot of log likelihood... parameter xi (column 2) and diagonal elements of scale parameter Omega (column 3). First two rows (sepal length and sepal width) are for Iris setosa and last two rows for Iris versicolor. Each number listed under plots is the mean of 2000 samples after 2000...

  9. SUPPORTING DOMAIN SPECIFIC WEB-BASED SEARCH USING HEURISTIC KNOWLEDGE EXTRACTION

    E-print Network

    Gunanathan, Sudharsan

    2010-01-16

    ), body mass index (x 6 ), diabetes pedigree function (x 7 ), and age (x 8 ). In this database, 268 instances are positive (output equals 1) and 500 instances are negative (output equals 0). 3) Iris Data: The third dataset we looked at is the Iris data [77...]. The dataset contains three classes of 40 instances each, where each class refers to a type of Iris plant. The three classes are: Iris setosa (class 1, represented by ?1), Iris versicolor (class 2, represented by 0), and Iris virginica (class 3, represented...

  10. Anti-protein-bound polysaccharide-K monoclonal antibody binds the active structure and neutralizes direct antitumor action of the compound.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Hirotaka; Saito, Hikaru; Iijima, Hiroko; Uchida, Motoyuki; Wada, Tsutomu; Ito, Gentaro; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Sawada, Tetsuji; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2011-04-01

    Protein-bound polysaccharide K (PSK) is extracted and purified from Coriolus versicolor (CM101), and is used as an anti-cancer agent. In this study, focusing on the direct actions of PSK, we investigated whether PSK reaches tumor and immune tissues with its active structure remaining intact, and the direct action of PSK was evaluated by its antitumor effects against MethA fibrosarcomas implanted in immunodeficient NOD/SCID mice. The results obtained suggest that PSK reaches the tumor tissue in its active form and exhibits antitumor effects against MethA cells. PMID:21249323

  11. [How I explore...skin by photodiagnosis using skin fluorescence and its functional imaging].

    PubMed

    Szepetiuk, G; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Quatresooz, P; Piérard, G E

    2010-09-01

    Under specific light illumination, skin produces peculiar fluorescent aspects. Such property can be used to provide diagnostic arguments or to disclose some peculiar functions of the skin. Some superficial infections (erythrasma, tinea versicolor, dermatophytic tinea,..) reveal fluorescence that may be intense. The pilosebaceous follicles enriched in Propionibacterium spp show fluorescence. Such property is lost during some anti-acne treatments. A quenching effect is observed after application of sunscreens. The (pre)neoplastic areas prepared for dynamic phototherapy become fluorescent. Pyranine labeling of the stratum corneum exhibits fluorescence allowing the assessment of the renewal activity of the epidermis. PMID:21086585

  12. [Malassezia infections].

    PubMed

    Sei, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    Although Malassezia yeasts are a part of the normal microflora, under certain conditions they can cause superficial skin infection Pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia folliculitis. Lipophilic yeasts are being considered as major opportunistic pathogens for a very long time. Most of the yeasts show an absolute requirement for long fatty acid chains and specific procedures are required for their isolation, conservation and identification. To date, the genus is composed of one non lipid-dependent species M. pachydermatis and lipid-dependent species M. furfur, M. sympodialis, M. globosa, M. obtusa, M. restricta, M. slooffiae, M. dermatis, M. yamatoensis, M. japonica, M. nana, M. caprae, M. equina, M. cuniculi. PMID:22467125

  13. [Recent advances in research on Malassezia microbiota in humans].

    PubMed

    Sugita, Takashi; Zhang, Enshi; Tanaka, Takafumi; Nishikawa, Akemi; Tajima, Mami; Tsuboi, Ryoji

    2013-01-01

    Malassezia species of lipophilic yeasts account for most fungal microbiota. Although they colonize healthy skin, they are also associated with several skin diseases, including pityriasis versicolor, seborrheic dermatitis, Malassezia folliculitis, and atopic dermatitis. To date, 14 members of the Malassezia genus have been identified. Of these, both M. globosa and M. restricta predominate, regardless of skin-disease type. Comprehensive analysis of fungal microbiota in the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis using an rRNA clone library method revealed that fungal microbiota cluster according to disease severity. The external ear canal and sole of the foot are colonized by specific Malassezia microbiota. PMID:23470953

  14. Minireview: Malassezia infections in immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Tragiannidis, Athanasios; Bisping, Guido; Koehler, Gabriele; Groll, Andreas H

    2010-05-01

    Malassezia spp. form part of the normal human cutaneous flora and are implicated in several mild, but recurrent cutaneous diseases, such as pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia folliculitis, seborrhoeic dermatitis, and, with lesser frequency, a range of other dermatological disorders. Malassezia spp. have also been associated with cutaneous and systemic diseases in immunocompromised patients including folliculitis, seborrhoeic dermatitis, catheter-related fungaemia and a variety of deeply invasive infections. In this review, we provide an overview of the epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of cutaneous and invasive Malassezia infections in immunocompromised patients. PMID:20028460

  15. Inventario mundial de la calidad del carbon mineral (WoCQI) [The world coal quality inventory (WoCQI)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.; Lovern, V.S.

    2001-01-01

    Los oficiales encargados de la politica comercial de cada pais requieren informacion clara y precisa sobre el recurso del carbon mineral, particularmente sobre sus propiedades y caracteristicas, para tomar decisiones bien fundamentadas con respecto al mejor uso de los recursos naturales, necesidades de importacion y oportunidades de exportacion, objetivos de politica interna y externa, oportunidades de transferencia tecnologica, posibilidades de inversion externa, estudios ambientales y de salud, y asuntos relacionados con el uso de productos secundarios y su disposicion.

  16. White-rot fungus-mediated degradation of the analgesic ketoprofen and identification of intermediates by HPLC-DAD-MS and NMR.

    PubMed

    Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Pérez-Trujillo, Miriam; Cruz-Morató, Carles; Caminal, Gloria; Vicent, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Ketoprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that has been detected in the environment in the range of ng L(-1)-microg L(-1) due to its low degradability in some wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the use of the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor to effectively degrade ketoprofen in a defined liquid medium was assessed. The fungus eliminated ketoprofen to nondetectable levels in 24h when it was added at 10mgL(-1) whereas at low concentration of 40microgL(-1) it was almost completely removed (95%) after 5h. Low extracellular laccase activity was detected in the T. versicolor cultures but the addition of the laccase-mediator system did not lead to ketoprofen oxidation. The cytochrome P-450 inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole reduced ketoprofen oxidation. These data suggest that the first oxidation step is cytochrome P450 mediated. During time-course degradation experiments, three intermediates were structurally elucidated and quantified by HPLC-DAD-MS and NMR: 2-[3-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)phenyl]-propanoic acid, 2-[(3-hydroxy(phenyl)methyl)phenyl]-propanoic acid, and 2-(3-benzoyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid. The latter was reported for the first time in biological systems. After 7 d of incubation, only small amounts of 2-[(3-hydroxy(phenyl)methyl)phenyl]-propanoic acid (0.08mg) remained in the liquid medium in comparison with the initial ketoprofen dose (1.0mg), suggesting possible mineralization of ketoprofen. PMID:19913277

  17. Oxidation of the erythro and threo forms of the phenolic lignin model compound 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-1,3-propanediol by laccases and model oxidants.

    PubMed

    Bohlin, Christina; Lundquist, Knut; Jönsson, Leif J

    2009-10-01

    Mixtures of equal amounts of the erythro and threo forms of the phenolic arylglycerol beta-aryl ether 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-1,3-propanediol were oxidized (i) with laccases from Trametes versicolor, Agaricus bisporus, Myceliophthora thermophila and Rhus vernicifera, (ii) with laccase-mediator systems consisting of T. versicolor laccase and ABTS or HBT, and (iii) with various model oxidants including cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate (CAN), lignin peroxidase, Fenton's reagent, and lead(IV) tetraacetate (LTA). All the laccases exhibited a similar preferential degradation of the threo form. The mediator ABTS counteracted the threo preference of laccase, but the mediator HBT did not affect it. The outer-sphere model oxidants CAN and lignin peroxidase showed a preferential degradation of the threo form. LTA and Fenton's reagent did not exhibit any stereo-preference. The results suggest that laccases of different origin, primary structure, and redox potential behave as typical outer-sphere oxidants in their interaction with the diastereomers of the arylglycerol beta-aryl ether. PMID:19646732

  18. Fungal contamination in swine: a potential occupational health threat.

    PubMed

    Viegas, C; Carolino, E; Sabino, R; Viegas, S; Veríssimo, C

    2013-01-01

    Poor air quality in a pig-confinement building may potentially place farmers at higher health risk than other workers for exposure to airborne pollutants that may reach infectious levels. The aim of this study was to assess worker exposure to fungi in indoor environments in Portuguese swine buildings. Air samples from 7 swine farms were collected at a flow rate of 140 L/min, at 1 m height, onto malt extract agar supplemented with chloramphenicol (MEA). Surfaces samples of the same indoor sites were obtained by swabbing the surfaces. Samples from the floor covering were also collected from four of seven swine farms. All collected samples were incubated at 27°C for 5-7 days. After lab processing and incubation of obtained samples, quantitative colony-forming units (CFU)/m(3), CFU/cm(2), and CFU/g and qualitative results were determined with identification of isolated fungal species. Aspergillus versicolor was the most frequent species found in air (21%), followed by Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (17%) and Penicillium sp. (14%). Aspergillus versicolor was also the most frequent species noted on surfaces (26.6%), followed by Cladosporium sp. (22.4%) and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (17.5%). Chrysosporium was the most frequently found genera in the new floor covering (38.5%), while Mucor was the most prevalent genera (25.1%) in used floor covering. Our findings corroborate a potential occupational health threat due to fungi exposure and suggest the need for a preventive strategy. PMID:23514069

  19. Trametes meyenii possesses elevated dye degradation abilities under normal nutritional conditions compared to other white rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Chenaux, Peter R; Lalji, Narisa; Lefebvre, Daniel D

    2014-01-01

    Several species of white-rot fungi were investigated for their utility in prolonged decolouration of the recalcitrant sulfonated azo dye, amaranth. Trametes pubescens, T. multicolor, T. meyenii and T. versicolor decoloured amaranth azo-dye best on low-nitrogen agar-solidified media whereas Bjerkandera adusta and Phlebia radiata were most effective in low nitrogen medium supplemented with manganese. Trametes cotonea did not decolour effectively under any condition. The decolouring Trametes species were also effective in liquid culture whereas B. adusta and P. radiata were not. Trametes meyenii, T. pubescens and T. multicolor were equal to or better than commonly employed T. versicolor at decolouring amaranth. This is the first study to show the dye decolouration potential of T. meyenii, T. pubescens, and T. multicolor. Supplementing with Mn(II) increased assayable manganese peroxidase activity, but not long-term decolouration, indicating that laccase is the main decolourizing enzyme in these Trametes species. This appears to be because of inadequate Mn(3+) chelation required by manganese peroxidase because adding relatively low amounts of malonate enhanced decolouration rates. The ability of Trametes meyenii to simultaneously decolour dye over prolonged periods of time while growing in relatively nutrient-rich medium appears to be unique amongst white-rot fungi, indicating its potential in wastewater bioremediation. PMID:25401075

  20. Degradation of lindane and endosulfan by fungi, fungal and bacterial laccases.

    PubMed

    Ul?nik, A; Kralj Cigi?, I; Pohleven, F

    2013-12-01

    The ability of two white-rot fungi (Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus) and one brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum) to degrade two organochlorine insecticides, lindane and endosulfan, in liquid cultures was studied and dead fungal biomass was examined for adsorption of both insecticides from liquid medium. Lindane and endosulfan were also treated with fungal laccase and bacterial protein CotA, which has laccase activities. The amount of degraded lindane and endosulfan increased with their exposure period in the liquid cultures of both examined white-rot fungi. Endosulfan was transformed to endosulfan sulphate by T. versicolor and P. ostreatus. A small amount of endosulfan ether was also detected and its origin was examined. Degradation of lindane and endosulfan by a brown rot G. trabeum did not occur. Mycelial biomasses of all examined fungi have been found to adsorb lindane and endosulfan and adsorption onto fungal biomass should therefore be considered as a possible mechanism of pollutant removal when fungal degradation potentials are studied. Bacterial protein CotA performed more efficient degradation of lindane and endosulfan than fungal laccase and has shown potential for bioremediation of organic pollutants. PMID:23736895

  1. Re-inoculation strategies enhance the degradation of emerging pollutants in fungal bioaugmentation of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Lucas, Daniel; Barón, Enrique; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Molins-Delgado, Daniel; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Eljarrat, Ethel; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa

    2014-09-01

    The use of Trametes versicolor has been partially successful in the removal of some pharmaceuticals from sewage sludge in laboratory-scale biopile systems. The application of two strategies for the re-inoculation of biomass was assessed during the fungal bioaugmentation of non-sterile sludge (42-d treatment) as an approach to improve the elimination of pharmaceuticals and other groups of emerging pollutants. Globally, the re-inoculation of biopiles with blended mycelium exerted a major effect on the removal of pharmaceuticals (86%), brominated-flame-retardants (81%) and UV filters (80%) with respect to the re-inoculation with additional lignocellulosic substrate colonized by the fungus (69-67-22%). The performance was better than that of the analogous non-re-inoculated systems that were assayed previously for the removal of pharmaceuticals. The results demonstrate the ability of T. versicolor to remove a wide spectrum of emerging micropollutants under non-sterile conditions, while re-inoculation appears to be a useful step to improve the fungal treatment of sludge. PMID:24582425

  2. Direct detection using the Drosophila DNA-repair test and isolation of a DNA-damaging mycotoxin, 5,6-dihydropenicillic acid, in fungal culture.

    PubMed

    Obana, H; Kumeda, Y; Nishimune, T; Usami, Y

    1994-01-01

    The Drosophila DNA-repair test was used in an attempt to detect fungal production of DNA-damaging mycotoxins without an extraction process. 29 species of fungi, 13 Aspergillus, 12 Penicillium and four Fusarium were inoculated directly to a Drosophila medium, and the larvae were then bred in the mouldy medium. Production of DNA-damaging mycotoxin was detected directly by counting the decrease in the survival of DNA-repair-deficient flies. With the direct detection method, Aspergillus ochraceus, A. parasiticus and A. versicolor produced DNA-damaging mycotoxins. The same results were obtained with the mouldy medium extract using the standard DNA-repair test. The direct detection method was convenient for surveying the fungal production of DNA-damaging mycotoxins. The extracts of A. parasiticus and A. versicolor contained aflatoxin B1 and sterigmatocystin, respectively. The DNA-damaging compound in the extract of A. ochraceus was isolated and purified to clear, colourless 'needles'. With nuclear magnetic resonance-mass spectroscopy spectra, the compound was confirmed to be 5,6-dihydropenicillic acid, the DNA-damaging potency of which has not been previously reported. PMID:8132162

  3. Synthetic dye decolorization by three sources of fungal laccase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Decolorization of six synthetic dyes using three sources of fungal laccase with the origin of Aspergillus oryzae, Trametes versicolor, and Paraconiothyrium variabile was investigated. Among them, the enzyme from P. variabile was the most efficient which decolorized bromophenol blue (100%), commassie brilliant blue (91%), panseu-S (56%), Rimazol brilliant blue R (RBBR; 47%), Congo red (18.5%), and methylene blue (21.3%) after 3 h incubation in presence of hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT; 5 mM) as the laccase mediator. It was also observed that decolorization efficiency of all dyes was enhanced by increasing of HBT concentration from 0.1 mM to 5 mM. Laccase from A. oryzae was able to remove 53% of methylene blue and 26% of RBBR after 30 min incubation in absence of HBT, but the enzyme could not efficiently decolorize other dyes even in presence of 5 mM of HBT. In the case of laccase from T. versicolor, only RBBR was decolorized (93%) in absence of HBT after 3 h incubation. PMID:23369690

  4. Biotransformation of fluoroquinolone antibiotics by ligninolytic fungi - Metabolites, enzymes and residual antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    ?van?arová, Monika; Moeder, Monika; Filipová, Alena; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2015-10-01

    A group of white rot fungi (Irpex lacteus, Panus tigrinus, Dichomitus squalens, Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus) was investigated for the biodegradation of norfloxacin (NOR), ofloxacin (OF) and ciprofloxacin (CIP). The selected fluoroquinolones were readily degraded almost completely by I. lacteus and T. versicolor within 10 and 14d of incubation in liquid medium, respectively. The biodegradation products were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The analyses indicated that the fungi use similar mechanisms to degrade structurally related antibiotics. The piperazine ring of the molecules is preferably attacked via either substitution or/and decomposition. In addition to the degradation efficiency, attention was devoted to the residual antibiotic activities estimated using Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Only I. lacteus was able to remove the antibiotic activity during the course of the degradation of NOR and OF. The product-effect correlations evaluated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) enabled elucidation of the participation of the individual metabolites in the residual antibacterial activity. Most of the metabolites correlated with the antibacterial activity, explaining the rather high residual activity remaining after the biodegradation. PCA of ligninolytic enzyme activities indicated that manganese peroxidase might participate in the degradation. PMID:25592459

  5. Multicenter Study of Isavuconazole MIC Distributions and Epidemiological Cutoff Values for Aspergillus spp. for the CLSI M38-A2 Broth Microdilution Method

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhary, A.; Gonzalez, G. M.; Lass-Flörl, C.; Martin-Mazuelos, E.; Meis, J.; Peláez, T.; Pfaller, M. A.; Turnidge, J.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) were established for the new triazole isavuconazole and Aspergillus species wild-type (WT) MIC distributions (organisms in a species-drug combination with no detectable acquired resistance mechanisms) that were defined with 855 Aspergillus fumigatus, 444 A. flavus, 106 A. nidulans, 207 A. niger, 384 A. terreus, and 75 A. versicolor species complex isolates; 22 Aspergillus section Usti isolates were also included. CLSI broth microdilution MIC data gathered in Europe, India, Mexico, and the United States were aggregated to statistically define ECVs. ECVs were 1 ?g/ml for the A. fumigatus species complex, 1 ?g/ml for the A. flavus species complex, 0.25 ?g/ml for the A. nidulans species complex, 4 ?g/ml for the A. niger species complex, 1 ?g/ml for the A. terreus species complex, and 1 ?g/ml for the A. versicolor species complex; due to the small number of isolates, an ECV was not proposed for Aspergillus section Usti. These ECVs may aid in detecting non-WT isolates with reduced susceptibility to isavuconazole due to cyp51A (an A. fumigatus species complex resistance mechanism among the triazoles) or other mutations. PMID:23716059

  6. Wild-type MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for caspofungin and Aspergillus spp. for the CLSI broth microdilution method (M38-A2 document).

    PubMed

    Espinel-Ingroff, A; Fothergill, A; Fuller, J; Johnson, E; Pelaez, T; Turnidge, J

    2011-06-01

    Clinical breakpoints have not been established for mold testing. Epidemiologic cutoff values (ECVs) are available for six Aspergillus spp. and the triazoles, but not for caspofungin. Wild-type (WT) minimal effective concentration (MEC) distributions (organisms in a species-drug combination with no acquired resistance mechanisms) were defined in order to establish ECVs for six Aspergillus spp. and caspofungin. The number of available isolates was as follows: 1,691 A. fumigatus, 432 A. flavus, 192 A. nidulans, 440 A. niger, 385 A. terreus, and 75 A. versicolor isolates. CLSI broth microdilution MEC data gathered in five independent laboratories in Canada, Europe, and the United States were aggregated for the analyses. ECVs expressed in ?g/ml that captured 95% and 99% of the modeled wild-type population were for A. fumigatus 0.5 and 1, A. flavus 0.25 and 0.5, A. nidulans 0.5 and 0.5, A. niger 0.25 and 0.25, A. terreus 0.25 and 0.5, and A. versicolor 0.25 and 0.5. Although caspofungin ECVs are not designed to predict the outcome of therapy, they may aid in the detection of strains with reduced antifungal susceptibility to this agent and acquired resistance mechanisms. PMID:21422219

  7. Fungal life in the dead sea.

    PubMed

    Oren, Aharon; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The waters of the Dead Sea currently contain about 348 g/l salts (2 M Mg(2+), 0.5 M Ca(2+), 1.5 M Na(+), 0.2 M K(+), 6.5 M Cl(-), 0.1 M Br(-)). The pH is about 6.0. After rainy winters the surface waters become diluted, triggering development of microbial blooms. The 1980 and 1992 blooms were dominated by the unicellular green alga Dunaliella and red Archaea. At least 70 species (in 26 genera) of Oomycota (Chromista), Mucoromycotina, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota (Fungi) were isolated from near-shore localities and offshore stations, including from deep waters. Aspergillus and Eurotium were most often recovered. Aspergillus terreus, A. sydowii, A. versicolor, Eurotium herbariorum, Penicillium westlingii, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. sphaerospermum, C. ramnotellum, and C. halotolerans probably form the stable core of the community. The species Gymnascella marismortui may be endemic. Mycelia of Dead Sea isolates of A. versicolor and Chaetomium globosum remained viable for up to 8 weeks in Dead Sea water; mycelia of other species survived for many weeks in 50% Dead Sea water. Many isolates showed a very high tolerance to magnesium salts. There is no direct proof that fungi contribute to the heterotrophic activity in the Dead Sea, but fungi may be present at least locally and temporarily, and their enzymatic activities such as amylase, protease, and cellulase may play a role in the lake's ecosystem. PMID:22222829

  8. Temporal order and the evolution of complex acoustic signals.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, H Carl; Humfeld, Sarah C; Marshall, Vincent T

    2007-07-22

    The evolution of complex signals may be favoured by hidden preferences or pre-existing sensory biases. Females of two species of grey treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis and Hyla versicolor) were tested with combinations of a conspecific advertisement call and acoustic appendages. Appendages consisted of aggressive calls and segments of advertisement calls from conspecific males and males of three other species and bursts of filtered noise. When a wide variety of these acoustic appendages followed the advertisement call, the resulting compound signal was often more attractive than the same advertisement call alone. When the same appendages led advertisement calls, however, the compound signal was never more attractive and sometimes less attractive. The order effect was especially strong in tests of H. versicolor in which advertisement-call duration was decreased. These results cannot be explained by a general pre-existing bias for extra stimulation per se. Rather, order and other effects may constrain the evolution and subsequent modification of complex and extravagant signals, examples of which have been reported for a wide range of taxa. PMID:17507330

  9. Previous exposure of predatory fish to a pesticide alters palatability of larval amphibian prey.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Shane M; Parris, Matthew J

    2013-12-01

    Habitat preferences of organisms are reliant on a variety of factors. For amphibians specifically, preferences can depend on factors such as food availability, water quality, and the presence of potential predators. Because some amphibians breed in permanent bodies of water (e.g., ponds), the threat of predation (e.g., from fish) is constant. Thus, some amphibians are unpalatable to many predators, allowing them to coexist in the same habitats. However, the addition of anthropogenic stressors (i.e., pesticides) may alter the perceived palatability of prey items to predators. The authors tested the hypothesis that bluegill fish (Lepomis macrochirus), previously exposed to the pesticide carbaryl, would consume more unpalatable prey (Fowler's toad [Anaxyrus fowleri] tadpoles) than unexposed predators. Carbaryl is a pesticide that attacks the nervous system and is linked to taste sense in organisms. Moreover, the authors conducted an identical test using palatable prey (gray treefrog [Hyla versicolor] tadpoles) and predicted that no change in preference would be observed. In support of the primary hypothesis, bluegill exposed to the highest concentration of carbaryl consumed more A. fowleri tadpoles compared with those exposed to carbaryl at the lowest concentration or water control. Moreover, an effect of carbaryl on predation success on H. versicolor tadpoles was not observed. The present study shows that an anthropogenic stressor (carbaryl) can alter the perceived palatability of noxious prey to fish predators, potentially altering predator-prey relationships in natural settings. PMID:24383102

  10. Previous exposure of predatory fish to a pesticide alters palatability of larval amphibian prey.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Shane M; Parris, Matthew J

    2013-09-01

    Habitat preferences of organisms are reliant upon a variety of factors. Specifically with amphibians, preferences can depend on factors such as food availability, water quality, or the presence of potential predators. Because some amphibians breed in permanent bodies of water (e.g., ponds), the threat of predation (e.g., from fish) is constant. Thus, some amphibians are unpalatable to many predators, allowing them to coexist in the same habitats. However, the addition of anthropogenic stressors (i.e., pesticides) may alter the perceived palatability of prey items to predators. We tested the hypothesis that bluegill fish (Lepomis macrochirus), previously exposed to the pesticide carbaryl, would consume more unpalatable prey (Fowler's toad [Anaxyrus fowleri] tadpoles) than unexposed predators. Carbaryl is a pesticide that attacks the nervous system and is linked to taste sense in organisms. Moreover, we conducted an identical test using palatable prey (gray treefrog [Hyla versicolor] tadpoles) and predicted that no change in preference would be observed. In support of our primary hypothesis, bluegill exposed to the highest concentration of carbaryl consumed more A. folweri tadpoles compared to those exposed to carbaryl at the lowest concentration or water control. Moreover, an effect of carbaryl on predation success on H. versicolor tadpoles was not observed. Our study shows that an anthropogenic stressor (carbaryl) can alter the perceived palatability of noxious prey to fish predators, potentially altering predator-prey relationships in natural settings. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2013 SETAC. PMID:23996644

  11. Antiviral activity of Basidiomycete mycelia against influenza type A (serotype H1N1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Krupodorova, Tetiana; Rybalko, Svetlana; Barshteyn, Victor

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the in vitro antiviral activity of the mycelia of higher mushrooms against influenza virus type A (serotype H1N1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), strain BH. All 10 investigated mushroom species inhibited the reproduction of influenza virus strain A/FM/1/47 (H1N1) in MDCK cells reducing the infectious titer by 2.0-6.0 lg ID50. Four species, Pleurotus ostreatus, Fomes fomentarius, Auriporia aurea, and Trametes versicolor, were also determined to be effective against HSV-2 strain BH in RK-13 cells, with similar levels of inhibition as for influenza. For some of the investigated mushroom species-Pleurotus eryngii, Lyophyllum shimeji, and Flammulina velutipes-this is the first report of an anti-influenza effect. This study also reports the first data on the medicinal properties of A. aurea, including anti-influenza and antiherpetic activities. T. versicolor 353 mycelium was found to have a high therapeutic index (324.67), and may be a promising material for the pharmaceutical industry as an anti-influenza and antiherpetic agent with low toxicity. Mycelia with antiviral activity were obtained in our investigation by bioconversion of agricultural wastes (amaranth flour after CO2 extraction), which would reduce the cost of the final product and solve some ecological problems. PMID:25358999

  12. Development of fungal inocula for bioaugmentation of contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Lestan, D; Lamar, R T

    1996-06-01

    This report describes novel fungal inocula for bioaugmentation of soils contaminated with hazardous organic compounds. The inocula are in the form of pelleted solid substrates coated with a sodium alginate suspension of fungal spores or mycelial fragments and incubated until overgrown with the mycelium of selected lignin-degrading fungi. The organisms evaluated were Phanerochaete chrysosporium (BKM F-1767, ATCC 42725), P. sordida (HHB-8922-Sp), Irpex lacteus (Mad-517, ATCC 11245), Bjerkandera adusta (FP-135160-Sp, ATCC 62023), and Trametes versicolor (MD-277). The pelleted fungal inocula resisted competition and proliferation from indigenous soil microbes, were lower in moisture content than current fungal inocula, and had sufficient mechanical strength to allow handling and introduction into the soil without a change in the mechanical consistency of the pellets. Inoculated at a rate of 3% in artificially contaminated nonsterile soil, I. lacteus, B. adusta, and T. versicolor removed 86, 82, and 90%, respectively, of the pentachlorophenol in 4 weeks. A mathematical model was developed to explain moisture distribution in a hydrogel-coated pelleted substrate. PMID:16535337

  13. Skin diseases associated with Malassezia species in humans. Clinical features and diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Difonzo, E M; Faggi, E

    2008-06-01

    Malassezia yeasts not only cause the well known pityriasis versicolor and folliculitis, but also play an important role in other skin diseases, including seborrheic dermatitis and atopic dermatitis. The presence of Malassezia yeasts may be confirmed by direct microscopic examination and cultures of skin scrapings. In pityriasis versicolor the direct microscopic examination is the rapidest and surest test for confirming the clinical diagnosis. The preparation will show a cluster of globose budding spores with thick or double wall and short hyphae. For detecting Malassezia in the other diseases the cultures is preferable. Culture is useful both for confirming the clinical diagnosis and for epidemiological investigations. The identification of the Malassezia species is not easy. The microscopic observation of the colony direct towards the identification of Malassezia species, but it is not enough to identify the colonies definitely. Several biochemical tests are necessary for a precise identification, such as catalase reaction, growth on media without lipid sources, ability to utilize hydrophilic emulsifiers as sole lipid source, esculin test, tryptophan test. PMID:18693561

  14. Skin diseases associated with Malassezia yeasts: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Gaitanis, Georgios; Velegraki, Aristea; Mayser, Peter; Bassukas, Ioannis D

    2013-01-01

    The implication of the yeast genus Malassezia in skin diseases has been characterized by controversy, since the first description of the fungal nature of pityriasis versicolor in 1846 by Eichstedt. This is underscored by the existence of Malassezia yeasts as commensal but also by their implication in diseases with distinct absence of inflammation despite the heavy fungal load (pityriasis versicolor) or with characteristic inflammation (eg, seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, folliculitis, or psoriasis). The description of 14 Malassezia species and subsequent worldwide epidemiologic studies did not reveal pathogenic species but rather disease-associated subtypes within species. Emerging evidence demonstrates that the interaction of Malassezia yeasts with the skin is multifaceted and entails constituents of the fungal wall (melanin, lipid cover), enzymes (lipases, phospholipases), and metabolic products (indoles), as well as the cellular components of the epidermis (keratinocytes, dendritic cells, and melanocytes). Understanding the complexity of their interactions will highlight the controversies on the clinical presentation of Malassezia-associated diseases and unravel the complexity of skin homeostatic mechanisms. PMID:23806162

  15. [Tropical and travel-related dermatomycoses : Part 2: cutaneous infections due to yeasts, moulds, and dimorphic fungi].

    PubMed

    Nenoff, P; Reinel, D; Krüger, C; Grob, H; Mugisha, P; Süß, A; Mayser, P

    2015-07-01

    Besides dermatophytoses, a broad range of cutaneous infections due to yeasts and moulds may occur in subtropical and tropical countries where they can affect travellers. Not to be forgotten are endemic occurring dimorphic or biphasic fungi in countries with hot climate, which cause systemic and secondary cutaneous infections in immunosuppressed and immunocompetent people. In the tropics, the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor, caused by the lipophilic yeast Malassezia spp., is about 30-40?%, in distinct areas even 50?%. Increased hyperhidrosis under tropical conditions and simultaneously humidity congestion have to be considered as significant disposing factors for pityriasis versicolor. In tropical countries, therefore, an exacerbation of a preexisting pityriasis versicolor in travellers is not rare. Today, mostly genital yeast infections due to the new species Candida africana can be found worldwide. Due to migration from Africa this yeast pathogen has reached Germany and Europe. Eumycetomas due to mould fungi are rarely diagnosed in Europe. These deep cutaneous mould infections are only found in immigrants from African countries. The therapy of eumycetoma is protracted and often not successful. Cutaneous cryptococcoses due to the yeast species Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii occur worldwide; however, they are found more frequently in the tropics. Immunosuppressed patients, especially those with HIV/AIDS, are affected by cryptococcoses. Furthermore, Cryptococcus gattii also causes infections in immunocompetent hosts in Central Africa, Australia, California, and Central America.Rarely found are infections due to dimorphic fungi after travel to countries where these fungal pathogens are endemic. In individual cases, cutaneous or lymphogenic transferred sporotrichosis due to Sporothrix schenkii can occur. Furthermore, scarcely known is secondary cutaneous coccidioidomycosis due to Coccidioides immitis after travelling to desert-like endemic regions in southwestern states of the United States and in Latin America, where primary respiratory infection due to this biphasic fungus can be acquired. The antifungal agent itraconazole is the treatment of choice for sporotrichosis and coccidioidomycosis. Talaromyces marneffei-until recently known as Penicillium marneffei-is only found in Southeastern Asia. Mycosis due to this dimorphic fungus has to be considered as an AIDS-defining opportunistic infection. After hematogeneous spread, Talaromyces marneffei affects the skin and mucous membranes of the mouth. Amphotericin B and itraconazole can be used for therapy. PMID:25924703

  16. Size-fractionated (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan concentrations aerosolized from different moldy building materials.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sung-Chul; Reponen, Tiina; Levin, Linda; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2009-01-01

    Release of submicrometer-sized fungal fragments (<1.0 microm) was discovered in earlier studies, which investigated the aerosolization of spores from moldy surfaces. However, the contribution of fungal fragments to total mold exposure is poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to investigate the size-fractionated concentrations of particulate (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan and numbers of particles aerosolized from the surface of artificially mold-contaminated materials using a novel sampling methodology. Aspergillus versicolor and Stachybotrys chartarum were grown on malt extract agar and building materials (ceiling tiles and gypsum board) for one to six months. Fungal particles released from these materials were collected size-selectively by a newly developed Fragment Sampling System, and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan in air samples was analyzed by Limulus Amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. The concentrations of (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan varied from 0.4x10(0) to 9.8x10(2) ng m(-3) in the fragment size and from 1.0x10(1) to 4.7x10(4) ng m(-3) in the spore size range. Numbers of submicrometer-sized particles aerosolized from 6-month old cultures were always significantly higher that those from 1-month old (P<0.001). This can be attributed to increased dryness on the surface of material samples and an increase in fungal biomass over time. The average fragment to spore ratios both in particle numbers and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan mass were higher for S. chartarum than for A. versicolor. The results indicate that long-term mold damage in buildings may lead to increased contribution of fragments to the total mold exposure. Therefore, the health impact of these particles may be even greater than that of spores, considering the strong association between numbers of fine particles and adverse health effects reported in other studies. Furthermore, the contribution of fragments may vary between species and appears to be higher for S. chartarum than for A. versicolor. PMID:19012949

  17. Screening of Biodegradable Function of Indigenous Ligno-degrading Mushroom Using Dyes.

    PubMed

    Jang, Kab-Yeul; Cho, Soo-Muk; Seok, Soon-Ja; Kong, Won-Sik; Kim, Gyu-Hyun; Sung, Jae-Mo

    2009-03-01

    The process of biodegradation in lingo-cellulosic materials is critically relevant to biospheric carbon. The study of this natural process has largely involved laboratory investigations, focused primarily on the biodegradation and recycling of agricultural by-products, generally using basidiomycetes species. In order to collect super white rot fungi and evaluate its ability to degrade lingo-cellulosic material, 35 fungal strains, collected from forests, humus soil, livestock manure, and dead trees, were screened for enzyme activities and their potential to decolorize the commercially used Poly-R 478 dye. In the laccase enzymatic analysis chemical test, 33 white rot fungi and 2 brown rot fungi were identified. The degradation ability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) according to the utilized environmental conditions was higher in the mushrooms grown in dead trees and fallen leaves than in the mushrooms grown in humus soil and livestock manure. Using Poly-R 478 dye to assess the PAH-degradation activity of the identified strains, four strains, including Agrocybe pediades, were selected. The activities of laccase, MnP, and Lip of the four strains with PAH-degrading ability were highest in Pleurotus incarnates. 87 fungal strains, collected from forests, humus soil, livestock manure, and dead trees, were screened for enzyme activities and their potential to decolorize the commercially used Poly-R 478 dye on solid media. Using Poly-R 478 dye to assess the PAHdegrading activity of the identified strains, it was determined that MKACC 51632 and 52492 strains evidenced superior activity in static and shaken liquid cultures. Subsequent screening on plates containing the polymeric dye poly R-478, the decolorization of which is correlated with lignin degradation, resulted in the selection of a strain of Coriolus versicolor, MKACC52492, for further study, primarily due to its rapid growth rate and profound ability to decolorize poly R-478 on solid media. Considering our findings using Poly-R 478 dye to evaluate the PAH-degrading activity of the identified strains, Coriolus versicolor, MKACC 52492 was selected as a favorable strain. Coriolus versicolor, which was collected from Mt. Yeogi in Suwon, was studied for the production of the lignin-modifying enzymes laccase, manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP), and lignin peroxidase (LiP). PMID:23983508

  18. LEBENDNACHWEIS VON EINZELELEMENTEN DES ENDOPLASMATISCHEN RETIKULUMS

    PubMed Central

    Girbardt, Manfred

    1965-01-01

    By means of a special selective preparation technique, it is possible to investigate in thin sections, by electron microscopy, areas of a cell that have been observed in the living state, by phase-contrast microscopy, up to the time of fixation. Structures recorded in the living state can thus be compared to structures seen in electron micrographs. In cells of the fungus Polystictus versicolor, aggregates of membrane systems as well as single cisternae with a diameter of approximately 200 to 300 A can be detected with phase optics. It can be shown, by calculation, that these structures, which are far below the limit of resolution of the light optical system, give enough contrast to be discernible by phase optics. Thus a basis is provided for observing the dynamics of membrane systems which perhaps may contribute to the analysis of the functional significance of these cell components. PMID:5328058

  19. The comparative study of a laccase-natural clinoptilolite-based catalyst activity and free laccase activity on model compounds.

    PubMed

    Donati, Enrica; Polcaro, Chiara M; Ciccioli, Piero; Galli, Emanuela

    2015-05-30

    For the first time a laccase from Trametes versicolor was immobilized on a natural clinoptilolite with Si/Al=5 to obtain a biocatalyst for environmental applications. Immobilization procedures exploiting adsorption and covalent binding were both tested, and only the last provided enough activity for practical applications. The optimal conditions for the immobilization of the enzyme on the support and the kinetic parameters for the free and covalent bonded laccase were determined. The laccase bonded to the zeolitic support showed a lower activity than the free laccase, but the pH and thermal stability were greater. 20 mg of dry biocatalyst containing 1 U of laccase were able to remove in 50h 73-78% of 2-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol in relatively concentrated aqueous solutions (100 ?mol L(-1)). PMID:25710818

  20. Natural mediators in the oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by laccase mediator systems.

    PubMed

    Johannes, C; Majcherczyk, A

    2000-02-01

    The oxidation of polycyclic aromatic compounds was studied in systems consisting of laccase from Trametes versicolor and so-called mediator compounds. The enzymatic oxidation of acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, and fluorene was mediated by various laccase substrates (phenols and aromatic amines) or compounds produced and secreted by white rot fungi. The best natural mediators, such as phenol, aniline, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol were as efficient as the previously described synthetic compounds ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. The oxidation efficiency increased proportionally with the redox potentials of the phenolic mediators up to a maximum value of 0.9 V and decreased thereafter with redox potentials exceeding this value. Natural compounds such as methionine, cysteine, and reduced glutathione, containing sulfhydryl groups, were also active as mediator compounds. PMID:10653713

  1. Natural Mediators in the Oxidation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Laccase Mediator Systems

    PubMed Central

    Johannes, Christian; Majcherczyk, Andrzej

    2000-01-01

    The oxidation of polycyclic aromatic compounds was studied in systems consisting of laccase from Trametes versicolor and so-called mediator compounds. The enzymatic oxidation of acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, and fluorene was mediated by various laccase substrates (phenols and aromatic amines) or compounds produced and secreted by white rot fungi. The best natural mediators, such as phenol, aniline, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol were as efficient as the previously described synthetic compounds ABTS [2,2?-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. The oxidation efficiency increased proportionally with the redox potentials of the phenolic mediators up to a maximum value of 0.9 V and decreased thereafter with redox potentials exceeding this value. Natural compounds such as methionine, cysteine, and reduced glutathione, containing sulfhydryl groups, were also active as mediator compounds. PMID:10653713

  2. Redox-mediated decolorization of synthetic dyes by fungal laccases.

    PubMed

    Claus, H; Faber, G; König, H

    2002-09-01

    Laccases from the lignin-degrading basidiomycetes Trametes versicolor, Polyporus pinisitus and the ascomycete Myceliophthora thermophila were found to decolorize synthetic dyes to different extents. Differences were attributed to the specific catalytic properties of the individual enzymes and to the structure of the dyes. Due to their higher oxidative capacities, the laccases from the two basidiomycetes decolorized dyes more efficiently than that of the ascomycete. The azo dye Direct Red 28, the indigoid Acid Blue 74 and anthraquinonic dyes were directly enzymatically decolorized within 16 h. The addition of 2 mM of the redox-mediator 1-hydroxybenzotriazole further improved and facilitated the decolorization of all nine dyes investigated. Laccases decolorized dyes both individually and in complex mixtures in the presence of bentonite or immobilized in alginate beads. Our data suggest that laccase/mediator systems are effective biocatalysts for the treatment of effluents from textile, dye or printing industries. PMID:12226723

  3. Spiders that decorate their webs at higher frequency intercept more prey and grow faster

    PubMed Central

    Li, Daiqin

    2005-01-01

    Many orb-weaving spiders decorate their webs with extra, bright white, ultraviolet light reflecting silk. Previous studies suggest that these decorations increase a spider's foraging efficiency by improving web attractiveness, which is known as the prey-attraction hypothesis. One assumption of this hypothesis is that individuals which decorate their webs at a higher frequency are expected to have a higher growth rate. Using a decoration-building orb-weaving spider, Argiope versicolor, I show a strong positive relationship between the growth rate in terms of weight gain and the frequency of decoration-building, as well as the rate of insect interception. This is the first study to reveal a fitness consequence of decorating behaviour in spiders. PMID:16096085

  4. [Early description of a pulmonary aspergillosis 1847 from Greifswald].

