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1

Tinea Versicolor  

MedlinePLUS

... Z Diseases and treatments Q - T Tinea versicolor Tinea versicolor Also called pityriasis versicolor Tinea versicolor: It ... have tinea versicolor year-round. Learn more about tinea versicolor: Tinea versicolor: Signs and symptoms Tinea versicolor: ...

2

Blaschkoid pityriasis versicolor.  

PubMed

A 31-year-old male patient complained of having follicular and brownish red maculopapules along the Blaschko's lines on the right chest for 2 days. On examination, follicular brownish maculopapules were present on the chest with a uniform size of about 3 mm in diameter. The lesions were isolated without a tendency to merge, giving several S-shaped, band-like appearances. Direct mycological examination of the skin flakes revealed many pseudomycelial hyphae and yeast cells with typical spaghetti and meatball appearance. Wood's light examination of the lesion revealed a golden yellow fluorescence. A diagnosis of blaschkoid pityriasis versicolor was suggested because of blaschkoid distribution of the lesions in this new variant of PV. PMID:19486298

Tan, Cheng; Zhu, Wen-Yuan; Min, Zhong-Sheng

2010-07-01

3

Onychomycosis caused by Aspergillus versicolor.  

PubMed

We report a case of onychomycosis caused by Aspergillus versicolor in a 66-year-old female patient. The infection was characterised clinically by yellowish pigmentation of the nail plate and mild nail bed hyperkeratosis of the first left toe. All other nails were normal. Three direct microscopical examinations of nail samples revealed the presence of hyaline hyphae as well as conidiophores. Pure colonies of A. versicolor were found in three cultures. The patient was successfully treated with oral itraconazole. PMID:19422523

Veraldi, Stefano; Chiaratti, Anna; Harak, Henry

2010-07-01

4

Uncommon presentations of tinea versicolor  

PubMed Central

Tinea versicolor (TV) is a common cutaneous fungal infection characterized by superficial scaling and a mild disturbance of skin pigmentation. It typically affects the chest, upper back, and shoulders. However, involvement of more unusual regions of the body such as the face and scalp, arms and legs, intertriginous sites, genitalia, areolae, and palms and soles has been reported. This report details two such cases observed at our institution: a 32-year-old woman with involvement of the popliteal fossa and a 16-year-old boy with involvement of the groin. The clinician must be aware of these variations in location and perform the appropriate diagnostic workup when lesions have the characteristic morphology of TV despite an unusual location. The etiology, pathophysiology, and epidemiology of TV are reviewed and current literature describing other instances of TV in uncommon locations is discussed. PMID:25126470

Varada, Sowmya; Dabade, Tushar; Loo, Daniel S.

2014-01-01

5

Uncommon presentations of tinea versicolor.  

PubMed

Tinea versicolor (TV) is a common cutaneous fungal infection characterized by superficial scaling and a mild disturbance of skin pigmentation. It typically affects the chest, upper back, and shoulders. However, involvement of more unusual regions of the body such as the face and scalp, arms and legs, intertriginous sites, genitalia, areolae, and palms and soles has been reported. This report details two such cases observed at our institution: a 32-year-old woman with involvement of the popliteal fossa and a 16-year-old boy with involvement of the groin. The clinician must be aware of these variations in location and perform the appropriate diagnostic workup when lesions have the characteristic morphology of TV despite an unusual location. The etiology, pathophysiology, and epidemiology of TV are reviewed and current literature describing other instances of TV in uncommon locations is discussed. PMID:25126470

Varada, Sowmya; Dabade, Tushar; Loo, Daniel S

2014-07-01

6

A case of tinea versicolor of the eyelids.  

PubMed

Tinea versicolor is a commonly encountered superficial fungal infection often presenting on the chest and back with hyperpigmented or hypopigmented scaly macules and patches. We report an unusual and rare presentation of tinea versicolor affecting only the eyelids. PMID:22506882

Huang, William W; Tharp, Michael D

2013-01-01

7

Hypopigmented macules: leprosy, atopy or pityriasis versicolor?  