    PubMed

    Knoke, M; Bernhardt, Hannelore; Schwesinger, G

    2003-01-01

    In 1847 the student of medicine Theodor Sluyter (1817-1895) from Greifswald published his thesis in Berlin including the first well-documented case of human pulmonary aspergillosis. In 1856 Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902) classified the depicted fungi as an Aspergillus species. Possibly Carl Ferdinand Eichstedt (1816-1892) carried out the autopsy. He is known by the first description of a fungus as the cause of pityriasis versicolor in 1846. Further involved scientists from Greifswald were Wilhelm Baum (1799-1883), Theodor Litzmann (1815-1890) and the botanist Johann Konrad Schauer (1813-1848). Their curricula vitae are given in further details as well the curriculum of T. Sluyter. PMID:12955852

  5. Label-free fluorometric method for monitoring conformational flexibility of laccase based on a selective laccase sensor.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Suyan; Lin, Zhenyu; Zhou, Yaomin; Li, Ruili; Zhang, Jinyan; Zhang, Dawen; Luo, Linguang; Guo, Longhua; Qiu, Bin; Chen, Guonan

    2013-11-19

    A facile and selective fluorescence sensor for laccase determination has been proposed depending on the interaction between 3-azidocoumarin and trametes versicolor (Tv) laccase in this paper. The azido group of 3-azidocoumarin that is electron-rich ?-nitrogen can directly interact with histidines that coordinate to three copper sites through hydrogen bonds and forms a new complex, which decreases the electron-donating ability of the azido group, leading to enhance the fluorescence intensity of the sensing system. Also, other common proteins have no significant interference for the proposed laccase sensor. Additionally, the proposed fluorescence sensor is extended to demonstrate the conformational flexibility of Tv laccase by the urea denaturant. A good consistency of the results obtained with the presented laccase sensor and CD spectra is performed. Furthermore, the relationship between the catalytic activity and the unfolding percentage of the unfolded Tv laccase through the proposed laccase sensor is also elucidated well. PMID:24117223

  6. Oxidative enzymatic response of white-rot fungi to single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Berry, Timothy D; Filley, Timothy R; Blanchette, Robert A

    2014-10-01

    Although carbon nanomaterials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are becoming increasingly prevalent in manufacturing, there is little knowledge on the environmental fate of these materials. Environmental degradation of SWCNT is hindered by their highly condensed aromatic structure as well as the size and aspect ratio, which prevents intracellular degradation and limits microbial decomposition to extracellular processes such as those catalyzed by oxidative enzymes. This study investigates the peroxidase and laccase enzymatic response of the saprotrophic white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor and Phlebia tremellosa when exposed to SWCNTs of different purity and surface chemistry under different growth conditions. Both unpurified, metal catalyst-rich SWCNT and purified, carboxylated SWCNTs promoted significant changes in the oxidative enzyme activity of the fungi while pristine SWCNT did not. These results suggest that functionalization of purified SWCNT is essential to up regulate enzymes that may be capable of decomposing CNT in the environment. PMID:25047356

  7. Electroactive nanobiomolecular architectures of laccase and cytochrome c on electrodes: applying silica nanoparticles as artificial matrix.

    PubMed

    Feifel, Sven Christian; Kapp, Andreas; Lisdat, Fred

    2014-05-20

    Fully electroactive multilayer architectures combining the redox protein cytochrome c and the enzyme laccase by the use of silica nanoparticles as artificial matrix have been constructed on gold electrodes capable of direct dioxygen reduction. Laccase form Trametes versicolor and cytochrome c from horse heart were electrostatically coimmobilized by alternate deposition with interlayers of silica nanoparticles in a multilayer fashion. The layer formation has been monitored by quartz crystal microbalance. The electrochemical properties and performance of the nanobiomolecular entities were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, indicating, that a multistep electron transfer cascade, from the electrode via cytochrome c in the layered system toward the enzyme laccase, and here to molecular dioxygen was achieved. The response of the novel architecture is based on direct electron exchange between immobilized proteins and can be tuned by the assembly process. PMID:24804981

  8. Potentialities of a membrane reactor with laccase grafted membranes for the enzymatic degradation of phenolic compounds in water.

    PubMed

    Chea, Vorleak; Paolucci-Jeanjean, Delphine; Sanchez, José; Belleville, Marie-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the degradation of phenolic compounds by laccases from Trametes versicolor in an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR). The enzymatic membranes were prepared by grafting laccase on a gelatine layer previously deposited onto ?-alumina tubular membranes. The 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (DMP) was selected  from among the three different phenolic compounds tested (guaiacol, 4-chlorophenol and DMP) to study the performance of the EMR in dead end configuration. At the lowest feed substrate concentration tested (100 mg·L-1), consumption increased with flux (up to 7.9 × 103 mg·h-1·m-2 at 128 L·h-1·m-2), whereas at the highest substrate concentration (500 mg·L-1), it was shown that the reaction was limited by the oxygen content. PMID:25295628

  9. Cytotoxic, genotoxic and antigenotoxic potencies of oligorutins.

    PubMed

    Rhouma, G B; Chebil, L; Mustapha, N; Krifa, M; Ghedira, K; Ghoul, M; Chékir-Ghédira, L

    2013-08-01

    Rutin has been enzymatically oligomerized by laccase from Trametes versicolor. Five fractions of oligomers were obtained from the monomers having high solubility in water, which can reach 351-times that of rutin. Cytotoxicity of rutin and oligorutin fractions was evaluated towards K562 cells. Oligorutin fractions showed a lower antiproliferative effect compared with its monomer. The genotoxic potential of rutin and oligorutin fractions was assessed, at the limit of the solubility of each molecule, using the comet test. None of the tested concentrations of either rutin or oligorutin fractions has showed a genotoxic effect. Similarly, the antigenotoxic effect of these flavonoids was tested using the same assay. The obtained results showed a higher ability of oligorutin fractions to reduce the genotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide compared with monomeric rutin. PMID:23424216

  10. Regulation of Coal Polymer Degradation by Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Irvin, R.L. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences; Bumpus, J.A. [University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-04-30

    Previous studies in our laboratory used a spectrophotometric assay to study biomimetic solubilization of leonardite by sodium oxalate. It was found, however, that in extended incubations of several days, this assay resulted in overestimation of the percent of leonardite that was solubilized. This problem did not appear to be significant for short term incubations (ie., up to -24 h) and was circumvented in long term incubations by using a gravimetric assay to assay for solubilization. In other studies during this reporting period we examined oxalate production by P. chrysosporium and T. versicolor grown in Fahreus-Reinhammar medium in agitated pelleted culture. It was found that in this system concentrations of oxalate are produced that are much lower than those that would be optimal for leonardite solubilization.

  11. Degradation of lignin in pulp mill wastewaters by white-rot fungi on biofilm.

    PubMed

    Wu, Juan; Xiao, Ya-Zhong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2005-08-01

    An investigation was conducted to explore the lignin-degrading capacity of attached-growth white-rot fungi. Five white-rot fungi, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lentinus edodes, Trametes versicolor and S22, grown on a porous plastic media, were individually used to treat black liquor from a pulp and paper mill. Over 71% of lignin and 48% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were removed from the wastewater. Several factors, including pH, concentrations of carbon, nitrogen and trace elements in wastewater, all had significant effects on the degradation of lignin and the removal of COD. Three white-rot fungi, P. chrysosporium, P. ostreatus and S22, showed high capacity for lignin degradation at pH 9.0-11.0. The addition of 1 g l-1 glucose and 0.2 g l-1 ammonium tartrate was beneficial for the degradation of lignin by the white-rot fungi studied. PMID:15792583

  12. Mycotoxin-producing potential of fungi isolated from amaranth seeds in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bresler, G; Brizzio, S B; Vaamonde, G

    1995-03-01

    To evaluate the potential for mycotoxin production by molds in amaranth grains, the mycoflora was determined both before and after surface disinfection on dichloran-chloramphenicol-peptone agar (DCPA) and dichloran-18% glycerol agar (DG18). On both media Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium and Alternaria were the predominant genera. A flaus and A. parasiticus were the Aspergillus species most frequently isolated. P. chrysogenum was the species most common among the penicillia. F. equiseti was the predominant Fusarium species. Isolates of Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium were screened for mycotoxin production on sterile rice substrate and also using a simple screening method. Toxinogenic strains of A. flavus and A. parasiticus (aflatoxins), A. versicolor (sterigmatocystin), P. citrinum (citrinin), P. viridicatum (penicillic acid), F. moniliforme, F. equiseti and F. semitectum (zearalenone), were encountered. The simple screening method for toxinogenic molds showed good performance for the detection of molds producing aflatoxins and zearalenone compared with mycotoxins production on the natural substrate. PMID:7599026

  13. Pre-treatment of Pinus radiata substrates by basidiomycetes fungi to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Alankar; Singh, Tripti

    2012-07-01

    Pre-treatment is important step prior to enzymatic hydrolysis of ligno-cellulosic biomass in order to obtain renewable carbon source ca. glucose. Pinus radiata biomass including wood blocks, wood chips and steam exploded wood (SEW) were used to investigate the effect of fungal pre-treatment on glucose yield. Comparison was made using one white-rot fungus (Trametes versicolor) and three brown-rot fungi (Coniophora puteana, Antrodia xantha and Oligoporus placenta). This is the first study where SEW was treated with basidiomycetes and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis gave 5 g glucose/l which is an order of magnitude greater compared to control biomass (0.5 g glucose/l). This enhanced glucose yield is due to the novel pre-treatment sequence used in this study. PMID:22421971

  14. Chemical characterization and quantification of siderophores produced by marine and terrestrial aspergilli.

    PubMed

    Vala, Anjana K; Dave, B P; Dube, H C

    2006-06-01

    Ten aspergilli (five each from marine and terrestrial habitats) were screened for siderophore production. All test isolates produced siderophores as indicated by a positive reaction in the FeCl(3) test, chrome azurol sulphonate assay, and chrome azurol sulphonate agar plate test. Further, the test isolates were compared for their siderophore production potential and chemical characteristics. Examination of the chemical nature of the siderophores revealed that all test isolates produced hydroxamate siderophores that were trihydroxamate hexadentates. Wide-spread occurrence of siderophores in marine isolates indicate their functional role in maintaining overall productivity of coastal waters. Among all test aspergilli, marine Aspergillus versicolor was found to be the largest siderophore producer (182.5 microg/mL desferrioxamine mesylate equivalent), least siderophore production was recorded in a marine strain of Aspergillus niger (3.5 microg/mL desferrioxamine mesylate equivalent). PMID:16788730

  15. Identification of some factors affecting pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) removal in real wastewater. Case study of fungal treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate.

    PubMed

    Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Lucas, Daniel; Gros, Meritxell; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa

    2015-02-11

    Many technologies are being developed for the efficient removal of micropollutants from wastewater and, among them, fungal degradation is one of the possible alternative biological treatments. In this article, some factors that might affect pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) removal in a fungal treatment of real wastewater were identified in batch bioreactor treating reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). We found that degradation of PhACs by Trametes versicolor was enhanced by addition of external nutrients (global removal of 44%). Moreover, our results point out that high aeration might be involved in the increase in the concentration of some PhACs. In fact, conjugation and deconjugation processes (among others) affect the removal assessment of emerging contaminants when working with real concentrations in comparison to experiments with spiked samples. Moreover, factors that could affect the quantification of micropollutants at lab-scale experiments were studied. PMID:25464308

  16. Long-term survival of 5 years following initial surgery for gastric cancer and simultaneous disseminated peritoneal metastasis: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Otani, S; Maeta, M; Oka, A; Hirooka, Y; Tsujitani, S; Ikeguchi, M; Hamazoe, R; Kaibara, N

    1995-01-01

    We report herein the rare case of a patient who survived for 5 years and 10 months after commencing treatment for gastric cancer with simultaneous disseminated peritoneal metastasis. A 45-year-old man was diagnosed as having advanced gastric cancer following the discovery of numerous nodules in the peritoneal cavity at laparotomy. The patient was treated by palliative gastrectomy and continuous hyperthermic peritoneal perfusion (CHPP) immediately after surgery on November 11, 1987. Postoperatively, he underwent radiofrequency (RF) hyperthermia with intraperitoneal cisplatin a total of seven times. He continued on a combination of uracil and tegafur (UFT) administered orally with a protein-bound beta-D-glucan extracted from the mycelia of Cariolus versicolor (PSK). Long-term survival was achieved following the initial palliative gastrectomy despite simultaneous disseminated peritoneal metastasis. PMID:8640021

  17. Laccase activity tests and laccase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Johannes, C; Majcherczyk, A

    2000-03-10

    Sulfhydryl organic compounds described as laccase inhibitors: dithiothreitol, thioglycolic acid, cysteine, diethyldithiocarbamic acid, and sodium azide were tested for their activity toward laccase of Trametes versicolor in different test systems utilising 2, 2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and 2, 6-dimethoxyphenol as enzyme substrates. Only sodium azide acted as a true laccase inhibitor and showed no significant interference with the enzyme tests. All other substances did not significantly inhibit the laccase activity and the previously reported inhibitory effects result from the reductions of the reaction products such as ABTS radical cation and diquinone or subsequent non-enzymatic interactions during substrate oxidation. The latter apparently forms a complex with unreacted ABTS displaying varied spectral characteristics and resulting in an underestimation of enzyme activity. PMID:10725542

  18. [Trypsin-like proteinases and trypsin inhibitors in fruiting bodies of higher fungi].

    PubMed

    Gzogian, L A; Proskuriakov, M T; Ievleva, E V; Valueva, T A

    2005-01-01

    The activity of trypsin-like proteinases and trypsin inhibitors was measured in fruiting bodies of various species of basidial fungi (Basidiomycetes). Fruiting bodies of all fungi contained these enzymes, with the exceptions of polypore (Coriolus versicolor (Fr.) Karst) and hedgehog fungus (Hericium erinaceus (Fr.) Quel), belonging to the families Polyporaceae and Hericiaceae, respectively, in which the enzyme activities were barely detectable. The activity of trypsin-like proteinases was the highest in fruiting bodies of Boletaceae and Agaricaceae. Fruiting bodies of all fungi contained trypsin inhibitors. The highest activity of trypsin inhibitors was detected in basidiomycetes of the families Boletaceae, Agaricaceae, and Pleurotaceae, including Boletus castanus (Fr.) Karst, orange-cap boletus (Leccinum aurantiacum (Fr.) Sing), and brown-cap boletus (Leccinum melanum (Fr.) Karst). PMID:16358748

  19. Which copper is paramagnetic in the type 2/type 3 cluster of laccase?

    PubMed

    Fraterrigo, T L; Miller, C; Reinhammar, B; McMillin, D R

    1999-04-01

    Understanding the structure and function of the three copper atoms in the dioxygen reduction site of the blue oxidases such as laccase has been a long standing challenge. In the case of a widely studied derivative, known as type 2-depleted laccase, the removal of one copper from the cluster abolishes the EPR signal of the so-called type 2 copper. However, the present studies of isotopically enriched protein from Polyporus versicolor show that the readily replaceable copper is not active in the low-temperature EPR spectrum of fungal laccase or its difluoride adduct. The same is true for the difluoride adduct of the tree enzyme. Thus, in type 2-depleted laccase the pattern of antiferromagnetic coupling is quite different from that of the native protein or the difluoride adduct. PMID:10499090

  20. [Moulds and yeasts in bottled water and soft drinks].

    PubMed

    Ancasi, E G; Carrillo, L; Benítez Ahrendts, M R

    2006-01-01

    Some damaged cartons of soft drinks and carbonated water were analyzed to detect the microorganisms that caused the damage. The contaminants of sugar used in the production of one of the drinks were also studied. The methods of Déak & Beuchat and Pitt & Hocking were used for the identification of yeasts and moulds, respectively. The agents of the spoilage of soft drinks were Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The microorganisms found in sugar were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, P. anomala and Rhizopus stolonifer. Paecilomyces fulvus and Penicillium glabrum were observed in carbonated water. PMID:17037258

  1. Taxonomic revision of the Australian arid zone lizards Gehyra variegata and G. montium (Squamata, Gekkonidae) with description of three new species.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Mark N; Sistrom, Mark J; Donnellan, Stephen C; Hutchinson, Rhonda G

    2014-01-01

    The taxonomy of central Australian populations of geckos of the genus Gehyra has been uncertain since chromosomal studies carried out in the 1970s and 1980s revealed considerable heterogeneity and apparently independent patterns of morphological and karyotypic diversity. Following detailed molecular genetic studies, species boundaries in this complex have become clearer and we here re-set the boundaries of the three named species involved, G. variegata (Duméril & Bibron, 1836), G. montium Storr, 1982, and G. nana King, 1982, and describe three new species. Two of the new species, G. moritzi and G. pulingka, include populations formerly assigned to either G. montium or G. nana Storr, 1982, while the third, G. versicolor, includes all of the eastern Australian populations formerly assigned to G. variegata. PMID:24943424

  2. Fungal food choices of Dermatophagoides farinae affect indoor fungi selection and dispersal.

    PubMed

    Naegele, Alexandre; Reboux, Gabriel; Scherer, Emeline; Roussel, Sandrine; Millon, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    House dust mite (HDM) feces and molds are the main allergens involved in allergic asthma. Differences exist between the housing fungal biome of allergic patients and standard or unhealthy housing. House dust mite (HDM) feed off spores and transport them on their bodies, but do they have fungal food preferences? We observed Dermatophagoïdes farinae in vitro with 16 mold menus and repeated the experiment 10 times. This observation led us to define Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, and Wallemia sebi as "tasty" molds and Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Stachybotrys chartarum as "repulsive" molds. The food preferences of D. farinae may play a role in the following two phenomena: a decrease in spore numbers due to HDM consumption and a scattering of spores that stick to the bodies of HDMs. The extent of these two phenomena should be estimated in future studies for other common domestic HDM species. PMID:22774849

  3. Modifications of amino acids during ferulic acid-mediated, laccase-catalysed cross-linking of peptides.

    PubMed

    Steffensen, Charlotte L; Stensballe, Allan; Kidmose, Ulla; Degn, Peter E; Andersen, Mogens L; Nielsen, Jacob H

    2009-12-01

    Mass spectral analysis demonstrated oligomerization of peptides that had been subjected to oxidation catalysed by Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor laccase. Peptide oligomerization occurred only when cysteines or tyrosines were present in the peptides. MS/MS confirmed the cross-linking in tyrosine-containing peptides to be located between tyrosine residues. Ferulic acid mediated oligomerization of cysteine-containing peptides, but prevented cross-linking of tyrosines when used in the same concentration as the peptides. This suggests an antioxidative effect of ferulic acid in relation to tyrosine oxidation, although incorporation of ferulic acid into peptide oligomers was found in some of the tyrosine-containing peptides. No other modifications to amino acid residues by laccase-catalysed oxidation were observed by mass spectroscopy. Thus, it is suggested that oxidative modifications of other amino acids observed in proteins oxidized by laccase are not major reaction products of laccase-catalysed oxidation. PMID:19905979

  4. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

    2012-04-01

    This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms ( b? x? mó g?; Agaricus blazei, yún zh?; Coriolus versicolor, líng zh?; Ganoderma lucidum, xi?ng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, niú zh?ng zh?; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps ( d?ng chóng xià c?o), pomegranate ( shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea ( l? chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic ( dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric ( ji?ng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba ( q?ng h?o; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120

  5. Optimization and kinetics evaluation of biodegradation of synthetic azo reactive dye by fungal consortium.

    PubMed

    Chitradevi, V; Sivakumar, V

    2011-10-01

    Wastewater containing direct dyes discharged from various industries, in particular, textile industry, often cause many environmental problems. Among the various effluent treatment methods, biological methods found to be cost effective and do not end up in secondary pollutants. In this study, an attempt has been made to study the decolorization of cibacron yellow S-3R, an azo reactive dye by using fungal cultures such as Coriolus versicolor, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Myrothecium verrucaria. The fungi were able to decolorize individually the azo reactive dye cibacron yellow S-3R to an extent of nearly in the range 75 - 85%, whereas the mixed fungal consortium was able to decolorize to an extent of nearly 95%.The study is extended with the kinetics of decolorization of Cibacron yellow S-3R using mixed fungal consortium containing equal proportions of the cultures. The experimental results show that decolorization kinetics follow second order rate equation. PMID:23505830

  6. Three-dimensional x-ray imaging and analysis of fungi on and in wood.

    PubMed

    Van den Bulcke, Jan; Boone, Matthieu; Van Acker, Joris; Van Hoorebeke, Luc

    2009-10-01

    As wood is prone to fungal degradation, fundamental research is necessary to increase our knowledge aiming at product improvement. Several imaging modalities are capable of visualizing fungi, but the X-ray equipment presented in this article can envisage fungal mycelium in wood nondestructively in three dimensions with submicron resolution. Four types of wood subjected to the action of the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor (Linnaeus) Quélet (CTB 863 A) were scanned using an X-ray-based approach. Comparison of wood volumes before and after fungal exposure, segmented manually or semiautomatically, showed the presence of the fungal mass on and in the wood samples and therefore demonstrated the usefulness of computed X-ray tomography for mycological and wood research. Further improvements to the experimental setup are necessary to resolve individual hyphae and enhance segmentation. PMID:19709462

  7. Fungal bioremediation of chromates: conformational changes of biomass during sequestration, binding, and reduction of hexavalent chromium ions.

    PubMed

    Sanghi, Rashmi; Sankararamakrishnan, Nalini; Dave, Bakul C

    2009-09-30

    This paper highlights the mechanistic aspects of white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor as a complexing/reducing agent for chromium bioremediation. The chemical reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) via the formation of Cr(VI) thio ester as an intermediate, is pH dependent and controls the overall chromium adsorption kinetics. The strong adsorption affinity of the biomass towards Cr(VI) anions was evaluated by the Freundlich and the Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The FTIR spectroscopic analysis suggested the involvement of amino, carboxylate, and thiol groups from fungal cell wall in chromium binding and reduction. The mechanism of the adsorption was preferential sequestration along with binding of the metal to the ligating groups present in the biomass followed by reduction to trivalent state. The results indicate step-wise progression of overall reaction dictated and modulated by structural and conformation effects in the biomass that lead to saturation, acceleration, and ultimate saturation kinetics effects. PMID:19467785

  8. Design of reaction conditions for the enhancement of microbial degradation of dyes in sequential cycles.

    PubMed

    Sanghi, Rashmi; Dixit, Awantika; Verma, Preeti; Puri, Sadhna

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated the potential of white-rot fungal strain Coriolus versicolor to decolorize five structurally different dyes in sequential batch reactors under optimized conditions. The experiments were run continuously for seven cycles of 8 d each. High decolorizing activity was observed even during the repeated reuse of the fungus, especially when the old medium was replaced with fresh medium after every cycle. Biodegradation was the dominating factor as the fungus was able to produce the enzyme laccase mainly, to mineralize synthetic dyes. The nutrients and composition of the medium played important roles in sustaining the decolorisation potential of the fungus. Corncob was found be an easy and cheap substitute for carbon source for the fungus. Glucose consumption by the fungus was in accordance to its decolorisation activity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction. PMID:20131593

  9. New microsatellite markers for Campanula pyramidalis (Campanulaceae) and cross-amplification in closely related species1

    PubMed Central

    Radosavljevi?, Ivan; Jakse, Jernej; Satovic, Zlatko; Javornik, Branka; Jankovi?, Ivana; Liber, Zlatko

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were identified and characterized to study the genetic diversity and structure, conservation status, taxonomy, and biogeography of subspecific taxa and populations of Campanula pyramidalis (Campanulaceae). Methods and Results: Eleven microsatellite markers were developed from genomic libraries enriched for di- and trinucleotide repeats. A total of 80 alleles were observed in the tested natural population. The number of alleles per locus, observed heterozygosity, and expected heterozygosity ranged from four to 13, 0.217 to 0.913, and 0.521 to 0.895, respectively. Conclusions: The new microsatellite markers will be useful for studying genetic diversity and structure as well as for better assessing the conservation status of subspecific taxa and populations of C. pyramidalis. Furthermore, a set of seven loci was successfully cross-amplified in C. secundiflora and C. versicolor and will be of great value for addressing unsolved taxonomic and biogeographic issues within the C. pyramidalis species complex. PMID:25798343

  10. The influence of moisture content variation on fungal pigment formation in spalted wood

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Eight fungal species known to produce wood pigmentation were tested for reaction to various moisture contents in two hardwood species. Fungal pigmentation by Trametes versicolor and Xylaria polymorpha was stimulated at low water concentrations in both Acer saccharum (sugar maple) and Fagus grandifolia (American beech), while Inonotus hispidus and Polyporus squamosus were stimulated above 22-28% and 34-38% moisture content in beech and in sugar maple respectively. Fomes fomentarius and Polyporus brumalis produced maximum pigmentation in beech at 26 - 41% and in sugar maple at 59 - 96% moisture content. The pink staining Scytalidium cuboideum pigmented both wood species at above 35% moisture content. This research indicates that controlling the moisture content values of wood substrates can stimulate the intensity of pigmentation of specific fungi when spalting wood for decorative and commercial purpose. PMID:23245292

  11. Screening for ligninolytic enzymes from autochthonous fungi and applications for decolorization of Remazole Marine Blue.

    PubMed

    Erden, Emre; Ucar, M Cigdem; Gezer, Tekin; Pazarlioglu, Nurdan Kasikara

    2009-04-01

    This study presents new and alternative fungal strains for the production of ligninolytic enzymes which have great potential to use in industrial and biotechnological processes. Thirty autochthonous fungal strains were harvested from Bornova-Izmir in Turkiye. In the fresh fruitbody extracts laccase, manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase activities, which are the principal enzymes responsible for ligninocellulose degradation by Basidiomycetes, were screened. Spores of some of the basidiomycetes species such as Cortinarius sp., Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Abortiporus biennis, Lyophyllum subglobisporium, Ramaria stricta, Ganoderma carnosum, Lactarius delicious ve Lepista nuda were isolated and investigated optimum cultivation conditions in submerged fermentation for high yields of ligninolytic enzyme production. In addition, isolated fungal strains were monitored on agar plates whether having the capability of decolorization of a textile dye Remazol Marine Blue. PMID:24031371

  12. [Taxonomy of Malassezia furfur: state of the art].

    PubMed

    Aspíroz, M C; Moreno, L A; Rubio, M C

    1997-12-01

    Malassezia furfur is a lipophilic yeast considered as a normal component of the human skin flora. Apart from pityriasis versicolor, M. furfur has been linked to several skin diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis, folliculitis or atopic dermatitis. Moreover, these yeasts have been reported as agent of invasive human diseases including pneumonia, catheter-associated sepsis and peritonitis. The existence of morphological, serological, metabolical, biochemical and karyotipical differences has been described among isolates of these yeasts. These observations gave arguments for a possible intraspecific division, and this hypothesis has been confirmed by the existence of six species within the formerly called M. furfur (lipid-dependent Malassezia strains): M. furfur, Malassezia sympodialis, Malassezia globosa, Malassezia obtusa, Malassezia restricta and Malassezia slooffiae. PMID:15538815

  13. [Cutaneous immune and inflammatory reactions to Malassezia furfur].

    PubMed

    Terui, T; Kudo, K; Tagami, H

    1999-01-01

    Initiation and aggravation of several inflammatory skin diseases are associated with Malassezia furfur. These are divided into at least two groups. In one group including tinea versicolor and Malassezia folliculitis, the growth of Malassezia furfur directly triggers the development of the cutaneous lesions. In another group including atopic dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, and psoriasis, cutaneous lesions already developed by other mechanisms are aggravated by the growth of Malassezia furfur. Recent progress of molecular biology techniques revealed that Malassezia furfur is divided into at least seven species. Since their clinical and histological findings are quite diverse, their differences cannot be explained solely by the difference in antigenicity of each Malassezia. Instead, the cutaneous defense mechanisms against Malassezia furfur must be considered. In this article, we reviewed the mechanisms at three levels: 1) barrier functions of the uppermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum, 2) cytokine production by epidermal keratinocytes, and 3) immune and inflammatory responses by infiltrating neutrophils and T cells. PMID:10234075

  14. Malassezia infections: a medical conundrum.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Ana Filipa; Lisboa, Carmen; Gonçalves Rodrigues, Acácio

    2014-07-01

    Malassezia yeasts have long been considered commensal fungi, unable to elicit significant damage. However, they have been associated with a diversity of cutaneous diseases, namely pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia folliculitis, seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and confluent and reticulate papillomatosis. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathogenic mechanisms of these fungi, but none have been confirmed. More recently, such organisms have been increasingly isolated from bloodstream infections raising serious concern about these fungi. Given the difficulty to culture these yeasts to proceed with speciation and antimicrobial susceptibility tests, such procedures are most often not performed and the cutaneous infections are treated empirically. The recurring nature of superficial skin infections and the potential threat of systemic infections raise the need of faster and more sensitive techniques to achieve isolation, identification, and antimicrobial susceptibility profile. This article reviews and discusses the latest available data concerning Malassezia infections and recent developments about diagnostic methods, virulence mechanisms, and susceptibility testing. PMID:24569116

  15. Malassezia furfur invasiveness in a keratinocyte cell line (HaCat): effects on cytoskeleton and on adhesion molecule and cytokine expression.

    PubMed

    Baroni, A; Perfetto, B; Paoletti, I; Ruocco, E; Canozo, N; Orlando, M; Buommino, E

    2001-08-01

    The lipophilic yeast Malassezia furfur is a member of the cutaneous microbiota, also associated with several chronic diseases such as pityriasis versicolor, folliculitis, seborrhoeic dermatitis, and some forms of atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and confluent and reticulate papillomatosis. In this study we determined the immunomodulatory and invasive capacity of M. furfur in a human keratinocyte cell culture, HaCat. At a yeast cell to HaCat ratio of 30:1, M. furfur penetration was only 30% with poor phagolysosome fusion and with cytoskeleton modification. Transglutaminase I gene expression was also inhibited, supporting the hypothesis that M. furfur causes an initial break in the barrier function of the epidermis. Moreover, we demonstrated that M. furfur modulates proinflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokine synthesis by downregulating IL-1alpha and by inhibiting IL-6 and TNF-alpha and by upregulating IL-10 and TGF-beta1. The suppressed inflammatory response induced by M. furfur may play a role in chronic disease. PMID:11686517

  16. [A study of culture-based easy identification system for Malassezia].

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Takamasa

    2011-01-01

    Most species of this genus are lipid-dependent yeasts, which colonize the seborrheic part of the skin, and they have been reported to be associated with pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia folliculitis, seborrheic dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis. Malassezia have been re-classified into 7 species based on molecular biological analysis of nuclear ribosomal DNA/RNA and new Malassezia species were reported. As members of the genus Malassezia share similar morphological and biochemical characteristics, it was thought to be difficult to differentiate between them based on phenotypic features. While molecular biological techniques are the most reliable methods for identification of Malassezia, they are not available in most clinical laboratories. We studied ( i ) development of an efficient isolation media and culture based easy identification system, ( ii ) the incidence of atypical biochemical features in Malassezia species and propose a culture-based easy identification system for clinically important Malassezia species, M. globosa, M. restricta, and M. furfur. PMID:22123328

  17. Malassezia furfur: a fungus belonging to the physiological skin flora and its relevance in skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A

    1997-01-01

    Malassezia furfur is an anthropophilic fungus that belongs to the physiological skin flora. The fungus can grow in a yeast phase as well as in a mycelial phase; on nonaffected skin the fungus is mainly prevalent in the yeast phase. The organism has complex lipid requirements for growth, which also explains its occurrence on the skin. This also leads to the requirement for specially supplemented media for in vitro cultivation. Malassezia furfur is the causative agent of pityriasis versicolor. It also seems to be associated with seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff formation, folliculitis, confluent and reticulate papillomatosis, and the provocation of psoriatic lesions. Many substances for topical application, such as azole antimycotics, ciclopirox olamine, piroctone-olamine, zinc pyrithione, or sulfur-containing substances are effective in the treatment of these diseases. In recent years rare cases of systemic infections and fungemias caused by Malassezia have been reported. PMID:9013067

  18. [Malassezia yeasts and their significance in dermatology].

    PubMed

    Hort, W; Nilles, M; Mayser, P

    2006-07-01

    Yeasts of the genus Malassezia belong to the normal microflora of the human skin. In addition they are known to cause a variety of skin diseases; the most frequent of which is pityriasis versicolor. Malassezia yeasts are also thought to be associated with seborrheic dermatitis, dandruff and Malassezia folliculitis. Recently the significance of Malassezia yeasts as a trigger factor for atopic dermatitis of the head and neck region has been pointed out. The role of the Malassezia yeasts in these different diseases has been controversial in the past and remains an issue because of difficulties in isolation, culture and differentiation of the organism. Thanks to molecular techniques, 10 species can actually be differentiated. The article presents the different Malassezia-associated diseases, their clinical picture, diagnosis and appropriate therapy. In addition the speciation of Malassezia is reviewed. PMID:16758222

  19. Distribution and mycotoxin-producing ability of some fungal isolates from the air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetni?, Zdenka; Pepeljnjak, S.

    Research was carried out on presence and prevalence of common fungal air spores at locations in Croatia. The sampling method employed in the study was by exposure 350 of Petri agar plates to the air for 10 min. Approximately 3400 colonies were found and mould spores belonging to 22 fungal genera were identified. Cladosporium (44.7%), Penicillium (34.4%), Alternaria (26.3%), Aspergillus (21.6%) and Absidia (12.2%) were the most prevalent fungi encountered. Investigation of toxigenic potential of airborne fungi isolates of genera Aspergillus, Fusarium and Trichoderma showed 16.9% mycotoxin-producing strains. The production of aflatoxin B 1 by A. flavus sterigmatocystin by A. versicolor zearalenon and T-2 toxin by F. graminearum and diacetoscirpenol by strains of T. viride were obtained.

  20. Fungal degradation of calcium-, lead- and silicon-bearing minerals.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Ademola O; Gadd, Geoffrey M

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine nutritional influence on the ability of selected filamentous fungi to mediate biogenic weathering of the minerals, apatite, galena and obsidian in order to provide further understanding of the roles of fungi as biogeochemical agents, particularly in relation to the cycling of metals and associated elements found in minerals. The impact of three organic acid producing fungi (Aspergillus niger, Serpula himantioides and Trametes versicolor) on apatite, galena and obsidian was examined in the absence and presence of a carbon and energy source (glucose). Manifestation of fungal weathering included corrosion of mineral surfaces, modification of the mineral substrate through transformation into secondary minerals (i.e. crystal formation) and hyphal penetration of the mineral substrate. Physicochemical interactions of fungal metabolites, e.g. H+ and organic acids, with the minerals are thought to be the primary driving forces responsible. All experimental fungi were capable of mineral surface colonization in the absence and presence of glucose but corrosion of the mineral surface and secondary mineral formation were affected by glucose availability. Only S. himantioides and T. versicolor were able to corrode apatite in the absence of glucose but none of the fungi were capable of doing so with the other minerals. In addition, crystal formation with galena was entirely dependent on the availability of glucose. Penetration of the mineral substrates by fungal hyphae occurred but this did not follow any particular pattern. Although the presence of glucose in the media appeared to influence positively the mineral penetrating abilities of the fungi, the results obtained also showed that some geochemical change(s) might occur under nutrient-limited conditions. It was, however, unclear whether the hyphae actively penetrated the minerals or were growing into pre-existing pores or cracks. PMID:15984571

  1. Laccase activity in soils: considerations for the measurement of enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Eichlerová, Ivana; Šnajdr, Jaroslav; Baldrian, Petr

    2012-08-01

    Laccases (benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductases, EC 1.10.3.2) are copper-containing enzymes that catalyze the oxidative conversion of a variety of chemicals, such as mono-, oligo-, and polyphenols and aromatic amines. Laccases have been proposed to participate in the transformation of organic matter and xenobiotics as well as microbial interactions. Several laccase assays have been proposed and used in soils. Here, we show that the optimal pH conditions for the laccase substrates 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, pH 3-5), 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (4-5.5), L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA; 4-6), guaiacol (3.5-5), 4-methylcatechol (3.5-5), and syringaldazine (5.5-7.0) are similar between purified laccases from Trametes versicolor and Pyricularia sp. and soil extracts; the substrate affinities of purified enzymes (K(M)) and soil extracts were also similar. The laccase assays showed specificity overlap with tyrosinase and ligninolytic peroxidases when hydrogen peroxide is present. The ABTS oxidation assay is able to reliably detect the presence of 13.5 pg mL(-1) or 0.199×10(-12) mol mL(-1) of T. versicolor laccase, which is three times more sensitive than the 2,6-dimethoxyphenol-based assay and more than 40 times more sensitive than any of the other assays. The low molecular mass soil-derived compounds and the isolated fulvic and humic acids influence the laccase assays and should be removed from the soil extracts before measurements of the enzyme activity are performed. PMID:22475148

  2. Landscape associations of frog and toad species in Iowa and Wisconsin, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, M.G.; Sauer, J.R.; Olsen, D.A.; Mossman, M.J.; Hemesath, L.M.; Lannoo, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Landscape habitat associations of frogs and toads in Iowa and Wisconsin were tested to determine whether they support or refute previous general habitat classifications. We examined which Midwestern species shared similar habitats to see if these associations were consistent across large geographic areas (states). Rana sylvatica (wood frog), Hyla versicolor (eastern gray treefrog), Pseudacris crucifer (spring peeper), and Acris crepitans (cricket frog) were identified as forest species, P. triseriata (chorus frog), H. chrysoscelis (Cope's gray treefrog), R. pipiens (leopard frog), and Bufo americanus (American toad) as grassland species, and R. catesbeiana (bullfrog), R. clamitans (green frog), R. palustris (pickerel frog), and R. septentrionalis (mink frog) as lake or stream species. The best candidates to serve as bioindicators of habitat quality were the forest species R. sylvatica, H. versicolor, and P. crucifer, the grassland species R. pipiens and P. triseriata, and a cold water wetland species, R. palustris. Declines of P. crucifer, R. pipiens, and R. palustris populations in one or both states may reflect changes in habitat quality. Habitat and community associations of some species differed between states, indicating that these relationships may change across the range of a species. Acris crepitans may have shifted its habitat affinities from open habitats, recorded historically, to the more forested habitat associations we recorded. We suggest contaminants deserve more investigation regarding the abrupt and widespread declines of this species. Interspersion of different habitat types was positively associated with several species. A larger number of wetland patches may increase breeding opportunities and increase the probability of at least one site being suitable. We noted consistently negative associations between anuran species and urban development. Given the current trend of urban growth and increasing density of the human population, declines of amphibian populations are likely to continue.

  3. Endotoxin, Ergosterol, Fungal DNA and Allergens in Dust from Schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia- Associations with Asthma and Respiratory Infections in Pupils

    PubMed Central

    Norbäck, Dan; Markowicz, Pawel; Cai, Gui-Hong; Hashim, Zailina; Ali, Faridah; Zheng, Yi-Wu; Lai, Xu-Xin; Spangfort, Michael Dho; Larsson, Lennart; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies on associations between respiratory health and allergens, fungal and bacterial compounds in schools in tropical countries. The aim was to study associations between respiratory symptoms in pupils and ethnicity, chemical microbial markers, allergens and fungal DNA in settled dust in schools in Malaysia. Totally 462 pupils (96%) from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated. Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of different types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH), muramic acid, ergosterol, allergens and five fungal DNA sequences. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 13.1% pupils reported doctor’s diagnosed asthma, 10.3% wheeze and 21.1% pollen or pet allergy. Indian and Chinese children had less atopy and asthma than Malay. Carbon dioxide levels were low (380–690 ppm). No cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f 1) or horse allergens (Ecu cx) were detected. The levels of Bloomia tropicalis (Blo t), house dust mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der m 1) and cockroach allergens (Per a 1 and Bla g 1) were low. There were positive associations between levels of Aspergillus versicolor DNA and daytime breathlessness, between C14 3-OH and respiratory infections and between ergosterol and doctors diagnosed asthma. There were negative (protective) associations between levels of C10 3-OH and wheeze, between C16 3-OH and day time and night time breathlessness, between cockroach allergens and doctors diagnosed asthma. Moreover there were negative associations between amount of fine dust, total endotoxin (LPS) and respiratory infections. In conclusion, endotoxin at school seems to be mainly protective for respiratory illness but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. Fungal contamination measured as ergosterol and Aspergillus versicolor DNA can be risk factors for respiratory illness. The ethnical differences for atopy and asthma deserve further attention. PMID:24523884

  4. Pityrosporum yeasts--what's new?

    PubMed

    Faergemann, J

    1997-01-01

    The lipophilic yeast Pityrosporum ovale is a member of the normal human cutaneous flora in adults but also associated with several skin diseases. In pityriasis versicolor, under the influence of predisposing factors, P. ovale changes from the round blastospore form to the mycelial form. A great problem in pityriasis versicolor is the high rate of recurrence and to avoid this a prophylactic treatment is mandatory. Pityrosporum folliculitis is a chronic disease characterized by pruritic follicular papules and pustules located primarily on the upper trunk, neck and upper arms. In direct microscopy clusters of round budding yeast cells are found. The disease responds rapidly to antimycotic therapy. There are now many studies indicating that P. ovale plays an important role in seborrhoeic dermatitis. Many of these are treatment studies showing a good effect of antimycotics paralleled by a reduction in number of organisms. Severe seborrhoeic dermatitis often difficult to treat is associated with AIDS. In peripheral blood from a high number of patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis we found an increase in number of natural killer T-cells and decreased PHA and Con-A stimulation. Secondary we found low serum IgG antibody titres in patients compared to controls. Other studies have found a reduced lymphocyte stimulation reaction when lymphocytes from patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis were stimulated with a P. ovale extract. Additionally, IL-2 and IFN gamma production by lymphocytes from patients was markedly depressed and IL-10 synthesis were increased after stimulation with P. ovale extract. The majority of adult patients with atopic dermatitis localized to the head, neck and scalp are prick-test positive to a protein P. ovale extract. One study showed that p. ovale extracts increased IL-4, IL-10 and IgE synthesis in patients with atopic dermatitis. There are also treatment studies indicating that antifungal treatment may be beneficial in these patients. PMID:9370147

  5. Visualization of aerocolloidal biological particles using 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Carsie A., III; Masabattula, Sree; Akyuzlu, Kazim M.; Russo, Edwin P.; Klich, Maren A.

    2003-11-01

    Recent concerns over the possible use of airborne biological particles as weapons of mass destruction have significantly increased the attention that researchers are giving to this threat. The size of these particles, ranging from a fraction of a micrometer to several tens of micrometers, allows them to travel over long distances before settling out of the airstreams carrying these particles. Furthermore, the odd shapes of many of these particles along with uncertainties about their light scattering characteristics make detection and tracking quite a challenge. In the present paper, results are reported on the visualization of airborne biological particles using two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV). These initial results show the utility of PIV in illuminating and tracking airborne biological particles. A compressed air nebulizer is used to aerosolize the biological particles inside a Plexiglas test section. The biological particles prepared for the nebulizer are first inoculated and cultured onto agar media, gypsum board, and acoustic ceiling tile to achieve an abundant growth of spores. A colloidal suspension of biological particles is then made using sterilized, de-ionized water and a mild surfactant to de-agglomerate the biological particles in the suspension. The concentration of biological particles in the colloidal suspension is determined using a hemacytometer. In the visualization experiments, images are captured for polystyrene latex (PSL) test particles, liquid water droplets, and spores of the fungal species Aspergillus versicolor. During the PIV system operation, two successive images are captured with a time delay of 50 ?m to develop flow field velocities of the PSL test particles, liquid water droplets, and the A. versicolor spores.

  6. Solving Water Quality Problems in the Home (Spanish)

    E-print Network

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

    2004-02-20

    inusual? ?Contiene sedimen- to? ?Mancha la ropa, los platos, los accesorios de plomer?a, o las aceras? Por ejemplo, el agua en algu- nas partes de Texas contiene altos niveles de hierro disuelto que causan manchas caf? rojizas en los lavamanos, ba?eras e...- minantes necesitan ser medidos s?lo si existe raz?n para creer que ?stos est?n presentes en niveles peli- grosos. El informe de laboratorio debe de indicar si existen algunos contaminantes que no alcanzan los est?n- dares primarios o secundarios. Dentro...

  7. Fungal post-treatment of pulp mill effluents for the removal of recalcitrant pollutants.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Clemente, Alfredo; Caffarel-Méndez, S; Ponce-Noyola, M T; Barrera-Córtes, J; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the post-treatment of an anaerobic recalcitrant effluent (anaerobically-treated weak black liquor, AnE) in an aerobic, upflow reactor packed with "biocubes" of Trametes versicolor immobilized onto small cubes of holm oak wood. The treated effluent (named anaerobic effluent; AnE) from an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor was fed to an up-flow aerobic fungal packed bed reactor (PBR). Two HRT were tested in this unit, namely 5 and 2.5days; the PBR operated 60days at 5-day HRT and 35days at 2.5-day HRT. The aerobic packed bench scale reactor was a glass column 1.5L total geometric volume containing 0.75L biocubes of T. versicolor immobilized onto holm oak wood small cubes of 5mm side. The reactor was operated at 25 degrees C. The pH of the AnE was adjusted to 4.5 before feeding; no carbohydrates or other soluble carbon source was supplemented. The fungal packed bed bioreactor averaged organic matter removals of 30% and 32% COD basis, during an experimental run of 60days at 5-day HRT and 35days at 2.5-day HRT, respectively. Colour and ligninoids contents were removed at higher percentages (69% and 54% respectively, average of both HRT). There was no significant difference between reactor performance at 5- and 2.5-day HRT, so, operation at 2.5-day HRT is recommended since reactor throughput is double. Activity of manganese peroxidase and laccase was found during the entire operation of the fungal PBR whereas lignin peroxidase activity practically disappeared in the second operation period. In general, enzyme activities were higher in the first period of operation (5-day HRT) than at 2.5-day HRT. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the few works that demonstrated extended performance (3months) of a fungal bioreactor for the treatment of a recalcitrant wastewater with no supplementation of glucose or other expensive, soluble carbohydrate. PMID:19010664

  8. Mineral-microorganism interactions in Acid Mine Drainage environments: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Cristina; Zotti, Mirca; Pozzolini, Marina; Giovine, Marco; Di Piazza, Simone; Mariotti, Mauro; Lucchetti, Gabriella

    2014-05-01

    Minerals play a key role in controlling the mobility and distribution of metals and metalloids of environmental concern in supergenic environments. These are involved in a variety of processes, spanning the alteration of primary minerals to the formation of secondary authigenic phases and can represent a source or a trap for Potentially Ecotoxic Elements (PTEs). Soil, sediments, and waters heavily polluted with PTEs through AMD processes are a reservoir of a unusual bacteria and fungi well adapted to these toxic environments. Classical studies of biotic weathering have mainly focused on water-mineral interaction and on the ability of microorganism to influence the soil solution chemical composition. In this work, we analyzed two different representative ochreous and greenish-blue AMD colloidal precipitates in order to i) characterize the biota population present in these colloidal minerals and ii) verify the bioaccumulation of PTEs into the fungi and the potential impact of bacteria in the geochemistry of the system. The samples are composed by nanocrystalline goethite which contains high amounts of Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni and woodwardite that is characterized by Cu, Zn, Ni, Y, and Ce. These precipitates were examined in order to evaluate the presence of fungal strains and to extract bacteria DNA. The preliminary results of fungi characterization show an interesting and selected mycobiota able to survive under unfavourable environmental conditions. A significant number of fungal strains was isolated in pure culture. Most of them belong to the genus Mucor and Penicillium. It is worth noting the presence of Trametes versicolor, a macrofungal lignicolous species already known for heavy metal biosorption capability from aqueous solution (Gülay et al 2003). The same colloidal precipitates have been processed to extract bacteria DNA, using a specific procedure developed for DNA extraction from sediments. The results gave a good yield of nucleic acids and the positive PCR amplification of 16S rDNA accomplished the first step for future metagenomic analysis. Gülay B., Sema B., M. Yakup A.. 2003 Biosorption of heavy metal ions on immobilized white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Journal of Hazardous Materials B101 (2003) 285-300

  9. Essential role of the N- and C-terminals of laccase from Pleurotus florida on the laccase activity and stability.

    PubMed

    Hu, Meirong; Zhou, Xue; Shi, Yiping; Lin, Jianhui; Irfan, Muhammad; Tao, Yong

    2014-11-01

    POXA1b is the most thermostable laccase isoenzyme from Pleurotus ostreatus. POXA1b is remarkably stable at alkaline pH (the t1/2 at pH 10 was 30 days), and its C-terminal affects its catalytic and stability properties. We cloned POXA1c from P. florida, which showed 99 % identity with POXA1b. POXA1c was functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris. The functions of the N and C termini of POXA1c were investigated using site-directed mutagenesis. Compared with POXA1c, the N-terminal R5V site effectively increased the specific activities for 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and guaiacol by 2- and 3.5-fold, respectively. A C-terminal truncated mutant, POXA1c?13, also increased the specific activities for ABTS and guaiacol by 2.3- and 3.4-fold, respectively. A double mutant, POXA1c?13-R5V, combined the R5V and ?13 effects. The specific activity of this double mutant for ABTS was 1,321 U/mg, which indicated a 4-fold increase compared with the wild type. The role of residue V5 on laccase catalytic properties was also observed for laccases from Trametes versicolor and Rigidoporus lignosus. The specific activities of the V5R of the laccases from T. versicolor and R. lignosus were half of that of the wild type. The pH and thermal stability analysis of POXA1c and its mutants showed that the enzymes were remarkably stable because they showed 63 % residual activity after incubation for 108 h at 30 °C over a pH range of 4.5 to 9.0. Similar results were observed for POXA1c?13-R5V. POXA1c?13-R5V can be widely used in industrial biotechnology because of its excellent catalytic properties. PMID:25161036

  10. Treatment of Fungal Bioaerosols by a High-Temperature, Short-Time Process in a Continuous-Flow System?

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Hee; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Chang Ho; Kim, Sang Soo; Lee, Byung Uk

    2009-01-01

    Airborne fungi, termed fungal bioaerosols, have received attention due to the association with public health problems and the effects on living organisms in nature. There are growing concerns that fungal bioaerosols are relevant to the occurrence of allergies, opportunistic diseases in hospitals, and outbreaks of plant diseases. The search for ways of preventing and curing the harmful effects of fungal bioaerosols has created a high demand for the study and development of an efficient method of controlling bioaerosols. However, almost all modern microbiological studies and theories have focused on microorganisms in liquid and solid phases. We investigated the thermal heating effects on fungal bioaerosols in a continuous-flow environment. Although the thermal heating process has long been a traditional method of controlling microorganisms, the effect of a continuous high-temperature, short-time (HTST) process on airborne microorganisms has not been quantitatively investigated in terms of various aerosol properties. Our experimental results show that the geometric mean diameter of the tested fungal bioaerosols decreased when they were exposed to increases in the surrounding temperature. The HTST process produced a significant decline in the (1?3)-?-d-glucan concentration of fungal bioaerosols. More than 99% of the Aspergillus versicolor and Cladosporium cladosporioides bioaerosols lost their culturability in about 0.2 s when the surrounding temperature exceeded 350°C and 400°C, respectively. The instantaneous exposure to high temperature significantly changed the surface morphology of the fungal bioaerosols. PMID:19201954

  11. Spices Mycobiota and Mycotoxins Available in Saudi Arabia and Their Abilities to Inhibit Growth of Some Toxigenic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence and population density of the mycobiota of 50 samples belonging to 10 kinds of spices (anise, black pepper, red pepper, black cumin, peppermint, cardamom, clove, cumin, ginger and marjoram) which collected from different places in Jeddah Governorate were studied. The natural occurrence of mycotoxins in those samples was also investigated. Fifteen genera and thirty - one species of fungi in addition to one species variety were isolated and identified during this study. The most common genera were Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. Aflatoxins (12~40 µg/kg) were detected in the extract of 5 samples of each of anise seeds and black pepper fruits; three samples of black cumin seeds and on sample only of each of peppermint and marjoram leaves out of 5 samples tested of each. Sterigmatocystin (15~20 µg/kg) was detected in some samples of red pepper, cumin and marjoram. The inhibitory effects of 10 kinds of powdered spices were tested against 3 toxigenic isolates of fungi (Aspergillus flavus, A. versicolor and Penicillium citrinum). Clove proved to be antimycotic compounds. It inhibited the growth of the tested toxigenic fungi. Black pepper, peppermint, cardamom, cumin and marjoram completely inhibited aflatoxins production, while black pepper and cardamom also completely inhibited sterigmatocystin production. PMID:24015069

  12. Aflatoxin biosynthesis: detection of transient, acetate-dependent intermediates in Aspergillus by kinetic pulse-labeling.

    PubMed Central

    Zamir, L O; Ginsburg, R

    1979-01-01

    A simple technique was developed for the detection of intermediary metabolites of Aspergillus versicolor that are putative precursors of aflatoxin. Minicolony populations were allowed to metabolize [1,2-14C]acetate over various time intervals. The biosynthetic reactions were quenched by quick-freezing the minicolonies, the cells were disrupted, and the metabolites were extracted into acetone. Small silica thin-layer chromatographic plates were then used to separate any radioactive metabolites present. Elution in two or three different directions was often necessary. Radioautography of the thin-layer chromatography plates provided a sensitive assay for the appearance of the various intermediates in a timing pattern which implicated the sequence of formation. Transient intermediates were distinguished from dead-end metabolites by the rapid formation and disappearance of the former. At least five unknown precursors of versicolorin A, a dead-end metabolite, were recognized. The kinetic pulse-labeling technique should be generally applicable to other fungal species whenever the entrapment of intermediary metabolites in the mycelium poses and technical problem. Images PMID:457592

  13. Variation in anti-parasite behaviour and infection among larval amphibian species.

    PubMed

    Koprivnikar, Janet; Redfern, Julia C; Mazier, Hannah L

    2014-04-01

    Along with immune defences, many animals exhibit effective anti-parasite behaviours such as parasite avoidance and removal that influence their susceptibility to infection. Host ecology and life history influence investment into comparatively fixed defences such as innate immunity but may affect the strength of anti-parasite behaviours as well. We investigated activity levels in five different species of larval amphibian with varying life histories and ecology in control, novel food stimulus, and trematode parasite (Echinoparyphium sp.) threat conditions. There was a significant interaction of species and treatment given that American toad (Bufo americanus), wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus), and bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) tadpoles generally increased their activity when parasite infectious stages were present while grey tree frogs (Hyla versicolor) and northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) did not, even though activity was negatively related to infection. In addition, there was considerable variation among species in their susceptibility to parasitism, with infection prevalence ranging from 17% in bullfrog tadpoles to 70% in wood frogs. However, amphibian life history (larval and adult traits) was not related to parasitism or level of anti-parasite behaviour at the species level. Consequently, we suggest that future investigations include more species with a range of life history traits and also consider host ecology, particularly if conspicuous anti-parasite behaviours are more likely in amphibian species that experience a relatively low risk of predation. PMID:24337712

  14. Diagnostic significance of Aspergillus species isolated from respiratory samples in an adult pneumology ward.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Takayoshi; Izumikawa, Koichi; Tashiro, Masato; Takazono, Takahiro; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Yamamoto, Kazuko; Imamura, Yoshifumi; Miyazaki, Taiga; Seki, Masafumi; Kakeya, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Yasuoka, Akira; Kohno, Shigeru

    2011-08-01

    Although the diagnostic significance of isolating Aspergillus spp. from respiratory cultures has been studied in immunocompromised hosts with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), little is known of such infections in immunocompetent patients with other forms of aspergillosis. In this study of adult pneumology ward patients, we examined the association between Aspergillus spp. and disease prevalence. Laboratory records from April 1998 to March 2009 were reviewed to identify patients with Aspergillus spp. in respiratory samples. Correlations between the isolated species and clinical characteristics of patients were evaluated. During the study period, 165 Aspergillus spp. isolates were detected in the respiratory cultures of 139 patients. Of these patients, 62 (45%) were colonized with Aspergillus spp. and displayed no clinical symptoms of aspergillosis, while 77 (55%) had a form of pulmonary aspergillosis, characterized as either chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis (CNPA) (48%), aspergilloma (29%), IPA (13%), or allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) (10%). The dominant species were Aspergillus fumigatus (41%), A. niger (32%), and A. versicolor (12%). A. fumigatus was most commonly isolated in patients with IPA, aspergilloma, and CNPA, whereas A. niger was the dominant species in colonized patients and those with ABPA. Isolation of an Aspergillus spp. from respiratory samples does not confirm it as the etiologic pathogen because airway colonization by Aspergillus spp. is a common feature in several chronic lung diseases. Repeated isolation of the identical Aspergillus species and detection of anti-Aspergillus antibodies and/or Aspergillus antigens in sera are needed to determine the isolate represents the etiologic agent of disease. PMID:21208028

  15. Rice straw-decomposing fungi and their cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangjoon; Jang, Yeongseon; Lee, Young Min; Lee, Jaejung; Lee, Hanbyul; Kim, Gyu-Hyeok; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2011-12-01

    Filamentous fungi colonizing rice straw were collected from 11 different sites in Korea and were identified based on characterization of their morphology and molecular properties. The fungi were divided into 25 species belonging to 16 genera, including 14 ascomycetes, one zygomycete, and one basidiomycete. Fungal cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes were assessed through a two-step process, wherein highly active cellulase- and/or hemicellulaseproducing fungi were selected in a first screening step followed by a second step to isolate the best enzymeproducer. Twenty-five fungal species were first screened for the production of total cellulase (TC), endo-beta-1,4 glucanase (EG), and endo-beta-1,4 xylanase (XYL) using solid-state fermentation with rice straw as substrate. From this screening, six species, namely, Aspergillus niger KUC5183, A. ochraceus KUC5204, A. versicolor KUC5201, Mucor circinelloides KUC6014, Trichoderma harzianum 1 KUC5182, and an unknown basidiomycete species, KUC8721, were selected. These six species were then incubated in liquid Mandels' media containing cellulose, glucose, rice straw, or xylan as the sole carbon source and the activities of six different enzymes were measured. Enzyme production was highly influenced by media conditions and in some cases significantly increased. Through this screening process, Trichoderma harzianum 1 KUC5182 was selected as the best enzyme producer. Rice straw and xylan were good carbon sources for the screening of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes. PMID:22210620

  16. Fungal biodegradation of lignopolystyrene graft copolymers.

    PubMed

    Milstein, O; Gersonde, R; Huttermann, A; Chen, M J; Meister, J J

    1992-10-01

    White rot basidiomycetes were able to biodegrade styrene (1-phenylethene) graft copolymers of lignin containing different proportions of lignin and polystyrene [poly(1-phenylethylene)]. The biodegradation tests were run on lignin-styrene copolymerization products which contained 10.3, 32.2, and 50.4% (wt/wt) lignin. The polymer samples were incubated with the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Trametes versicolor and the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. White rot fungi degraded the plastic samples at a rate which increased with increasing lignin content in the copolymer sample. Both polystyrene and lignin components of the copolymer were readily degraded. Polystyrene pellets were not degradable in these tests. Degradation was verified for both incubated and control samples by weight loss, quantitative UV spectrophotometric analysis of both lignin and styrene residues, scanning electron microscopy of the plastic surface, and the presence of enzymes active in degradation during incubation. Brown rot fungus did not affect any of the plastics. White rot fungi produced and secreted oxidative enzymes associated with lignin degradation in liquid media during incubation with lignin-polystyrene copolymer. PMID:1444360

  17. A mycological and bacteriological survey on feed ingredients and mixed poultry feeds in Reunion island.

    PubMed

    Bauduret, P

    1990-03-01

    A survey was carried out in Reunion island to obtain data on the occurrence of fungi, aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus, aflatoxins, total aerobic bacteria and salmonellae of 150 samples of mixed poultry feeds and raw materials. These were collected at five farms over a 3-month period during the warm rainy season. White corn and Braizlian soybean meal seemed to present a better microbiological quality than yellow corn and US soybean meal. Mixed poultry feeds presented a high total mold count reflecting the mold flora of raw materials. The most frequent and abundant fungi were Aspergillus flavus. A. glaucus group, Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp., A. candidus, Mucor spp., A. restrictus, Scopulariopsis spp., Cladosporium spp. and A. versicolor. Of the 118 A. flavus strains screened, 42 (35.6%) were aflatoxigenic. Yellow corn samples were the most frequently contaminated with aflatoxigenic strains (54.5%), followed by mixed feeds (44%). Of the 66 samples tested, 24 (36%) contained aflatoxins (traces to 22 ng/g). A good correlation seemed to exist between presence of at least one aflatoxigenic strain per sample and presence of aflatoxins. PMID:2112690

  18. Surface Lipids as Multifunctional Mediators of Skin Responses to Environmental Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Chiara; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Skin surface lipid (SSL) film is a mixture of sebum and keratinocyte membrane lipids, protecting skin from environment. Its composition is unique for the high percentage of long chain fatty acids, and of the polyterpenoid squalene, absent in other human tissues, and in non-human Primates sebum. Here, the still incomplete body of information on SSL as mediators of external chemical, physical, and microbial signals and stressors is revised, focusing on the central event of the continuous oxidative modification induced by the metabolic activity of residential and pathological microbial flora, natural or iatrogenic UV irradiation, exposure to chemicals and cosmetics. Once alpha-tocopherol and ubiquinol-10 antioxidant defences of SSL are overcome, oxidation of squalene and cholesterol gives rise to reactive by-products penetrating deeper into skin layers, to mediate local defensive inflammatory, photo-protective, immune reactions or, at higher concentrations, inducing local but also systemic immune depression, ultimately implicating skin cancerogenesis. Qualitative modifications of SSL represent a pathogenetic sign of diagnostic value in dermatological disorders involving altered sebum production, like pytiriasis versicolor, acne, atopic or seborrheic dermatitis, as well as photo-aging. Achievements of nutriceutical interventions aimed at restoring normal SSL composition and homeostasis are discussed, as feasible therapeutic goals and major means of photo-protection. PMID:20981292

  19. Amperometric catechol biosensor based on laccase immobilized on nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC)/PVA matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Meiqing; Wang, Hefeng; Huang, Di; Han, Zhijun; Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaojun; Chen, Jing

    2014-06-01

    A functionalized nitrogen-containing ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC), which shows good electrical properties, was synthesized by the carbonization of polyaniline inside a SBA-15 mesoporous silica template. Based on this, through entrapping laccase onto the N-OMC/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film a facilely fabricated amperometric biosensor was developed. Laccase from Trametes versicolor was assembled on a composite film of a N-OMC/PVA modified Au electrode and the electrochemical behavior was investigated. The results indicated that the N-OMC modified electrode exhibits electrical properties towards catechol. The optimum experimental conditions of a biosensor for the detection of catechol were studied in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the sensitivity of the biosensor was 0.29 A*M-1 with a detection limit of 0.31 ?M and a linear detection range from 0.39 ?M to 8.98 ?M for catechol. The calibration curve followed the Michaelis-Menten kinetics and the apparent Michaelis-Menten \\left( K_{M}^{app} \\right) was 6.28 ?M. This work demonstrated that the N-OMC/PVA composite provides a suitable support for laccase immobilization and the construction of a biosensor.

  20. Effect of Direct-Current Electric Field on Enzymatic Activity and the Concentration of Laccase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunxing; Zhang, Huiling; Ren, Dajun; Li, Qian; Zhang, Shuqin; Feng, Tao

    2015-09-01

    This work investigates the effect of direct-current electric field on the extracellular enzymatic activity, concentration and other experimental parameters of laccase from Trametes versicolor. The results showed that laccase could significantly contribute to the change of pH at the end of graphite electrode. In addition, it increased the electrical conductivity of the water. In the experiment, the optimum pH and catalytic pH range for laccase activity were 3.0 and pH 2.5-4.0. The application of 6 V direct current showed significant effects on the laccase enzyme activity. The activity of laccase was enhanced in the anodic region, but at the same time was strongly inhibited at the cathode. The electric charge characteristics of laccase were changed when exposed to electric field, and some laccases molecules moved to the anode, which produced a slight migration phenomenon. This study is the basis of combination of laccase and electrical technology, at the same time, providing a new direction of enhancing laccase activity. Compared to immobilization, using electric field is simple, no chemical additives, and great potential. PMID:26063937

  1. Three-dimensional organization of three-domain copper oxidases: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Zhukova, Yu. N.; Lyashenko, A. V.; Za?tsev, V. N.; Mikha?lov, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    “Blue” copper-containing proteins are multidomain proteins that utilize a unique redox property of copper ions. Among other blue multicopper oxidases, three-domain oxidases belong to the group of proteins that exhibit a wide variety of compositions in amino acid sequences, functions, and occurrences in organisms. This paper presents a review of the data obtained from X-ray diffraction investigations of the three-dimensional structures of three-domain multicopper oxidases, such as the ascorbate oxidase catalyzing oxidation of ascorbate to dehydroascorbate and its three derivatives; the multicopper oxidase CueO (the laccase homologue); the laccases isolated from the basidiomycetes Coprinus cinereus, Trametes versicolor, Coriolus zonatus, Cerrena maxima, and Rigidoporus lignosus and the ascomycete Melanocarpus albomyces; and the bacterial laccases CotA from the endospore coats of Bacillus subtilis. A comparison of the molecular structures of the laccases of different origins demonstrates that, structurally, these objects are highly conservative. This obviously indicates that the catalytic activity of the enzymes under consideration is characterized by similar mechanisms.

  2. Characterization of radical intermediates in laccase-mediator systems. A multifrequency EPR, ENDOR and DFT/PCM investigation.

    PubMed

    Brogioni, Barbara; Biglino, Daniele; Sinicropi, Adalgisa; Reijerse, Edward J; Giardina, Paola; Sannia, Giovanni; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Basosi, Riccardo; Pogni, Rebecca

    2008-12-28

    Suitable low molecular-weight compounds, called mediators, can be used in combination with the phenol-oxidase enzyme laccase to indirectly oxidize large organic substrates, such as environmental pollutants, which are not laccase natural substrates. The oxidation of two different synthetic redox mediators, violuric acid (VIO) and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) has been studied under catalysis of two laccases from white-rot fungi (Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus). VIO was selected as a prototype of the -NOH type of mediators and compared to ABTS, a well-known two-step redox system. To characterize the radical intermediates formed from both mediators after the enzymatic oxidation, a multifrequency EPR approach has been adopted. The radical species have been investigated employing 9.4 GHz (X-band), 34 GHz (Q-band) and 244 GHz (high field) EPR and pulse electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) techniques. Theoretical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT/PCM) have been performed to support and further interpret the experimental EPR and ENDOR data. This integrated approach allowed us to obtain a complete characterization of both radicals and to elucidate the type of the radical state (neutral or cationic). PMID:19060974

  3. Removal of the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) by laccase-mediated systems.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Hu, Jiangyong; Urase, Taro

    2013-11-01

    Numerous efforts have been made to remove emerging trace organic contaminants, such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). This study examined the removal of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) by Trametes versicolor laccase and its laccase-mediator systems. Experimental results showed that DEET was poorly removed by laccase alone. The poor removal efficiency of DEET by laccase may be attributed to the presence of strong withdrawing electron group (-CO-N [CH2-CH3]2) in the chemical structure of DEET. Experimental results also indicated that DEET might be indirectly oxidized by laccase-mediator systems. More than 50% initial DEET amount was removed by laccase in the presence of a redox mediator, such as 2,2'-azino-bis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] (ABTS) or 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT). However, laccase activity was considerably decreased in the presence of a redox mediator (ABTS or HBT). Further studies on identification of degradation byproducts and degradation pathways are recommended. PMID:24034986

  4. Kinetic and biochemical properties of high and low redox potential laccases from fungal and plant origin.

    PubMed

    Frasconi, Marco; Favero, Gabriele; Boer, Harry; Koivula, Anu; Mazzei, Franco

    2010-04-01

    The electrochemical studies of laccase-mediator systems are aimed at understanding the mechanism of their redox transformation and their efficiency in both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions; this topic has paramount application spanning from bleaching of paper pulp and the enzymatic degradation of lignin to the biosensors and biofuel cell development. In this paper four different laccases from Trametes hirsuta (ThL), Trametes versicolor (TvL), Melanocarpus albomyces (r-MaL) and Rhus vernicifera (RvL) were characterized from both biochemical and electrochemical points of view. Two of them (TvL and ThL) are high redox potential and two (RvL and r-MaL) are low redox potential laccases. The outline of this work is focused on the determination of catalytic and bioelectrochemical properties of these four enzymes in homogenous solution as well as immobilized onto electrode surface in the presence of a set of different redox mediators. The results measured in the homogenous reaction system correlated well with those measured with the immobilized enzymes. In addition, they are in good agreement with those reported with reference techniques, suggesting that the electrochemical methods employed in this work can be applied well in place of the traditional techniques commonly used for the kinetic characterization of laccases. These results are also discussed in terms of the known amino acid sequences and three-dimensional (3D) structures of the laccases. PMID:20056172

  5. Protection of Wood from Microorganisms by Laccase-Catalyzed Iodination

    PubMed Central

    Engel, J.; Thöny-Meyer, L.; Schwarze, F. W. M. R.; Ihssen, J.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, Norway spruce wood (Picea abies L.) was reacted with a commercial Trametes versicolor laccase in the presence of potassium iodide salt or the phenolic compounds thymol and isoeugenol to impart an antimicrobial property to the wood surface. In order to assess the efficacy of the wood treatment, a leaching of the iodinated and polymerized wood and two biotests including bacteria, a yeast, blue stain fungi, and wood decay fungi were performed. After laccase-catalyzed oxidation of the phenols, the antimicrobial effect was significantly reduced. In contrast, the enzymatic oxidation of iodide (I?) to iodine (I2) in the presence of wood led to an enhanced resistance of the wood surface against all microorganisms, even after exposure to leaching. The efficiency of the enzymatic wood iodination was comparable to that of a chemical wood preservative, VP 7/260a. The modification of the lignocellulose by the laccase-catalyzed iodination was assessed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) technique. The intensities of the selected lignin-associated bands and carbohydrate reference bands were analyzed, and the results indicated a structural change in the lignin matrix. The results suggest that the laccase-catalyzed iodination of the wood surface presents an efficient and ecofriendly method for wood protection. PMID:22865075

  6. Influence of very low doses of mediators on fungal laccase activity - nonlinearity beyond imagination

    PubMed Central

    Malarczyk, Elzbieta; Kochmanska-Rdest, Janina; Jarosz-Wilkolazka, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Laccase, an enzyme responsible for aerobic transformations of natural phenolics, in industrial applications requires the presence of low-molecular substances known as mediators, which accelerate oxidation processes. However, the use of mediators is limited by their toxicity and the high costs of exploitation. The activation of extracellular laccase in growing fungal culture with highly diluted mediators, ABTS and HBT is described. Two high laccase-producing fungal strains, Trametes versicolor and Cerrena unicolor, were used in this study as a source of enzyme. Selected dilutions of the mediators significantly increased the activity of extracellular laccase during 14 days of cultivation what was distinctly visible in PAGE technique and in colorimetric tests. The same mediator dilutions increased demethylation properties of laccase, which was demonstrated during incubation of enzyme with veratric acid. It was established that the activation effect was assigned to specific dilutions of mediators. Our dose-response dilution process smoothly passes into the range of action of homeopathic dilutions and is of interest for homeopaths. PMID:19732425

  7. Bulbs mycoflora and their relation with three stored product mites.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Sater, M A; Eraky, S A

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of moulds on stored and field onion and garlic plants infested by bulb mites in Assiut area (Egypt) was studied using PDA medium at 28 degrees C. Among 40 host samples and the three mite species tested no significant difference was noted in the contamination by moulds. A total of 20 species appertaining to 11 genera were identified from the tested mites and their habitats. The predominant moulds on all samples were "storage moulds" from the genera Aspergillus (A. niger, A. versicolor) and Penicillium (P. chrysogenum, P. funiculosum, and "field moulds" among which Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium (and its teleomorphs) and Setosphaeria were encountered most frequently. One fungus well known facultative pathogen was obtained: Beauveria bassiana. The tested mites transfer A. niger, N. haematococca, R. stolonifer and P chrysogenum outside their bodies while, A. flavus and A. ochraceus transfer through their digestive tracts along with the foods. Individuals of all mites could survived till the end of the experiment on all fungal species tested except A. niger, A. ochraceus and A. sydowii. Among 48 isolates screened for their ability to produce chitinase, about 83% of the isolates could produce this enzyme. Most of the positive isolates (17 isolates) had moderate producers PMID:11913764

  8. The use of mushroom glucans and proteoglycans in cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Kidd, P M

    2000-02-01

    Immunoceuticals can be considered as substances having immunotherapeutic efficacy when taken orally. More than 50 mushroom species have yielded potential immunoceuticals that exhibit anticancer activity in vitro or in animal models and of these, six have been investigated in human cancers. All are non-toxic and very well tolerated. Lentinan and schizophyllan have little oral activity. Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) is poorly defined but has shown early clinical promise. Maitake D-Fraction has limited proof of clinical efficacy to date, but controlled research is underway. Two proteoglycans from Coriolus versicolor - PSK (Polysaccharide-K) and PSP (Polysaccharide-Peptide - have demonstrated the most promise. In Japanese trials since 1970, PSK significantly extended survival at five years or beyond in cancers of the stomach, colon-rectum, esophagus, nasopharynx, and lung (non-small cell types), and in a HLA B40-positive breast cancer subset. PSP was subjected to Phase II and Phase III trials in China. In double-blind trials, PSP significantly extended five-year survival in esophageal cancer. PSP significantly improved quality of life, provided substantial pain relief, and enhanced immune status in 70-97 percent of patients with cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lung, ovary, and cervix. PSK and PSP boosted immune cell production, ameliorated chemotherapy symptoms, and enhanced tumor infiltration by dendritic and cytotoxic T-cells. Their extremely high tolerability, proven benefits to survival and quality of life, and compatibility with chemotherapy and radiation therapy makes them well suited for cancer management regimens. PMID:10696116

  9. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by new isolates of white rot fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Field, J A; de Jong, E; Feijoo Costa, G; de Bont, J A

    1992-01-01

    Eight rapid Poly R-478 dye-decolorizing isolates from The Netherlands were screened in this study for the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) supplied at 10 mg liter(-1). Several well-known ligninolytic culture collection strains, Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKM-F-1767, Trametes versicolor Paprican 52, and Bjerkandera adusta CBS 595.78 were tested in parallel. All of the strains significantly removed anthracene, and nine of the strains significantly removed benzo(a)pyrene beyond the limited losses observed in sterile liquid and HgCl2-poisoned fungus controls. One of the new isolates, Bjerkandera sp. strain Bos 55, was the best degrader of both anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene, removing 99.2 and 83.1% of these compounds after 28 days, respectively. Half of the strains, exemplified by strains of the genera Bjerkandera and Phanerochaete, converted anthracene to anthraquinone, which was found to be a dead-end metabolite, in high yields. The extracellular fluids of selected strains were shown to be implicated in this conversion. In contrast, four Trametes strains removed anthracene without significant accumulation of the quinone. The ability of Trametes strains to degrade anthraquinone was confirmed in this study. None of the strains accumulated PAH quinones during benzo(a)pyrene degradation. Biodegradation of PAH by the various strains was highly correlated to the rate by which they decolorized Poly R-478 dye, demonstrating that ligninolytic indicators are useful in screening for promising PAH-degrading white rot fungal strains. PMID:1637159

  10. Enhanced reduction of phenol content and toxicity in olive mill wastewaters by a newly isolated strain of Coriolopsis gallica.

    PubMed

    Daâssi, Dalel; Belbahri, Lassaad; Vallat, Armelle; Woodward, Steve; Nasri, Moncef; Mechichi, Tahar

    2014-02-01

    The search for novel microorganisms able to degrade olive mill wastewaters (OMW) and withstand the toxic effects of the initially high phenolic concentrations is of great scientific and industrial interest. In this work, the possibility of reducing the phenolic content of OMW using new isolates of fungal strains (Coriolopsis gallica, Bjerkandera adusta, Trametes versicolor, Trichoderma citrinoviride, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Trametes trogii, and Fusarium solani) was investigated. In vitro, all fungal isolates tested caused an outstanding decolorization of OMW. However, C. gallica gave the highest decolorization and dephenolization rates at 30 % v/v OMW dilution in water. Fungal growth in OMW medium was affected by several parameters including phenolic compound concentration, nitrogen source, and inoculum size. The optimal OMW medium for the removal of phenolics and color was with the OMW concentration (in percent)/[(NH4)2SO4]/inoculum ratio of 30:6:3. Under these conditions, 90 and 85 % of the initial phenolic compounds and color were removed, respectively. High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis of extracts from treated and untreated OMW showed a clear and substantial reduction in phenolic compound concentrations. Phytotoxicity, assessed using radish (Raphanus sativus) seeds, indicated an increase in germination index of 23-92 % when a 30 % OMW concentration was treated with C. gallica in different dilutions (1/2, 1/4, and 1/8). PMID:23979847

  11. Geographical variation of St. Lucia Parrot flight vocalizations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleeman, P.M.; Gilardi, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    Parrots are vocal learners and many species of parrots are capable of learning new calls, even as adults. This capability gives parrots the potential to develop communication systems that can vary dramatically over space. St. Lucia Parrot (Amazona versicolor) flight vocalizations were examined for geographic variation between four different sites on the island of St. Lucia. Spectrographic cross-correlation analysis of a commonly used flight vocalization, the p-chow call, demonstrated quantitative differences between sites. Additionally, the similarity of p-chows decreased as the distance between sites increased. Flight call repertoires also differed among sites; parrots at the Des Bottes and Quilesse sites each used one flight call unique to those sites, while parrots at the Barre de L'Isle site used a flight call that Quilesse parrots gave only while perched. It is unclear whether the vocal variation changed clinally with distance, or whether there were discrete dialect boundaries as in a congener, the Yellow-naped Parrot (Amazona auropalliata, Wright 1996). The geographical scale over which the St. Lucia Parrot's vocal variation occurred was dramatically smaller than that of the Yellow-naped Parrot. Similar patterns of fine-scale vocal variation may be more widespread among other parrot species in the Caribbean than previously documented.

  12. Single Agent Polysaccharopeptide Delays Metastases and Improves Survival in Naturally Occurring Hemangiosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Dorothy Cimino; Reetz, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The 2008 World Health Organization World Cancer Report describes global cancer incidence soaring with many patients living in countries that lack resources for cancer control. Alternative treatment strategies that can reduce the global disease burden at manageable costs must be developed. Polysaccharopeptide (PSP) is the bioactive agent from the mushroom Coriolus versicolor. Studies indicate PSP has in vitro antitumor activities and inhibits the growth of induced tumors in animal models. Clear evidence of clinically relevant benefits of PSP in cancer patients, however, is lacking. The investment of resources required to complete large-scale, randomized controlled trials of PSP in cancer patients is more easily justified if antitumor and survival benefits are documented in a complex animal model of a naturally occurring cancer that parallels human disease. Because of its high metastatic rate and vascular origin, canine hemangiosarcoma is used for investigations in antimetastatic and antiangiogenic therapies. In this double-blind randomized multidose pilot study, high-dose PSP significantly delayed the progression of metastases and afforded the longest survival times reported in canine hemangiosarcoma. These data suggest that, for those cancer patients for whom advanced treatments are not accessible, PSP as a single agent might offer significant improvements in morbidity and mortality. PMID:22988473

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of Phrynocephalus helioscopus (Reptilia, Squamata, Agamidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Donghai; Guo, Jing; Zhou, Xiumei; Chang, Cheng; Zhang, Shengxiang

    2014-10-16

    Abstract The toad-headed lizards of genus Phrynocephalus are one of the most prevalent animals in the central Asian desert. A few studies have investigated molecular phylogenesis of Phrynocephalus, yet yield inconsistent results. Moreover, these studies were only based on a few specific DNA fragments of mitochondrial genome. To facilitate the clarification of molecular phylogenesis of Phrynocephalus, we conducted this study to sequence the entire mitochondrial genome of the Phrynocephalus helioscopus collected from Northwest China. The length of complete mitochondrial DNA is 16,249 nucleotides, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 2 control regions (CR). The gene arrangement and composition of P. helioscopus resemble those of other Phrynocephalus sand lizard, except for P. przewalskii and P. versicolor. The overall A, T, C, G base composition of the heavy-strand was 35.9%, 26.4%, 25.2%, 12.5%, respectively, which is biased toward AT (about 62.3%). The AT-biased base composition was similar to what observed in most vertebrates. The complete mitochondrial genome of P. helioscopus may help to clarify the phylogenetic relationships related to Phrynocephalus oviparity. PMID:25319288

  14. Fungal permeable reactive barrier to remediate groundwater in an artificial aquifer.

    PubMed

    Folch, Albert; Vilaplana, Marcel; Amado, Leila; Vicent, Teresa; Caminal, Glòria

    2013-11-15

    Biobarriers, as permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), are a common technology that mainly uses bacteria to remediate groundwater in polluted aquifers. In this study, we propose to use Trametes versicolor, a white-rot fungus, as the reactive element because of its capacity to degrade a wide variety of highly recalcitrant and xenobiotic compounds. A laboratory-scale artificial aquifer was constructed to simulate groundwater flow under real conditions in shallow aquifers. Orange G dye was chosen as a contaminant to visually monitor the hydrodynamic behaviour of the system and any degradation of the dye by the fungus. Batch experiments at different pH values (6 and 7) and several temperatures (15 °C, 18 °C, 20 °C and 25 °C) were performed to select the appropriate residence time and glucose consumption rate required for continuous treatment. The maximum Orange G degradation was 97%. Continuous degradation over 85% was achieved for more than 8 days. Experimental results indicate for the first time that this fungus can potentially be used as a permeable reactive barrier in real aquifers. PMID:24095995

  15. Protein-bound polysaccharide-K induces IL-1? via TLR2 and NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Inatsuka, Carol; Gad, Ekram; Disis, Mary L; Standish, Leanna J; Pugh, Nirmal; Pasco, David S; Lu, Hailing

    2014-11-01

    Inflammasome activation has been shown to regulate both innate and adaptive immune responses. It is important to investigate whether immune-enhancing natural products can also activate inflammasome. The current study examined the potential of protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK), a hot water extract from Trametes versicolor, to activate inflammasome. Using THP-1 cells, we have demonstrated that PSK induces both pro-IL-1? and mature IL-1? in THP-1 cells in a caspase 1- and NLRP3-dependent manner. PSK also induces IL-1? and IL-18 in human PBMC. Cathepsin B is required for PSK-induced inflammasome activation as CA-074-Me, a cathepsin B inhibitor, significantly decreased PSK-induced IL-1?. PSK induces NLRP3 at both mRNA and protein level. Comparison of PSK-induced IL-1? in bone marrow-derived macrophages from wild type C57BL/6 mice, TLR2(-/-), P2X7R(-/-) and NLRP3(-/-) mice demonstrated that PSK-induced IL-1? is dependent on both TLR2 and NLRP3. P2X7R is not required for PSK-induced inflammasome activation, but enhances PSK-induced caspase-1 activation and IL-1? induction. Altogether, these results demonstrated that PSK induces inflammasome activation and production of IL-1? in a TLR2- and NLRP3-dependent mechanism. These results provide novel insights into the mechanisms of the immune modulatory effects of PSK. PMID:24323452

  16. Protein-bound polysaccharide activates dendritic cells and enhances OVA-specific T cell response as vaccine adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Engel, Abbi L; Sun, Guan-Cheng; Gad, Ekram; Rastetter, Lauren R; Strobe, Katie; Yang, Yi; Dang, Yushe; Disis, Mary L; Lu, Hailing

    2013-12-01

    Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) is a hot water extract from Trametes versicolor mushroom. It has been used traditionally in Asian countries for its immune stimulating and anti-cancer effects. We have recently found that PSK can activate Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). TLR2 is highly expressed on dendritic cells (DC), so the current study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of PSK on DC activation and the potential of using PSK as a vaccine adjuvant. In vitro experiments using mouse bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC) demonstrated that PSK induces DC maturation as shown by dose-dependent increase in the expression of CD80, CD86, MHCII, and CD40. PSK also induces the production of multiple inflammatory cytokines by DC, including IL-12, TNF-?, and IL-6, at both mRNA and protein levels. In vivo experiments using PSK as an adjuvant to OVAp323-339 vaccine showed that PSK as adjuvant leads to enlarged draining lymph nodes with higher number of activated DC. PSK also stimulates proliferation of OVA-specific T cells, and induces T cells that produce multiple cytokines, IFN-?, IL-2, and TNF-?. Altogether, these results demonstrate the ability of PSK to activate DC in vitro and in vivo and the potential of using PSK as a novel vaccine adjuvant. PMID:23735481

  17. Current trends in trichloroethylene biodegradation: a review.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Awadhesh Kumar; Upadhyay, Siddh Nath; Dubey, Suresh Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Over the past few years biodegradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) using different microorganisms has been investigated by several researchers. In this review article, an attempt has been made to present a critical summary of the recent results related to two major processes--reductive dechlorination and aerobic co-metabolism used for TCE biodegradation. It has been shown that mainly Clostridium sp. DC-1, KYT-1, Dehalobacter, Dehalococcoides, Desulfuromonas, Desulfitobacterium, Propionibacterium sp. HK-1, and Sulfurospirillum bacterial communities are responsible for the reductive dechlorination of TCE. Efficacy of bacterial communities like Nitrosomonas, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, and Xanthobacter sp. etc. for TCE biodegradation under aerobic conditions has also been examined. Mixed cultures of diazotrophs and methanotrophs have been used for TCE degradation in batch and continuous cultures (biofilter) under aerobic conditions. In addition, some fungi (Trametes versicolor, Phanerochaete chrysosporium ME-446) and Actinomycetes have also been used for aerobic biodegradation of TCE. The available information on kinetics of biofiltration of TCE and its degradation end-products such as CO2 are discussed along with the available results on the diversity of bacterial community obtained using molecular biological approaches. It has emerged that there is a need to use metabolic engineering and molecular biological tools more intensively to improve the robustness of TCE degrading microbial species and assess their diversity. PMID:23057686

  18. Laccases from Aureobasidium pullulans.

    PubMed

    Rich, Joseph O; Leathers, Timothy D; Anderson, Amber M; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Manitchotpisit, Pennapa

    2013-06-10

    Laccases are polyphenol oxidases (EC 1.10.3.2) that have numerous industrial and bioremediation applications. Laccases are well known as lignin-degrading enzymes, but these enzymes can play numerous other roles in fungi. In this study, 41 strains of the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans were examined for laccase production. Enzymes from A. pullulans were distinct from those from lignin-degrading fungi and associated with pigment production. Laccases from strains in phylogenetic clade 5, which produced a dark vinaceous pigment, exhibited a temperature optimum of 50-60°C and were stable for an hour at 50°C, unlike enzymes from the lignin-degrading fungi Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus. Laccase purified from A. pullulans strain NRRL 50381, a representative of clade 5, was glycosylated but had a molecular weight of 60-70kDa after Endo H treatment. Laccase purified from strain NRRL Y-2568, which produced a dark olivaceous pigment, was also glycosylated, but had a molecular weight of greater than 100kDa after Endo H treatment. PMID:23683702

  19. A mechanism for NaCl inhibition of Reactive Blue 19 decolorization and ABTS oxidation by laccase.

    PubMed

    Champagne, P-P; Nesheim, M E; Ramsay, J A

    2013-07-01

    Laccases produced by white rot fungi have been extensively evaluated for their potential to decolorize textile wastewaters which contain salts like sodium chloride and sodium sulfate. The effect of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate on Trametes versicolor laccase during the decolorization of an anthraquinone dye (Reactive Blue 19) and the oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) were evaluated by steady-state kinetic analysis. The results showed that, while sodium sulfate did not affect laccase activity, sodium chloride inhibited both ABTS oxidation and dye decolorization. However, the type of inhibition was substrate-dependent: it was hyperbolic, noncompetitive with ABTS and parabolic, noncompetitive with Reactive Blue 19. Furthermore, the results suggested that two chlorides may bind to laccase in the presence of the dye unlike recent inhibition models which suggest that there is only one inhibition site. This investigation is the first to provide evidence for and to propose a two-site model of laccase inhibition, providing new insight into NaCl inhibition of laccase. The proposed model is also useful to predict decolorization rates in the presence of sodium chloride and to determine operating conditions that will minimize inhibition. PMID:23129183

  20. Improving the performance of a biofuel cell cathode with laccase-containing culture supernatant from Pycnoporus sanguineus.