PubMed

Lepromatous leprosy (LL) represents the highest infective and multibacillary form of leprosy. Clinical manifestations are consequent to the haematogenous spread of bacilli and include macules, plaques and nodules in a symmetric distribution or a diffuse infiltration of the skin. LL may mimic many different inflammatory and neoplastic skin diseases and in a small percentage of patients, skin manifestation may be atypical. This article reports the case of a South American child with LL presenting with symmetrically distributed hypopigmented macules previously misdiagnosed as pytiriasis alba, atopic dermatitis and pityriasis versicolor. Atopy and pityriasis versicolor are common skin conditions that can be also observed in leprosy patients and that can masquerade the diagnosis of LL, especially if occurring in dark skin. Dermatologists in Europe should be aware of this unusual form of presentation of leprosy and must take in mind Hansen disease in the differential diagnosis in patients coming from endemic areas. PMID:21139555

Massone, C; Cavalchini, A; Clapasson, A; Nunzi, E

2010-12-01

8

Experimental Tinea Versicolor in Rabbits and Humans with Pityrosporum orbiculare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to produce experimental tinea versicolor in rabbits and humans with Pityrosporum orbiculare. Inoculation with P. orbiculare under plastic occlusion on the glabrous follicle-rich inside of the rabbit ear resulted in a tinea versicolor-like lesion after 1 week in 3 of 4 animals. One week after inoculation with P. orbiculare under plastic occlusion, experimental infections

Jan Faergemann

1979-01-01

9

Morphology of the male reproductive system of the social wasp, Polistes versicolor versicolor, with phylogenetic implications.  

PubMed

Variation in the morphology of the adult male reproductive system among different groups of Hymenoptera offer characteristics that help studies of behavior and the evolutionary history of this group. The objective of this study was to describe the adult male reproductive system of the wasp Polistes versicolor versicolor Olivier (Vespidae: Polistini). The reproductive systems were dissected, fixed and embedded for light microscopy. In P. v. versicolor, the reproductive system includes a pair of testes, each one with three fusiform follicles. From each follicle emerges an efferent duct that later join together, forming a deferent duct. The first half of the deferent duct is enlarged and differentiated into a region specialized for sperm storage, the seminal vesicle. At the post-vesicular region of each of the deferent ducts an accessory gland emerges. The seminal vesicle and the accessory gland are covered with a capsule forming a vesicle-gland complex, also observed in some species of North American Polistes. Sperm are released from testes in bundles, which are disorganized inside seminal vesicles. In the testicular follicles, 95 spermatozoa were observed per cyst on average. PMID:20673189

Araújo, Vinícius Albano; Moreira, Jane; Lino-Neto, José

2010-01-01

10

Morphology of the Male Reproductive System of the Social Wasp, Polistes Versicolor Versicolor, with Phylogenetic Implications  

PubMed Central

Variation in the morphology of the adult male reproductive system among different groups of Hymenoptera offer characteristics that help studies of behavior and the evolutionary history of this group. The objective of this study was to describe the adult male reproductive system of the wasp Polistes versicolor versicolor Olivier (Vespidae: Polistini). The reproductive systems were dissected, fixed and embedded for light microscopy. In P. v. versicolor, the reproductive system includes a pair of testes, each one with three fusiform follicles. From each follicle emerges an efferent duct that later join together, forming a deferent duct. The first half of the deferent duct is enlarged and differentiated into a region specialized for sperm storage, the seminal vesicle. At the post-vesicular region of each of the deferent ducts an accessory gland emerges. The seminal vesicle and the accessory gland are covered with a capsule forming a vesicle-gland complex, also observed in some species of North American Polistes. Sperm are released from testes in bundles, which are disorganized inside seminal vesicles. In the testicular follicles, 95 spermatozoa were observed per cyst on average. PMID:20673189

Araujo, Vinicius Albano; Moreira, Jane; Lino-Neto, Jose

2010-01-01

11

The incidence of tinea versicolor in central Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. In a survey of 3302 people in an area of central Sweden, tinea versicolor was diagnosed in 0.5% of males and 0.3% of females; all those infected were adults. Tinea versicolor is much less common in Sweden than in the tropics. A survey of the total population in the area showed that 0.5% of the males and 0.3% of