    PubMed

    Fokina, Oleksandra; Eipper, Jens; Winandy, Lex; Kerzenmacher, Sven; Fischer, Reinhard

    2014-11-01

    Laccases are multicopper oxidoreductases that can be used in biofuel cells to improve cathode performance by cathodic oxygen reduction. Here we present a laccase from the ligninolytic white-rot fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus that, in contrast to the Trametes versicolor laccase, can be produced in the absence of inducers in a standard culture medium. After 7days of cultivation the activity of this laccase in culture supernatant reached 2.5U/ml, which is high enough for direct application of the supernatant in biofuel cells. The highest current density of 115.0±3.5?A/cm(2) at 400mV vs. SCE was obtained at pH 5 with a buckypaper cathode with a laccase-containing culture supernatant. The enzyme also showed electrocatalytic activity at pH 6 and 7. These results not only present a new cost-efficient laccase for improving cathode performance, but also show that new laccases with different catalytic properties can be suitable for biofuel cells. PMID:25459854

  1. Functional magnetic mesoporous nanoparticles for efficient purification of laccase from fermentation broth in magnetically stabilized fluidized bed.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Guo, Chen; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2013-12-01

    A magnetically stabilized fluidized bed (MSFB) with the Cu(2+)-chelated magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MMSNPs-Cu(2+)) was established to purify laccase directly from the fermentation broth of Trametes versicolor. The MMSNPs-Cu(2+) particles in the MSFB maintained a stable bed expansion of two to threefold at a flow rate of 120-180 cm/h. At the optimal magnetic field intensity of 120 Gs, both the maximal Bodenstein number and the smallest axial dispersion coefficient were achieved, which resulted in a stable fluidization stage. The dynamic binding capacity of laccase in the MSFB decreased from 192.5 to144.3 mg/g when the flow velocity through the bed increased from 44.2 to 69.8 cm/h. The MSFB with MMSNPs-Cu(2+) achieved efficient laccase purification from the fermentation broth with 62.4-fold purification of laccase and 108.9 % activity yield. These results provided an excellent platform for the application of these magnetic mesoporous nanoparticles integrated with the MSFB in developing novel protein purification process. PMID:24037517

  2. Biotransformation of the antibiotic agent flumequine by ligninolytic fungi and residual antibacterial activity of the transformation mixtures.

    PubMed

    Cvan?arová, Monika; Moeder, Monika; Filipová, Alena; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2013-12-17

    Flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, is applied preferably in veterinary medicine, for stock breeding and treatment of aquacultures. Formation of drug resistance is a matter of general concern when antibiotics such as flumquine occur in the environment. Thus, biodegradation of flumequine in solution was investigated using five different ligninolytic fungi. Irpex lacteus, Dichomitus squalens, and Trametes versicolor proved most efficient and transformed more than 90% of flumequine within 6 or even 3 days. Panus tigrinus and Pleurotus ostreatus required up to 14 days to remove >90% of flumequine. Analyses of the metabolites by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry suggest different transformation pathways for the different fungal strains. Structure proposals were elaborated for 8 metabolites. 7-Hydroxy-flumequine and flumequine ethyl ester were identified as common metabolites produced by all ligninolytic fungi. The largest variety of metabolites was formed by D. squalens. Residual antibacterial activity of the metabolite mixtures was tested using gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. While for the less efficient P. tigrinus and P. ostreatus cultures the antibacterial activities corresponded to the residual concentrations of flumequine, a remarkable antibacterial activity remained in the D. squalens cultures although flumequine was transformed to more than 90%. Obviously, antibacterially active transformation products were formed by this fungal strain. PMID:24261869

  3. Toxicity of organic and inorganic nanoparticles to four species of white-rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Galindo, T P S; Pereira, R; Freitas, A C; Santos-Rocha, T A P; Rasteiro, M G; Antunes, F; Rodrigues, D; Soares, A M V M; Gonçalves, F; Duarte, A C; Lopes, I

    2013-08-01

    The rapid development of nanoparticles (NP) for industrial applications and large-volume manufacturing, with its subsequent release into the environment, raised the need to understand and characterize the potential effects of NP to biota. Accordingly, this work aimed to assess sublethal effects of five NP to the white-rot fungi species Trametes versicolor, Lentinus sajor caju, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Each species was exposed to serial dilutions of the following NP: organic-vesicles of SDS/DDAB and of Mo/NaO; gold-NP, quantum dot CdSe/ZnS, and Fe/Co. Fungi growth rate was monitored every day, and at the end of assay the mycelium from each replicate was collected to evaluate possible changes in its chemical composition. For all NP-suspensions the following parameters were characterized: hydrodynamic diameter, surface charge, aggregation index, zeta potential, and conductivity. All tested NP tended to aggregate when suspended in aqueous media. The obtained results showed that gold-NP, CdSe/ZnS, Mo/NaO, and SDS/DDAB significantly inhibited the growth of fungi with effects on the mycelium chemical composition. Among the tested NP, gold-NP and CdSe/ZnS were the ones exerting a higher effect on the four fungi. Finally to our knowledge, this is the first study reporting that different types of NP induce changes in the chemical composition of fungi mycelium. PMID:23665417

  4. Biosensor based on laccase immobilized on plasma polymerized allylamine/carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Ardhaoui, Malika; Bhatt, Sudhir; Zheng, Meihui; Dowling, Denis; Jolivalt, Claude; Khonsari, Farzaneh Arefi

    2013-08-01

    In this work, a simple and rapid method was used to functionalize carbon electrode in order to efficiently immobilize laccase for biosensor application. A stable allylamine coating was deposited using a low pressure inductively excited RF tubular plasma reactor under mild plasma conditions (low plasma power (10 W), few minutes) to generate high density amine groups (N/C ratio up to 0.18) on rough carbon surface electrodes. The longer was the allylamine plasma deposition time; the better was the surface coverage. Laccase from Trametes versicolor was physisorbed and covalently bound to these allylamine modified carbon surfaces. The laccase activities and current outputs measured in the presence of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazole-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) showed that the best efficiency was obtained for electrode plasma coated during 30 min. They showed also that for all the tested electrodes, the activities and current outputs of the covalently immobilized laccases were twice higher than the physically adsorbed ones. The sensitivity of these biocompatible bioelectrodes was evaluated by measuring their catalytic efficiency for oxygen reduction in the presence of ABTS as non-phenolic redox substrate and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (DMP) as phenolic one. Sensitivities of around 4.8 ?A mg(-1)L and 2.7 ?A mg(-1)L were attained for ABTS and DMP respectively. An excellent stability of this laccase biosensor was observed for over 6 months. PMID:23706201

  5. Overcoming bottlenecks of enzymatic biofuel cell cathodes: crude fungal culture supernatant can help to extend lifetime and reduce cost.

    PubMed

    Sané, Sabine; Jolivalt, Claude; Mittler, Gerhard; Nielsen, Peter J; Rubenwolf, Stefanie; Zengerle, Roland; Kerzenmacher, Sven

    2013-07-01

    Enzymatic biofuel cells (BFCs) show great potential for the direct conversion of biochemically stored energy from renewable biomass resources into electricity. However, enzyme purification is time-consuming and expensive. Furthermore, the long-term use of enzymatic BFCs is hindered by enzyme degradation, which limits their lifetime to only a few weeks. We show, for the first time, that crude culture supernatant from enzyme-secreting microorganisms (Trametes versicolor) can be used without further treatment to supply the enzyme laccase to the cathode of a mediatorless BFC. Polarization curves show that there is no significant difference in the cathode performance when using crude supernatant that contains laccase compared to purified laccase in culture medium or buffer solution. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the oxygen reduction activity of this enzymatic cathode can be sustained over a period of at least 120 days by periodic resupply of crude culture supernatant. This is more than five times longer than control cathodes without the resupply of culture supernatant. During the operation period of 120 days, no progressive loss of potential is observed, which suggests that significantly longer lifetimes than shown in this work may be possible. Our results demonstrate the possibility to establish simple, cost efficient, and mediatorless enzymatic BFC cathodes that do not require expensive enzyme purification procedures. Furthermore, they show the feasibility of an enzymatic BFC with an extended lifetime, in which self-replicating microorganisms provide the electrode with catalytically active enzymes in a continuous or periodic manner. PMID:23801592

  6. Nanostructured enzymatic biosensor based on fullerene and gold nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and analytical applications.

    PubMed

    Lanzellotto, C; Favero, G; Antonelli, M L; Tortolini, C; Cannistraro, S; Coppari, E; Mazzei, F

    2014-05-15

    In this work a novel electrochemical biosensing platform based on the coupling of two different nanostructured materials (gold nanoparticles and fullerenols) displaying interesting electrochemical features, has been developed and characterized. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) exhibit attractive electrocatalytic behavior stimulating in the last years, several sensing applications; on the other hand, fullerene and its derivatives are a very promising family of electroactive compounds although they have not yet been fully employed in biosensing. The methodology proposed in this work was finalized to the setup of a laccase biosensor based on a multilayer material consisting in AuNPs, fullerenols and Trametes versicolor Laccase (TvL) assembled layer by layer onto a gold (Au) electrode surface. The influence of different modification step procedures on the electroanalytical performance of biosensors has been evaluated. Cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) were used to characterize the modification of surface and to investigate the bioelectrocatalytic biosensor response. This biosensor showed fast amperometric response to gallic acid, which is usually considered a standard for polyphenols analysis of wines, with a linear range 0.03-0.30 mmol L(-1) (r(2)=0.9998), with a LOD of 0.006 mmol L(-1) or expressed as polyphenol index 5.0-50 mg L(-1) and LOD 1.1 mg L(-1). A tentative application of the developed nanostructured enzyme-based biosensor was performed evaluating the detection of polyphenols either in buffer solution or in real wine samples. PMID:24441023

  7. Potential of fungal co-culturing for accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil.

    PubMed

    Yanto, Dede Heri Yuli; Tachibana, Sanro

    2014-08-15

    The potential of fungal co-culture of the filamentous Pestalotiopsis sp. NG007 with four different basidiomycetes--Trametes versicolor U97, Pleurotus ostreatus PL1, Cerena sp. F0607, and Polyporus sp. S133--for accelerating biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) was studied using three different physicochemical characteristic PHCs in soil. All the combinations showed a mutual intermingling mycelial interaction on the agar plates. However, only NG007/S133 (50/50) exhibited an optimum growth rate and enzymatic activities that supported the degradation of asphalt in soil. The co-culture also degraded all fractions at even higher concentrations of the different PHCs. In addition, asphaltene, which is a difficult fraction for a single microorganism to degrade, was markedly degraded by the co-culture, which indicated that the simultaneous biodegradation of aliphatic, aromatic, resin, and asphaltene fractions had occurred in the co-culture. An examination of in-vitro degradation by the crude enzymes and the retrieval fungal culture from the soil after the experiment confirmed the accelerated biodegradation due to enhanced enzyme activities in the co-culture. The addition of piperonyl butoxide or AgNO3 inhibited biodegradation by 81-99%, which demonstrated the important role of P450 monooxygenases and/or dioxygenases in the initial degradation of the aliphatic and aromatic fractions in PHCs. PMID:24997261

  8. Immobilized laccase on activated poly(vinyl alcohol) microspheres for enzyme thermistor application.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xue; Gu, Haixin; Chen, Wei; Shi, Hanchang; Yang, Bei; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Qi

    2014-07-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) microspheres were prepared by inverse suspension crosslinked method, with glutaraldehyde as a crosslinking agent. PVA microspheres activated with aldehyde groups were employed for Trametes versicolor laccase immobilization. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the activated PVA microspheres and PVA microspheres with immobilized laccase (Lac/PVA microspheres), which show that laccase was successfully immobilized on the PVA microspheres. The optimum pH and temperature coupling conditions for the immobilized laccase were determined to be 3.3 and 30 °C, respectively. Residual activity was also investigated by soaking the immobilized laccase in organic solvents at different concentrations, proving it chemically stable. Immobilized laccase exhibited good storage stability at 4 °C. The enzyme biosensor showed good performance in 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylthiazoline-6-sulfonate) and bisphenol A, with concentration ranges of 2 to 8 mM and 0.05 to 0.25 mM, respectively. Therefore, PVA microspheres may have high potential as support for enzyme thermistor applications. PMID:24760609

  9. Changes in chemical composition and digestibility of three maize stover components digested by white-rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Lynch, J P; O'Kiely, P; Murphy, R; Doyle, E M

    2014-08-01

    Maize stover (total stem and leaves) is not considered a ruminant feed of high nutritive value. Therefore, an improvement in its digestibility may increase the viability of total forage maize production systems in marginal growth regions. The objective of this study was to describe the changes in chemical composition during the storage of contrasting components of maize stover (leaf, upper stem and lower stem) treated with either of two lignin degrading white-rot fungi (WRF; Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes versicolor). Three components of maize stover (leaf, upper stem and lower stem), harvested at a conventional maturity for silage production, were digested with either of two WRF for one of four digestion durations (1-4 months). Samples taken prior to fungal inoculation were used to benchmark the changes that occurred. The degradation of acid detergent lignin was observed in all sample types digested with P. ostreatus; however, the loss of digestible substrate in all samples inoculated with P. ostreatus was high, and therefore, P. ostreatus-digested samples had a lower dry matter digestibility than samples prior to inoculation. Similarly, T. veriscolor-digested leaf underwent a non-selective degradation of the rumen-digestible components of fibre. The changes in chemical composition of leaf, upper stem and lower stem digested with either P. ostreatus or T. veriscolor were not beneficial to the feed value of the forage, and incurred high DM losses. PMID:24112093

  10. Hospital wastewater treatment by fungal bioreactor: removal efficiency for pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptor compounds.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Morató, Carles; Lucas, Daniel; Llorca, Marta; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Gorga, Marina; Petrovic, Mira; Barceló, Damià; Vicent, Teresa; Sarrà, Montserrat; Marco-Urrea, Ernest

    2014-09-15

    Hospital effluents contribute to the occurrence of emerging contaminants in the environment due to their high load of pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) and some endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs). Nowadays, hospital wastewaters are co-treated with urban wastewater; however, the dilution factor and the inefficiency of wastewater treatment plants in the removal of PhACs and EDCs make inappropriate the co-treatment of both effluents. In this paper, a new alternative to pre-treat hospital wastewater concerning the removal of PhACs and EDCs is presented. The treatment was carried out in a batch fluidized bed bioreactor under sterile and non-sterile conditions with Trametes versicolor pellets. Results on non-sterile experiments pointed out that 46 out of the 51 detected PhACs and EDCs were partially to completely removed. The total initial PhAC amount into the bioreactor was 8185 ?g in sterile treatment and 8426 ?g in non-sterile treatment, and the overall load elimination was 83.2% and 53.3% in their respective treatments. In addition, the Microtox test showed reduction of wastewater toxicity after the treatment. Hence, the good efficiency of the fungal treatment regarding removal of the wide diversity of PhACs and EDCs detected in hospital effluents is demonstrated. PMID:24951894

  11. Laccase biosensors based on different enzyme immobilization strategies for phenolic compounds determination.

    PubMed

    Casero, E; Petit-Domínguez, M D; Vázquez, L; Ramírez-Asperilla, I; Parra-Alfambra, A M; Pariente, F; Lorenzo, E

    2013-10-15

    Different enzyme immobilization approaches of Trametes versicolor laccase (TvL) onto gold surfaces and their influence on the performance of the final bioanalytical platforms are described. The laccase immobilization methods include: (i) direct adsorption onto gold electrodes (TvL/Au), (ii) covalent attachment to a gold surface modified with a bifunctional reagent, 3,3'-Dithiodipropionic acid di (N-succinimidyl ester) (DTSP), and (iii) integration of the enzyme into a sol-gel 3D polymeric network derived from (3-mercaptopropyl)-trimethoxysilane (MPTS) previously formed onto a gold surface (TvL/MPTS/Au). The characterization and applicability of these biosensors are described. Characterization is performed in aqueous acetate buffer solutions using atomic force microscopy (AFM), providing valuable information concerning morphological data at the nanoscale level. The response of the three biosensing platforms developed, TvL/Au, TvL/DTSP/Au and TvL/MPTS/Au, is evaluated in the presence of hydroquinone (HQ), used as a phenolic enzymatic substrate. All systems exhibit a clear electrocatalytic activity and HQ can be amperometrically determined at -0.10 V versus Ag/AgCl. However, the performance of biosensors - evaluated in terms of sensitivity, detection limit, linear response range, reproducibility and stability - depends clearly on the enzyme immobilization strategy, which allows establishing its influence on the enzyme catalytic activity. PMID:24054609

  12. Refolding of laccase in dilution additive mode with copper-based ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sang-Woo; Ahn, Kihun; Koo, Yoon-Mo; Ha, Sung Ho

    2013-11-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are molten salts which do not crystallize at room temperature. Tunable physicochemical properties of ILs including hydrophobicity and polarity facilitate their applications in many biological processes. In this study, a copper-based IL was employed in order to enhance the refolding efficiency of laccase from Trametes versicolor which requires copper as a cofactor. When 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trichlorocuprate ([EMIM][CuCl?]) was added to refolding buffer instead of urea, the laccase refolding yield was improved more than 2.7 times compared to the conventional refolding buffer which contains urea. When the refolding of laccase was carried out at different temperatures (4, 25, and 37 °C), the highest refolding yield was obtained at 25 °C. At low temperature, two conflicting effects, i.e., suppression of the aggregate formation and decrease of folding rate, influence the protein refolding. In contrast, a copper-based IL did not enhance the refolding of lysozyme, a non-copper-containing protein. From these results, we can conclude that this copper-based IL, [EMIM][CuCl?], was exclusively effective on the refolding process of a copper-containing protein. PMID:23975279

  13. White-Rot Basidiomycete-mediated Decomposition of C60 Fullerol

    PubMed Central

    Schreiner, Kathryn M.; Filley, Timothy R.; Blanchette, Robert A.; Bowen, Brenda Beitler; Bolskar, Robert D.; Hockaday, William C.; Masiello, Caroline A.; Raebiger, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Industrially produced carbon-based nanomaterials (CNM), including fullerenes and nanotubes, will be introduced into the environment in increasing amounts in the next decades. One likely environmental chemical transformation of C60 is oxidation to C60 fullerol through both abiotic- and biotic-mediated means. Unfortunately, knowledge of the environmental fate of oxidized CNM is lacking. This study used bulk and compound specific 13C stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry techniques and spectroradiometry analysis to examine the ability of two white rot basidiomycete fungi (Phlebia tremellosa and Trametes versicolor) to metabolize and degrade an oxygenated CNM, C60 fullerol. After 32 weeks of decay, both fungi were able to bleach and oxidize fullerol to CO2. Additionally, the fungi incorporated minor amounts of the fullerol carbon into lipid biomass. These findings are significant in that they represent the first report of direct biodegradation and utilization of any fullerene derivative and provide valuable information about the possible environmental fates of other CNM. PMID:19534129

  14. Fungal populations and mycotoxins in silage in Assiut and Sohag governorates in Egypt, with a special reference to characteristic Aspergilli toxins.

    PubMed

    El-Shanawany, A A; Mostafa, M Eman; Barakat, A

    2005-02-01

    Forty silage samples were collected from Assiut and Sohag governorates in Egypt to measure the presence of fungal population in silage. Forty-three species and 2 species varieties belonging to 17 genera were isolated using glucose Czapek's and Sabouraud's dextrose agar media at 28 degrees C. The most prevalent genera were Aspergillus (57.5 and 100 of the samples), Penicillium (100 and 55%) on the two mentioned media, respectively. Also, Fusarium oxysporum and Gibberella fujikurori were recovered in moderate incidences. Mycotoxin profiles were also determined in these samples: Aflatoxins showed the highest incidence rates of occurrence, it occurred in 22.5% of all samples analyzed. Other mycotoxins were detected from all samples (T2 toxins and sterigmatocystin at incidence of 7.5 and 5%, respectively). The screening of the characteristics mycotoxins of different isolates of Aspergillus isolated from silage samples was tested. The results clarified that some mycotoxins (aflatoxins-aspergillic acid-beta nitro propionic acid-cyclopiazonic acid-kojic acid and sterigmatocystin) were produced by some isolates of A. flavus. Some isolates of A.fumigatus could produce gliotoxin and verrucologen. All of A. niger isolates tested were able to produce kojic acid. One isolate of A. ochraceous formed ochratoxin A and other isolate produced penicillic acid. Concerning A. terreus isolates, the results showed that 5 isolates were able to produce citrinin and 4 isolates had ability to produce patulin. A. versicolor isolates showed the ability to produce ochratoxin A. PMID:15770455

  15. Survival of microorganisms under the extreme conditions of the Atacama Desert.

    PubMed

    Dose, K; Bieger-Dose, A; Ernst, B; Feister, U; Gómez-Silva, B; Klein, A; Risi, S; Stridde, C

    2001-06-01

    Spores of Bacillus subtilis, conidia of Aspergillus niger, versicolor and ochraceus and cells of Deinococcus radiodurans have been exposed in the dark at two locations (at about 23 degrees S and 24 degrees S) in the Atacama Desert for up to 15 months. B. subtilis spores (survival approximately 15%) and A. niger conidia (survival approximately 30%) outlived the other species. The survival of the conidia and spores species was only slightly poorer than that of the corresponding laboratory controls. However, the Deinococcus radiodurans cells did not survive the desert exposure, because they are readily inactivated at relative humidities between 40 and 80% which typically occur during desert nights. Cellular monolayers of the dry spores and conidia have in addition been exposed to the full sun light for up to several hours. The solar fluences causing 63% loss in viability (F37-values) have been determined. These F37-values are compared with those determined at other global locations such as Punta Arenas (53 degrees S), Key Largo (25 degrees N) or Mainz (50 degrees N) during the same season. The solar UVB radiation kills even the most resistant microorganisms within a few hours due to DNA damages. The data are also discussed with respect to possible similarities between the climatic conditions of the recent Atacama Desert and the deserts of early Mars. PMID:11434107

  16. Responses of amphibian populations to water and soil factors in experimentally-treated aquatic macrocosms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Lowe, T.P.; Day, D.; Dolan, K.

    1995-01-01

    Survival of anuran embryos and tadpoles is reduced in acidic (pH < 5.0) waters under laboratory conditions. However, field data on the presence-absence of amphibian species and acidity are equivocal. This study attempts to reconcile some of this discrepancy by using macrocosms to examine the interaction of soil type and water acidification on free-ranging tadpole populations. Tadpoles were caught with activity traps in 24 aquatic macrocosms experimentally treated with H2SO4 and Al2(SO4)3 and lined with either comparatively high metal, Iow organic matter clay soils or lower metal, higher organic matter loams. Northern cricket frog (Acris crepitans) tadpole abundance was less in acidified macrocosms than in circumneutral ones (p < 0.05) and less in those with loam soils than in macrocosms with clay soils (p < 0.04). Gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) abundance was affected by an interaction between soil and acidification (p < 0.07) in that treatment effects were only observed in macrocosms with clay soils (p < 0.01). No differences were observed among treatments for green frog (Rana clamitans) or southern leopard frog (R. utricularia) tadpoles. The study shows that soil type may interact with water conditions to affect amphibian populations in acidified waters

  17. A Single-Electron Reducing Quinone Oxidoreductase Is Necessary to Induce Haustorium Development in the Root Parasitic Plant Triphysaria[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Bandaranayake, Pradeepa C.G.; Filappova, Tatiana; Tomilov, Alexey; Tomilova, Natalya B.; Jamison-McClung, Denneal; Ngo, Quy; Inoue, Kentaro; Yoder, John I.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic plants in the Orobanchaceae develop haustoria in response to contact with host roots or chemical haustoria-inducing factors. Experiments in this manuscript test the hypothesis that quinolic-inducing factors activate haustorium development via a signal mechanism initiated by redox cycling between quinone and hydroquinone states. Two cDNAs were previously isolated from roots of the parasitic plant Triphysaria versicolor that encode distinct quinone oxidoreductases. QR1 encodes a single-electron reducing NADPH quinone oxidoreductase similar to ?-crystallin. The QR2 enzyme catalyzes two electron reductions typical of xenobiotic detoxification. QR1 and QR2 transcripts are upregulated in a primary response to chemical-inducing factors, but only QR1 was upregulated in response to host roots. RNA interference technology was used to reduce QR1 and QR2 transcripts in Triphysaria roots that were evaluated for their ability to form haustoria. There was a significant decrease in haustorium development in roots silenced for QR1 but not in roots silenced for QR2. The infrequent QR1 transgenic roots that did develop haustoria had levels of QR1 similar to those of nontransgenic roots. These experiments implicate QR1 as one of the earliest genes on the haustorium signal transduction pathway, encoding a quinone oxidoreductase necessary for the redox bioactivation of haustorial inducing factors. PMID:20424175

  18. Electrochemical Studies of a Truncated Laccase Produced in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Gelo-Pujic, Mirjana; Kim, Hyug-Han; Butlin, Nathan G.; Palmore, G. Tayhas R.

    1999-01-01

    The cDNA that encodes an isoform of laccase from Trametes versicolor (LCCI), as well as a truncated version (LCCIa), was subcloned and expressed by using the yeast Pichia pastoris as the heterologous host. The amino acid sequence of LCCIa is identical to that of LCCI except that the final 11 amino acids at the C terminus of LCCI are replaced with a single cysteine residue. This modification was introduced for the purpose of improving the kinetics of electron transfer between an electrode and the copper-containing active site of laccase. The two laccases (LCCI and LCCIa) are compared in terms of their relative activity with two substrates that have different redox potentials. Results from electrochemical studies on solutions containing LCCI and LCCIa indicate that the redox potential of the active site of LCCIa is shifted to more negative values (411 mV versus normal hydrogen electrode voltage) than that found in other fungal laccases. In addition, replacing the 11 codons at the C terminus of the laccase gene with a single cysteine codon (i.e., LCCI?LCCIa) influences the rate of heterogeneous electron transfer between an electrode and the copper-containing active site (khet for LCCIa = 1.3 × 10?4 cm s?1). These results demonstrate for the first time that the rate of electron transfer between an oxidoreductase and an electrode can be enhanced by changes to the primary structure of a protein via site-directed mutagenesis. PMID:10584012

  19. Purification and characterization of an extracellular laccase from the edible mushroom Lentinula edodes, and decolorization of chemically different dyes.

    PubMed

    Nagai, M; Sato, T; Watanabe, H; Saito, K; Kawata, M; Enei, H

    2002-11-01

    A laccase (EC 1.10.3.2) was isolated from the culture filtrate of Lentinula edodes. The enzyme was purified to a homogeneous preparation using hydrophobic, anion-exchange, and size-exclusion chromatographies. SDS-PAGE analysis showed the purified laccase, Lcc 1, to be a monomeric protein of 72.2 kDa. The enzyme had an isoelectric point of around pH 3.0. The optimum pH for enzyme activity was around 4.0, and it was most active at 40 degrees C and stable up to 35 degrees C. The enzyme contained 23.8% carbohydrate and some copper atoms. The enzyme oxidized 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, p-phenylendiamine, pyrogallol, guaiacol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, catechol, and ferulic acid, but not veratryl alcohol, tyrosine, and beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) alanine. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Lcc 1 showed close homology to the N-terminal sequences determined for laccases from Phlebia radiata, Trametes villosa, and Trametes versicolor, but only low similarity was observed to a previously reported laccase from L. edodes. Lcc 1 was effective in the decolorization of chemically different dyes - Remazole Brilliant Blue R, Bromophenol Blue, methyl red, and Naphtol Blue Black - without any mediators, but the decolorization of two dyes - red poly(vinylamine)sulfonate-anthrapyridone dye and Reactive Orange 16 - did require some redox mediators. PMID:12436315

  20. Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR.

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, T M; Boominathan, K; Reddy, C A

    1996-01-01

    Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. PMID:8837429

  1. Molecular docking and dynamics simulation analyses unraveling the differential enzymatic catalysis by plant and fungal laccases with respect to lignin biosynthesis and degradation.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Manika; Jaiswal, Nivedita; Singh, Swati; Pandey, Veda P; Dwivedi, Upendra N

    2015-09-01

    Laccase, widely distributed in bacteria, fungi, and plants, catalyzes the oxidation of wide range of compounds. With regards to one of the important physiological functions, plant laccases are considered to catalyze lignin biosynthesis while fungal laccases are considered for lignin degradation. The present study was undertaken to explain this dual function of laccases using in-silico molecular docking and dynamics simulation approaches. Modeling and superimposition analyses of one each representative of plant and fungal laccases, namely, Populus trichocarpa and Trametes versicolor, respectively, revealed low level of similarity in the folding of two laccases at 3D levels. Docking analyses revealed significantly higher binding efficiency for lignin model compounds, in proportion to their size, for fungal laccase as compared to that of plant laccase. Residues interacting with the model compounds at the respective enzyme active sites were found to be in conformity with their role in lignin biosynthesis and degradation. Molecular dynamics simulation analyses for the stability of docked complexes of plant and fungal laccases with lignin model compounds revealed that tetrameric lignin model compound remains attached to the active site of fungal laccase throughout the simulation period, while it protrudes outwards from the active site of plant laccase. Stability of these complexes was further analyzed on the basis of binding energy which revealed significantly higher stability of fungal laccase with tetrameric compound than that of plant. The overall data suggested a situation favorable for the degradation of lignin polymer by fungal laccase while its synthesis by plant laccase. PMID:25301391

  2. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Young, Darcy; Rice, James; Martin, Rachael; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2015-01-01

    Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 “Bunker C” fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes). Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ? log2(2-fold) greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels. PMID:26111162

  3. Selection of plants for optimization of vegetative filter strips treating runoff from turfgrass.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katy E; Putnam, Raymond A; Phaneuf, Clifford; Lanza, Guy R; Dhankher, Om P; Clark, John M

    2008-01-01

    Runoff from turf environments, such as golf courses, is of increasing concern due to the associated chemical contamination of lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and ground water. Pesticide runoff due to fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides used to maintain golf courses in acceptable playing condition is a particular concern. One possible approach to mitigate such contamination is through the implementation of effective vegetative filter strips (VFS) on golf courses and other recreational turf environments. The objective of the current study was to screen ten aesthetically acceptable plant species for their ability to remove four commonly-used and degradable pesticides: chlorpyrifos (CP), chlorothalonil (CT), pendimethalin (PE), and propiconazole (PR) from soil in a greenhouse setting, thus providing invaluable information as to the species composition that would be most efficacious for use in VFS surrounding turf environments. Our results revealed that blue flag iris (Iris versicolor) (76% CP, 94% CT, 48% PE, and 33% PR were lost from soil after 3 mo of plant growth), eastern gama grass (Tripsacum dactyloides) (47% CP, 95% CT, 17% PE, and 22% PR were lost from soil after 3 mo of plant growth), and big blue stem (Andropogon gerardii) (52% CP, 91% CT, 19% PE, and 30% PR were lost from soil after 3 mo of plant growth) were excellent candidates for the optimization of VFS as buffer zones abutting turf environments. Blue flag iris was most effective at removing selected pesticides from soil and had the highest aesthetic value of the plants tested. PMID:18689747

  4. Enhancing catalytic performance of laccase via immobilization on chitosan/CeO2 microspheres.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiahong; Fan, Ling; Miao, Runli; Le, Xueyi; Chen, Shi; Zhou, Xiaohua

    2015-07-01

    In this study, laccase from Trametes versicolor was immobilized onto chitosan/CeO2 microspheres (CCMS) by adsorption or covalent binding after activating the amine groups of chitosan with glutaraldehyde (GA). The results indicated that the laccase loading on chitosan/CeO2 microspheres was approximately 73mg/g under the optimum conditions (pH 5.4, 6h), and the activity recovery was 66.9%. In comparison with free laccase, the thermal and operational stabilities of the immobilized laccase were significantly improved. The catalytic activity of the immobilized laccase was also demonstrated by the decolorization of two reactive dyes (methyl red and orange II). The laccase immobilized on CCMS was very effective for the removal of textile dyes from an aqueous solution. The removal rates of methyl red and orange II by the immobilized laccase were 83.3% and 92.6%, respectively, which are much higher than that of free laccase (i.e., 49.0% and 67.1%, respectively). PMID:25841367

  5. Dermatologic conditions in teenage adolescents in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Henshaw, Eshan B; Olasode, Olayinka A; Ogedegbe, Evelyn E; Etuk, Imaobong

    2014-01-01

    Background Skin disorders are common in adolescents, and the impact on quality of life can be enormous, particularly when viewed against the backdrop of the visibility of skin diseases and the psychologically vulnerable period of adolescence. However, few studies have documented the magnitude of skin disorders in this subset of individuals. We therefore estimated the point prevalence and pattern of dermatologic conditions in adolescents attending various secondary schools in Calabar, Southern Nigeria. Methods Using a structured questionnaire, relevant sociodemographic information was obtained from 1,447 teenage adolescents from eight secondary schools. Thereafter, a whole body examination was conducted to determine the presence and types of skin disorders seen. Results Skin diseases were seen in 929 students. The point prevalence was higher in males (72.1%) than in females (58.3%). Private schools had a higher prevalence than public schools. The six most common dermatoses were acne vulgaris, pityriasis versicolor, nevi, tinea, miliaria, and keloid/hypertrophic scars, and accounted for over 80% of the dermatoses seen. Conclusion The point prevalence of dermatoses in senior secondary school adolescents was 64.2%. Although a large number of skin disorders were observed, only a handful accounted for a significant proportion of the diseases seen. This increases the ease of training community health workers in the recognition and treatment of common skin diseases. Age, race, and climatic factors are important determinants of skin diseases in adolescents in Nigeria. PMID:24966708

  6. Onchodermatitis--correlation between skin disease and parasitic load in an endemic focus in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Hay, R J; Mackenzie, C D; Guderian, R; Noble, W C; Proano, J R; Williams, J F

    1989-08-01

    Onchocerciasis is a chronic parasitic infection in which infiltration of the skin by microfilariae has been associated with a number of different pathological changes. This survey compared the prevalence of different forms of skin disease in two villages, one of which was located within the endemic zone for onchocerciasis (Zapallo Grande), in a lowland rain forest area of western Ecuador. The commonest skin diseases in both villages were scabies, pyoderma and pityriasis versicolor. In addition changes closely correlated with the presence of microfilariae in skin snips were found in Zapallo Grande--such as atrophic gluteal changes, and acute and chronic papular dermatitis. The only other skin disease associated with onchocerciasis was widespread tinea corporis due to T. rubrum. The Amerindians in the endemic onchocerciasis area were more likely than Negroes to have generalized atrophic changes of the skin, whereas in the latter group significant numbers of individuals had no obvious skin lesions but large numbers of microfilariae were detected in skin snips. Acute papular dermatitis was common in both groups and in biopsied lesions microfilariae could usually be identified within the epidermis or close to the dermo-epidermal junction. One patient had developed severe reactive onchodermatitis (Sowda). Swabs taken from onchocercal skin lesions showed no evidence of skin surface carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. Changes classically associated with onchocerciasis such as pretibial hypopigmentation (leopard skin) and hanging groin were notably absent in this population. PMID:2775644

  7. Widespread Polycistronic Transcripts in Fungi Revealed by Single-Molecule mRNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Salamov, Asaf; Zhang, Jiwei; Meng, Xiandong; Zhao, Zhiying; Kang, Dongwan; Underwood, Jason; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Figueroa, Melania; Schilling, Jonathan S.; Chen, Feng; Wang, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Genes in prokaryotic genomes are often arranged into clusters and co-transcribed into polycistronic RNAs. Isolated examples of polycistronic RNAs were also reported in some higher eukaryotes but their presence was generally considered rare. Here we developed a long-read sequencing strategy to identify polycistronic transcripts in several mushroom forming fungal species including Plicaturopsis crispa, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor, and Gloeophyllum trabeum. We found genome-wide prevalence of polycistronic transcription in these Agaricomycetes, involving up to 8% of the transcribed genes. Unlike polycistronic mRNAs in prokaryotes, these co-transcribed genes are also independently transcribed. We show that polycistronic transcription may interfere with expression of the downstream tandem gene. Further comparative genomic analysis indicates that polycistronic transcription is conserved among a wide range of mushroom forming fungi. In summary, our study revealed, for the first time, the genome prevalence of polycistronic transcription in a phylogenetic range of higher fungi. Furthermore, we systematically show that our long-read sequencing approach and combined bioinformatics pipeline is a generic powerful tool for precise characterization of complex transcriptomes that enables identification of mRNA isoforms not recovered via short-read assembly. PMID:26177194

  8. Quantitative PCR analysis of house dust can reveal abnormal mold conditions†

    PubMed Central

    Meklin, Teija; Haugland, Richard A.; Reponen, Tiina; Varma, Manju; Lummus, Zana; Bernstein, David; Wymer, Larry J.; Vesper, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    Indoor mold concentrations were measured in the dust of moldy homes (MH) and reference homes (RH) by quantitative PCR (QPCR) assays for 82 species or related groups of species (assay groups). About 70% of the species and groups were never or only rarely detected. The ratios (MH geometric mean : RH geometric mean) for 6 commonly detected species (Aspergillus ochraceus, A. penicillioides, A. unguis, A. versicolor, Eurotium group, and Cladosporium sphaerospermum) were > 1 (Group I). Logistic regression analysis of the sum of the logs of the concentrations of Group I species resulted in a 95% probability for separating MH from RH. These results suggest that it may be possible to evaluate whether a home has an abnormal mold condition by quantifying a limited number of mold species in a dust sample. Also, four common species of Aspergillus were quantified by standard culturing procedures and their concentrations compared to QPCR results. Culturing underestimated the concentrations of these four species by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude compared to QPCR. PMID:15237292

  9. Antimetastatic and immunomodulating effect of water extracts from various mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Han, Sung-Soo Ronald; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Lee, Yeon-Weol; Yoo, Hwa-Seung

    2009-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate inhibitory effects against lung metastasis and promotion of splenocytes by water extracts from various mushrooms including Armillaria mellea, Grifola frondosa, Garnoderma frondosa, Codyceps militaris, Hericium erinaceus, Coriolus versicolor, Agaricus Blazei with Lycium Chinense Miller (known as M8). Analysis of carbohydrate using HPTLC showed that beta-glucan and pachyman were some of the major components of M8. Oral administration of M8 resulted in a dose-dependent tendency to inhibit lung metastasis after intravenous injection of colon26-L5 cells. Treatment with M8 resulted in a significant increase of T cell and B cell mitogenic stimuli. The population of CD3, CD19, CD4, and CD8 positive cells increased in a dose dependent manner of M8 administration. However, no significant results were obtained from the population of Mac-1 and NK1.1 positive cells. Oral administration of M8 resulted in the increased production of IFN-gamma and IL-4 by splenocytes stimulated with Con A compared with untreated controls. These results show that M8 has antitumor activities which may be useful as an antimetastatic agent. PMID:20633495

  10. Degradation of Three Aromatic Dyes by White Rot Fungi and the Production of Ligninolytic Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Jayasinghe, Chandana; Imtiaj, Ahmed; Lee, Geon Woo; Im, Kyung Hoan; Hur, Hyun; Lee, Min Woong; Yang, Hee-Sun

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the degradation of aromatic dyes and the production of ligninolytic enzymes by 10 white rot fungi. The results of this study revealed that Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, Pleurotus pulmonarius, Ganoderma lucidum, Trametes suaveolens, Stereum ostrea and Fomes fomentarius have the ability to efficiently degrade congo red on solid media. However, malachite green inhibited the mycelial growth of these organisms. Therefore, they did not effectively decolorize malachite green on solid media. However, P. cinnabarinus and P. pulmonarius were able to effectively decolorize malachite green on solid media. T. suaveolens and F. rosea decolorized methylene blue more effectively than any of the other fungi evaluated in this study. In liquid culture, G. lucidum, P. cinnabarinus, Naematoloma fasciculare and Pycnoporus coccineus were found to have a greater ability to decolorize congo red. In addition, P. cinnabarinus, G. lucidum and T. suaveolens decolorized methylene blue in liquid media more effectively than any of the other organisms evaluated in this study. Only F. fomentarius was able to decolorize malachite green in liquid media, and its ability to do so was limited. To investigate the production of ligninolytic enzymes in media containing aromatic compounds, fungi were cultured in naphthalene supplemented liquid media. P. coccineus, Coriolus versicolor and P. cinnabarinus were found to produce a large amount of laccase when grown in medium that contained napthalene. PMID:23990745

  11. Role of Ethylene in the Senescence of Isolated Hibiscus Petals 1

    PubMed Central

    Woodson, William R.; Hanchey, Susan H.; Chisholm, Duane N.

    1985-01-01

    Senescence of petals isolated from flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (cv Pink Versicolor) was associated with increased ethylene production. Exposure to ethylene (10 microliters per liter) accelerated the onset of senescence, as indicated by petal in-rolling, and stimulated ethylene production. Senescence was also hastened by basal application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). Aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis, effectively inhibited ethylene production by petals and delayed petal in-rolling. In marked contrast to these results with mature petals, immature petals isolated from flowers the day before flower opening did not respond to ethylene in terms of an increase in ethylene production or petal in-rolling. Furthermore, treatment with silver thiosulfate the day before flower opening effectively prevented petal senescence, while silver thiosulfate treatment on the morning of flower opening was ineffective. Application of ACC to both immature and mature petals greatly stimulated ethylene production indicating the presence of an active ethylene-forming enzyme in both tissues. Immature petals contained less free ACC than mature, presenescent petals and appeared to possess a more active system for converting ACC into its conjugated form. Thus, while the nature of the lack of responsiveness of immature petals to ethylene is unknown, ethylene production in hibiscus petals appears to be regulated by the control over ACC availability. PMID:16664472

  12. Fat of the wild avian filarial nematode Chandlerella quiscali (Onchocercidae: Filarioidea) in the domestic chicken.

    PubMed

    Granath, W O

    1980-05-01

    Chandlerella quiscali is a filarial nematode parasitizing the brain of the common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula versicolor), blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata bromia), brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater ater), and starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Filarial infections of many wild bird species are common but natural infections of domestic fowl are rare. The habits of many wild birds commonly bring them in close association with domestic poultry. Because of the high prevalence of C. quiscali in grackles (98%) and the pathogenesis it might cause in an unnatural host, this parasite was used to test the receptiveness of the domestic chicken as a host. Microfilariae of C. quiscali were injected into chickens and adult worms were transplanted into the brain or body cavity of other chickens. One group of experimental chickens was immunosuppressed (IS) while another group was not immunosuppressed (NIS). Microfilariae circulated in the blood of IS and NIS chickens for at least 56 days. There was no significant difference in the number of microfilariae recovered from IS and NIS chickens. Adult worms were encapsulated in the brain of NIS chickens and in the body cavity of IS and NIS chickens. Worms survived for 36 hr in the brains of IS chickens. Past 36 hr the worms were shriveled and dead, apparently the result of a physiological and/or nutritional deficiency in the brain. PMID:7393850

  13. Quantitative PCR analysis of house dust can reveal abnormal mold conditions.

    PubMed

    Meklin, Teija; Haugland, Richard A; Reponen, Tiina; Varma, Manju; Lummus, Zana; Bernstein, David; Wymer, Larry J; Vesper, Stephen J

    2004-07-01

    Indoor mold concentrations were measured in the dust of moldy homes (MH) and reference homes (RH) by quantitative PCR (QPCR) assays for 82 species or related groups of species (assay groups). About 70% of the species and groups were never or only rarely detected. The ratios (MH geometric mean : RH geometric mean) for 6 commonly detected species (Aspergillus ochraceus, A. penicillioides, A. unguis, A. versicolor, Eurotium group, and Cladosporium sphaerospermum) were >1 (Group I). Logistic regression analysis of the sum of the logs of the concentrations of Group I species resulted in a 95% probability for separating MH from RH. These results suggest that it may be possible to evaluate whether a home has an abnormal mold condition by quantifying a limited number of mold species in a dust sample. Also, four common species of Aspergillus were quantified by standard culturing procedures and their concentrations compared to QPCR results. Culturing underestimated the concentrations of these four species by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude compared to QPCR. PMID:15237292

  14. Biomimetic synthesis and characterisation of protein capped silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sanghi, Rashmi; Verma, Preeti

    2009-01-01

    A controlled and up-scalable route for the biosynthesis of silver nanopartilces (NPs) mediated by fungal proteins of Coriolus versicolor has been undertaken for the first time. The fungus when challenged with silver nitrate solution accumulated silver NPs on its surface in 72h which could be reduced to 1h by tailoring the reaction conditions. Under alkaline conditions, the reaction was much faster and could easily proceed at room temperature even without stirring. The resulting Ag NPs displayed controllable structural and optical properties depending on the experimental parameters such as pH and reaction temperatures. The average size, morphology, and structure of particles were determined by AFM, TEM, XRD and UV/Visible absorption spectrophotometry. Fourier transform infrared study disclosed that the amino groups were bound to the particles, which was accountable for the stability of NPs. It further confirmed the presence of protein as the stabilizing and capping agent surrounding the silver NPs. Experiments were conducted both with, media in which fungus was initially harvested and that of pristine fungal mycelium alone. Under normal conditions, in the case of media extracellular synthesis took place whereby other than the fungal proteins, glucose was also responsible for the reduction. In the case of fungal mycelium, the intracellular formation of Ag NPs, could be tailored to give both intracellular and extracellular Ag NPs under alkaline conditions whereby the surface S-H groups of the fungus played a major role. PMID:18625550

  15. Inhibitory effects of medicinal mushrooms on ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase - enzymes related to hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Su, Chun-Han; Lai, Min-Nan; Ng, Lean-Teik

    2013-04-25

    In Asia, medicinal mushrooms have been popularly used as folk medicine and functional foods. In this study, our aim was to examine the inhibitory effects of six medicinal mushrooms on key enzymes (?-amylase and ?-glucosidase) related to hyperglycemia; chemical profiles of bioactive extracts were also examined. The results showed that the n-hexane extract of Coriolus versicolor had the strongest anti-?-amylase activity, while the n-hexane extract of Grifola frondosa showed the most potent anti-?-glucosidase activity. Compared with acarbose, the anti-?-amylase activity of all mushroom extracts was weaker, however a stronger anti-?-glucosidase activity was noted. GC-MS analysis showed that the magnitude of potency of inhibiting ?-glucosidase activity varied with the levels of oleic acid and linoleic acid present in the extracts. These findings were consistent with the IC50 values of these free fatty acids on inhibiting ?-glucosidase activity. Taken together, this study suggests that oleic acid and linoleic acid could have contributed to the potent anti-?-glucosidase activity of selected medicinal mushrooms. PMID:23396484

  16. [Effect of PSK on recurrence of stage II/III gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroaki; Muguruma, Kazuya; Kubo, Naoshi; Amano, Ryosuke; Noda, Eiji; Yamada, Nobuya; Yashiro, Masakazu; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Sawada, Tetsuji; Ohira, Masaichi; Ishikawa, Tetsuro; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2010-11-01

    Protein-bound polysaccharide K (PSK) is derived from the CM-101 strain of the fungus Coriolus versicolor. Several clinical studies have demonstrated that PSK has antitumor properties. In Japan, PSK has been used as an adjuvant chemotherapeutic drug against gastric cancer. However, there is little evidence about the effectiveness of PSK in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of PSK on postoperative recurrence in patients with gastric cancer. The patients with Stage II/III gastric cancer who underwent a surgical curative resection between 1999 and 2008 at the Department of Surgical Oncology, Osaka City University were included in this retrospective study. All patients received oral fluorinated pyrimidine anti-metabolites with or without PSK after surgical operation. We analyzed clinicopathological features and evaluated the impact of PSK on postoperative recurrence. One hundred thirty eight patients received oral anti-metabolized alone (control group) and 116 patients received PSK (PSK group). No significant difference between control and PSK group in relapse free survival was detected. In PSK group, venous invasion was an independent factor for postoperative recurrence (p=0. 004, HR 1. 538, 95% CI 1. 152 to 2.054). Our results suggested that a population with venous infiltration of primary lesion should be at risk of recurrence after surgery even if PSK was administered as postoperative adjuvant therapy. PMID:21224540

  17. Bioactivity of Trifoliate Orange (Poncirus trifoliate) Seed Extracts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Yeong; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2012-06-01

    Trifoliate orange seed extracts (TSEs) were made using either distilled water (TW), ethanol (TE), or n-hexane (TH), to measure total polyphenol contents, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and anti-complementary activity. The results showed that the total polyphenol content showed higher value at TE (235.24 ?g/mL, p<0.05) than those of TW (132.65 ?g/mL) and TH (165.44 ?g/mL) at 10 mg/mL and TE exerted the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (61.77%, p<0.05), which occurred in the following order: TE>TW (56.87%)>TH (39.78%). The results of ABTS radical scavenging activity showed that TW (34.26%) and TE (31.81%) showed similar activities, which were higher than TH (12.74%, p<0.05). Anti-complementary activity of TE (61% at 500 ?g/mL) showed a higher activity when compared with the positive control (60% at 1,000 ?g/mL) polysaccharide-K (PSK), a known immuno-active polysaccharide from Coriolus versicolor. Consequently, among TSEs, TE is a byproduct from trifoliate orange and could be an important source of dietary polyphenolic antioxidant compounds and immunopotentiating activity, including complement activation. PMID:24471075

  18. Chaetochromones A and B, two new polyketides from the fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68).

    PubMed

    Lu, Keyang; Zhang, Yisheng; Li, Li; Wang, Xuewei; Ding, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Chaetochromones A (1) and B (2), two novel polyketides, were isolated from the crude extract of fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68) together with three known analogues PI-3(3), PI-4 (4) and SB236050 (5). The structures of these compounds were determined by HRESI-MS and NMR experiments. Chaetochromones A (1) and B (2) are a member of the polyketides family, which might originate from a similar biogenetic pathway as the known compounds PI-3 (3), PI-4 (4) and SB236050 (5). The biological activities of these secondary metabolites were evaluated against eight plant pathogens, including Alternaria alternata, Ilyonectria radicicola, Trichoderma viride pers, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium verticillioide, Irpex lacteus (Fr.), Poria placenta (Fr.) Cooke and Coriolus versicolor (L.) Quél. Compound 1 displayed moderate inhibitory rate (>60%) against the brown rot fungus Poria placenta (Fr.) Cooke, which causes significant wood decay. In addition, the cytotoxic activities against three cancer cell lines A549, MDA-MB-231, PANC-1 were also tested, without any inhibitory activities being detected. PMID:24013408

  19. Single agent polysaccharopeptide delays metastases and improves survival in naturally occurring hemangiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Brown, Dorothy Cimino; Reetz, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The 2008 World Health Organization World Cancer Report describes global cancer incidence soaring with many patients living in countries that lack resources for cancer control. Alternative treatment strategies that can reduce the global disease burden at manageable costs must be developed. Polysaccharopeptide (PSP) is the bioactive agent from the mushroom Coriolus versicolor. Studies indicate PSP has in vitro antitumor activities and inhibits the growth of induced tumors in animal models. Clear evidence of clinically relevant benefits of PSP in cancer patients, however, is lacking. The investment of resources required to complete large-scale, randomized controlled trials of PSP in cancer patients is more easily justified if antitumor and survival benefits are documented in a complex animal model of a naturally occurring cancer that parallels human disease. Because of its high metastatic rate and vascular origin, canine hemangiosarcoma is used for investigations in antimetastatic and antiangiogenic therapies. In this double-blind randomized multidose pilot study, high-dose PSP significantly delayed the progression of metastases and afforded the longest survival times reported in canine hemangiosarcoma. These data suggest that, for those cancer patients for whom advanced treatments are not accessible, PSP as a single agent might offer significant improvements in morbidity and mortality. PMID:22988473

  20. Protein-bound polysaccharide-K induces apoptosis via mitochondria and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathways in HL-60 promyelomonocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Hirahara, Noriyuki; Edamatsu, Takeo; Fujieda, Ayako; Fujioka, Masaki; Wada, Tsutomu; Tajima, Yoshitsugu

    2013-07-01

    Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) is extracted from Coriolus versicolor (CM101). PSK is a biological response modifier (BRM), and its mechanism of action is partly mediated by modulating host immune systems; however, recent studies showed antiproliferative activity of PSK. Therefore, we examined the mechanism underlying the antiproliferative activity of PSK using seven different human malignant cell lines (WiDr, HT29, SW480, KATOIII, AGS, HL-60 and U937), and PSK was found to inhibit the proliferation of HL-60 cells most profoundly. Therefore, HL-60 cells were used to elucidate the mechanism of the antiproliferative activity. Western blotting was performed to detect phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). A p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, was used to examine the roles in PSK-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition. Flow cytometry was performed for mitochondrial membrane potential detection. PSK activated caspase-3 and induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Co-treatment with SB203580 blocked PSK-induced apoptosis, caspase-3 activation and growth inhibition. PSK induced apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. The depolarization of mitochondria induced by PSK was reversed by co-treatment with SB203580. The present study revealed that PSK induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells via a mitochondrial and p38 MAPK-dependent pathway. PMID:23604455

  1. Coarsening of extracellularly biosynthesized cadmium crystal particles induced by thioacetamide in solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gui-Qiu; Zou, Zheng-Jun; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Yan, Ming; Fan, Jia-Qi; Chen, An-Wei; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Wang, Liang

    2011-05-01

    A novel coarsening route for extracellularly biosynthesized cadmium nanocrystals was investigated for the first time. In this process, the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor was employed to take up cadmium ions and synthesize extracellular cadmium crystal particles. The coarsening of the particles was induced by thioacetamide under certain conditions. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the formed cadmium crystal particles were coarsened from about 100nm to 2-3?m. The corresponding energy-dispersive X-ray spectra confirmed the presence of proteins in the particles. The maximum removal efficiency of Cd(II) increased from 17% to 87%, and the corresponding sorption capacity of biomass increased from 4 to 24mgg(-1) with the completion of the coarsening process. The properties of the coarsened particles were also examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD analysis of fungal mycelial pellets embedded with the coarsened particles confirmed the formation of cubic crystalline cadmium sulfide particles. The TEM results suggest that the coarsened particles were composed of clusters of several smaller particles. The changes in the functional groups on the biomass surface were studied through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Based on the results above, a possible mechanism for the formation and coarsening of cadmium crystal particle is also discussed. PMID:21489598

  2. Chemical composition and natural durability of juvenile and mature heartwood of Robinia pseudoacacia L.

    PubMed

    Latorraca, João V F; Dünisch, Oliver; Koch, Gerald

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the properties of juvenile and mature heartwood of Robinia pseudoacacia L. (black locust). The content, the composition, and subcellular localization of heartwood extractives were studied in 14 old-grown trees from forest sites in Germany and Hungary, as well as in 16 younger trees of four clone types. Heartwood extractives (methanol and acetone extraction) were analysed by HPLC-chromatography. UV microspectrophotometry was used to localize the extractives in the wood cell walls. The natural durability of juvenile and mature heartwood was analysed according to the European standard EN 350-1. Growth analyses, as well as the chemical analyses, showed that in Robinia the formation of juvenile wood is restricted to the first 10-15 years of cambial growth. In the heartwood high contents of phenolic compounds and flavonoids were present, which were in high concentrations in the cell walls of the axial parenchyma and of the vessels. In the juvenile heartwood, the content of these extractives is significantly lower than in the mature heartwood. In agree, the juvenile heartwood had a lower resistance to decay by Coniophora puteana (brown rot fungus) and Coriolus versicolor (white rot fungus) compared to the mature. PMID:21779654

  3. Degradation of three aromatic dyes by white rot fungi and the production of ligninolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Chandana; Imtiaj, Ahmed; Lee, Geon Woo; Im, Kyung Hoan; Hur, Hyun; Lee, Min Woong; Yang, Hee-Sun; Lee, Tae-Soo

    2008-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the degradation of aromatic dyes and the production of ligninolytic enzymes by 10 white rot fungi. The results of this study revealed that Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, Pleurotus pulmonarius, Ganoderma lucidum, Trametes suaveolens, Stereum ostrea and Fomes fomentarius have the ability to efficiently degrade congo red on solid media. However, malachite green inhibited the mycelial growth of these organisms. Therefore, they did not effectively decolorize malachite green on solid media. However, P. cinnabarinus and P. pulmonarius were able to effectively decolorize malachite green on solid media. T. suaveolens and F. rosea decolorized methylene blue more effectively than any of the other fungi evaluated in this study. In liquid culture, G. lucidum, P. cinnabarinus, Naematoloma fasciculare and Pycnoporus coccineus were found to have a greater ability to decolorize congo red. In addition, P. cinnabarinus, G. lucidum and T. suaveolens decolorized methylene blue in liquid media more effectively than any of the other organisms evaluated in this study. Only F. fomentarius was able to decolorize malachite green in liquid media, and its ability to do so was limited. To investigate the production of ligninolytic enzymes in media containing aromatic compounds, fungi were cultured in naphthalene supplemented liquid media. P. coccineus, Coriolus versicolor and P. cinnabarinus were found to produce a large amount of laccase when grown in medium that contained napthalene. PMID:23990745

  4. Ternatin, a cyclic peptide isolated from mushroom, and its derivative suppress hyperglycemia and hepatic fatty acid synthesis in spontaneously diabetic KK-A(y) mice.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Misato; Kawashima, Haruna; Takemori, Kumiko; Ito, Hiroyuki; Murai, Atsushi; Masuda, Shun; Yamada, Kaoru; Uemura, Daisuke; Horio, Fumihiko

    2012-10-19

    (-)-Ternatin is a highly methylated cyclic heptapeptide isolated from mushroom Coriolus versicolor. Ternatin has an inhibitory effect on fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. [D-Leu(7)]ternatin, a ternatin derivative, also inhibited fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells, although the effectiveness of [D-Leu(7)]ternatin was lower than that of ternatin. In this study, we investigated the effects of ternatin and [D-Leu(7)]ternatin on obesity and type 2 diabetes in KK-A(y) mice, an animal model for spontaneously developed type 2 diabetes. We continuously administered ternatin (8.5 or 17 nmol/day) or [D-Leu(7)]ternatin (68 nmol/day) to mice via a subcutaneous osmotic pump. Unexpectedly, neither ternatin nor [D-Leu(7)]ternatin affected body weight or adipose tissue weight in KK-A(y) mice. In contrast, it was demonstrated that both ternatin and [D-Leu(7)]ternatin suppress the development of hyperglycemia. In liver, the SREBP-1c mRNA level tended to be lower or significantly decreased in mice treated with ternatin or [D-Leu(7)]ternatin, respectively. Moreover, we found that ternatin directly lowered the SREBP-1c mRNA level in Hepa1-6 hepatocyte cells. This study showed that ternatin and [D-Leu(7)]ternatin each had a preventive effect on hyperglycemia and a suppressive effect on fatty acid synthesis in KK-A(y) mice. PMID:23000156

  5. Polysaccharopeptide mimics ciclosporin-mediated Th1/Th2 cytokine balance for suppression of activated human T cell proliferation by MAPKp38 and STAT5 pathways.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheuk-Lun; Sit, Wai-Hung; Jiang, Ping-Ping; So, Ivy Wing-Yan; Wan, Jennifer Man-Fan

    2008-11-01

    The activation of T helper (Th) cell subsets plays an important role in the human immune system. Uncontrolled Th1 and Th2 responses lead to autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, respectively. The identification of agents that modulate the Th1/Th2 cytokines is therefore essential for controlling these diseases. We recently reported that polysaccharopeptide (PSP) from Coriolus versicolor exhibited ciclosporin-like activities to control aberrant T lymphocyte activation. Here, we compared the properties of PSP with ciclosporin on cell proliferation, CD25+ expression, secretion of Th1/Th2 cytokines and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)p38 and signal transducers and activators of transcription 5 (STAT5) on T cells. The data show that PSP alone suppresses the proliferation of activated T cells. PSP exhibited similar and additive inhibitory effects to ciclosporin to suppress activated T cell proliferation, Th1 cytokines and reduce CD3+/CD25+ cell expression, but not Th2 cytokine expression, which helps the cytokine balance shift towards Th2 dominance. These suppressive actions of PSP involved the MAPKp38 and STAT5 pathways. These findings refine our understanding of the effects of PSP on T lymphocytes and its adjuvant properties with the immunosuppressant ciclosporin for possible control of autoimmune diseases. PMID:18957170

  6. [Impact of exogenous paraquat on enzyme exudation and biochemical changes of lignin degradation fungi].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunchen; Li, Jianlong; Chen, Yuru; Huang, Haixia; Yu, Zui

    2009-08-01

    To study the effect of exogenous oxygen, we added water solution of paraquat to 7 d cultures of Coriolus versicolor for the next 148 h. Enzyme exudation and biochemical process were investigated on the addition of paraquat. We found that compared with the control (without paraquat), the addition of 30 micromol/L paraquat stimulated the activity of manganese dependent peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP), and laccases (Lac) 7, 2.5 and 1.3 times, respectively. Also, addition of paraquat enhanced activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the first 48 h. Impact of paraquat on ligninolytic enzymes was significant than that on antioxidant enzyme. Addition of paraquat enhanced phenolic compounds and formaldehyde of cultures too. And concentration of malondialdehyde was increased in the first 24 h. The results showed that addition of paraquat promoted oxidative stress, but the antioxidant systems of the fungal strain are sufficient to prevent mycelia from oxidative stress. As exogenous oxygen, paraquat might be a useful substrate in degradation of lignocellulose. PMID:19938450

  7. Novel medicinal mushroom blend suppresses growth and invasiveness of human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiahua; Sliva, Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Mushrooms are an integral part of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and have been used for millennia to prevent or treat a variety of diseases. Currently mushrooms or their extracts are used globally in the form of dietary supplements. In the present study we have evaluated the anticancer effects of the dietary supplement, MycoPhyto® Complex (MC), a novel medicinal mushroom blend which consists of a blend of mushroom mycelia from the species Agaricus blazei, Cordyceps sinensis, Coriolus versicolor, Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Polyporus umbellatus, and ?-1,3-glucan isolated from the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we show that MC demonstrates cytostatic effects through the inhibition of cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase of highly invasive human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231. DNA-microarray analysis revealed that MC inhibits expression of cell cycle regulatory genes (ANAPC2, ANAPC2, BIRC5, Cyclin B1, Cyclin H, CDC20, CDK2, CKS1B, Cullin 1, E2F1, KPNA2, PKMYT1 and TFDP1). Moreover, MC also suppresses the metastatic behavior of MDA-MB-231 by the inhibition of cell adhesion, cell migration and cell invasion. The potency of MC to inhibit invasiveness of breast cancer cells is linked to the suppression of secretion of the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) from MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, the MC dietary supplement could have potential therapeutic value in the treatment of invasive human breast cancer. PMID:21042722

  8. Chemopreventive effect of PSP through targeting of prostate cancer stem cell-like population.

    PubMed

    Luk, Sze-Ue; Lee, Terence Kin-Wah; Liu, Ji; Lee, Davy Tak-Wing; Chiu, Yung-Tuen; Ma, Stephanie; Ng, Irene Oi-Lin; Wong, Yong-Chuan; Chan, Franky Leung; Ling, Ming-Tat

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence suggested that prostate cancer stem/progenitor cells (CSC) are responsible for cancer initiation as well as disease progression. Unfortunately, conventional therapies are only effective in targeting the more differentiated cancer cells and spare the CSCs. Here, we report that PSP, an active component extracted from the mushroom Turkey tail (also known as Coriolus versicolor), is effective in targeting prostate CSCs. We found that treatment of the prostate cancer cell line PC-3 with PSP led to the down-regulation of CSC markers (CD133 and CD44) in a time and dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, PSP treatment not only suppressed the ability of PC-3 cells to form prostaspheres under non-adherent culture conditions, but also inhibited their tumorigenicity in vivo, further proving that PSP can suppress prostate CSC properties. To investigate if the anti-CSC effect of PSP may lead to prostate cancer chemoprevention, transgenic mice (TgMAP) that spontaneously develop prostate tumors were orally fed with PSP for 20 weeks. Whereas 100% of the mice that fed with water only developed prostate tumors at the end of experiment, no tumors could be found in any of the mice fed with PSP, suggesting that PSP treatment can completely inhibit prostate tumor formation. Our results not only demonstrated the intriguing anti-CSC effect of PSP, but also revealed, for the first time, the surprising chemopreventive property of oral PSP consumption against prostate cancer. PMID:21603625

  9. Investigation of growth responses in saprophytic fungi to charred biomass.

    PubMed

    Ascough, Philippa L; Sturrock, Craig J; Bird, Michael I

    2010-03-01

    We present the results of a study testing the response of two saprophytic white-rot fungi species, Pleurotus pulmonarius and Coriolus versicolor, to charred biomass (charcoal) as a growth substrate. We used a combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, elemental abundance measurements, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry ((13)C and (15)N) to investigate fungal colonisation of control and incubated samples of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood, and charcoal from the same species produced at 300 degrees C and 400 degrees C. Both species of fungi colonise the surface and interior of wood and charcoals over time periods of less than 70 days; however, distinctly different growth forms are evident between the exterior and interior of the charcoal substrate, with hyphal penetration concentrated along lines of structural weakness. Although the fungi were able to degrade and metabolise the pine wood, charcoal does not form a readily available source of fungal nutrients at least for these species under the conditions used in this study. PMID:20229385

  10. PSP activates monocytes in resting human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: immunomodulatory implications for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Sekhon, Bhagwant Kaur; Sze, Daniel Man-Yuen; Chan, Wing Keung; Fan, Kei; Li, George Qian; Moore, Douglas Edwin; Roubin, Rebecca Heidi

    2013-06-15

    Polysaccharopeptide (PSP), from Coriolus versicolor, has been used as an adjuvant to chemotherapy, and has demonstrated anti-tumor and immunomodulating effects. However its mechanism remains unknown. To elucidate how PSP affects immune populations, we compared PSP treatments both with and without prior incubation in phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) - a process commonly used in immune population experimentation. We first standardised a capillary electrophoresis fingerprinting technique for PSP identification and characterisation. We then established the proliferative capability of PSP on various immune populations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, using flow cytometry, without prior PHA treatment. It was found that PSP significantly increased the number of monocytes (CD14(+)/CD16(-)) compared to controls without PHA. This increase in monocytes was confirmed using another antibody panel of CD14 and MHCII. In contrast, proliferations of T-cells, NK, and B-cells were not significantly changed by PSP. Thus, stimulating monocyte/macrophage function with PSP could be an effective therapeutic intervention in targeting tumors. PMID:23497877

  11. Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) directly enhanced IgM production in the human B cell line BALL-1.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Shinjiro; Akasaka, Taiki; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2009-07-01

    Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) prepared from the basidiomycete Coriolus versicolor has been used as a biological response modifier for the treatment of cancer patients. Many studies describing the immunomodulatory effects and direct anti-cancer effects of PSK have been reported. Most of studies describing the immunomodulatory effects focused on cellular immunity, although there were several studies which focused on humoral immunity where PSK was shown to be able to induce antibody production in vivo. However, even in these humoral immunity studies, it is thought that the enhancement of antibody production was due to the activation of cellular immunity. In this study, we investigated the direct effect of PSK on B cells and discovered that PSK was able to enhance IgM production in the human B cell line BALL-1. Furthermore, BALL-1 was shown to have the characteristic features of B-1a cells, which are independently involved in the primary immune response. These results show that there is a possibility that PSK directly acts on B cells and simultaneously enhances both humoral immunity and cellular immunity. PMID:18848763

  12. Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation of promyelomonocytic leukemia HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Hirahara, Noriyuki; Fujioka, Masaki; Edamatsu, Takeo; Fujieda, Ayako; Sekine, Fujio; Wada, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Tsuneo

    2011-09-01

    Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) is extracted from Coriolus versicolor (CM101), and is clinically used in combination therapy for gastrointestinal cancer and small cell lung carcinoma. PSK is a biological response modifier (BRM), and its mechanism of action is partly mediated, by modulating host immune systems, such as the activation of immune effector cells and the neutralization of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF?) activity. Direct inhibition of tumor cell proliferation has been reported as another mechanism, but how PSK induces such an effect remains to be elucidated. Here, the anti-proliferative activity of PSK was examined using seven different human malignant cell lines (WiDr, HT29, SW480, KATOIII, AGS, HL60 and U937), and PSK was found to inhibit the proliferation of HL-60 cells most profoundly. Therefore, HL-60 cells were used to clarify the mechanism of anti-proliferative activity. Caspase-3 activation followed by apoptosis are involved at least in part in the PSK-induced anti-proliferative activity against HL-60 cells. PMID:21868514

  13. Polysaccharide peptide induces a tumor necrosis factor-?-dependent drop of body temperature in rats.

    PubMed

    Jedrzejewski, Tomasz; Piotrowski, Jakub; Wrotek, Sylwia; Kozak, Wieslaw

    2014-08-01

    Polysaccharide peptide (PSP) extracted from the Coriolus versicolor mushroom is frequently suggested as an adjunct to the chemo- or radiotherapy in cancer patients. It improves quality of the patients' life by decreasing pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting. However, the effect of PSP on body temperature has not thus far been studied, although it is well known that treatment with other polysaccharide adjuvants, such as lipopolysaccharides, may induce fever. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to investigate the influence of PSP on temperature regulation in rats. We report that intraperitoneal injection of PSP provoked a dose-dependent decrease of temperature in male Wistar rats equipped with biotelemetry devices to monitor deep body temperature (Tb). The response was rapid (i.e., with latency of 15-20min), transient (lasting up to 5h post-injection), and accompanied by a significant elevation of the blood tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) level. Pretreatment of the rats with anti-TNF-? antibody prevented the PSP-induced drop in Tb. Based on these data, we conclude that rats may develop an anapyrexia-like response to the injection of peptidopolysaccharide rather than fever, and the response was TNF-?-dependent. PMID:25086966

  14. Revision of Aspergillus section Flavipedes: seven new species and proposal of section Jani sect. nov.

    PubMed

    Hubka, Vit; Nováková, Alena; Kola?ík, Miroslav; Jurjevi?, Željko; Peterson, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus section Flavipedes contains species found worldwide in soils and rhizospheres, indoor and cave environments, as endophytes, food contaminants and occasionally as human pathogens. They produce many extensively studied bioactive secondary metabolites and biotechnologically relevant enzymes. The taxa were revised based on phylogenetic analysis of sequences from four loci (?-tubulin, calmodulin, RPB2, ITS rDNA), two PCR fingerprinting methods, micro- and macromorphology and physiology. Section Flavipedes includes three known and seven new species: A. ardalensis, A. frequens, A. luppii, A. mangaliensis, A. movilensis, A. polyporicola and A. spelaeus. The name A. neoflavipes was proposed for Fennellia flavipes a distinct species from its supposed asexual state A. flavipes. Aspergillus iizukae, A. frequens and A. mangaliensis are the most common and widely distributed species, whereas A. flavipes s. str. is rare. A dichotomous key based on the combination of morphology and physiology is provided for all recognized species. Aspergillus section Jani is established to contain A. janus and A. brevijanus, species previously classified as members of sect. Versicolores, Terrei or Flavipedes. This new section is strongly supported by phylogenetic data and morphology. Section Jani species produce three types of conidiophores and conidia, and colonies have green and white sectors making them distinctive. Accessory conidia found in pathogenic A. terreus were found in all members of sects. Flavipedes and Jani. Our data indicated that A. frequens is a clinically relevant and produces accessory conidia during infection. PMID:25344259

  15. Polysaccharide production by submerged and solid-state cultures from several medicinal higher Basidiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Sandra; Sanchez, Oscar Julian; Levin, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Polysaccharides produced by microorganisms represent an industrially unexploited market. An important number of polysaccharides have been isolated from fungi, especially mushrooms, with many interesting biological functions, such as antitumor, hypoglycemic, and immunostimulating activities. In the search of new sources of fungal polysaccharides, the main goal of this research was to test the ability of several species of basidiomycetes, among them various edible mushrooms, to produce both extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) and intracellular polysaccharides (IPSs). Among 10 species screened for production of EPSs in submerged cultures with glucose, soy oil, and yeast extract, the best results were obtained with Ganoderma lucidum (0.79 g/L EPS) and Pleurotus ostreatus (0.75 g/L EPS). Agitation strongly improved EPS production in most of the studied strains. Eight of 10 species assayed successfully developed basidiomes during synthetic "bag-log" cultivation on a substrate consisting of oak sawdust and corn bran. This work describes for the first time the environmental factors required for fruiting of 4 species under such conditions: Schizophyllum commune, Ganoderma applanatum, Trametes versicolor, and T. trogii. IPSs were extracted from the carpophores. The IPS content of the carpophores varied from 1.4% (G. applanatum) up to 5.5% and 6% in G. lucidum and Grifola frondosa, respectively. PMID:23510286

  16. Use of Cl and C isotopic fractionation to identify degradation and sources of polychlorinated phenols: mechanistic study and field application.

    PubMed

    Aeppli, Christoph; Tysklind, Mats; Holmstrand, Henry; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2013-01-15

    The widespread use of chlorinated phenols (CPs) as a wood preservative has led to numerous contaminated sawmill sites. However, it remains challenging to assess the extent of in situ degradation of CPs. We evaluated the use of compound-specific chlorine and carbon isotope analysis (Cl- and C-CSIA) to assess CP biotransformation. In a laboratory system, we measured isotopic fractionation during oxidative 2,4,6-trichlorophenol dechlorination by representative soil enzymes (C. fumago chloroperoxidase, horseradish peroxidase, and laccase from T. versicolor). Using a mathematical model, the validity of the Rayleigh approach to evaluate apparent kinetic isotope effects (AKIE) was confirmed. A small but significant Cl-AKIE of 1.0022 ± 0.0006 was observed for all three enzymes, consistent with a reaction pathway via a cationic radical species. For carbon, a slight inverse isotope effect was observed (C-AKIE = 0.9945 ± 0.0019). This fractionation behavior is clearly distinguishable from reported reductive dechlorination mechanisms. Based on these results we then assessed degradation and apportioned different types of technical CP mixtures used at two former sawmill sites. To our knowledge, this is the first study that makes use of two-element CSIA to study sources and transformation of CPs in the environment. PMID:23210465

  17. Birds of a high-altitude cloud forest in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Eisermann, Knut; Schulz, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    The Northern Central American Highlands have been recognized as endemic bird area, but little is known about bird communities in Guatemalan cloud forests. From 1997 to 2001 a total of 142 bird species were recorded between 2000 and 2400 masl in cloud forest and agricultural clearings on Montaña Caquipec (Alta Verapaz, Guatemala). The bird community is described based on line transect counts within the forest. Pooling census data from undisturbed and disturbed forest, the Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (Henicorhina leucophrys) was found to be the most abundant species, followed in descending order by the Common Bush-Tanager (Chlorospingus ophthalmicus), the Paltry Tyrannulet (Zimmerius vilissimus), the Yellowish Flycatcher (Empidonax flavescens), the Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush (Catharus frantzi), and the Amethyst-throated Hummingbird (Lampornis amethystinus). Bird communities in undisturbed and disturbed forest were found to be similar (Serensen similarity index 0.85), indicating low human impact. Of all recorded species, approximately 27% were Nearctic-Neotropical migratory birds. The most abundant one was the Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla). The Montaña Caquipec is an important area for bird conservation, which is indicated by the presence of four species listed in the IUCN Red List (Highland Guan Penelopina nigra, Resplendent Quetzal Pharomachrus mocinno, Pink-headed Warbler Ergaticus versicolor, Golden-cheeked Warbler Dendroica chrysoparia), and 42 Mesoamerican endemics, of which 14 species are endemic to the Central American Highlands. The results presented here will be useful as baseline data for a long-term monitoring. PMID:17354466

  18. Reticulate, patchy and mottled pigmentation of the neck. Acquired forms.

    PubMed

    Lautenschlager, S; Itin, P H

    1998-01-01

    Besides the inherited forms of mottled and reticulate pigmentation, a vast number of diseases and trigger mechanisms can lead to acquired pigmentation of the neck. Nonhereditary variants of reticulate and mottled pigmentation can affect the neck as a typical site and therefore may give a diagnostic clue or it can occur sporadically on the neck as well as on other sites. A well-known and important factor in the pathogenesis is exposure to sunlight. Sun-induced pigmentation often presents on the neck and may result from phototoxic, photoallergic and cumulative actinic damage. Frequent forms comprise berloque dermatitis, Riehl's melanosis, poikiloderma of Civatte and tanning bed lentigines. Different infections may also lead to this distinct skin alteration as pediculosis capitis, pityriasis versicolor and syphilis II. Treatment-induced irregular pigmentations may occur after applications of topical agents (e.g. diphenylcyclopropenone), systemic medication (e.g. 5-fluorouracil, chlorpromazine), as a complication of laser resurfacing or as a chronic graft-versus-host reaction. Different neoplasms may also involve the neck. Widespread pigmented basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, syringolymphoid hyperplasia and histiocytic diseases may lead to reticulated pigmentation. Various other infrequent conditions as connective tissue diseases, malnutrition, lichen planus pigmentosus and others are summarized. The neck, a readily accessible site to medical inspection, may have an underestimated value for the diagnosis of different skin diseases. PMID:9812039

  19. The lethal impacts of Roundup and predatory stress on six species of North American tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Relyea, R A

    2005-04-01

    The decline in amphibians across the globe has sparked a search for the causes, and recent evidence suggests a connection with pesticides. However, for most pesticides, tests on amphibians are rare and conducted only for short durations (1 to 4 days) and without natural stressors. Recent studies have discovered that the stress of predator cues in the water can make insecticides much more lethal to larval amphibians, but it is unknown whether this phenomenon can be generalized to other types of pesticides. Using six species of North American amphibian larvae (Rana sylvatica, R. pipiens, R. clamitans, R. catesbeiana, Bufo americanus, and Hyla versicolor), I examined the impact of a globally common herbicide (Roundup) on the survival of tadpoles for 16 days with and without the chemical cues emitted by predatory newts (Notophthalmus viridescens). LC50(16-d) estimates varied from 0.55 to 2.52 mg of active ingredient (AI)/L, which was considerably lower than the few previous studies using Roundup (1.5 to 15.5 mg AI/L). Moreover, in one of the six species tested (R. sylvatica), the addition of predatory stress made Roundup twice as lethal. This discovery suggests that synergistic interactions between predatory stress and pesticides may indeed be a generalizable phenomenon in amphibians that occurs with a wide variety of pesticides. PMID:15886853

  20. Selection of enhanced antimicrobial activity posing lactic acid bacteria characterised by (GTG)5-PCR fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Šalomskien?, Joana; Abraitien?, Asta; Jonkuvien?, Dovil?; Ma?ionien?, Irena; Repe?kien?, J?rat?

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was a detail evaluation of genetic diversity among the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains having an advantage of a starter culture in order to select genotypically diverse strains with enhanced antimicrobial effect on some harmfull and pathogenic microorganisms. Antimicrobial activity of LAB was performed by the agar well diffusion method and was examined against the reference strains and foodborne isolates of Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium. Antifungal activity was tested against the foodborne isolates of Candida parapsilosis, Debaromyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia guilliermondii, Yarowia lipolytica, Aspergillus brasiliensis, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium herbarum, Penicillium chrysogenum and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. A total 40 LAB strains representing Lactobacillus (23 strains), Lactococcus (13 strains) and Streptococcus spp. (4 strains) were characterised by repetitive sequence based polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting which generated highly discriminatory profiles, confirmed the identity and revealed high genotypic heterogeneity among the strains. Many of tested LAB demonstrated strong antimicrobial activity specialised against one or few indicator strains. Twelve LAB strains were superior in suppressing growth of the whole complex of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. These results demonstrated that separate taxonomic units offered different possibilities of selection for novel LAB strains could be used as starter cultures enhancing food preservation. PMID:26139877

  1. Biodegradation of ddt (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane) by the white rot fungus phanerochaete chrysosporium

    SciTech Connect

    Bumpus, J.A.; Aust, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive biodegradation of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by disappearance and mineralization of (14C) DDT in nutrient nitrogen-deficient cultures. Mass balance studies demonstrated the formation of polar and water-soluble metabolites during degradation. Hexane-extractable metabolites identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry included 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane(DDD), 2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol (dicofol), 2,2-dichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethanol (FW-152), and 4,4'-dichlorobenzophenone (DBP). DDD was the first metabolite observed; it appeared after 3 days of incubation and disappeared from culture upon continued incubation. This, as well as the fact that ((14)C) dicofol was mineralized, demonstrates that intermediates formed during DDT degradation are also metabolized. These results demonstrate that the pathway for DDT degradation in P. chrysosporium is clearly different from the major pathway proposed for microbial or environmental degradation of DDT. Like P. chrysosporium ME-446 and BKM-F-1767, the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Phellinus weirii, and Polyporus versicolor also mineralized DDT.