L. HELLGREN; J. VINCENT

1983-01-01

12

An Evidence-based Perspective of Coriolus Versicolor (Multicolored Polypore Mushroom) for Cancer Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the era of molecularly targeted, rationally designed cancer therapeutics, natural products, especially medicinal mushrooms,\\u000a continue to provide a rich source of anticancer agents. One potent medicinal mushroom extensively used in both traditional\\u000a medicine and modern clinical practice is Coriolus versicolor (alternative names Trametes versicolor, Polyporus versicolor, Polystictus versicolor, multicolored polypore mushroom). In spite of their paucity, available data about

Stanislava Stoši?-Gruji?i?; Sanja Mijatovi?; Danijela Maksimovi?-Ivani?

13

Trametes versicolor extract modifies human fecal microbiota composition in vitro.  

PubMed

Trametes versicolor is a mushroom used as a traditional Chinese medicine (Yun-zhi) for a wide array of seemingly disparate conditions. We hypothesized that many of its multiple purported activities could be mediated through stimulation of beneficial mutualist components of the microbiota. Human fecal microbiota was cultured anaerobically to determine its ability to ferment a common extract of T. versicolor, designated polysaccharide peptide (PSP), and the ability of PSP to alter the composition of the microbial community. The presence of PSP and fructooligosaccharides (FOS, a common prebiotic) in the medium, but not cellulose, significantly increased levels of Bifidobacterium spp. PSP also elevated Lactobacillus spp., while reducing Clostridium spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. Levels of Streptococcus spp., Bacteroides spp. and Escherichia did not significantly change. Fermentation of PSP increased the concentration of organic acids (lactate and short-chain fatty acids), decreased the pH, and induced ?-galactosidase and ?-glucosidase activities. The genera of the human microbiota that are promoted by FOS and other prebiotics are also stimulated by the Trametes versicolor extract, PSP. Thus, Trametes versicolor, a common East Asian botanical, contains putative prebiotic agents that alter human gut microbiota and pH. This prebiotic-like activity may help explain some of the plethora of the health benefits attributed to this traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23435630

Yu, Zhuo-Teng; Liu, Bo; Mukherjee, Purna; Newburg, David S

2013-06-01

14

Disruption of barrier function in dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor.  

PubMed

Dermatophytes have the ability to form molecular attachments to keratin and use it as a source of nutrients, colonizing keratinized tissues, including the stratum corneum of the skin. Malassezia species also affect the stratum corneum of the skin. Therefore, dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor of the skin are thought to be important factors of profound changes in skin barrier structure and function. We aimed to describe the changes in transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum hydration, and skin pH in the lesions of the dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor. Thirty-six patients with dermatophytosis (14 with tinea cruris, 13 with tinea corporis and nine with tinea pedis or tinea manus) and 11 patients with pityriasis versicolor were included in this study. TEWL, stratum corneum conductance and skin pH were determined by biophysical methods to examine whether our patients exhibited changes in barrier function. Dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor except tinea pedis and tinea manus showed highly significant increase in TEWL compared with adjacent infection-free skin. Hydration was significantly reduced in lesional skin compared with adjacent infection-free skin. From this study, infections with dermatophytes and Malassezia species on the body can alter biophysical properties of the skin, especially the function of stratum corneum as a barrier to water loss. On the contrary, infections with dermatophytes on the palms and soles little affect the barrier function of the skin. PMID:21950511

Lee, Weon Ju; Kim, Jun Young; Song, Chang Hyun; Jung, Hong Dae; Lee, Su Hyun; Lee, Seok-Jong; Kim, Do Won

2011-11-01

15

Tinea versicolor: Ultrastructural Studies on Hypopigmented and Hyperpigmented Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Punch biopsy specimens from 4 patients with confirmed diagnosis of tinea versicolor were investigated. Hypopigmented, hyperigmented and uninvolved sites from the same subject were compared in relation to ultrastructural alterations as a result of infection with Malassezia furfur, by light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Hyperpigmented skin had thicker stratum corneum than hypopigmented but both were thicker than the uninvolved

R. Karaoui; M. Bou-Resli; N. S. Al-Zaid; A. Mousa

1981-01-01

16

Pityriasis versicolor: avoiding pitfalls in disease diagnosis and therapy.  