  2. Common environmental allergens causing respiratory allergy in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, A B; Kumar, Pawan

    2002-03-01

    Respiratory allergy affects all age groups but the children are the worst affected by the respiratory allergy. Bioparticles from different biological sources are the main cause of allergy. Pollen grains, fungal spores, insect and other materials of biological origin form the most important allergen load in the air. For the efficient diagnosis of the allergy and its effective treatment it is very important to know about the prevalence, seasonal and annual variations of aeroallergens of the area. India being the climatically diversed country, there is diversity in the flora and fauna of different parts of the country. Atmospheric surveys carried out in different parts of India reveal that, Alanus nitida, Amarantus spinosus, Argemone mexicana Cocos nucifera, Betula utilis, Borasus flabellifer, Caraica papaya, Cedrus deodara, Cassia fistula, Parthenium, Chenopodium album, Dodonaea viscosa, Malotus phillipensis, Plantago ovata, Prosopis juliflora, Ricinus communis, Holoptelea intergifolia are the allergenically important pollens of the country. Among the fungal aeroallergens, Alternaria, Candida aibieans, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus japonicus, Cladosporium cladosporoides, Fusarium roseum, Ganoderma lucidum,Neurospora sitophila Helminthosporium, Ustilago trtici, Uromyses are important allergens. Dust mites D. farinae, D.pteronyssinus are also important source of inhalant allergens particularly in the coastal areas of the country. Cockroaches, beetles, weevils, mosquitoes, house flies also contribute towards the aeroallergen load and are allergenically implicated. Avoidance of the indoor and outdoor aeroallergens is recommended for better management of respiratory allergy. PMID:12003301

  3. Fungi in Ontario maple syrup & some factors that determine the presence of mold damage.

    PubMed

    Frasz, Samantha L; Miller, J David

    2015-08-17

    Maple syrup is a high value artisanal product produced mainly in Canada and a number of States primarily in the northeast USA. Mold growth (Wallemia sebi) on commercial product was first reported in syrup in 1908. Since then, few data have been published. We conducted a systematic examination for fungi in maple syrup from 68 producers from all of the syrup-producing areas of Ontario, Canada. The mean pH of the samples was pH6.82, sugar content averaged 68.0±0.89°Brix and aw averaged 0.841±0.011. Some 23 species of fungi were isolated based on morphology and molecular techniques. The most common fungus in the maple syrup samples was Eurotium herbariorum, followed by Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus penicillioides, Aspergillus restrictus, Aspergillus versicolor and two species of Wallemia. Cladosporium cladosporioides was also common but only recovered when fungi known from high sugar substrates were also present in the mold damaged sample. The rarely reported yeast Citeromyces matrinsis was found in samples from three producers. There appear to be three potential causes for mold damage observed. High aw was associated with about one third of the mold damage. Independently, cold packing (bottling at ~25°C) was a risk factor. However, syrup of good quality and quite low aw values was contaminated. We hypothesize that sanitation in the bottling line and other aspects of the bottling process may be partial explanations. Clarifying this requires further study. PMID:26001061

  4. Chelating efficiency and thermal, mechanical and decay resistance performances of chitosan copper complex in wood-polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Lu, John Z; Duan, Xinfang; Wu, Qinglin; Lian, Kun

    2008-09-01

    Wood-polymer composites (WPC) have been extensively used for building products, outdoor decking, automotive, packaging materials, and other applications. WPC is subject to fungal and termite attacks due to wood components enveloped in the thermoplastic matrix. Much effort has been made to improve decay resistance of WPC using zinc borate and other chemicals. In this study, chitosan copper complex (CCC) compounds were used as a potential preservative for wood-HDPE composites. CCC was formulated by reacting chitosan with copper salts under controlled conditions. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analytical results indicated that chitosan had high chelating efficiency with copper cations. CCC-treated wood-HDPE composites had a thermal behavior similar to untreated and zinc borate-treated wood-HDPE composites. Incorporation of CCC in wood-HDPE composites did not significantly influence board density of the resultant composites, but had a negative effect on tensile strength at high CCC concentration. In comparison with solid wood and the untreated wood-HDPE composites, 3% CCC-treated wood-HDPE composites significantly improved the decay resistance against white rot fungus Trametes versicolor and brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. Especially, CCC-treated wood-HDPE composites were more effectively against the brown rot than the untreated and chitosan-treated wood-HDPE composites. Moreover, CCC-treated wood-HDPE composites performed well as zinc borate-treated wood-HDPE composites on fungal decay resistance. Accordingly, CCC can be effectively used as a preservative for WPC. PMID:18248812

  5. Characterization of the fungal microbiota (mycobiome) in healthy and dandruff-afflicted human scalps.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee Kuk; Ha, Myung-Ho; Park, Sang-Gue; Kim, Myeung Nam; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Wonyong

    2012-01-01

    The human scalp harbors a vast community of microbial mutualists, the composition of which is difficult to elucidate as many of the microorganisms are not culturable using current culture techniques. Dandruff, a common scalp disorder, is known as a causative factor of a mild seborrheic dermatitis as well as pityriasis versicolor, seborrheic dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis. Lipophilic yeast Malassezia is widely accepted to play a role in dandruff, but relatively few comprehensive studies have been reported. In order to investigate fungal biota and genetic resources of dandruff, we amplified the 26S rRNA gene from samples of healthy scalps and dandruff-afflicted scalps. The sequences were analyzed by a high throughput method using a GS-FLX 454 pyrosequencer. Of the 74,811 total sequence reads, Basidiomycota (Filobasidium spp.) was the most common phylum associated with dandruff. In contrast, Ascomycota (Acremonium spp.) was common in the healthy scalps. Our results elucidate the distribution of fungal communities associated with dandruff and provide new avenues for the potential prevention and treatment of dandruff. PMID:22393454

  6. Cultural studies coupled with DNA based sequence analyses and its implication on pigmentation as a phylogenetic marker in Pestalotiopsis taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ai-Rong; Chen, Shuang-Chen; Wu, Shang-Ying; Xu, Tong; Guo, Liang-Dong; Jeewon, Rajesh; Wei, Ji-Guang

    2010-11-01

    Previous phylogenetic studies based on DNA sequence data have partially resolved taxonomic relationships among Pestalotiopsis species. There are still some morphological characters whose phylogenetic significance have not been assessed properly due to limited taxon sampling, in particular the degree of pigmentation of median cells. In this study, the stability of pigmentation of median cells of conidia in Pestalotiopsis species was evaluated in subculture, and a molecular phylogenetic analysis was conducted on 45 strains belonging to 26 species in order to reappraise the pigmentation of median cells for its significance in the taxonomy of Pestalotiopsis. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred from nucleotide sequences in ITS regions (ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2) and ?-tubulin 2 gene (tub2). The results showed that pigmentation of median cells was stable and it could be a key character in the taxonomy of Pestalotiopsis species. Instead of "concolorous" and "versicolor" proposed by Steyeart (1949), "brown to olivaceous" and "umber to fuliginous" are described and proposed in this paper. PMID:20692352

  7. [Immobilization of crude laccase onto anion exchange resin and its application in decoloration of malachite green].

    PubMed

    Qi, Xu-liang; Liu, Xiang; Liu, Bo; Wang, Lin; Wang, Xiao-chun; Fang, Chao

    2012-08-01

    Crude laccase from Trametes versicolor was immobilized onto anion exchange resin D201 by three methods, i.e., direct electrostatic adsorption (D201-Lac-I), crosslinking after electrostatic adsorption (D201-Lac-II) and electrostatic adsorption after treating D201 with glutaraldehyde (D201-Lac-III). Compared to direct electrostatic adsorption, the immobilized laccase amount of D201-Lac-II increased by 4.65 times but the laccase activity was decreased to 4.8%, while the laccase activity on D201-Lac-III increased by 2.99 times, with the immobilization amount decreased to 51%. Shadows of laccase aggregation on D201-Lac-III were found by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Continuous batch decoloration of malachite green demonstrated that the decoloration efficiency of D201-Lac-III remained in the range of 40% to 55% for more than 210 hours, in addition, the enzyme activity on D201-Lac-III maintained unchanged while the activity of free laccase declined to less than 20% under the same condition. All of the results above indicated that D201-Lac-III had a significantly enhanced stability and good reusability. Considering the low price and simple production procedure of crude laccase, D201-Lac-III could be promising for water treatment purpose. PMID:23213900

  8. Modestobacter lapidis sp. nov. and Modestobacter muralis sp. nov., isolated from a deteriorated sandstone historic building in Salamanca, Spain.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Martha E; Goodfellow, Michael; Busarakam, Kanungnid; Riesco, Raul

    2015-08-01

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to establish the taxonomic status of two Modestobacter strains isolated from the surface of deteriorated sandstone of a historic building in Salamanca, Spain. The strains, isolates MDVD1(T) and MON 3.1(T), were found to have chemotaxonomic and morphological properties consistent with their classification in the genus Modestobacter and to form distinct phyletic lines in the Modestobacter 16S rRNA gene tree. Isolate MDVD1(T) was found to be closely related to the type strain of Modestobacter versicolor (98.7 % similarity) and isolate MON 3.1(T) to the type strain of Modestobacter multiseptatus (98.6 % similarity). The isolates were distinguished readily from one another and from the Modestobacter type strains by a broad range of phenotypic properties, by qualitative and quantitative differences in fatty acid profiles and by BOX fingerprint patterns. On the basis of these data, it is proposed that the isolates be classified in the genus Modestobacter as Modestobacter lapidis sp. nov. and Modestobacter muralis sp. nov., with isolates MON 3.1(T) (CECT 8844(T) = DSM 100206(T)) and MDVD1(T) (CECT 8845(T) = DSM 100205(T)) as the respective type strains. PMID:25987397

  9. Effects of leachate from tree leaves and grass litter on tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Earl, Julia E; Cohagen, Kara E; Semlitsch, Raymond D

    2012-07-01

    Tree species composition can change as a result of succession, climate change, fire suppression, and invasive species. These changes clearly affect forests, but they can also affect aquatic ecosystems based on differences in the input quality of leaf litter, such as plant secondary compounds. These compounds vary in type and concentration depending on species and can be toxic to aquatic organisms. To examine toxic effects on Pseudacris maculata and Pseudacris crucifer tadpoles, we conducted 60-d laboratory experiments to compare leaf litter leachate from a dominant canopy species (red oak) and nonnative species (white pine) with an aquatic grass (prairie cordgrass) and plain water control. An additional experiment examined the effects of white pine on Bufo americanus, Hyla versicolor, and tannin concentrations in natural ponds. Compared with the control and grass, tree leaf extracts resulted in reduced tadpole survival. Leached compounds from pine reduced tadpole survival to 3 d or less. Tadpoles were able to metamorphose in significant numbers only from the two controls. The lowered survival with the red oak treatment might have been caused by lowered dissolved oxygen or high tannin concentrations. However, pine is known to have high concentrations of toxic monoterpenes, which should be investigated further. We found that tannin concentrations in natural ponds were much lower than the test concentrations, indicating that these results may represent worst-case scenarios or unrealistic concentrations. PMID:22488805

  10. Malassezia species and their associated skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazutoshi; Saito, Mami; Sugita, Takashi; Tsuboi, Ryoji

    2015-03-01

    Malassezia spp. are lipophilic fungi that occur on all skin surfaces of humans and animals as commensal and pathogenic organisms. In the 2000s, several new species were added to the Malassezia genus by Japanese researchers. The genus Malassezia now includes 14 species of basidiomycetous yeast. Culture-independent molecular analysis clearly demonstrated that the DNA of Malassezia spp. was predominantly detected in core body and arm sites, suggesting that they are the dominant fungal flora of the human body. Malassezia spp. have been implicated in skin diseases including pityriasis versicolor (PV), Malassezia folliculitis (MF), seborrheic dermatitis (SD) and atopic dermatitis (AD). While Malassezia spp. are directly responsible for the infectious diseases, PV and MF, they act as an exacerbating factor in AD and SD. The fatty acids generated by Malassezia lipase can induce inflammation of the skin, resulting in development of SD. Patch and serum immunoglobulin E tests revealed that AD patients were hypersensitive to Malassezia. However, these findings only partially elucidated the mechanism by which Malassezia spp. induce inflammation in the skin; understanding of the pathogenetic role of Malassezia spp. in SD or AD remains incomplete. In this article, the latest findings of Malassezia research are reviewed with special attention to skin diseases. PMID:25736318

  11. The cell wall galactomannan antigen from Malassezia furfur and Malassezia pachydermatis contains beta-1,6-linked linear galactofuranosyl residues and its detection has diagnostic potential.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Nobuyuki; Saitoh, Tomomi; Tadokoro, Yukari; Okawa, Yoshio

    2009-10-01

    Lipophilic yeasts of the genus Malassezia are associated with several skin diseases, such as pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia folliculitis, seborrhoeic dermatitis and atopic dermatitis, and are also increasingly associated with catheter-related fungaemia. The cell wall components of pathogenic micro-organisms behave as an antigen and/or ligand of the innate immune response. Live cells of Malassezia furfur and Malassezia pachydermatis did not react with an anti-alpha-1,2-mannoside antibody. However, they showed a strong hydrophobicity and reactivity with an anti-beta-1,3-glucan antibody compared to those of C. albicans. The cell wall polysaccharides of M. furfur and M. pachydermatis were isolated and their structures analysed by (1)H and (13)C NMR experiments. Both polysaccharides were shown to be beta-1,6-linked linear galactofuranosyl polymers with a small amount of mannan. The presence of galactomannan on cells of Malassezia species has not been described previously. The galactomannan did not react with an anti-Aspergillus fumigatus monoclonal antibody which has specificity for beta-1,5-linked galactofuranosyl residues. An anti-M. furfur antibody strongly reacted with the galactomannans of M. furfur and M. pachydermatis, but did not react with the galactomannans of Trichophyton rubrum, A. fumigatus or Fonsecaea pedrosoi. The characteristics of the anti-M. furfur antibody suggest that there is potential for diagnosis of Malassezia infections by antigen detection. PMID:19389777

  12. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects of Cecropin A(1-8)-Magainin2(1-12) hybrid peptide analog p5 against Malassezia furfur infection in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Sunhyo; Choi, Soon-Yong; Acharya, Samudra; Chun, Young-Jin; Gurley, Catherine; Park, Yoonkyung; Armstrong, Cheryl A; Song, Peter I; Kim, Beom-Joon

    2011-08-01

    The lipophilic fungus Malassezia furfur (M. furfur) is a commensal microbe associated with several chronic diseases such as pityriasis versicolor, folliculitis, and seborrheic dermatitis. Because M. furfur-related diseases are difficult to treat and require prolonged use of medications, the treatment for M. furfur-related skin diseases is supposed to gain control over M. furfur growth and the inflammation associated with it, as well as to prevent secondary infections. In this study, we investigated the antifungal and anti-inflammatory effects of cecropin A(1-8)-magainin 2(1-12) hybrid peptide analog P5 on M. furfur. The minimal inhibitory concentration of P5 against M. furfur was 0.39??M, making it 3-4 times more potent than commonly used antifungal agents such as ketoconazole (1.5??M) or itraconazole (1.14??M). P5 efficiently inhibited the expression of IL-8 and Toll-like receptor 2 in M. furfur-infected human keratinocytes without eukaryotic cytotoxicity at its fungicidal concentration. Moreover, P5 significantly downregulated NF-?B activation and intracellular calcium fluctuation, which are closely related with enhanced responses of keratinocyte inflammation induced by M. furfur infection. Taken together, these observations suggest P5 may be a potential therapeutic agent for M. furfur-associated human skin diseases because of its distinct antifungal and anti-inflammatory action. PMID:21593770

  13. Malassezia skin diseases in humans.

    PubMed

    Difonzo, E M; Faggi, E; Bassi, A; Campisi, E; Arunachalam, M; Pini, G; Scarfì, F; Galeone, M

    2013-12-01

    Although Malassezia yeasts are a part of the normal microflora, under certain conditions they can cause superficial skin infection, such as pityriasis versicolor (PV) and Malassezia folliculitis. Moreover the yeasts of the genus Malassezia have been associated with seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and, less commonly, with confluent and reticulated papillomatosis, onychomycosis, and transient acantholytic dermatosis. The study of the clinical role of Malassezia species has been surrounded by controversy due to the relative difficulty in isolation, cultivation, and identification. This review focuses on the clinical, mycologic, and immunologic aspects of the various skin diseases associated with Malassezia. Moreover, since there exists little information about the epidemiology and ecology of Malassezia species in the Italian population and the clinical significance of these species is not fully distinguished, we will report data about a study we carried out. The aim of our study was the isolation and the identification of Malassezia species in PV-affected skin and non-affected skin in patients with PV and in clinically healthy individuals without any Malassezia associated skin disease. PMID:24442041

  14. Study of the titer of common antibodies against superficial antigens of Pityrosporum ovale in dermatitis seborrhoides.

    PubMed

    Kantardjiev, T B; Zisova, L G; Kuzmanov, A H

    2001-01-01

    Pityrosporum ovale is the yeast form of the dimorphic lipophilic fungus Malassezia furfur which is part of the normal skin microflora in adults. It is suggested that Pityrosporum ovale has a primary role in the pathogenesis of Dermatitis seborrhoides. The aim of the present study was to determine the titer of the common antibodies against superficial antigens of Pityrosporum ovale in the serum of Dermatitis seborrhoides patients and compare the results with the findings of examinations of serum antibodies in healthy subjects and patients with Pityriasis simplex capitis, Pityriasis versicolor, Pityrosporum folliculitis. Indirect immunofluorescent technique was used in the study. The Pityrosporum ovale antigen was obtained using own method. The results show that Dermatitis seborrhoides patients have an antibody titer of 1:640 and above, which is a higher titer than the antibody titers of healthy subjects and patients with other forms of the infection. The study results suggest that Pityrosporum ovale yeast might be implicated in causing a humoral immune response, which is important for the developing inflammatory reactions in Dermatitis seborrhoides. The results help to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms and supplement the therapy strategy of the disorder. The authors are the first in Bulgaria to study the immune response to Pityrosporum ovale in healthy subjects and patients suffering from different forms of the infection. PMID:11930831

  15. C-type lectin Mincle is an activating receptor for pathogenic fungus, Malassezia

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Sho; Matsumoto, Makoto; Takeuchi, Osamu; Matsuzawa, Tetsuhiro; Ishikawa, Eri; Sakuma, Machie; Tateno, Hiroaki; Uno, Jun; Hirabayashi, Jun; Mikami, Yuzuru; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Saito, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Mincle (also called as Clec4e and Clecsf9) is a C-type lectin receptor expressed in activated phagocytes. Recently, we have demonstrated that Mincle is an FcR?-associated activating receptor that senses damaged cells. To search an exogenous ligand(s), we screened pathogenic fungi using cell line expressing Mincle, FcR?, and NFAT-GFP reporter. We found that Mincle specifically recognizes the Malassezia species among 50 different fungal species tested. Malassezia is a pathogenic fungus that causes skin diseases, such as tinea versicolor and atopic dermatitis, and fatal sepsis. However, the specific receptor on host cells has not been identified. Mutation of the putative mannose-binding motif within C-type lectin domain of Mincle abrogated Malassezia recognition. Analyses of glycoconjugate microarray revealed that Mincle selectively binds to ?-mannose but not mannan. Thus, Mincle may recognize specific geometry of ?-mannosyl residues on Malassezia species and use this to distinguish them from other fungi. Malassezia activated macrophages to produce inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. To elucidate the physiological function of Mincle, Mincle-deficient mice were established. Malassezia-induced cytokine/chemokine production by macrophages from Mincle?/? mice was significantly impaired. In vivo inflammatory responses against Malassezia was also impaired in Mincle?/? mice. These results indicate that Mincle is the first specific receptor for Malassezia species to be reported and plays a crucial role in immune responses to this fungus. PMID:19171887

  16. Malassezia species in skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Crespo Erchiga, Vicente; Delgado Florencio, Vicente

    2002-04-01

    Since the taxonomic revision carried out in 1996, enlarging the genus Malassezia to comprise seven different species, a number of studies have investigated from different points of view -- mycological, molecular and immunological -- the relationships of these species with the pathologies associated with lipophilic yeasts, as well as its presence in healthy skin. From these studies, it now appears clear that Malassezia globosa is the main species associated with pityriasis versicolor, which is the only cutaneous disease in which the involvement of Malassezia is undisputed. Nevertheless, this species can also be found in normal skin, in which the predominant species is Malassezia sympodialis. In the remaining dermatological disorders related to Malassezia, the role of these yeasts is controversial. In seborrhoeic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis and folliculitis, several studies have focused on the immunological aspects that could explain the pathogenic mechanism. In other diseases, such as confluent and reticulate papillomatosis, neonatal pustulosis, otitis and onychomycosis, the presence or significance of Malassezia is still a matter of dispute. PMID:11964913

  17. [Malassezia species isolated from skin diseases in a care center in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Canteros, C E; Soria, M; Rivas, C; Lee, W; López Joffre, M C; Rodero, L; Perrotta, D; Körte, C; Davel, G

    2003-01-01

    The epidemiology of Malassezia genus is poorly understood; geographical and population factors might have influence on the species distribution. The aim of this work was to determine the frequency of Malassezia species involved in skin diseases in a diagnostic center at Buenos Aires City. From 02/01/1999 to 10/31/2001, 456 skin specimens from 447 patients diagnosed as pityriasis versicolor, seborrheic dermatitis, foliculitis and atopic dermatitis, were analyzed by microscopic examination and culture. Malassezia spp was evidenced in 255 skin samples (55.9%) by microscopic analysis but it could be recovered from only 99 (38.8%) specimens. Malassezia species were isolated from 10 (3.9%) scarring lesions that were negative by microscopy. Among 109 isolates, M. sympodialis (58.7%) was the most frequent, followed by M. globosa and M. furfur (18.3% and 9.2%). Unique isolates (0.9%) of M. obtusa, M. slooffiae and M. restricta were recovered. Eleven isolates (10.1%) could not be identified because they had lost viability in the culture. This is the first study on Malassezia species associated to skin diseases in Argentina; further screening including other geographic regions of the country is necessary in order to confirm these results. PMID:14587378

  18. Chemical Organization of the Cell Wall Polysaccharide Core of Malassezia restricta

    PubMed Central

    Stalhberger, Thomas; Simenel, Catherine; Clavaud, Cécile; Eijsink, Vincent G. H.; Jourdain, Roland; Delepierre, Muriel; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Breton, Lionel; Fontaine, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Malassezia species are ubiquitous residents of human skin and are associated with several diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis, tinea versicolor, folliculitis, atopic dermatitis, and scalp conditions such as dandruff. Host-Malassezia interactions and mechanisms to evade local immune responses remain largely unknown. Malassezia restricta is one of the most predominant yeasts of the healthy human skin, its cell wall has been investigated in this paper. Polysaccharides in the M. restricta cell wall are almost exclusively alkali-insoluble, showing that they play an essential role in the organization and rigidity of the M. restricta cell wall. Fractionation of cell wall polymers and carbohydrate analyses showed that the polysaccharide core of the cell wall of M. restricta contained an average of 5% chitin, 20% chitosan, 5% ?-(1,3)-glucan, and 70% ?-(1,6)-glucan. In contrast to other yeasts, chitin and chitosan are relatively abundant, and ?-(1,3)-glucans constitute a minor cell wall component. The most abundant polymer is ?-(1,6)-glucans, which are large molecules composed of a linear ?-(1,6)-glucan chains with ?-(1,3)-glucosyl side chain with an average of 1 branch point every 3.8 glucose unit. Both ?-glucans are cross-linked, forming a huge alkali-insoluble complex with chitin and chitosan polymers. Data presented here show that M. restricta has a polysaccharide organization very different of all fungal species analyzed to date. PMID:24627479

  19. [Malassezia species in patients with seborrheic dermatitis and atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Tajima, Mami

    2005-01-01

    Malassezia species, organisms normally colonizing the skin surface, are thought to play a role as either the cause or an exacerbating factor in a number of skin conditions, including pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia folliculitis, seborrheic dermatitis (SD) and atopic dermatitis (AD). Using a non-cultural PCR method, we analyzed Malassezia spp. extracted from the skin surface of SD and AD patients. The species most commonly detected in both patient groups were M. globosa and M. restricta, and the number of Malassezia spp. In these patients was higher than in healthy subjects. After a topical application of 2% ketoconazole cream, changes in the population of Malassezia spp. in 20 intractable cases of AD were recorded. The addition of the 2% ketoconazole cream to the standard topical treatments was found to have reduced the Malassezia spp. population by 90%, and showed a clinical efficacy rate of 70%. Furthermore, a combination of azole agents and tacrolimus produced a synergistic anti-fungal effect against Malassezia spp. in vitro. A clinical trial using this drug combination conducted on the face and neck of patients with intractable AD showed a 66.6% efficacy rate in both the reduction of the flora and in clinical improvement. From these results it was evident that Malassezia is one of the factors exacerbating AD, and that removal of the organism results in an improvement in the clinical condition of the patient. PMID:16094289

  20. Skin diseases associated with Malassezia species.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Batra, Roma; Bluhm, Robyn; Boekhout, Teun; Dawson, Thomas L

    2004-11-01

    The yeasts of the genus Malassezia have been associated with a number of diseases affecting the human skin, such as pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia (Pityrosporum) folliculitis, seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and--less commonly--with other dermatologic disorders such as confluent and reticulated papillomatosis, onychomycosis, and transient acantholytic dermatosis. Although Malassezia yeasts are a part of the normal microflora, under certain conditions they can cause superficial skin infection. The study of the clinical role of Malassezia species has been surrounded by controversy because of their fastidious nature in vitro, and relative difficulty in isolation, cultivation, and identification. Many studies have been published in the past few years after the taxonomic revision carried out in 1996 in which 7 species were recognized. Two new species have been recently described, one of which has been isolated from patients with atopic dermatitis. This review focuses on the clinical, mycologic, and immunologic aspects of the various skin diseases associated with Malassezia. It also highlights the importance of individual Malassezia species in the different dermatologic disorders related to these yeasts. PMID:15523360

  1. Chemical organization of the cell wall polysaccharide core of Malassezia restricta.

    PubMed

    Stalhberger, Thomas; Simenel, Catherine; Clavaud, Cécile; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Jourdain, Roland; Delepierre, Muriel; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Breton, Lionel; Fontaine, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    Malassezia species are ubiquitous residents of human skin and are associated with several diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis, tinea versicolor, folliculitis, atopic dermatitis, and scalp conditions such as dandruff. Host-Malassezia interactions and mechanisms to evade local immune responses remain largely unknown. Malassezia restricta is one of the most predominant yeasts of the healthy human skin, its cell wall has been investigated in this paper. Polysaccharides in the M. restricta cell wall are almost exclusively alkali-insoluble, showing that they play an essential role in the organization and rigidity of the M. restricta cell wall. Fractionation of cell wall polymers and carbohydrate analyses showed that the polysaccharide core of the cell wall of M. restricta contained an average of 5% chitin, 20% chitosan, 5% ?-(1,3)-glucan, and 70% ?-(1,6)-glucan. In contrast to other yeasts, chitin and chitosan are relatively abundant, and ?-(1,3)-glucans constitute a minor cell wall component. The most abundant polymer is ?-(1,6)-glucans, which are large molecules composed of a linear ?-(1,6)-glucan chains with ?-(1,3)-glucosyl side chain with an average of 1 branch point every 3.8 glucose unit. Both ?-glucans are cross-linked, forming a huge alkali-insoluble complex with chitin and chitosan polymers. Data presented here show that M. restricta has a polysaccharide organization very different of all fungal species analyzed to date. PMID:24627479

  2. Molecular identification of Malassezia species isolated from dermatitis affections.

    PubMed

    Affes, M; Ben Salah, S; Makni, F; Sellami, H; Ayadi, A

    2009-05-01

    The lipophilic yeast of the genus Malassezia are opportunistic microorganisms of the skin microflora but they can be agents of various dermatomycoses. The aim of this study was to perform molecular identification of the commonly isolated Malassezia species from various dermatomycoses in our region. Thirty strains of Malassezia were isolated from different dermatologic affections: pityriasis versicolor (17), dandruff (5), seborrheic dermatitis (4), onyxis (2), folliculitis (1) and blepharitis (1). These species were identified by their morphological features and biochemical characterisation. The molecular identification was achieved by amplification of the internal transcribed spacer region by simple PCR. PCR technique was used for molecular characterisation of four Malassezia species: Malassezia globosa (270 bp), Malassezia furfur (230 bp), Malassezia sympodialis (190 bp) and Malassezia restricta (320 bp). We have detected the association between M. furfur and M. sympodialis in 16% and confirmed presumptive identification in 70% of the cases. The phenotypic identification based on microscopic and physiological method is difficult and time consuming. The application of a simple PCR method provides a sensitive and rapid identification system for Malassezia species, which may be applied in epidemiological surveys and routine practice. PMID:18643889

  3. Malassezia: is it a pulmonary pathogen in the stem cell transplant population?

    PubMed

    Blaes, A H; Cavert, W P; Morrison, V A

    2009-08-01

    Malassezia furfur is a yeast that can cause a variety of infections, most commonly in normal hosts, and also in immunocompromised hosts. This yeast typically colonizes the skin, and is the causative agent of tinea versicolor. However, in immunocompromised hosts, it can more commonly cause catheter-related fungemia or folliculitis. Pulmonary infections from Malassezia have not been commonly recognized. Unlike many other common opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised hosts, neutropenia and the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics do not appear to be significant risk factors for Malassezia infections in the stem cell transplant (SCT) population. Additionally, disseminated infection, despite fungemia, is uncommon. A series of patients who underwent SCT at the University of Minnesota between 2004 and 2006 were reviewed for the occurrence of suspected Malassezia infections in the post-transplant period. Four cases of possible pulmonary M. furfur infection were identified in our SCT recipients. The clinical characteristics of these patients, the infections, treatment, and outcome are described. In addition, we discuss the possible pathogenicity of this yeast in the pulmonary setting. PMID:19497074

  4. The Malassezia genus in skin and systemic diseases.

    PubMed

    Gaitanis, Georgios; Magiatis, Prokopios; Hantschke, Markus; Bassukas, Ioannis D; Velegraki, Aristea

    2012-01-01

    In the last 15 years, the genus Malassezia has been a topic of intense basic research on taxonomy, physiology, biochemistry, ecology, immunology, and metabolomics. Currently, the genus encompasses 14 species. The 1996 revision of the genus resulted in seven accepted taxa: M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. sympodialis, M. globosa, M. obtusa, M. restricta, and M. slooffiae. In the last decade, seven new taxa isolated from healthy and lesional human and animal skin have been accepted: M. dermatis, M. japonica, M. yamatoensis, M. nana, M. caprae, M. equina, and M. cuniculi. However, forthcoming multidisciplinary research is expected to show the etiopathological relationships between these new species and skin diseases. Hitherto, basic and clinical research has established etiological links between Malassezia yeasts, pityriasis versicolor, and sepsis of neonates and immunocompromised individuals. Their role in aggravating seborrheic dermatitis, dandruff, folliculitis, and onychomycosis, though often supported by histopathological evidence and favorable antifungal therapeutic outcomes, remains under investigation. A close association between skin and Malassezia IgE binding allergens in atopic eczema has been shown, while laboratory data support a role in psoriasis exacerbations. Finally, metabolomic research resulted in the proposal of a hypothesis on the contribution of Malassezia-synthesized aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands to basal cell carcinoma through UV radiation-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:22232373

  5. [Molecular analysis of Malassezia species isolated from three cases of Akatsuki disease (pomade crust)].

    PubMed

    Tajima, Mami; Amaya, Misato; Sugita, Takashi; Nishikawa, Akemi; Tsuboi, Ryoji

    2005-01-01

    Malassezia spp. which normally colonize on the skin surface, are known as being either the cause or an exacerbating factor in a variety of skin conditions, including pityriasis versicolor, folliculitis, seborrheic dermatitis and atopic dermatitis. We report here three cases of Akatsuki disease (pomade crust). Scales and crusts were collected from the lesional skin and analyzed using a PCR-based non-culture method. Malassezia microflora in Akatsuki disease was compared to that of healthy subjects and atopic dermatitis patients. Samples were collected from upper and lower eyelids (Case 1), an operation scar (Case 2) and parietal scalp (Case 3). DNA was extracted from the scales and nested PCR was performed using specific primers for each species. Our analysis detected only M. obtusa and M. slooffiae in Cases 1 and 3 and only M. slooffiae in Case 2. Our previous data indicated that while M. globosa, M. restricta and M. sympodialis were common in healthy subjects, the two aforementioned species were rare, suggesting that the presence of M. obtusa and M. slooffiae in the subjects in the present study is correlated to the pathogenesis of Akatsuki disease. PMID:16094295

  6. Study of dermatoses in kidney transplant patients*

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Alexandre Moretti; da Rocha, Sheila Pereira; Reis Filho, Eugênio Galdino de Mendonça; Eid, Danglades Resende Macedo; Reis, Carmelia Matos Santiago

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The increasing in the number of kidney transplant recipients has favored, more frequently than before, the emergence of dermatoses and warranted their study through subsequent publications. OBJECTIVES to evaluate the frequency of dermatoses in kidney transplant recipients. METHODS kidney transplant recipients with suspected dermatoses between March 1st 2009 and June 30th 2010. RESULTS 53 patients (28 males and 25 females), aged between 22 and 69 (mean age = 45 years) were evaluated. Most of them came from the cities of Ceilândia, Samambaia and São Sebastião/DF, and had already been transplanted for 5 to 10 years before (37.7%); 62.3% were recipients of living donors and 83% were prednisone-treated. The most prevalent dermatoses were of fungal (45.3%) and viral (39.6%) etiologies. Among the non-melanoma malignant neoplasms, the basal cell carcinoma prevailed (six cases), in spite of the low incidence. Concerning fungal dermatoses, 12 cases of onychomycosis, five of pityriasis versicolor and four of pityrosporum folliculitis were reported. For diagnosis, in most cases (64.2%), laboratory examinations (mycological and histopathological) were performed. CONCLUSION cutaneous manifestations in kidney transplant recipients are generally secondary to immunosuppression. The infectious dermatoses, especially those of fungal origin, are frequently found in kidney transplant recipients and their occurrence increases progressively according to the time elapsed from the transplantation, which makes follow-up important. PMID:23793196

  7. The Malassezia Genus in Skin and Systemic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Magiatis, Prokopios; Hantschke, Markus; Bassukas, Ioannis D.; Velegraki, Aristea

    2012-01-01

    Summary: In the last 15 years, the genus Malassezia has been a topic of intense basic research on taxonomy, physiology, biochemistry, ecology, immunology, and metabolomics. Currently, the genus encompasses 14 species. The 1996 revision of the genus resulted in seven accepted taxa: M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. sympodialis, M. globosa, M. obtusa, M. restricta, and M. slooffiae. In the last decade, seven new taxa isolated from healthy and lesional human and animal skin have been accepted: M. dermatis, M. japonica, M. yamatoensis, M. nana, M. caprae, M. equina, and M. cuniculi. However, forthcoming multidisciplinary research is expected to show the etiopathological relationships between these new species and skin diseases. Hitherto, basic and clinical research has established etiological links between Malassezia yeasts, pityriasis versicolor, and sepsis of neonates and immunocompromised individuals. Their role in aggravating seborrheic dermatitis, dandruff, folliculitis, and onychomycosis, though often supported by histopathological evidence and favorable antifungal therapeutic outcomes, remains under investigation. A close association between skin and Malassezia IgE binding allergens in atopic eczema has been shown, while laboratory data support a role in psoriasis exacerbations. Finally, metabolomic research resulted in the proposal of a hypothesis on the contribution of Malassezia-synthesized aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands to basal cell carcinoma through UV radiation-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:22232373

  8. Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR

    SciTech Connect

    D`Souza, T.M.; Boominathan, K.; Reddy, C.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequences of each of the PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. A high throughput colorimetric assay of ?-1,3-D-glucans by Congo red dye.

    PubMed

    Semedo, Magda C; Karmali, Amin; Fonseca, Luís

    2015-02-01

    Mushroom strains contain complex nutritional biomolecules with a wide spectrum of therapeutic and prophylactic properties. Among these compounds, ?-d-glucans play an important role in immuno-modulating and anti-tumor activities. The present work involves a novel colorimetric assay method for ?-1,3-d-glucans with a triple helix tertiary structure by using Congo red. The specific interaction that occurs between Congo red and ?-1,3-d-glucan was detected by bathochromic shift from 488 to 516 nm (>20 nm) in UV-Vis spectrophotometer. A micro- and high throughput method based on a 96-well microtiter plate was devised which presents several advantages over the published methods since it requires only 1.51 ?g of polysaccharides in samples, greater sensitivity, speed, assay of many samples and very cheap. ?-D-Glucans of several mushrooms (i.e., Coriolus versicolor, Ganoderma lucidum, Pleurotus ostreatus, Ganoderma carnosum, Hericium erinaceus, Lentinula edodes, Inonotus obliquus, Auricularia auricular, Polyporus umbellatus, Cordyseps sinensis, Agaricus blazei, Poria cocos) were isolated by using a sequence of several extractions with cold and boiling water, acidic and alkaline conditions and quantified by this microtiter plate method. FTIR spectroscopy was used to study the structural features of ?-1,3-D-glucans in these mushroom samples as well as the specific interaction of these polysaccharides with Congo red. The effect of NaOH on triple helix conformation of ?-1,3-D-glucans was investigated in several mushroom species. PMID:25555819

  10. Applications of micellar enzymology to clean coal technology

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, C.T.

    1990-10-26

    This project is designed to develop methods for pre-combustion coal remediation by implementing recent advances in enzyme biochemistry. The novel approach of this study is incorporation of hydrophilic oxidative enzymes in reverse micelles in an organic solvent. Enzymes from commercial sources or microbial extracts are being investigated for their capacity to remove organic sulfur from coal by oxidation of the sulfur groups, splitting of C-S bonds and loss of sulfur as sulfuric acid Dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethlyphenylsulfide (EPS) are serving as models of organic sulfur-containing components of coal in initial studies. A goal of this project is to define a reverse micelle system that optimizes the catalytic activity of enzymes toward desulfurization of model compounds and ultimately coal samples. Among the variables which will be examined are the surfactant, the solvent, the water:surfactant ration and the pH and ionic strength of the aqueous phase. Studies were carried out with HRP, Type I RZ=1.2 and Type VI RZ=3.2 and laccase from Polyporus versicolor. Substrates for HRP assays included hydrogen peroxide, DBT, DBT sulfoxide, and DBT sulfone. Buffers included sodium phosphate. For formation of reverse micelle solutions the surfactant AOT, di(2-ethyl-hexyl)sodium sulphosuccinate, was obtained from Sigma Chemical Co. Isooctant was used as organic solvent. 12 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Chemosensory Perception of Predators by Larval Amphibians Depends on Water Quality

    PubMed Central

    Troyer, Rachael R.; Turner, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of sensory information by animals is central to species interactions. In aquatic environments, most taxa use chemical cues to assess predation risk and other key ecological factors. A number of laboratory studies suggest that anthropogenic pollutants can disrupt chemoreception, even when at low, non-toxic concentrations, but there are few tests of whether real-world variation in water quality affects chemoreception. Here we investigate whether chemosensory perception of predators by the gray treefrog, Hyla versicolor, depends on water quality. We evaluated the anti-predator response of anuran tadpoles housed in water collected from three sites that represent strong contrasts in the concentration and types of dissolved solids: de-chlorinated tap water, water from an impaired stream, and treated wastewater effluent. Behavioral assays were conducted in laboratory aquaria. Chemical cues associated with predation were generated by feeding tadpoles to dragonfly predators held in containers, and then transferring aliquots of water from dragonfly containers to experimental aquaria. Tadpoles housed in tap water responded to predator cues with an activity reduction of 49%. Tadpoles housed in stream water and wastewater effluent responded to predator cues by reducing activity by 29% and 24% respectively. The results of factorial ANOVA support the hypothesis that the response to predator cues depended on water type. These results show that alteration of the chemical environment can mediate chemical perception of predators in aquatic ecosystems. Because most aquatic species rely on chemoreception to gather information on the location of food and predators, any impairment of sensory perception likely has important ecological consequences. PMID:26114749

  12. TLR2 agonist PSK activates human NK cells and enhances the anti-tumor effect of HER2-targeted monoclonal antibody therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hailing; Yang, Yi; Gad, Ekram; Inatsuka, Carol; Wenner, Cynthia A.; Disis, Mary L.; Standish, Leanna J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The therapeutic effect of trastuzumab monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy has been shown to be partially dependent on functional NK cells. Novel agents that enhance NK cell function could potentially improve the anti-tumor effect of trastuzumab. We recently identified polysaccharide krestin (PSK), a natural product extracted from medicinal mushroom Trametes Versicolor, as a potent TLR2 agonist. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of PSK on human NK cells and the potential of using PSK to enhance HER2-targeted mAb therapy. Experimental Design Human PBMC were stimulated with PSK to evaluate the effect of PSK on NK cell activation, IFN-? production, cytotoxicity, and trastuzumab-mediated ADCC. Whether the effect of PSK on NK cells is direct or indirect was also investigated. Then in vivo experiment in neu transgenic mice was carried out to determine the potential of using PSK to augment the anti-tumor effect of HER2-targeted mAb therapy. Results PSK activated human NK cells to produce IFN-? and to lyse K562 target cells. PSK also enhanced trastuzumab-mediated ADCC against SKBR3 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Both direct and IL-12-dependent indirect effects seem to be involved in the effect of PSK on NK cells. Oral administration of PSK significantly potentiated the anti-tumor effect of anti-HER2/neu mAb therapy in neu-transgenic mice. Conclusion These results demonstrated that PSK activates human NK cells and potentiates trastuzumab-mediated ADCC. Concurrent treatment of PSK and trastuzumab may be a novel way to augment the anti-tumor effect of trastuzumab. PMID:21918170

  13. Bottom-up meets top-down: leaf litter inputs influence predator-prey interactions in wetlands.

    PubMed

    Stoler, Aaron B; Relyea, Rick A

    2013-09-01

    While the common conceptual role of resource subsidies is one of bottom-up nutrient and energy supply, inputs can also alter the structural complexity of environments. This can further impact resource flow by providing refuge for prey and decreasing predation rates. However, the direct influence of different organic subsidies on predator-prey dynamics is rarely examined. In forested wetlands, leaf litter inputs are a dominant energy and nutrient resource and they can also increase benthic surface cover and decrease water clarity, which may provide refugia for prey and subsequently reduce predation rates. In outdoor mesocosms, we investigated how inputs of leaf litter that alter benthic surface cover and water clarity influence the mortality and growth of gray treefrog tadpoles (Hyla versicolor) in the presence of free-swimming adult newts (Notophthalmus viridiscens), which are visual predators. To manipulate surface cover, we added either oak (Quercus spp.) or red pine (Pinus resinosa) litter and crossed these treatments with three levels of red maple (Acer rubrum) litter leachate to manipulate water clarity. In contrast to our predictions, benthic surface cover had no effect on tadpole survival while darkening the water caused lower survival. In addition, individual tadpole mass was lowest in the high maple leachate treatments, suggesting an interaction between bottom-up effects of leaf litter and top-down effects of predation risk that altered mortality and growth of tadpoles. Our results indicate that realistic changes in forest tree composition, which cause concomitant changes in litter inputs to wetlands, can substantially alter community interactions. PMID:23386045

  14. Impact of production systems on swine confinement buildings bioaerosols.

    PubMed

    Létourneau, Valérie; Nehmé, Benjamin; Mériaux, Anne; Massé, Daniel; Duchaine, Caroline

    2010-02-01

    Hog production has been substantially intensified in Eastern Canada. Hogs are now fattened in swine confinement buildings with controlled ventilation systems and high animal densities. Newly designed buildings are equipped with conventional manure handling and management systems, shallow or deep litter systems, or source separation systems to manage the large volumes of waste. However, the impacts of those alternative production systems on bioaerosol concentrations within the barns have never been evaluated. Bioaerosols were characterized in 18 modern swine confinement buildings, and the differences in bioaerosol composition in the three different production systems were evaluated. Total dust, endotoxins, culturable actinomycetes, fungi, and bacteria were collected with various apparatuses. The total DNA of the air samples was extracted, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to assess the total number of bacterial genomes, as a total (culturable and nonculturable) bacterial assessment. The measured total dust and endotoxin concentrations were not statistically different in the three studied production systems. In buildings with sawdust beds, actinomycetes and molds were found in higher concentrations than in the conventional barns. Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium, and Scopulariopsis species were identified in all the studied swine confinement buildings. A. flavus, A. terreus, and A. versicolor were abundantly present in the facilities with sawdust beds. Thermotolerant A. fumigatus and Mucor were usually found in all the buildings. The culturable bacteria concentrations were higher in the barns with litters than in the conventional buildings, while real-time PCR revealed nonstatistically different concentrations of total bacteria in all the studied swine confinement buildings. In terms of workers' respiratory health, barns equipped with a solid/liquid separation system may offer better air quality than conventional buildings or barns with sawdust beds. The impact of ventilation rates, air distribution, or building design still has to be explored. PMID:19953413

  15. Patterns of susceptibility of Aspergillus isolates recovered from patients enrolled in the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network.

    PubMed

    Baddley, John W; Marr, Kieren A; Andes, David R; Walsh, Thomas J; Kauffman, Carol A; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Ito, James I; Balajee, S Arunmozhi; Pappas, Peter G; Moser, Stephen A

    2009-10-01

    We analyzed antifungal susceptibilities of 274 clinical Aspergillus isolates from transplant recipients with proven or probable invasive aspergillosis collected as part of the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET) and examined the relationship between MIC and mortality at 6 or 12 weeks. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A2 broth dilution method for amphotericin B (AMB), itraconazole (ITR), voriconazole (VOR), posaconazole (POS), and ravuconazole (RAV). The isolate collection included 181 Aspergillus fumigatus, 28 Aspergillus niger, 27 Aspergillus flavus, 22 Aspergillus terreus, seven Aspergillus versicolor, five Aspergillus calidoustus, and two Aspergillus nidulans isolates and two isolates identified as Aspergillus spp. Triazole susceptibilities were < or = 4 microg/ml for most isolates (POS, 97.6%; ITR, 96.3%; VOR, 95.9%; RAV, 93.5%). The triazoles were not active against the five A. calidoustus isolates, for which MICs were > or = 4 microg/ml. AMB inhibited 93.3% of isolates at an MIC of < or = 1 microg/ml. The exception was A. terreus, for which 15 (68%) of 22 isolates had MICs of >1 microg/ml. One of 181 isolates of A. fumigatus showed resistance (MIC > or = 4 microg/ml) to two of three azoles tested. Although there appeared to be a correlation of higher VOR MICs with increased mortality at 6 weeks, the relationship was not statistically significant (R2 = 0.61; P = 0.065). Significant relationships of in vitro MIC to all-cause mortality at 6 and 12 weeks for VOR or AMB were not found. PMID:19692558

  16. Road salts as environmental constraints in urban pond food webs.

    PubMed

    Van Meter, Robin J; Swan, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater salinization is an emerging environmental filter in urban aquatic ecosystems that receive chloride road salt runoff from vast expanses of impervious surface cover. Our study was designed to evaluate the effects of chloride contamination on urban stormwater pond food webs through changes in zooplankton community composition as well as density and biomass of primary producers and consumers. From May - July 2009, we employed a 2×2×2 full-factorial design to manipulate chloride concentration (low?=?177 mg L(-1) Cl(-/)high?=?1067 mg L(-1) Cl(-)), gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles (presence/absence) and source of stormwater pond algae and zooplankton inoculum (low conductance/high conductance urban ponds) in 40, 600-L mesocosms. Road salt did serve as a constraint on zooplankton community structure, driving community divergence between the low and high chloride treatments. Phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll [a] µg L(-1)) in the mesocosms was significantly greater for the high conductance inoculum (P<0.001) and in the high chloride treatment (P?=?0.046), whereas periphyton biomass was significantly lower in the high chloride treatment (P?=?0.049). Gray treefrog tadpole time to metamorphosis did not vary significantly between treatments. However, mass at metamorphosis was greater among tadpoles that experienced a faster than average time to metamorphosis and exposure to high chloride concentrations (P?=?0.039). Our results indicate differential susceptibility to chloride salts among algal resources and zooplankton taxa, and further suggest that road salts can act as a significant environmental constraint on urban stormwater pond communities. PMID:24587259

  17. Protein-templated biomimetic silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Erienne; Ferrari, Mariana; Cuestas-Ayllon, Carlos; Fernández-Pacheco, Rodrigo; Perez-Carvajal, Javier; de la Fuente, Jesús M; Grazú, Valeria; Betancor, Lorena

    2015-03-31

    Biomimetic silica particles can be synthesized as a nanosized material within minutes in a process mimicked from living organisms such as diatoms and sponges. In this work, we have studied the effect of bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a template to direct the synthesis of silica nanoparticles (NPs) with the potential to associate proteins on its surface. Our approach enables the formation of spheres with different physicochemical properties. Particles using BSA as a protein template were smaller (?250-380 nm) and were more monodisperse than those lacking the proteic core (?700-1000 nm) as seen by dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) analysis. The absence of BSA during synthesis produced silica nanoparticles without any porosity that was detectable by nitrogen adsorption, whereas particles containing BSA developed porosity in the range of 4 to 5 nm which collapsed on the removal of BSA, thus producing smaller pores. These results were in accordance with the pore size calculated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HTEM). The reproducibility of the BSA-templated nanoparticle properties was determined by analyzing four batches of independent synthesizing experiments that maintained their properties. The high positive superficial charge of the nanoparticles facilitated adsorption under mild conditions of a range of proteins from an E. coli extract and a commercial preparation of laccase from Trametes versicolor. All of the proteins were quantitatively desorbed. Experiments conducted showed the reusability of the particles as supports for the ionic adsorption of the biomolecules. The protein loading capacity of the BSA-based biomimetic particles was determined using laccase as 98.7 ± 6.6 mg·g(-1) of particles. PMID:25741589

  18. Laccase Catalyzed Synthesis of Iodinated Phenolic Compounds with Antifungal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ihssen, Julian; Schubert, Mark; Thöny-Meyer, Linda; Richter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is a well known antimicrobial compound. Laccase, an oxidoreductase which couples the one electron oxidation of diverse phenolic and non-phenolic substrates to the reduction of oxygen to water, is capable of oxidizing unreactive iodide to reactive iodine. We have shown previously that laccase-iodide treatment of spruce wood results in a wash-out resistant antimicrobial surface. In this study, we investigated whether phenolic compounds such as vanillin, which resembles sub-structures of softwood lignin, can be directly iodinated by reacting with laccase and iodide, resulting in compounds with antifungal activity. HPLC-MS analysis showed that vanillin was converted to iodovanillin by laccase catalysis at an excess of potassium iodide. No conversion of vanillin occurred in the absence of enzyme. The addition of redox mediators in catalytic concentrations increased the rate of iodide oxidation ten-fold and the yield of iodovanillin by 50%. Iodinated phenolic products were also detected when o-vanillin, ethyl vanillin, acetovanillone and methyl vanillate were incubated with laccase and iodide. At an increased educt concentration of 0.1 M an almost one to one molar ratio of iodide to vanillin could be used without compromising conversion rate, and the insoluble iodovanillin product could be recovered by simple centrifugation. The novel enzymatic synthesis procedure fulfills key criteria of green chemistry. Biocatalytically produced iodovanillin and iodo-ethyl vanillin had significant growth inhibitory effects on several wood degrading fungal species. For Trametes versicolor, a species causing white rot of wood, almost complete growth inhibition and a partial biocidal effect was observed on agar plates. Enzymatic tests indicated that the iodinated compounds acted as enzyme responsive, antimicrobial materials. PMID:24594755

  19. Phytochemical screening, antimicrobial and antioxidant efficacy of different extracts of Rumex dentatus L. - A locally used medicinal herb of Kashmir Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Nisa, Humeera; Kamili, Azra N.; Bandh, Suhaib A.; Amin, Shajr-ul; Lone, Bashir A.; Parray, Javaid A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Rumex dentatus L. (R. dentatus) along with its phytochemical analysis. Methods Agar disk diffusion method for antimicrobial activity and DPPH, riboflavin photo-oxidation, deoxyribose and lipid peroxidation assay for antioxidant activity. Results The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of different concentrations of five R. dentatus extracts were tested against different clinical bacterial strains (Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium) and fungal strains (Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus flavus, Accremonium spp., Penicillium dimorphosporum, Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida kruesie). Among all extracts, the butanol extract showed strong antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae (inhibition zone diameter of 20 mm) and aqueous extract showed no activity against any of the bacterial strains. While as in case of the fungal strains, the maximum antifungal activity was observed against Aspergillus flavus by aqueous extract. The antioxidant activity revealed that the extracts exhibited scavenging effect in concentration-dependent manner on superoxide anion radicals and hydroxyl radicals. The phytochemical tests carried out with the crude extracts of R. dentatus showed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, anthraquinones and cardiac glycosides in it. The total phenolic content of these extracts was estimated quantitatively from standard calibration curve of gallic acid and it varied from 145 µg/mg in butanol extract to 45 µg/mg in petroleum ether extract. Conclusions It can be concluded that the plant has got a broad spectrum antimicrobial and antioxidant activity and could be used as a potential alternative for treating various diseases.

  20. Use of stable isotope probing to assess the fate of emerging contaminants degraded by white-rot fungus.

    PubMed

    Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Rosell, Mònica; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa; Marco-Urrea, Ernest

    2014-05-01

    The widespread of emerging contaminants in the environment and their potential impact on humans is a matter of concern. White-rot fungi are cosmopolitan organisms able to remove a wide range of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) through cometabolism (i.e. laccases and peroxidases) or detoxification mechanisms (i.e. cytochrome P450 system). However, the use of PPCP as carbon source for these organisms is largely unexplored. Here, we used carbon stable isotope tracer experiments to assess the fate of anti-inflammatory diclofenac (DCF) and UV filter benzophenone-3 (BP3) during degradation by Trametes versicolor. The comparison between carbon isotopic composition of emitted carbon dioxide from 13C-labelled DCF ([acetophenyl ring-13C6]-DCF) and 13C-BP3 ([phenyl-13C6]-BP3) versus their 12C-homologue compounds showed mineralization of about 45% and 10% of the 13C contained in their respective molecules after 9 days of incubation. The carbon isotopic composition of the bulk biomass and the application of amino acid-stable isotope probing (SIP) allowed distinguishing between incorporation of 13C from BP3 into amino acids, which implies the use of this emerging contaminant as carbon source, and major intracellular accumulation of 13C from DCF without implying the transformation of its labelled phenyl ring into anabolic products. A mass balance of 13C in different compartments over time provided a comprehensive picture of the fate of DCF and BP3 across their different transformation processes. This is the first report assessing biodegradation of PPCP by SIP techniques and the use of emerging contaminants as carbon source for amino acid biosynthesis. PMID:24393565

  1. Laccase-Prussian blue film-graphene doped carbon paste modified electrode for carbamate pesticides quantification.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Thiago M B F; Fátima Barroso, M; Morais, Simone; Araújo, Mariana; Freire, Cristina; de Lima-Neto, Pedro; Correia, Adriana N; Oliveira, Maria B P P; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2013-09-15

    A novel enzymatic biosensor for carbamate pesticides detection was developed through the direct immobilization of Trametes versicolor laccase on graphene doped carbon paste electrode functionalized with Prussian blue films (LACC/PB/GPE). Graphene was prepared by graphite sonication-assisted exfoliation and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The Prussian blue film electrodeposited onto graphene doped carbon paste electrode allowed considerable reduction of the charge transfer resistance and of the capacitance of the device. The combined effects of pH, enzyme concentration and incubation time on biosensor response were optimized using a 2(3) full-factorial statistical design and response surface methodology. Based on the inhibition of laccase activity and using 4-aminophenol as redox mediator at pH 5.0, LACC/PB/GPE exhibited suitable characteristics in terms of sensitivity, intra- and inter-day repeatability (1.8-3.8% RSD), reproducibility (4.1 and 6.3% RSD), selectivity (13.2% bias at the higher interference:substrate ratios tested), accuracy and stability (ca. twenty days) for quantification of five carbamates widely applied on tomato and potato crops. The attained detection limits ranged between 5.2×10(-9)molL(-1) (0.002mgkg(-1) w/w for ziram) and 1.0×10(-7)molL(-1) (0.022mgkg(-1) w/w for carbofuran). Recovery values for the two tested spiking levels ranged from 90.2±0.1 (carbofuran) to 101.1±0.3% (ziram) for tomato and from 91.0±0.1% (formetanate) to 100.8±0.1% (ziram) for potato samples. The proposed methodology is appropriate to enable testing pesticide levels in food samples to fit with regulations and food inspections. PMID:23587791

  2. Immobilization of defined laccase combinations for enhanced oxidation of phenolic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Ammann, Erik M; Gasser, Christoph A; Hommes, Gregor; Corvini, Philippe F-X

    2014-02-01

    Immobilization is an important method to increase enzyme stability and allow enzyme reuse. One interesting application in the field of environmental biotechnology is the immobilization of laccase to eliminate phenolic contaminants via oxidation. Fumed silica nanoparticles have interesting potential as support material for laccase immobilization via sorption-assisted immobilization in the perspective of applications such as the elimination of micropollutants in aqueous phases. Based on these facts, the present work aimed to formulate laccase-nanoparticle conjugates with defined laccase combinations in order to obtain nanobiocatalysts, which are active over a broad range of pH values and possess a large substrate spectrum to suitably address pollution by multiple contaminants. A multi-enzymatic approach was investigated by immobilizing five different types of laccases originating from a Thielavia genus, Coriolopsis polyzona, Cerrena unicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Trametes versicolor onto fumed silica nanoparticles, separately and in combinations. The laccases differed concerning their pH optima and substrate affinity. Exploiting their differences allowed the formulation of tailor-made nanobiocatalysts. In particular, the production of a nanobiocatalyst could be achieved that retained a higher percentage of its relative activity over the tested pH range (3-7) compared to the dissolved or separately immobilized enzymes. Furthermore, a nanobiocatalyst could be formulated able to oxidize a broader substrate range than the dissolved or separately immobilized enzymes. Thereby, the potential of the nanobiocatalyst for application in biochemical oxidation applications such as the elimination of multiple target pollutants in biologically treated wastewater has been illustrated. PMID:23812279

  3. Laccase catalyzed synthesis of iodinated phenolic compounds with antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Ihssen, Julian; Schubert, Mark; Thöny-Meyer, Linda; Richter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is a well known antimicrobial compound. Laccase, an oxidoreductase which couples the one electron oxidation of diverse phenolic and non-phenolic substrates to the reduction of oxygen to water, is capable of oxidizing unreactive iodide to reactive iodine. We have shown previously that laccase-iodide treatment of spruce wood results in a wash-out resistant antimicrobial surface. In this study, we investigated whether phenolic compounds such as vanillin, which resembles sub-structures of softwood lignin, can be directly iodinated by reacting with laccase and iodide, resulting in compounds with antifungal activity. HPLC-MS analysis showed that vanillin was converted to iodovanillin by laccase catalysis at an excess of potassium iodide. No conversion of vanillin occurred in the absence of enzyme. The addition of redox mediators in catalytic concentrations increased the rate of iodide oxidation ten-fold and the yield of iodovanillin by 50%. Iodinated phenolic products were also detected when o-vanillin, ethyl vanillin, acetovanillone and methyl vanillate were incubated with laccase and iodide. At an increased educt concentration of 0.1 M an almost one to one molar ratio of iodide to vanillin could be used without compromising conversion rate, and the insoluble iodovanillin product could be recovered by simple centrifugation. The novel enzymatic synthesis procedure fulfills key criteria of green chemistry. Biocatalytically produced iodovanillin and iodo-ethyl vanillin had significant growth inhibitory effects on several wood degrading fungal species. For Trametes versicolor, a species causing white rot of wood, almost complete growth inhibition and a partial biocidal effect was observed on agar plates. Enzymatic tests indicated that the iodinated compounds acted as enzyme responsive, antimicrobial materials. PMID:24594755

  4. The TLR2 agonist in polysaccharide-K is a structurally distinct lipid which acts synergistically with the protein-bound ?-glucan.

    PubMed

    Quayle, Kenneth; Coy, Catherine; Standish, Leanna; Lu, Hailing

    2015-04-01

    Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (Krestin; PSK) is a hot-water extract of Trametes versicolor with immune stimulatory activity. It has been used for the past 30 years and has demonstrated anti-tumor efficacy in multiple types of cancer. The ability of PSK to activate dendritic cells and T cells is dependent on its ability to stimulate Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), yet it remains unknown which structural component within PSK activates TLR2. The purpose of this study was to identify the TLR2 agonist within PSK and understand its role in the overall mechanism of PSK's immunogenic activity. TLR2 activity was eliminated by treatment with lipoprotein lipase but not by trypsin or lyticase. Rapid centrifugation of PSK can separate the fraction with TLR2 agonist activity from the soluble ?-glucan fraction. To study the potential interaction between the ?-glucan component and the lipid component, we labeled the soluble ?-glucan with fluorescein. Uptake of the labeled ?-glucan by J774A macrophages and JAWSII dendritic cells was inhibited by anti-Dectin-1 antibody but not by anti-TLR2 antibody, confirming that Dectin-1 is the receptor for ?-glucan. Interestingly, pre-treatment of JAWSII cells with the TLR2-active lipid fraction significantly enhanced the uptake of the soluble ?-glucan, indicating the synergy between the TLR2 agonist component and the ?-glucan component. Altogether, these results present evidence that PSK has two active components-the well-characterized protein-bound ?-glucan and a previously unreported lipid-which work synergistically via the Dectin-1 and TLR2 receptors. PMID:25510899

  5. EPR study of polyaniline synthesized enzymatically in the presence of submicrometer-sized AOT vesicles.

    PubMed

    Rakvin, Boris; Cari?, Dejana; Andreis, Mladen; Junker, Katja; Walde, Peter

    2014-02-27

    EPR spectroscopy was used to examine the magnetic properties of two enzymatically synthesized polyaniline (PANI) samples obtained in the presence of submicrometer-sized vesicles formed from sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) as templates. PANI-HRPC-AOT was synthesized with horseradish peroxidase isoenzyme C (HRPC) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as oxidant while PANI-TvL-AOT was prepared with Trametes versicolor laccase (TvL) and dioxygen (O2) as oxidant. A commercial conductive sample of the emeraldine salt form of polyaniline (PANI-ES) was also used for comparison in order to correlate the experimental data obtained for PANI-HRPC-AOT and PANI-TvL-AOT with the properties of the well-characterized PANI-ES. It was shown that a model based on the concept of correlated polaronic bands could be applied for the interpretation of the EPR spectra of all three examined samples, although PANI-HRPC-AOT and PANI-TvL-AOT were significantly less conductive than PANI-ES. The magnetic properties of the PANI samples could be related to their conductivities, whereby a low conductivity was ascribed to decreased interchain spin interactions which were detectable from a splitting of the triplet spectrum at low temperatures (5-10 K). The obtained effective distance between the polyaniline chains is larger for enzymatically synthesized PANI than for PANI-ES, most likely mainly due to the presence of AOT which could not be removed completely during the work-up. AOT influences the chain conformation and the average chain-chain distance. PMID:24484357

  6. Potential of Wood-Rotting Fungi to Attack Polystyrene Sulfonate and Its Depolymerisation by Gloeophyllum trabeum via Hydroquinone-Driven Fenton Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Martin C.; Hofmann, Ulrike; Moeder, Monika; Schlosser, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic polymers often pose environmental hazards due to low biodegradation rates and resulting accumulation. In this study, a selection of wood-rotting fungi representing different lignocellulose decay types was screened for oxidative biodegradation of the polymer polystyrene sulfonate (PSS). Brown-rot basidiomycetes showed PSS depolymerisation of up to 50 % reduction in number-average molecular mass (Mn) within 20 days. In-depth investigations with the most efficient depolymeriser, a Gloeophyllum trabeum strain, pointed at extracellular hydroquinone-driven Fenton chemistry responsible for depolymerisation. Detection of hydroxyl radicals present in the culture supernatants showed good compliance with depolymerisation over the time course of PSS degradation. 2,5-Dimethoxy-1,4-hydroquinone (2,5-DMHQ), which was detected in supernatants of active cultures via liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, was demonstrated to drive the Fenton processes in G. trabeum cultures. Up to 80% reduction in Mn of PSS where observed when fungal cultures were additionally supplemented with 2,5-dimethoxy benzoquinone, the oxidized from of 2,5-DMHQ. Furthermore, 2,5-DMHQ could initiate the Fenton's reagent-mediated PSS depolymerisation in cell-free systems. In contrast, white-rot fungi were unable to cause substantial depolymerising effects despite the expression of lignin-modifying exo-enzymes. Detailed investigations with laccase from Trametes versicolor revealed that only in presence of certain redox mediators limited PSS depolymerisation occurred. Our results indicate that brown-rot fungi might be suitable organisms for the biodegradation of recalcitrant synthetic polymeric pollutants. PMID:26147966

  7. Potential non-phytopathogenic filamentous fungi for bioconversion of domestic wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Molla, Abul Hossain; Fakhru'l-Razi, Ahmadun; Hanafi, Mohamed Musa; Abd-Aziz, Suraini; Alam, Md Zahangir

    2002-09-01

    Ten filamentous fungi adapted to domestic wastewater sludge (DWS) were further studied to evaluate their potential in terms of adaptation to higher sludge supplemented growing media and phytopathogenicity (induction of diseases to plants) to three germinating crop (Corn: Zea mays, Mung bean: Phaseolus aureus and Mustard: Brassica napus) seeds. The performances of the fungi in seed germination were evaluated based on percent germination index (GI) and infected/spotted seeds on direct fungal biomass (FBM) and fungal metabolite (FM). Significantly the highest biomass production was achieved with RW-P1 512 and Penicillium corylophilum (WW-P1003) at the highest (25%) sludge supplemented growing media that implied its excellent potentiality of adaptation and multiplication to domestic wastewater sludge. Significantly encouraging results of percent GI and spotted/infected seedlings were observed in FM than FBM by all fungi except the strain Aspergillus niger. A. niger gave the poorest percent of GI (24.30, 26.98 and 00.00%) and the highest percent of infected/spotted seeds (70, 100, and 100%) using FBM for corn, mung bean and mustard, respectively. On the other hand, comparatively the highest percent of GI (107.99, 106.25 and 117.67%) and the lowest percent of spotted/infected seedlings (3.3, 3.3 and 3.3%) were achieved with the isolate RW-P1 512 using FM. In FBM, the superior results of percent GI (86.61, 95.92 and 83.87%) and spotted/infected seedlings (3.3, 63.3 and 43.3%) were obtained by A. versicolor. Several crop seeds were responded differently for different fungal treatments. Hundred percent infected/spotted seeds in FM were recorded only for mustard with Trichoderma family that implied its strong sensitiveness to its metabolites. PMID:12369641

  8. Curvularia Haloperoxidase: Antimicrobial Activity and Potential Application as a Surface Disinfectant

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Eva H.; Albertsen, Line; Schäfer, Thomas; Johansen, Charlotte; Frisvad, Jens C.; Molin, Søren; Gram, Lone

    2003-01-01

    A presumed antimicrobial enzyme system, the Curvularia haloperoxidase system, was examined with the aim of evaluating its potential as a sanitizing agent. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, Curvularia haloperoxidase facilitates the oxidation of halides, such as chloride, bromide, and iodide, to antimicrobial compounds. The Curvularia haloperoxidase system caused several-log-unit reductions in counts of bacteria (Pseudomonas spp., Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Aeromonas salmonicida, Shewanella putrefaciens, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Listeria monocytogenes), yeasts (Candida sp. and Rhodotorula sp.), and filamentous fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tubigensis, Aspergillus versicolor, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Penicillium paxilli) cultured in suspension. Also, bacteria adhering to the surfaces of contact lenses were killed. The numbers of S. marcescens and S. epidermidis cells adhering to contact lenses were reduced from 4.0 and 4.9 log CFU to 1.2 and 2.7 log CFU, respectively, after treatment with the Curvularia haloperoxidase system. The killing effect of the Curvularia haloperoxidase system was rapid, and 106 CFU of E. coli cells/ml were eliminated within 10 min of treatment. Furthermore, the antimicrobial effect was short lived, causing no antibacterial effect against E. coli 10 min after the system was mixed. Bovine serum albumin (1%) and alginate (1%) inhibited the antimicrobial activity of the Curvularia haloperoxidase system, whereas glucose and Tween 20 did not affect its activity. In conclusion, the Curvularia haloperoxidase system is an effective sanitizing system and has the potential for a vast range of applications, for instance, for disinfection of contact lenses or medical devices. PMID:12902249

  9. Insecticidal Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Culture Filtrates of Mangrove Fungal Endophytes

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Silva; Basukriadi, Adi; Pawiroharsono, Suyanto

    2015-01-01

    In the search for novel potent fungi-derived bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications, crude ethyl acetate culture filtrate extracts from 110 mangrove fungal endophytes were screened for their toxicity. Toxicity tests of all extracts against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae were performed. The extracts with the highest toxicity were further examined for insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura larvae and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity. The results showed that the extracts of five isolates exhibited the highest toxicity to brine shrimp at 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of 7.45 to 10.24 ppm. These five fungal isolates that obtained from Rhizophora mucronata were identified based on sequence data analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA as Aspergillus oryzae (strain BPPTCC 6036), Emericella nidulans (strains BPPTCC 6035 and BPPTCC 6038), A. tamarii (strain BPPTCC 6037), and A. versicolor (strain BPPTCC 6039). The mean percentage of S. litura larval mortality following topical application of the five extracts ranged from 16.7% to 43.3%. In the AChE inhibition assay, the inhibition rates of the five extracts ranged from 40.7% to 48.9%, while eserine (positive control) had an inhibition rate of 96.8%, at a concentration of 100 ppm. The extracts used were crude extracts, so their potential as sources of AChE inhibition compounds makes them likely candidates as neurotoxins. The high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of the five extracts differed, indicating variations in their chemical constituents. This study highlights the potential of culture filtrate ethyl acetate extracts of mangrove fungal endophytes as a source of new potential bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications.

  10. An assessment of the relative contributions of redox and steric issues to laccase specificity towards putative substrates.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Mahelet Aweke; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Galli, Carlo; Gentili, Patrizia; Sergi, Federica

    2008-03-01

    Laccases catalyze the one-electron oxidation of a broad range of substrates coupled to the 4 electron reduction of O2 to H2O. Phenols are typical substrates, because their redox potentials (ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 V vs. NHE) are low enough to allow electron abstraction by the T1 Cu(II) that, although a relatively modest oxidant (in the 0.4-0.8 V range), is the electron-acceptor in laccases. The present study comparatively investigated the oxidation performances of Trametes villosa and Myceliophthora thermophila laccases, two enzymes markedly differing in redox potential (0.79 and 0.46 V). The oxidation efficiency and kinetic constants of laccase-catalyzed conversion of putative substrates were determined. Hammett plots related to the oxidation of substituted phenols by the two laccases, in combination with the kinetic isotope effect determination, confirmed a rate-determining electron transfer from the substrate to the enzyme. The efficiency of oxidation was found to increase with the decrease in redox potential of the substrates, and the Marcus reorganisation energy for electron transfer to the T1 copper site was determined. Steric hindrance to substrate docking was inferred because some of the phenols and anilines investigated, despite possessing a redox potential compatible with one-electron abstraction, were scarcely oxidised. A threshold value of steric hindrance of the substrate, allowed for fitting into the active site of T. villosa laccase, was extrapolated from structural information provided by X-ray analysis of T. versicolor lac3B, sharing an identity of 99% at the protein level, thus enabling us to assess the relative contribution of steric and redox properties of a substrate in determining its susceptibility to laccase oxidation. The inferred structural threshold is compatible with the distance between two phenylalanine residues that mark the entrance to the active site. Interaction of the substrate with other residues of the active site is commented on. PMID:18292878

  11. Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes Relevant to Variegation in Peach Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Faxin; Li, Shuxian; Yin, Tongming

    2014-01-01

    Background Variegation in flower color is commonly observed in many plant species and also occurs on ornamental peaches (Prunus persica f. versicolor [Sieb.] Voss). Variegated plants are highly valuable in the floricultural market. To gain a global perspective on genes differentially expressed in variegated peach flowers, we performed large-scale transcriptome sequencing of white and red petals separately collected from a variegated peach tree. Results A total of 1,556,597 high-quality reads were obtained, with an average read length of 445 bp. The ESTs were assembled into 16,530 contigs and 42,050 singletons. The resulting unigenes covered about 60% of total predicted genes in the peach genome. These unigenes were further subjected to functional annotation and biochemical pathway analysis. Digital expression analysis identified a total of 514 genes differentially expressed between red and white flower petals. Since peach flower coloration is determined by the expression and regulation of structural genes relevant to flavonoid biosynthesis, a detailed examination detected four key structural genes, including C4H, CHS, CHI and F3H, expressed at a significantly higher level in red than in white petal. Except for the structural genes, we also detected 11 differentially expressed regulatory genes relating to flavonoid biosynthesis. Using the differentially expressed structural genes as the test objects, we validated the digital expression results by using quantitative real-time PCR, and the differential expression of C4H, CHS and F3H were confirmed. Conclusion In this study, we generated a large EST collection from flower petals of a variegated peach. By digital expression analysis, we identified an informative list of candidate genes associated with variegation in peach flowers, which offered a unique opportunity to uncover the genetic mechanisms underlying flower color variegation. PMID:24603808

  12. Potential of Wood-Rotting Fungi to Attack Polystyrene Sulfonate and Its Depolymerisation by Gloeophyllum trabeum via Hydroquinone-Driven Fenton Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Martin C; Hofmann, Ulrike; Moeder, Monika; Schlosser, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic polymers often pose environmental hazards due to low biodegradation rates and resulting accumulation. In this study, a selection of wood-rotting fungi representing different lignocellulose decay types was screened for oxidative biodegradation of the polymer polystyrene sulfonate (PSS). Brown-rot basidiomycetes showed PSS depolymerisation of up to 50 % reduction in number-average molecular mass (Mn) within 20 days. In-depth investigations with the most efficient depolymeriser, a Gloeophyllum trabeum strain, pointed at extracellular hydroquinone-driven Fenton chemistry responsible for depolymerisation. Detection of hydroxyl radicals present in the culture supernatants showed good compliance with depolymerisation over the time course of PSS degradation. 2,5-Dimethoxy-1,4-hydroquinone (2,5-DMHQ), which was detected in supernatants of active cultures via liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, was demonstrated to drive the Fenton processes in G. trabeum cultures. Up to 80% reduction in Mn of PSS where observed when fungal cultures were additionally supplemented with 2,5-dimethoxy benzoquinone, the oxidized from of 2,5-DMHQ. Furthermore, 2,5-DMHQ could initiate the Fenton's reagent-mediated PSS depolymerisation in cell-free systems. In contrast, white-rot fungi were unable to cause substantial depolymerising effects despite the expression of lignin-modifying exo-enzymes. Detailed investigations with laccase from Trametes versicolor revealed that only in presence of certain redox mediators limited PSS depolymerisation occurred. Our results indicate that brown-rot fungi might be suitable organisms for the biodegradation of recalcitrant synthetic polymeric pollutants. PMID:26147966

  13. Indoor fungi and their ciliostatic metabolites.

    PubMed

    Piecková, Elena; Kunová, Zuzana

    2002-01-01

    According to epidemiological studies, it is possible that some secondary metabolites of indoor airborne fungi could be responsible for health troubles which occupants suffer from. In our previous experiments, a model with tracheal rings of 1-day-old chicks in vitro was shown to be a very suitable method to study the ciliostatic chloroform-extractable endo- and/or exometabolites of filamentous fungi. In this study we isolated the filamentous fungi from walls of "mouldy" dwellings and schools (cultivation on dichloran 18% glycerol agar at 25 and 37 degrees C for 10 d) in Slovakia. We studied the ciliostatic effect of the chloroform-extractable endo- and exometabolites of 96 representative isolates (stationary cultivation on the liquid medium with 2% of yeast extract and 10% of sucrose at 25 degrees C for 10 days) on the cilia movement in tracheal organ cultures of 1-day-old chickens in vitro after 24, 48 and 72 hrs (incubation in the minimal essential medium according to Eagle with Earl s salts and 20 microg of extract of metabolites dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide per 1 mL). Strains of Penicillium Link: Fr. sp., Aspergillus versicolor (Vuill.) Tiraboschi, A. flavus Link, Cladosporium sphaerospermum Penzig and C. cladosporioides (Fres.) de Vries were isolated most frequently. Two A. flavus isolates were able to produce aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 in vitro after cultivation on the liquid medium with 20% sucrose and 2% yeast extract. This is the first isolation of aflatoxigenic A. flavus strains from dwellings in Slovakia. All frequently isolated strains produced secondary metabolites with the strongest ciliostatic activity -- their exo- and endometabolites stopped tracheal ciliary movement in chicks till 24 h. There are some toxic fungal metabolites in the indoor air not only with the ability to destroy ciliary movement in the upper airways in vitro but, probably, during long-lasting exposure to cause general intoxication of macroorganism via lung tissue. PMID:12088399

  14. Combined TLR2/4-activated dendritic/tumor cell fusions induce augmented cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Koido, Shigeo; Homma, Sadamu; Okamoto, Masato; Namiki, Yoshihisa; Takakura, Kazuki; Takahara, Akitaka; Odahara, Shunichi; Tsukinaga, Shintaro; Yukawa, Toyokazu; Mitobe, Jimi; Matsudaira, Hiroshi; Nagatsuma, Keisuke; Uchiyama, Kan; Kajihara, Mikio; Arihiro, Seiji; Imazu, Hiroo; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Kan, Shin; Komita, Hideo; Ito, Masaki; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Gong, Jianlin; Tajiri, Hisao

    2013-01-01

    Induction of antitumor immunity by dendritic cell (DC)-tumor fusion cells (DC/tumor) can be modulated by their activation status. In this study, to address optimal status of DC/tumor to induce efficient antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), we have created various types of DC/tumor: 1) un-activated DC/tumor; 2) penicillin-killed Streptococcus pyogenes (OK-432; TLR4 agonist)-activated DC/tumor; 3) protein-bound polysaccharides isolated from Coriolus versicolor (PSK; TLR2 agonist)-activated DC/tumor; and 4) Combined OK-432- and PSK-activated DC/tumor. Moreover, we assessed the effects of TGF-?1 derived from DC/tumor on the induction of MUC1-specific CTLs. Combined TLR2- and TLR4-activated DC/tumor overcame immune-suppressive effect of TGF-?1 in comparison to those single activated or un-activated DC/tumor as demonstrated by: 1) up-regulation of MHC class II and CD86 expression on DC/tumor; 2) increased fusion efficiency; 3) increased production of fusions derived IL-12p70; 4) activation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that produce high levels of IFN-?; 5) augmented induction of CTL activity specific for MUC1; and 6) superior efficacy in inhibiting CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cell generation. However, DC/tumor-derived TGF-?1 reduced the efficacy of DC/tumor vaccine in vitro. Incorporating combined TLRs-activation and TGF-?1-blockade of DC/tumor may enhance the effectiveness of DC/tumor-based cancer vaccines and have the potential applicability to the field of adoptive immunotherapy. PMID:23555011

  15. Correlation between efficacy of PSK postoperative adjuvant immunochemotherapy for gastric cancer and expression of MHC class I.

    PubMed

    Ito, Gentaro; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Ohira, Masaichi; Yoshii, Mami; Muguruma, Kazuya; Kubo, Naoshi; Yashiro, Masakazu; Yamada, Nobuya; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Sawada, Tetsuji; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2012-06-01

    Protein-bound polysaccharide K (PSK) is a glycoprotein that is purified from the mushroom Coriolus versicolor. In Japan, PSK is clinically used in combination with anticancer agents following gastric cancer surgery. Evaluation of the response is difficult, as efficacy is determined via antitumor immunoenhancing effects, and for that reason PSK has not become a standard therapy. The present study evaluated the expression of MHC class I in gastric cancer patients who received PSK postoperative adjuvant immunochemotherapy, and investigated the correlation between MHC class I expression and clinical outcomes. The subjects comprised 349 patients with stage II/III gastric cancer, who had received adjuvant therapy following curative resection between 1995 and 2008. MHC class I expression in the primary lesion was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Patients were divided into two treatment groups: one was only administered oral chemotherapy (chemotherapy-only group) and the other was administered chemotherapy plus PSK (PSK group). The clinical outcomes were compared between the two groups. The two groups did not differ in regard to their MHC class I expression. Expression-negative cases demonstrated 3-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates of 65% in the PSK group and 47% in the chemotherapy-only group. Therefore, the PSK group revealed a prolonged survival. For the 82 expression-negative cases with pN2 or greater, the RFS rates were 68% in the PSK group and 28% in the chemotherapy-only group, representing a significant difference. Thus, PSK adjuvant immunochemotherapy may be effective in MHC class I-negative patients, who are in a state of antitumor immunological tolerance, and patients with advanced lymph node metastasis of pN2 or greater. PMID:22969994

  16. Suppression of growth and invasive behavior of human prostate cancer cells by ProstaCaid™: mechanism of activity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiahua; Eliaz, Isaac; Sliva, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    Since the use of dietary supplements as alternative treatments or adjuvant therapies in cancer treatment is growing, a scientific verification of their biological activity and the detailed mechanisms of their action are necessary for the acceptance of dietary supplements in conventional cancer treatments. In the present study we have evaluated the anti-cancer effects of dietary supplement ProstaCaid™ (PC) which contains mycelium from medicinal mushrooms (Ganoderma lucidum, Coriolus versicolor, Phellinus linteus), saw palmetto berry, pomegranate, pumpkin seed, green tea [40% epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)], Japanese knotweed (50% resveratrol), extracts of turmeric root (BCM-95®), grape skin, pygeum bark, sarsaparilla root, Scutellaria barbata, eleuthero root, Job's tears, astragalus root, skullcap, dandelion, coptis root, broccoli, and stinging nettle, with purified vitamin C, vitamin D3, selenium, quercetin, citrus bioflavonoid complex, ? sitosterolzinc, lycopene, ? lipoic acid, boron, berberine and 3.3'-diinodolymethane (DIM). We show that PC treatment resulted in the inhibition of cell proliferation of the highly invasive human hormone refractory (independent) PC-3 prostate cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner with IC50 56.0, 45.6 and 39.0 µg/ml for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. DNA-microarray analysis demonstrated that PC inhibits proliferation through the modulation of expression of CCND1, CDK4, CDKN1A, E2F1, MAPK6 and PCNA genes. In addition, PC also suppresses metastatic behavior of PC-3 by the inhibition of cell adhesion, cell migration and cell invasion, which was associated with the down-regulation of expression of CAV1, IGF2, NR2F1, and PLAU genes and suppressed secretion of the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) from PC-3 cells. In conclusion, the dietary supplement PC is a promising natural complex with the potency to inhibit invasive human prostate cancer. PMID:21468543

  17. BreastDefend™ prevents breast-to-lung cancer metastases in an orthotopic animal model of triple-negative human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiahua; Thyagarajan-Sahu, Anita; Loganathan, Jagadish; Eliaz, Isaac; Terry, Colin; Sandusky, George E; Sliva, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    We have recently demonstrated that a natural dietary supplement BreastDefend (BD), which contains extracts from medicinal mushrooms (Coriolus versicolor, Ganoderma lucidum, Phellinus linteus), medicinal herbs (Scutellaria barbata, Astragalus membranaceus, Curcuma longa), and purified biologically active nutritional compounds (diindolylmethane and quercetin), inhibits proliferation and metastatic behavior of MDA-MB-231 invasive human breast cancer cells in vitro. In the present study, we evaluated whether BD suppresses growth and breast-to lung cancer metastasis in an orthotopic model of human breast cancer cells implanted in mice. Oral application of BD (100 mg/kg of body weight for 4 weeks) by intragastric gavage did not affect body weight or activity of liver enzymes and did not show any sign of toxicity in liver, spleen, kidney, lung and heart tissues in mice. Moreover, BD significantly decreased the change in tumor volume over time compared to the control group (p=0.002). BD treatment also markedly decreased the incidence of breast-to-lung cancer metastasis from 67% (control) to 20% (BD) (p<0.05) and the number of metastases from 2.8 (0.0, 48.0) in the control group to 0.0 (0.0, 14.2) in the BD treatment group (p<0.05). Finally, anti-metastatic activity of BD in vivo was further confirmed by the downregulation of expression of PLAU (urokinase plasminogen activator, uPA) and CXCR4 (C-X-C chemokine receptor-4) genes in breast tumors. In conclusion, BD may be considered as a biological therapeutic agent against invasive breast cancers. PMID:22842551

  18. Augmentation of antitumor immunity by fusions of ethanol-treated tumor cells and dendritic cells stimulated via dual TLRs through TGF-?1 blockade and IL-12p70 production.