PubMed

Pityriasis versicolor is common among young active duty members with overactive sweat glands working in humid environments and results in pigmentary changes that can be profound in those with darker skin. This article addresses several issues related to making the correct diagnosis and providing appropriate treatment, as well as the specific challenges military providers may face in these cases. PMID:23929053

Rivard, Shayna C

2013-08-01

17

THE PARASITIC COLONIZATION OF THE HORNY LAYER IN TINEA VERSICOLOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of vertical sections and of tape strippings of areas infested with tinea versicolor indicate that because of their dimorphic state, these parasites can colonize the horny layer. Mycelial hyphae progress downwards into the intercellular spaces of the horny cells where they feed on nonkeratinous substances and extrude proliferating yeast cells which form clusters in nest-like cavities. The yeast-mycelial conversion

Antonio Tosti; Santi Villardita; Maria L. Fazzini

1972-01-01

18

Influence of systemic corticotherapy on the triggering of pityriasis versicolor.  

PubMed

Pityriasis versicolor is a frequent mycosis and the use of systemic corticotherapy is one of its predisposing factors. This is an observational, cross-sectional, analytical and comparative study, conducted from January 2012 to January 2013 in the following outpatient clinics: Dermatology Service, Cassiano Antonio Moraes Hospital (HUCAM), Vitória, ES, Brazil; Nephrology Service, HUCAM; and Leprosy Department, Maruípe Health Unit, Vitória, ES, Brazil. Patients, undergoing long-term systemic corticotherapy (or not), were assessed with respect to the presence of pityriasis versicolor. If there was mycosis, a direct mycological examination would be carried out. The spss 17.0 software was used for the statistical analysis. From the total of 100 patients, nine had pityriasis versicolor, being eight from the corticotherapy group and one from the group with no use of corticosteroids. Regarding the patients with mycosis, the prevalent age ranged from 20 to 39 years, with six patients; six were women; seven mixed race; eight were undergoing long-term systemic corticotherapy; seven were taking low-dose systemic corticosteroids; four had leucocytosis; five had normal total cholesterol and triglycerides; and four had normal glycaemia. There was increased frequency of pityriasis versicolor in the group undergoing systemic corticotherapy with statistical significance, corroborating the only study on the topic (1962). PMID:24724729

da Fraga, Clarissa Matarangas Moreira; de Cássia Birschiner, Rita; Naseri, Alice Pignaton; Diniz, Lucia Martins

2014-09-01

19

Improving the bioremediation of phenolic wastewaters by Trametes versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful bioremediation of a phenolic wastewater by Trametes versicolor was found to be dependent on a range of factors including: fungal growth, culture age and activity and enzyme (laccase) production. These aspects were enhanced by the optimisation of the growth medium used and time of addition of the pollutant to the fungal cultures. Different media containing ‘high’ (20g\\/L), ‘low’

Daniel Ryan; Winston Leukes; Stephanie Burton

2007-01-01

20

Heat shock treatment improves Trametes versicolor laccase production.  

PubMed

An efficient heat shock strategy has been developed to improve laccase production in submerged Trametes versicolor cultures. The optimized heat shock strategy consists of subjecting T. versicolor mycelial pellets to three heat shock treatments at 45 °C for 45 min, starting at culture day 0, with a 24-h interval between treatments. Laccase production increased by more than 1.6-fold relative to the control in both flasks and a 5-L bioreactor because the expression of the laccase gene was enhanced by heat shock induction. The present work demonstrates that heat shock induction is a promising method because it both improves fungal laccase production and has a good potential in industrial application. PMID:22733235

Wang, Feng; Guo, Chen; Wei, Tao; Zhang, Tian; Liu, Chun-Zhao

2012-09-01

21

Solid-state fermentation for cellulase production by Pestalotiopsis versicolor  

SciTech Connect

Solid-state fermentation (SSF) refers to the fermentation process on solid substrate without the presence of free liquid. It is found to be ideal when the organism is a fungus and the substrate is insoluble, like cellulose. Production of cellulase by SSF has been studied in detail by Toyama and Ogawa. It has been found that more concentrated enzyme preparations can be obtained by SSF than in liquid type since the enzyme gets diluted in the whole medium in liquid culture. In the present study, a plant pathogenic fungus Pestalotiopsis versicolor has been grown on various solid cultures of cellulosic substances and production of cellulase has been studied. Earlier, we had studied the production of cellulase by P. versicolor in liquid culture. (Refs. 7).

Rao, M.N.A.; Mithal, B.M.; Thakkur, R.N.; Sastry, K.S.M.

1983-03-01

22

Pityriasis versicolor on penile shaft in a renal transplant recipient.  

PubMed

Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial infection of the stratum corneum, which is caused by the Malassezia species. Tge Malassezia species consist of 12 subspecies, including M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. symphodialis and M. globasa. The Malassezia species are classified as a normal flora, particularly in the sebum rich areas of the skin, and they convert from saprophytic yeast to parasitic mycelial morpholgic form to cause clinical disease. But majorities of their distributions are in the upper back, the neck, the thighs, and the forearm, and not in the penis. It is well known that the renal transplant patients, who take immunosuppressive agents, have impairment in the protective cell mediated immunity. Thus, they are more susceptible to infectious diseases, such as a fungal infection. Therefore, clinical manifestations show higher incidence of disease, but they mostly occur in an expected distribution. We here report a case of pityriasis versicolor in a renal transplant recipient on penile shaft, which is an unusual area. PMID:22879720

Ryu, Han-Won; Cho, Jae-We; Lee, Kyu-Suk

2012-08-01

23

Pityriasis Versicolor on Penile Shaft in a Renal Transplant Recipient  

PubMed Central

Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial infection of the stratum corneum, which is caused by the Malassezia species. Tge Malassezia species consist of 12 subspecies, including M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. symphodialis and M. globasa. The Malassezia species are classified as a normal flora, particularly in the sebum rich areas of the skin, and they convert from saprophytic yeast to parasitic mycelial morpholgic form to cause clinical disease. But majorities of their distributions are in the upper back, the neck, the thighs, and the forearm, and not in the penis. It is well known that the renal transplant patients, who take immunosuppressive agents, have impairment in the protective cell mediated immunity. Thus, they are more susceptible to infectious diseases, such as a fungal infection. Therefore, clinical manifestations show higher incidence of disease, but they mostly occur in an expected distribution. We here report a case of pityriasis versicolor in a renal transplant recipient on penile shaft, which is an unusual area. PMID:22879720

Ryu, Han-Won; Cho, Jae-We

2012-01-01

24

Immunhistologischer Nachweis pathogenassoziierter Epitope in superfiziell mykotisch infizierter Haut (Pityriasis versicolor und Tinea).  

E-print Network

??Infektionen der Haut durch Dermatophyten (Tinea) und Malassezia-Arten (Pityriasis versicolor) sind sehr häufig und werden oft chronisch. Die verursachenden Pilze verbleiben dabei meist im Stratum… (more)

Mörig, Anke

2014-01-01

25

Evaluation of support materials for the surface immobilization and decoloration of amaranth by Trametes versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Trametes versicolor ATCC 20869 to colonize several natural and synthetic materials (wheat straw, jute, hemp, maple woodchips, and nylon and polyethylene teraphthalate fibers) and to subsequently decolorize amaranth was evaluated. Jute was found to be the best support material as T. versicolor grew well on it without color leaching from the support and without loss of the

M. Shin; T. Nguyen; J. Ramsay

2002-01-01

26

Comparison of Antibody Responses in Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis and Tinea Versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibody titers against Candida albicans and Pityrosporum orbiculare, the presumed etiologic agent of tinea versicolor, were determined in normal subjects, and in patients with tinea versicolor or chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. Whereas antibody against both organisms was found in low titer in normal subjects, a majority of patients with each infection had elevated antibody titers against the infecting organism. Patients infected

Gary J. DaMert; Charles H. Kirkpatrick; Peter G. Sohnle

1980-01-01

27

Antibodies to Pityrosporum orbiculare in Patients with Tinea Versicolor and Controls of Various Ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sera from patients with tines versicolor and controls of various ages were investigated with the indirect immunofluorescence technique for antibodies against Pityrosporum orbiculare etiologic agent of tinea versicolor. No differences in titers were observed between patients and adult controls. Also, there were no differences in antibody titers in the patient group with differences in antibody titers in the patient group

Jan Faergemann

1983-01-01

28

Nucleoside derivatives from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor.  