    PubMed

    Koido, Shigeo; Homma, Sadamu; Okamoto, Masato; Namiki, Yoshihisa; Takakura, Kazuki; Takahara, Akitaka; Odahara, Shunichi; Tsukinaga, Shintaro; Yukawa, Toyokazu; Mitobe, Jimi; Matsudaira, Hiroshi; Nagatsuma, Keisuke; Kajihara, Mikio; Uchiyama, Kan; Arihiro, Seiji; Imazu, Hiroo; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Kan, Shin; Hayashi, Kazumi; Komita, Hideo; Kamata, Yuko; Ito, Masaki; Hara, Eiichi; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Gong, Jianlin; Tajiri, Hisao

    2013-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of fusion cell (FC)-based cancer vaccine generated with whole tumor cells and dendritic cells (DCs) requires the improved immunogenicity of both cells. Treatment of whole tumor cells with ethanol resulted in blockade of immune-suppressive soluble factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, vascular endothelial growth factor, and IL-10 without decreased expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and the MUC1 tumor-associated antigen. Moreover, the ethanol-treated tumor cells expressed "eat-me" signals such as calreticulin (CRT) on the cell surface and released immunostimulatory factors such as heat shock protein (HSP)90? and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). A dual stimulation of protein-bound polysaccharides isolated from Coriolus versicolor (TLR2 agonist) and penicillin-inactivated Streptococcus pyogenes (TLR4 agonist) led human monocyte-derived DCs to produce HSP90? and multiple cytokines such as IL-12p70 and IL-10. Interestingly, incorporating ethanol-treated tumor cells and TLRs-stimulated DCs during the fusion process promoted fusion efficiency and up-regulated MHC class II molecules on a per fusion basis. Moreover, fusions of ethanol-treated tumor cells and dual TLRs-stimulated DCs (E-tumor/FCs) inhibited the production of multiple immune-suppressive soluble factors including TGF-?1 and up-regulated the production of IL-12p70 and HSP90?. Most importantly, E-tumor/FCs activated T cells capable of producing high levels of IFN-?, resulting in augmented MUC1-specific CTL induction. Collectively, our results illustrate the synergy between ethanol-treated whole tumor cells and dual TLRs-stimulated DCs in inducing augmented CTL responses in vitro by FC preparations. The alternative system is simple and may provide a platform for adoptive immunotherapy. PMID:23717436

  19. Effects of fungal degradation on the CuO oxidation products of lignin: A controlled laboratory study

    SciTech Connect

    Hedges, J.I.; Weliky, K.; Devol, A.H. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA)); Blanchette, R.A. (Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul (USA))

    1988-11-01

    Duplicate samples of birch wood were degraded for 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks by the white-rot fungus, Phlebia tremellosus, and for 12 weeks by 6 other white-rot and brown-rot fungi. P. tremellosus caused progressive weight losses and increased the H/C and O/C of the remnant wood by preferentially degrading the lignin component of the middle lamellae. Total yields of syringyl phenols were decreased 1.5 times as fast as total vanillyl phenol yields. Within both phenol families, aldehyde precursors were degraded faster than precursors of the corresponding ketones, which were obtained in constant proportion to the total phenol yield. Although two other white-rot fungi caused similar lignin compositional trends, a fourth white-rot species, Coriolus versicolor, simultaneously eroded all cell wall components and did not concentrate polysaccharides in the remnant wood. The brown-rot fungi also preferentially attacked syringyl structural units, but degraded all phenol precursors at a much slower rate than the white-rotters and did not produce excess vanillic acid. Degradation by P. tremellosus linearly increased the vanillic acid/vanillin ratio, (Ad/Al)v, of the remnant birch wood throughout the 12 week degradation study and exponentially decreased the absolute yields of total vanillyl phenols, total syringyl phenols and the syringyl/vanillyl phenol ratio, S/V. At the highest (Ad/Al)v of 0.50 total yields of syringyl and vanillyl phenols were decreased by 65% and 80%, respectively, with a resulting reduction of 40% in the original S/V. Many of the diagenetically related compositional trends that have been previously reported for lignins in natural environments can be explained by white-rot fungal degradation.

  20. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils from different tissues of Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Lin, Huang-Yuan; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2005-02-01

    In this study antifungal activities of essential oils from different tissues of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) against four wood decay fungi and six tree pathogenic fungi were investigated. In addition, the yields of essential oils obtained by water distillation were compared and their constituents determined by GC-MS analyses. The yield of essential oils from four tissues of Japanese cedar is in the decreasing order of leaf (27.38 mL/kg) > bark (6.31 mL/kg) > heartwood (3.80 mL/kg) > sapwood (1.27 mL/kg). Results obtained from the antifungal tests demonstrate that the essential oil of Japanese cedar heartwood used against Laetiporus sulphureus and Trametes versicolor and sapwood essential oil used against L. sulphureus had strong antifungal activities at 500 mug/mL, with IC(50) values of 39, 91, and 94 microg/mL, respectively. Besides, the essential oils of Japanese cedar heartwood used against Rhizoctonia solani, Collectotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium solani, and Ganoderma australe had strong antifungal activities at 500 microg/mL, with IC(50) values of 65, 80, 80, and 110 microg/mL, respectively. GC-MS analyses showed that the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon compounds dominate in the essential oil from Japanese cedar heartwood, amounting to a total percentage of 82.56%, with the major compounds of delta-cadinene (18.60%), isoledene (12.41%), and gamma-muurolene (11.82%). It is proposed that the excellent antifungal activities of Japanese cedar heartwood essential oils might correlate with the presence of these compounds. PMID:15686410

  1. Biologically active compounds from Aphyllophorales (polypore) fungi.

    PubMed

    Zjawiony, Jordan K

    2004-02-01

    This review describes biologically active natural products isolated from Aphyllophorales, many of which are known as polypores. Polypores are a large group of terrestrial fungi of the phylum Basdiomycota (basidiomycetes), and they along with certain Ascomycota are a major source of pharmacologically active substances. There are about 25 000 species of basidiomycetes, of which about 500 are members of the Aphyllophorales, a polyphyletic group that contains the polypores. Many of these fungi have circumboreal distributions in North America, Europe, and Asia and broad distributions on all inhabited continents and Africa; only a small number of the most common species with the most obvious fruiting bodies (basidiocarps) have been evaluated for biological activity. An estimated 75% of polypore fungi that have been tested show strong antimicrobial activity, and these may constitute a good source for developing new antibiotics. Numerous compounds from these fungi also display antiviral, cytotoxic, and/or antineoplastic activities. Additional important components of this vast arsenal of compounds are polysaccharides derived from the fungal cell walls. These compounds have attracted significant attention in recent years because of their immunomodulatory activities, resulting in antitumor effects. These high molecular weight compounds, often called biological response modifiers (BRM), or immunopotentiators, prevent carcinogenesis, show direct anticancer effects, and prevent tumor metastasis. Some of the protein-bound polysaccharides from polypores and other basidiomycetes have found their way to the market in Japan as anticancer drugs. Finally, numerous compounds with cardiovascular, phytotoxic, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antidiabetic, antioxidant, insecticidal, and nematocidal activities, isolated from polypores, are also presented. In fact many of the fungi mentioned in this paper have long been used in herbal medicine, including polypores such as Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi or Ling Zhi), Laetiporus sulphureus (Chicken-of-the-Woods), Trametes versicolor (Yun Zhi), Grifola umbellata (Zhu Lin), Inonotus obliquus (Chaga), and Wolfiporia cocos (Hoelen). PMID:14987072

  2. A cocktail of contaminants: how mixtures of pesticides at low concentrations affect aquatic communities.

    PubMed

    Relyea, Rick A

    2009-03-01

    The ubiquity of anthropogenic chemicals in nature poses a challenge to understanding how ecological communities are impacted by them. While we are rapidly gaining an understanding of how individual contaminants affect communities, communities are exposed to suites of contaminants yet investigations of the effects of diverse contaminant mixtures in aquatic communities are rare. I examined how a single application of five insecticides (malathion, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and endosulfan) and five herbicides (glyphosate, atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor, and 2,4-D) at low concentrations (2-16 p.p.b.) affected aquatic communities composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, periphyton, and larval amphibians (gray tree frogs, Hyla versicolor, and leopard frogs, Rana pipiens). Using outdoor mesocosms, I examined each pesticide alone, a mix of insecticides, a mix of herbicides, and a mix of all ten pesticides. Individual pesticides had a wide range of direct and indirect effects on all trophic groups. For some taxa (i.e., zooplankton and algae), the impact of pesticide mixtures could largely be predicted from the impacts of individual pesticides; for other taxa (i.e., amphibians) it could not. For amphibians, there was an apparent direct toxic effect of endosulfan that caused 84% mortality of leopard frogs and an indirect effect induced by diazinon that caused 24% mortality of leopard frogs. When pesticides were combined, the mix of herbicides had no negative effects on the survival and metamorphosis of amphibians, but the mix of insecticides and the mix of all ten pesticides eliminated 99% of leopard frogs. Interestingly, these mixtures did not cause mortality in the gray tree frogs and, as a result, the gray tree frogs grew nearly twice as large due to reduced competition with leopard frogs. In short, wetland communities can be dramatically impacted by low concentrations of pesticides (both separate and combined) and these results offer important insights for the conservation of wetland communities. PMID:19002502

  3. The toxicity of Roundup Original Max to 13 species of larval amphibians.

    PubMed

    Relyea, Rick A; Jones, Devin K

    2009-09-01

    With the increased use of glyphosate-based herbicides (marketed under several names, including Roundup and Vision), there has been a concomitant increased concern about the unintended impacts that particular formulations containing the popular surfactant polyethoxylated tallowamine (POEA) might have on amphibians. Published studies have examined a relatively small number of anuran species (primarily from Australia and eastern North America) and, surprisingly, no species of salamanders. Using a popular formulation of glyphosate (Roundup Original Max), the goal of the present study was to conduct tests of lethal concentrations estimated to kill 50% of a population after 96 h (LC50(96-h)) on a wider diversity of species from both eastern and western North America. Tests were conducted on nine species of stage 25, larval anurans from three families (Ranidae: Rana pipiens, R. clamitans, R. sylvatica, R. catesbeiana, R. cascadae; Bufonidae: Bufo americanus, B. boreas; and Hylidae: Hyla versicolor, Pseudacris crucifer) and four species of larval salamanders from two families (Ambystomatidae: Ambystoma gracile, A. maculatum, A. laterale; and Salamandridae: Notophthalmus viridescens). For the nine species of larval anurans, LC50(96-h) values ranged from 0.8- to 2.0-mg acid equivalents per liter with relatively little pattern in differential sensitivity among the species or families. The four species of larval salamanders were less sensitive than the anurans, with LC50(96-h) values ranging from 2.7- to 3.2-mg acid equivalents per liter and no substantial differences among the species of salamanders. This work substantially increases the available data on amphibian sensitivity to glyphosate formulations that include either POEA surfactants or the equally moderately to highly toxic surfactants of Roundup Original Max and should be useful for improving future risk assessments. PMID:19405783

  4. Swimming with predators and pesticides: how environmental stressors affect the thermal physiology of tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Katzenberger, Marco; Hammond, John; Duarte, Helder; Tejedo, Miguel; Calabuig, Cecilia; Relyea, Rick A

    2014-01-01

    To forecast biological responses to changing environments, we need to understand how a species's physiology varies through space and time and assess how changes in physiological function due to environmental changes may interact with phenotypic changes caused by other types of environmental variation. Amphibian larvae are well known for expressing environmentally induced phenotypes, but relatively little is known about how these responses might interact with changing temperatures and their thermal physiology. To address this question, we studied the thermal physiology of grey treefrog tadpoles (Hyla versicolor) by determining whether exposures to predator cues and an herbicide (Roundup) can alter their critical maximum temperature (CTmax) and their swimming speed across a range of temperatures, which provides estimates of optimal temperature (Topt) for swimming speed and the shape of the thermal performance curve (TPC). We discovered that predator cues induced a 0.4°C higher CTmax value, whereas the herbicide had no effect. Tadpoles exposed to predator cues or the herbicide swam faster than control tadpoles and the increase in burst speed was higher near Topt. In regard to the shape of the TPC, exposure to predator cues increased Topt by 1.5°C, while exposure to the herbicide marginally lowered Topt by 0.4°C. Combining predator cues and the herbicide produced an intermediate Topt that was 0.5°C higher than the control. To our knowledge this is the first study to demonstrate a predator altering the thermal physiology of amphibian larvae (prey) by increasing CTmax, increasing the optimum temperature, and producing changes in the thermal performance curves. Furthermore, these plastic responses of CTmax and TPC to different inducing environments should be considered when forecasting biological responses to global warming. PMID:24869960

  5. Molecular screening of 246 Portuguese Aspergillus isolates among different clinical and environmental sources.

    PubMed

    Sabino, Raquel; Veríssimo, Cristina; Parada, Helena; Brandão, João; Viegas, Carla; Carolino, Elisabete; Clemons, Karl V; Stevens, David A

    2014-07-01

    Clinical and environmental samples from Portugal were screened for the presence of Aspergillus and the distributions of the species complexes were determined in order to understand how their distributions differ based on their source. Fifty-seven Aspergillus isolates from clinical samples were collected from 10 health institutions. Six species complexes were detected by internal transcribed spacer sequencing; Fumigati, Flavi, and Nigri were found most frequently (50.9%, 21.0%, and 15.8%, respectively). ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequencing resulted in seven cryptic species (A. awamorii, A. brasiliensis, A. fructus, A. lentulus, A. sydowii, A. tubingensis, Emericella echinulata) being identified among the 57 isolates. Thirty-nine isolates of Aspergillus were recovered from beach sand and poultry farms, 31 from swine farms, and 80 from hospital environments, for a total 189 isolates. Eleven species complexes were found in these 189 isolates, and those belonging to the Versicolores species complex were found most frequently (23.8%). There was a significant association between the different environmental sources and distribution of the species complexes; the hospital environment had greater variability of species complexes than other environmental locations. A high prevalence of cryptic species within the Circumdati complex was detected in several environments; from the isolates analyzed, at least four cryptic species were identified, most of them growing at 37ºC. Because Aspergillus species complexes have different susceptibilities to antifungals, knowing the species-complex epidemiology for each setting, as well as the identification of cryptic species among the collected clinical isolates, is important. This may allow preventive and corrective measures to be taken, which may result in decreased exposure to those organisms and a better prognosis. PMID:24847040

  6. Flavonoids: hemisynthesis, reactivity, characterization and free radical scavenging activity.

    PubMed

    Es-Safi, Nour-Eddine; Ghidouche, Souhila; Ducrot, Paul Henri

    2007-01-01

    Phenolic compounds form one of the main classes of secondary metabolites. They display a large range of structures and they are responsible for the major organoleptic characteristics of plant-derived-foods and beverages, particularly color and taste properties and they also contribute to the nutritional qualities of fruits and vegetables. Phenolic compounds are also highly unstable compounds which undergo numerous enzymatic and chemical reactions during postharvest food storage and processing thus adding to the complexity of plant polyphenol composition. Among these compounds flavonoids constitute one of the most ubiquitous groups of all plant phenolics. Owing to their importance in food organoleptic properties and in human health, a better understanding of their structures, their reactivity and chemical properties in addition to the mechanisms generating them appears essential to predict and control food quality. The purpose of this work is an overview of our findings concerning the hemisynthesis, the reactivity and the enzymatic oxidation of some flavonoids and shed light on the mechanisms involved in some of these processes and the structures of the resulting products. The free radical scavenging activity of some of the synthesized compounds is also presented and a structure-activity relationship is discussed. The first part of this review concerns the synthesis and structural characterization of modified monomeric flavanols. The use of these compounds as precursor for the preparation of natural and modified dimeric procyanidin derivatives was then explored through different coupling reactions. The full characterization of the synthesized compounds was achieved by concerted use of NMR and ESI-MS techniques. The free radical scavenging activity of some of the synthesized compounds was investigated. The second part of this review concerns the enzymatic oxidation of several flavonols by Trametes versicolor laccase. Most of the major oxidation products have been isolated as pure compounds and their structures unambiguously established through spectroscopic methods. Correlation between the structure of the oxidation product and the substitution pattern of the starting materials allows mechanistic features of this transformation to be elucidated. PMID:17962740

  7. Synergistic interaction in simultaneous exposure to Streptomyces californicus and Stachybotrys chartarum.

    PubMed Central

    Huttunen, Kati; Pelkonen, Jukka; Nielsen, Kristian Fogg; Nuutinen, Ulla; Jussila, Juha; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2004-01-01

    The microbial exposure associated with health complaints in moldy houses consists of a heterogeneous group of components, including both living and dead bacteria, fungi, and their metabolites and active compounds. However, little is known about the interactions between different microbes and their metabolites, although the cytotoxicity and inflammatory potential of certain individual microbes have been reported. In this study, we investigated the inflammatory responses of mouse RAW264.7 macrophages after exposure to six indoor air microbes (Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium spinulosum, Stachybotrys chartarum, Bacillus cereus, Mycobacterium terrae, and Pseudomonas fluorescens) alone and together with the actinomycete Streptomyces californicus. The production of nitric oxide, levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and cytotoxicity were measured. The coexposure to Sta. chartarum and Str. californicus caused a synergistic increase in the production of IL-6 but not other cytokines. In further experiments, the metabolites from Sta. chartarum or from closely related fungi (atranones B and E, satratoxin G, trichodermin, 7-alpha-hydroxytrichodermol, staplabin, and SMTP-7) and the known fungal toxins sterigmatocystin, citrinin, and ochratoxin A were each tested with Str. californicus. The testing revealed a synergistic response in TNF-alpha and IL-6 production after coexposure to Str. californicus with both trichodermin and 7-alpha-hydroxytrichodermol. Finally, the synergistic inflammatory response caused by Str. californicus and trichodermin together was studied by analyzing for the presence of nuclear factor-kappa-B (NF-kappa-B) in nuclear extracts of the exposed cells. The exposure to Str. californicus induced the binding of NF-kappa-B proteins to the NF-kappa-B consensus sequence as well as to the natural NF-kappa-B site of the IL-6 promoter. Adding trichodermin to the exposure did not increase the DNA binding. PMID:15121507

  8. Immunomodulatory dietary polysaccharides: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A large body of literature suggests that certain polysaccharides affect immune system function. Much of this literature, however, consists of in vitro studies or studies in which polysaccharides were injected. Their immunologic effects following oral administration is less clear. The purpose of this systematic review was to consolidate and evaluate the available data regarding the specific immunologic effects of dietary polysaccharides. Methods Studies were identified by conducting PubMed and Google Scholar electronic searches and through reviews of polysaccharide article bibliographies. Only articles published in English were included in this review. Two researchers reviewed data on study design, control, sample size, results, and nature of outcome measures. Subsequent searches were conducted to gather information about polysaccharide safety, structure and composition, and disposition. Results We found 62 publications reporting statistically significant effects of orally ingested glucans, pectins, heteroglycans, glucomannans, fucoidans, galactomannans, arabinogalactans and mixed polysaccharide products in rodents. Fifteen controlled human studies reported that oral glucans, arabinogalactans, heteroglycans, and fucoidans exerted significant effects. Although some studies investigated anti-inflammatory effects, most studies investigated the ability of oral polysaccharides to stimulate the immune system. These studies, as well as safety and toxicity studies, suggest that these polysaccharide products appear to be largely well-tolerated. Conclusions Taken as a whole, the oral polysaccharide literature is highly heterogenous and is not sufficient to support broad product structure/function generalizations. Numerous dietary polysaccharides, particularly glucans, appear to elicit diverse immunomodulatory effects in numerous animal tissues, including the blood, GI tract and spleen. Glucan extracts from the Trametes versicolor mushroom improved survival and immune function in human RCTs of cancer patients; glucans, arabinogalactans and fucoidans elicited immunomodulatory effects in controlled studies of healthy adults and patients with canker sores and seasonal allergies. This review provides a foundation that can serve to guide future research on immune modulation by well-characterized polysaccharide compounds. PMID:21087484

  9. [2006 Epidemiological survey of dermatomycoses in Japan].

    PubMed

    Sei, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    An epidemiological survey of dermatomycoses and the causative fungus flora of dermatomycoses in Japan for 2006 was made on a total number of 63,029 outpatients who visited 16 dermatological clinics throughout Japan. The results were as follows. 1) Dermatophytosis was the most prevalent cutaneus fungal infection (7,582 cases) seen in these clinics, followed by candidiasis (842 cases) and then Malassezia infections (283 cases). 2) Among dermatophytoses, tinea pedis was the most frequent (4,779 cases : male 2,358, female 2,241), then in decreasing order, tinea unguium (2,582 cases : male 1,376, female 1,206), tinea corporis (564 cases : male 341, female 223), tinea cruris (309 cases : male 254, female 57), tinea manuum (145 cases : male 92, female 53), and tinea capitis including kerion (17 cases : male 12, female 5). 3) Tinea pedis and tinea unguium are seen to increase in the summer season, among the aged population. When compared to the last survey 2002 by clinical form, t. unguium patients increased 459 cases. 4) As the causative dermatophyte species, Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated among all dermatophyte infections except tinea capitis. Microsporum canis was slightly increased. M.gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum are small number. T.tonsurans was increased up to 37 cases. 5) Cutaneous candidiasis was seen in 842 cases (305 male, 537 female). Intertrigo (298 cases) was the most frequent clinical form, followed by erosion interdigitalis (136 cases), oral candidiasis (135 cases), onychia et paronychia (108 cases), genital and diaper candidiasis in total (88 cases). 6) Tinea versicolor was seen in 175 cases. Malassezia folliculitis were collected 108 cases, 63 cases are reported from one clinic. PMID:23149353

  10. [1996 epidemiological survey of dermatophytoses in Japan. Epidemiological Investigation Committee for Human Mycoses in the Japanese Society for Medical Mycology].

    PubMed

    Kasai, T

    2000-01-01

    An epidemiological investigation on dermatophytoses in Japan for the year 1996 was carried out with the following results. The number of dermatomycoses patients visiting the fifteen cooperating institutes that year was 8,402. New outpatients with this condition accounted for 13.1% of all new outpatients in these institutes. Dermatophytoses patients numbered 7,395 and were composed of: tinea pedis 4,764 (64.4%), tinea unguium 1,487 (20.1%), tinea corporis 558 (7.5%), tinea cruris 369 (5.0%), tinea manuum 195 (2.6%), tinea capitis 11, kerion Celsi 7, tinea barbae 1 and other forms 3. Of these, 113 were children under 15 years of age. Species and incidences of the 2,615 strains isolated from the patients with dermatophytoses were as follows: Trichophyton (T.) rubrum 1,828 (69. 9%), T. mentagrophytes 743 (28.4%) Epidermophyton floccosum 20 (0. 8%), Microsporum (M.) canis 13 (0.5%), M. gypseum 5, T. violaceum 2, and 4 undetermined strains. Candidiasis was found in 722 individuals: intertrigo 299, erosio interdigitalis 95, erythema infantum 89, oral candidiasis 63, paronychia et onychia 56, genital candidiasis 56, onychomycosis 24, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis 1 and other atypical forms of candidiasis 39. Patients with tinea versicolor numbered 265 and those with Malassezia folliculitis 15. There were five cases of deep dermal mycoses: three of sporotrichosis, one of chromomycosis and one of aspergillosis. The results of superficial dermatophytoses for the year 1996 differed from those of 1991-92 in the following points: Tinea corporis and tinea cruris were lower in number, while tinea unguium had increased in ratio and number. M. canis infection tended to decrease gradually. In the age-distribution of tinea, in every clinical form the peak of distribution curve shifted to a more elderly age group. PMID:10938521

  11. [1997 Epidemiological survey of dermatophytoses in Japan].

    PubMed

    Kasai, T

    2001-01-01

    An epidemiological investigation on dermatophytoses in Japan for the year 1997 was carried out with the following results. The number of dermatomycoses patients visiting the fourteen cooperating institutes that year was 8,284. New outpatients with this condition accounted for 13.3% of all new outpatients in these institutes. Dermatophytoses patients numbered 7,314 and were composed of: tinea pedis 4,901 (63.8%), tinea unguium 1,592 (20.7%), tinea corporis 557 (7.2%), tinea cruris 395 (5.1%), tinea manuum 215 (2.8%), tinea capitis 12, kerion celsi 3, tinea barbae 1 and granuloma trichophyticum 1. Of these, 117 were children under 15 years of age. Species and incidences of the 2,273 strains isolated from the patients with dermatophytoses were as follows: Trichophyton (T.) rubrum 1,628 (71.6%), T. mentagrophytes 617 (27.2%), Epidermophyton floccosum 9 (0.4%), Microsporum (M.) canis 2, M. gypseum 2, T. glabrum 1, and 15 undetermined strains. Candidiasis was found in 714 individuals: intertrigo 302, erosio interdigitalis 108, erythema infantum 85, oral candidiasis 51, paronychia et onychia 51, genital candidiasis 50, onychomycosis 15 and other atypical forms of candidiasis 39. Patients with tinea versicolor numbered 242 and those with malassezia folliculitis 15. There were nine cases of deep dermal mycoses. The results of superficial dermatophytoses for the year 1997 differed from those of 1991-92 in the following points: tinea corporis and tinea cruris were lower in number, while tinea unguium had increased in ratio and number continuously. M. canis infection tended to decrease. In the age distribution of tinea, in every clinical form the peak of distribution curve gradually shifted to a more elderly age group. PMID:11173330

  12. The effects of Malassezia yeasts on cytokine production by human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, S; Kano, R; Sato, H; Nakamura, Y; Hasegawa, A

    2001-05-01

    Yeasts of Malassezia, members of the microbiologic flora of the skin, cause pityriasis versicolor and have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of other superficial dermatoses; the most important ones are seborrheic dermatitis, folliculitis, and atopic dermatitis. The mechanisms by which the yeasts cause these dermatose? however, are not yet clear, and there have been no studies on the interaction between fungi and keratinocytes, especially the effects of fungi on the production of cytokines by human keratinocytes. Recently, the genus Malassezia has been expanded to seven species based on molecular data. In this study, we estimated the effects of Malassezia yeasts on cytokine (interleukins 1beta, 6, and 8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) production by human keratinocytes in order to examine whether the pathogenicity of the respective Malassezia yeasts is different from each other and to elucidate the mechanism by which Malassezia yeasts cause the dermatoses with different clinical and pathologic manifestations. Variable levels of interleukin 6 and 8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the supernatants in response to Malassezia yeasts (except M. furfur) increased from 1 to 24 h co-culture, but the monocyte chemotactic protein-1 was undetectable. Furthermore, cytokine levels in the supernatants were undetectable 1-24 h after the keratinocytes were harvested with only supernatants of Malassezia. These results indicate that Malassezia stimulates cytokine production by keratinocytes, the cytokine production needs the presence of Malassezia, and there are differences in ability to induce cytokine production by human keratinocytes among Malassezia yeasts. These differences may reflect the different inflammatory responses in Malassezia-associated dermatoses, resulting in different clinical and pathologic manifestations. PMID:11348468

  13. A two-stage cyclone using microcentrifuge tubes for personal bioaerosol sampling.

    PubMed

    Lindsley, William G; Schmechel, Detlef; Chen, Bean T

    2006-11-01

    Personal aerosol samplers are widely used to monitor human exposure to airborne materials. For bioaerosols, interest is growing in analyzing samples using molecular and immunological techniques. This paper presents a personal sampler that uses a two-stage cyclone to collect bioaerosols into disposable 1.5 ml Eppendorf-type microcentrifuge tubes. Samples can be processed in the tubes for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or immunoassays, and the use of multiple stages fractionates aerosol particles by aerodynamic diameter. The sampler was tested using fluorescent microspheres and aerosolized fungal spores. The sampler had first and second stage cut-off diameters of 2.6 microm and 1.6 microm at 2 l min(-1)(geometric standard deviation, GSD = 1.45 and 1.75), and 1.8 microm and 1 microm at 3.5 l min(-1)(GSD = 1.42 and 1.55). The sampler aspiration efficiency was >or=98% at both flow rates for particles with aerodynamic diameters of 3.1 microm or less. For 6.2 microm particles, the aspiration efficiency was 89% at 2 l min(-1) and 96% at 3.5 l min(-1). At 3.5 l min(-1), the sampler collected 92% of aerosolized Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillium chrysogenum spores inside the two microcentrifuge tubes, with less than 0.4% of the spores collecting on the back-up filter. The design and techniques given here are suitable for personal bioaerosol sampling, and could also be adapted to design larger aerosol samplers for longer-term atmospheric and indoor air quality sampling. PMID:17075620

  14. International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF): mantenimiento y extensión

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C.; Arias, E. F.; Eubanks, T.; Fey, A. L.; Gontier, A.-M.; Jacobs, C. S.; Sovers, O. J.; Archinal, B. A.; Charlot, P.

    A partir de enero de 1998 el sistema de referencia celeste convencional está representado por el International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) y materializado a través de las coordenadas VLBI del conjunto de radiofuentes extragalácticas que conforman el International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). La primera realización del ICRF, fue elaborada en 1995 por un grupo de expertos designado por la IAU, la que encomendó al International Earth Rotation Service el mantenimiento del ICRS, del ICRF y del vínculo con marcos de referencia en otras frecuencias. Una primera extensión del ICRF se realizó entre abril y junio de 1999, con el objetivo primario de proveer posiciones de radiofuentes extragalácticas observadas a partir de julio de 1995 y de mejorar las posiciones de las fuentes ``candidatas" con la inclusión de observaciones adicionales. Objetivos secundarios fueron monitorear a las radiofuentes para verificar que siguen siendo adecuadas para realizar al ICRF y mejorar las técnicas de análisis de datos. Como resultado del nuevo análisis se obtuvo una solución a partir de la cual se construyó la primera extensión del ICRF, denominada ICRF - Ext.1. Ella representa al ICRS, sus fuentes de definición se mantienen con las mismas posiciones y errores que en la primera realización del ICRF; las demás radiofuentes tienen coordenadas mejor determinadas que en ICRF; el marco de referencia se densificó con el agregado de 59 nuevas radiofuentes.

  15. Inclusion of Astronomy Themes in an Inovative Approach of Informal Physics Teaching for High School Students. (Spanish Title: Inclusión de Temas Astronómicos en Uma Abordaje Innovadora de la Enseñanza Informal de Física Para Estudiantes de Secumdaria.) Inclusão de Temas Astronômicos Numa Abordagem Inovadora do Ensino Informal de Física Para Estudantes do Ensino Médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiara Mota, Aline; de Morais Bonomini, Iracema Ariel; Meloni Martins Rosado, Ricardo

    2009-12-01

    The current work reports on an experience on Astronomy education at the Federal University of Itajubá through an extra-curricular course offered for High School students. This initiative was motivated by the low attention paid to the Astronomy subjects at this stage of the Brazilian Formal Education, in spite that the National Curricular Parameters (PCN and PCN+, in Brazil) point out the importance of their inclusion Este artículo relata una experiencia en la enseñanza de la astronomía efectuada en la Universidad Federal de Itajubá en la forma de un curso de extensión orientado para los estudiantes del colegio secundario. Esta iniciativa surgió de constatar la poca atención dada a la Astronomía en esta etapa de la Educación formal brasileña, a pesar que los Parámetros Curriculares Nacionales (PCN y PCN+, en Brasil) destacan la importancia de su inclusión. Este artigo relata uma experiência em ensino de Astronomia realizada na Universidade Federal de Itajubá na forma de um curso de extensão voltado para alunos do Ensino Médio. Esta iniciativa surgiu da pouca atenção que se dá à Astronomia nesta etapa da Educação embora os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCN e PCN+) apontem a importância de sua inclusão.

  16. Human infections due to Malassezia spp.

    PubMed Central

    Marcon, M J; Powell, D A

    1992-01-01

    The genus Malassezia contains three member species: Malassezia furfur and Malassezia sympodialis, both obligatory lipophilic, skin flora yeasts of humans, and Malassezia pachydermatis, a nonobligatory lipophilic, skin flora yeast of other warm-blooded animals. Several characteristics suggest the basidiomycetous nature of these yeasts, although a perfect stage has not been identified. Classically, these organisms are associated with superficial infections of the skin and associated structures, including pityriasis versicolor and folliculitis. Recently, however, they have been reported as agents of more invasive human diseases including deep-line catheter-associated sepsis. The latter infection occurs in patients, primarily infants, receiving parenteral nutrition (including lipid emulsions) through the catheter. The lipids presumably provide growth factors required for replication of the organisms. It is unclear how deep-line catheters become colonized with Malassezia spp. Skin colonization with M. furfur is common in infants hospitalized in neonatal intensive care units, whereas colonization of newborns hospitalized in well-baby nurseries and of older infants is rarely observed. Catheter colonization, which may occur without overt clinical symptoms, probably occurs secondary to skin colonization, with the organism gaining access either via the catheter insertion site on the skin or through the external catheter hub (connecting port). There is little information on the colonization of hospitalized patients by M. sympodialis or M. pachydermatis. Diagnosis of superficial infections is best made by microscopic examination of skin scrapings following KOH, calcofluor white, or histologic staining. Treatment of these infections involves the use of topical or oral antifungal agents, and it may be prolonged. Diagnosis of Malassezia catheter-associated sepsis requires detection of the organism in whole blood smears or in buffy coat smears of blood drawn through the infected catheter or isolation of the organism from catheter or peripheral blood or the catheter tip. Culture of M. furfur from blood is best achieved with Isolator tubes and plating onto a solid medium supplemented with a lipid source. Appropriate treatment of patients requires removal of the infected catheter with or without temporary stoppage of lipid emulsions; administration of antifungal therapeutic agents does not appear to be necessary. Because many patients who develop Malassezia catheter-associated sepsis have severe underlying illnesses, caution must be exercised in attributing all clinical deterioration to Malassezia infection. Our better understanding of how these organisms cause disease awaits the development of a useful typing scheme for epidemiologic studies and further studies on microbial virulence factors and the role of the immune response in pathogenesis. Images PMID:1576583

  17. Redox polymer mediation for enzymatic biofuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallaway, Joshua

    Mediated biocatalytic cathodes prepared from the oxygen-reducing enzyme laccase and redox-conducting osmium hydrogels were characterized for use as cathodes in enzymatic biofuel cells. A series of osmium-based redox polymers was synthesized with redox potentials spanning the range from 0.11 V to 0.85 V (SHE), and the resulting biocatalytic electrodes were modeled to determine reaction kinetic constants using the current response, measured osmium concentration, and measured apparent electron diffusion. As in solution-phase systems, the bimolecular rate constant for mediation was found to vary greatly with mediator potential---from 250 s-1M-1 when mediator and enzyme were close in potential to 9.4 x 10 4 s-1M-1 when this overpotential was large. Optimum mediator potential for a cell operating with a non-limiting platinum anode and having no mass transport limitation from bulk solution was found to be 0.66 V (SHE). Redox polymers were synthesized under different concentrations, producing osmium variation. An increase from 6.6% to 7.2% osmium increased current response from 1.2 to 2.1 mA/cm2 for a planar film in 40°C oxygen-saturated pH 4 buffer, rotating at 900 rpm. These results translated to high surface area electrodes, nearly doubling current density to 13 mA/cm2, the highest to date for such an electrode. The typical fungal laccase from Trametes versicolor was replaced by a bacterially-expressed small laccase from Streptomyces coelicolor, resulting in biocatalytic films that reduced oxygen at increased pH, with full functionality at pH 7, producing 1.5 mA/cm 2 in planar configuration. Current response was biphasic with pH, matching the activity profile of the free enzyme in solution. The mediated enzyme electrode system was modeled with respect to apparent electron diffusion, mediator concentration, and transport of oxygen from bulk solution, all of which are to some extent controlled by design. Each factor was found to limit performance in certain circumstances. In systems relying on stagnant solution, oxygen transport was found to dominate. However, if mass transport was efficient, differences in mediator design greatly affected performance.

  18. White-rot fungal response to fresh and photolytically-weathered pyrogenic organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, C. D.; Berry, T. D.; Wang, R.; Bird, J. A.; Filley, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM or biochar) is the product of the incomplete combustion of biomass. A better understanding of the microbial-mediated degradation of PyOM is critical to assess its role in soil C sequestration and to serve as an agricultural amendment. Recent studies have shown that PyOM additions can prime native soil C but results have been inconsistent, with studies reporting no effect, an increase, or decrease in C mineralization. This study investigated the ability of saprotrophic white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor, to decompose an unaltered 'fresh' PyOM and a photo-oxidized PyOM. In addition, we measured PyOM-induced priming effects on the mineralization of malt extract agar media (MEA). Enriched (13C) Pinus banksiana-derived PyOM, produced at 450oC under N2, was added fresh and after 4 weeks exposure to 254 nm light to MEA. Vials containing the various types of media were then monitored for CO2 evolution and oxidative enzyme activity. We found that MEA C respired was stimulated (positive priming) by photolyzed PyOM and was inhibited with fresh PyOM addition (negative priming) relative to controls. Vetryl alcohol addition, a laccase production stimulant, resulted in less activity in the presence of PyOM compared with a control, indicating PyOM may disrupt enzyme induction processes. Loss of PyOM-13CO2 was 0.2% (× 0.001) for fresh PyOM and 1.2% (×0.001) for photolyzed PyOM C during 10 weeks averaged across media treatments. While MEA C mineralization decreased after fresh PyOM addition, both oxidative (laccase and manganese peroxidase) and hydrolytic (? glucosidase) enzyme production increased with fresh PyOM in the absence of veratryl alcohol. However, there was a decrease in its presence. These results suggest that the physiological response of this common wood decay fungus to PyOM is complex and responsive to enzymatic triggers but that PyOM itself can act to promote or suppress overall litter or soil decay by fungi.

  19. Host habitat assessment by a parasitoid using fungal volatiles

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Sven; Erdmann, Daniel; Steidle, Johannes LM; Ruther, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Background The preference – performance hypothesis predicts that oviposition preference of insects should correlate with host suitability for offspring development. Therefore, insect females have to be able to assess not only the quality of a given host but also the environmental conditions of the respective host habitat. Chemical cues are a major source of information used by insects for this purpose. Primary infestation of stored grain by stored product pests often favors the intense growth of mold. This can lead to distinct sites of extreme environmental conditions (hot-spots) with increased insect mortality. We studied the influence of mold on chemical orientation, host recognition, and fitness of Lariophagus distinguendus, a parasitoid of beetle larvae developing in stored grain. Results Volatiles of wheat infested by Aspergillus sydowii and A. versicolor repelled female parasitoids in an olfactometer. Foraging L. distinguendus females are known to be strongly attracted to the odor of larval host feces from the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius, which may adhere in remarkable amounts to the surface of the grains. Feces from moldy weevil cultures elicited neutral responses but parasitoids clearly avoided moldy feces when non-moldy feces were offered simultaneously. The common fungal volatile 1-octen-3-ol was the major component of the odor of larval feces from moldy weevil cultures and repelled female parasitoids at naturally occurring doses. In bioassays investigating host recognition behavior of L. distinguendus, females spent less time on grains containing hosts from moldy weevil cultures and showed less drumming and drilling behavior than on non-moldy controls. L. distinguendus had a clearly reduced fitness on hosts from moldy weevil cultures. Conclusion We conclude that L. distinguendus females use 1-octen-3-ol for host habitat assessment to avoid negative fitness consequences due to secondary mold infestation of host patches. The female response to fungal volatiles is innate, suggesting that host-associated fungi played a crucial role in the evolution of host finding strategies of L. distinguendus. Research on the role of host-associated microorganisms in the chemically mediated orientation of parasitoids is still at the beginning. We expect an increasing recognition of this issue in the future. PMID:17284315

  20. Cloning, sequence analysis, expression of Cyathus bulleri laccase in Pichia pastoris and characterization of recombinant laccase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Laccases are blue multi-copper oxidases and catalyze the oxidation of phenolic and non-phenolic compounds. There is considerable interest in using these enzymes for dye degradation as well as for synthesis of aromatic compounds. Laccases are produced at relatively low levels and, sometimes, as isozymes in the native fungi. The investigation of properties of individual enzymes therefore becomes difficult. The goal of this study was to over-produce a previously reported laccase from Cyathus bulleri using the well-established expression system of Pichia pastoris and examine and compare the properties of the recombinant enzyme with that of the native laccase. Results In this study, complete cDNA encoding laccase (Lac) from white rot fungus Cyathus bulleri was amplified by RACE-PCR, cloned and expressed in the culture supernatant of Pichia pastoris under the control of the alcohol oxidase (AOX)1 promoter. The coding region consisted of 1,542 bp and encodes a protein of 513 amino acids with a signal peptide of 16 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of the matured protein displayed high homology with laccases from Trametes versicolor and Coprinus cinereus. The sequence analysis indicated the presence of Glu 460 and Ser 113 and LEL tripeptide at the position known to influence redox potential of laccases placing this enzyme as a high redox enzyme. Addition of copper sulfate to the production medium enhanced the level of laccase by about 12-fold to a final activity of 7200 U L-1. The recombinant laccase (rLac) was purified by ~4-fold to a specific activity of ~85 U mg-1 protein. A detailed study of thermostability, chloride and solvent tolerance of the rLac indicated improvement in the first two properties when compared to the native laccase (nLac). Altered glycosylation pattern, identified by peptide mass finger printing, was proposed to contribute to altered properties of the rLac. Conclusion Laccase of C. bulleri was successfully produced extra-cellularly to a high level of 7200 U L-1 in P. pastoris under the control of the AOX1 promoter and purified by a simple three-step procedure to homogeneity. The kinetic parameters against ABTS, Guaiacol and Pyrogallol were similar with the nLac and the rLac. Tryptic finger print analysis of the nLac and the rLac indicated altered glycosylation patterns. Increased thermo-stability and salt tolerance of the rLac was attributed to this changed pattern of glycosylation. PMID:23092193