PubMed

Four nucleoside derivatives (1-4) were isolated from the fungus Aspergillus versicolor derived from the gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea collected in the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic method of NMR and MS analysis. All isolated metabolites were evaluated for their cytotoxicity, antibacterial activity and lethality towards brine shrimp Artemia salina. Compounds 1/2 exhibited selective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis with an MIC value of 12.5 ?M. It should be noted that 1 and 2, whose structures were listed in SciFinder Scholar, had no associated reference. This is the first report about their isolation, structure elucidation and biological activities. PMID:24670197

Chen, Min; Fu, Xiu-Mei; Kong, Chui-Jian; Wang, Chang-Yun

2014-01-01

29

Tinea versicolor, tinea nigra, white piedra, and black piedra.  

PubMed

Superficial mycoses are fungal infections limited to the stratum corneum and its adnexal structures. The most frequent types are dermatophytoses or tineas. Tinea versicolor involves the skin in the form of hypochromic or hyperchromic plaques, and tinea nigra affects the skin of the palms with dark plaques. White piedra and black piedra are parasitic infections of scalp hairs in the form of concretions caused by fungal growth. Diagnosis of these mycoses is made from mycologic studies, direct examination, stains, and isolation, and identification of the fungi. Treatment includes systemic antifungals, topical antifungals, and keratolytics. PMID:20347655

Bonifaz, Alexandro; Gómez-Daza, Fernando; Paredes, Vanessa; Ponce, Rosa María

2010-03-01

30

Identification of Malassezia yeast species isolated from patients with pityriasis versicolor.  

PubMed

Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a disease with worldwide distribution. Twelve different species of Malassezia yeast have been described. The objective of this study was to determine which species of Malassezia are more prevalent in patients with pityriasis versicolor. Samples were collected by scraping the lesions of 87 patients with a clinical suspicion of pityriasis versicolor. The samples were then submitted to fungal microscopy and culture to identify the species. The species found were: Malassezia sympodialis (30%), Malassezia furfur (25.7%), Malassezia globosa (22.7%), Malassezia restricta (12.1%), Malassezia obtusa (7.6%) and Malassezia slooffiae (1.5%). PMID:21987156

Petry, Vanessa; Tanhausen, Fernanda; Weiss, Luciana; Milan, Thais; Mezzari, Adelina; Weber, Magda Blessmann

2011-01-01

31

Antifungal efficacy of Brazilian green propolis extracts and honey on Tinea capitis and Tinea versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studyThis study aimed to determine the prevalence of Tinea capitis and Tinea versicolor, and evaluate the efficacy of bee products in management of skin disorders in Congolese school children.

Nlandu Roger Ngatu; Takao Saruta; Ryoji Hirota; Masamitsu Eitoku; Basilua Andre Muzembo; Tomomi Matsui; Luzitu Severin Nangana; Muaka Anselme Mbenza; Naoko Kumagai; Narufumi Suganuma

32

A case of Hansen Disease presenting as tinea versicolor.  

PubMed

Hansen Disease (leprosy) is an infectious disease that targets macrophages and Schwann cells, caused by the acid fast intracellular organism, Mycobacterium leprae. Clinically, it presents with a spectrum of findings that may include hypopigmented macules, erythematous plaques and nodules, and thickened or tender peripheral nerves. The most feared complication is mutilating damage to facial structures or digits resulting from loss of sensation in affected skin. In non-endemic areas, the diagnosis of leprosy is frequently delayed because it may mimic other more common skin conditions. We present a case of borderline/lepromatous leprosy in an otherwise healthy young Brazilian man that was initially diagnosed as tinea versicolor, but did not respond to appropriate treatment. This case highlights the importance of having a high index of suspicion for leprosy in patients from endemic areas who present with lesions that could be consistent with this disease. PMID:24021367

Yang, Shelley; Makredes, Maryanne; O'Donnell, Patrick; Levin, Nikki A

2013-01-01

33

Secondary metabolites from an algicolous Aspergillus versicolor strain.  

PubMed

Two new compounds, asperversin A (1) and 9?-O-2(2,3-dimethylbut-3-enyl)brevianamide Q (2), and nine known compounds, brevianamide K (3), brevianamide M (4), aversin (5), 6,8-di-O-methylnidurufin (6), 6,8-di-O-methylaverufin (7), 6-O-methylaverufin (8), 5?,8?-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3?-ol (9), ergosta-7,22-diene-3?,5?,6?-triol (10), and 6?-methoxyergosta-7,22-diene-3?,5?-diol (11), were obtained from the culture of Aspergillus versicolor, an endophytic fungus isolated from the marine brown alga Sargassum thunbergii. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic techniques. Compounds 4, 7 and 8 exhibited antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphyloccocus aureus, and 7 also showed lethality against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) with an LC?? value of 0.5 ?g/mL. PMID:22363226

Miao, Feng-Ping; Li, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Xiang-Hong; Cichewicz, Robert H; Ji, Nai-Yun

2012-01-01

34

Selection and Optimization of Culture Medium for Exopolysaccharide Production by Coriolus ( Trametes ) Versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Coriolus versicolor is a medicinal fungus producing exopolysaccharides (EPS). Five well-defined culture media were studied to select the medium\\u000a that maximizes production of EPS by C. versicolor. Biomass, reducing sugars and EPS concentrations along with the rheological behaviour of the broth were followed during fermentations\\u000a lasting 9 days. The yeast malt extract medium (YM) was shown to yield the highest production

A. P. A. Tavares; M. S. M. Agapito; M. A. M. Coelho; J. A. Lopes da Silva; A. Barros-Timmons; J. A. J. Coutinho; A. M. R. B. Xavier

2005-01-01

35

[Labor epidural analgesia for a woman with a pityriasis versicolor in the lumbar region].  

PubMed

Epidural analgesia is usually contraindicated in case of infection at the site of needle insertion. Tinea versicolor is a benign superficial cutaneous fungal infection caused by the proliferation of a skin commensal yeast of low pathogenicity. We report the case of a pregnant woman with a tinea versicolor in the lumbar region, who benefited from a labor epidural analgesia, realised with reinforced antiseptic measures. No neurological or infectious complication occurred. PMID:21680133

Dubar, G; Omarjee, M; Viguié, C; Barbarot, S; Mignon, A

2011-01-01

36

Decoloration of textile dyes by alginate-immobilized Trametes versicolor.  

PubMed

Alginate-immobilized Trametes versicolor decolorized Amaranth at similar rates in repeated batch culture when the dye was present in either (i) modified Kirk's medium containing 0.22 gl(-1) ammonium tartrate, (ii) the same buffer, thiamine, trace elements and glucose concentrations as in the modified Kirk's medium, or (iii) glucose alone at either 1, 5 or 10 gl(-1). With glucose alone (0.5 gl(-1)), Amaranth, Reactive Black 5, Reactive Blue 19 and Direct Black 22 had first-order decoloration rate constants of 0.56, 0.76, 0.52, and 0.15 h(-1), respectively. Mixtures of these dyes were also completely decolorized. After four successive decolorations, beads were kept in storage solutions for 48 d at 6 degrees C. CaCl2 (1g l(-1)) was the best storage solution as the beads were easier to handle and had the fastest decoloration rates after storage. Decoloration rates were faster with lower viscosity (less than 2000 cps) alginates and with softer beads which had a lower resistance to compression. Fungal colonization of the beads resulted in higher biomass concentrations with a corresponding higher decoloration rate but the beads became larger, had a lower resistance to compression and a higher percentage of bead breakage in a stirred tank reactor. Biomass, recovered from beads in which there was no growth, could be dispersed while the biomass from colonized beads formed a hollow, spherical shell due to growth on and near the bead surface and no growth in the bead interior. If alginate-immobilized T. versicolor is to be used in a stirred tank reactor, a high biomass loading during the immobilization phase and no fungal growth in the beads is recommended to have high decoloration rates and low bead breakage. PMID:15878190

Ramsay, J A; Mok, W H W; Luu, Y-S; Savage, M

2005-11-01

37

Induction of laccases in Trametes versicolor by aqueous wood extracts.  

PubMed

The induction of laccase isoforms in Trametes versicolor HEMIM-9 by aqueous extracts (AE) from softwood and hardwood was studied. Samples of sawdust of Pinus sp., Cedrela sp., and Quercus sp. were boiled in water to obtain AE. Different volumes of each AE were added to fungal cultures to determine the amount of AE needed for the induction experiments. Laccase activity was assayed every 24 h for 15 days. The addition of each AE (50 to 150 ?l) to the fungal cultures increased laccase production compared to the control (0.42 ± 0.01 U ml(-1)). The highest laccase activities detected were 1.92 ± 0.15 U ml(-1) (pine), 1.87 ± 0.26 U ml(-1) (cedar), and 1.56 ± 0.34 U ml(-1) (oak); laccase productivities were also significantly increased. Larger volumes of any AE inhibited mycelial growth. Electrophoretic analysis revealed two laccase bands (lcc1 and lcc2) for all the treatments. However, when lcc2 was analyzed by isoelectric focusing, inducer-dependent isoform patterns composed of three (pine AE), four (oak AE), and six laccase bands (cedar AE) were observed. Thus, AE from softwood and hardwood had induction effects in T. versicolor HEMIM-9, as indicated by the increase in laccase activity and different isoform patterns. All of the enzymatic extracts were able to decolorize the dye Orange II. Dye decolorization was mainly influenced by pH. The optimum pH for decolorization was pH 5 (85%), followed by pH 7 (50%) and pH 3 (15%). No significant differences in the dye decolorizing capacity were detected between the control and the differentially induced laccase extracts (oak, pine and cedar). This could be due to the catalytic activities of isoforms with pI 5.4 and 5.8, which were detected under all induction conditions. PMID:23861040

Bertrand, Brandt; Martínez-Morales, Fernando; Tinoco, Raunel; Rojas-Trejo, Sonia; Serrano-Carreón, Leobardo; Trejo-Hernández, María R

2014-01-01

38

Effect of Residual Lignin Type and Amount on Bleaching of Kraft Pulp by Trametes versicolor  

PubMed Central

The white rot fungus Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor can delignify and brighten unbleached hardwood kraft pulp within a few days, but softwood kraft pulps require longer treatment. To determine the contributions of higher residual lignin contents (kappa numbers) and structural differences in lignins to the recalcitrance of softwood kraft pulps to biobleaching, we tested softwood and hardwood pulps cooked to the same kappa numbers, 26 and 12. A low-lignin-content (overcooked) softwood pulp resisted delignification by T. versicolor, but a high-lignin-content (lightly cooked) hardwood pulp was delignified at the same rate as a normal softwood pulp. Thus, the longer time taken by T. versicolor to brighten softwood kraft pulp than hardwood pulp results from the higher residual lignin content of the softwood pulp; possible differences in the structures of the residual lignins are important only when the lignin becomes highly condensed. Under the conditions used in this study, when an improved fungal inoculum was used, six different softwood pulps were all substantially brightened by T. versicolor. Softwood pulps whose lignin contents were decreased by extended modified continuous cooking or oxygen delignification to kappa numbers as low as 15 were delignified by T. versicolor at the same rate as normal softwood pulp. More intensive O2 delignification, like overcooking, decreased the susceptibility of the residual lignin in the pulps to degradation by T. versicolor. PMID:16349246

Reid, Ian D.; Paice, Michael G.

1994-01-01

39

Ultrasound-intensified laccase production from Trametes versicolor.  

PubMed

An efficient intermittent ultrasonic treatment strategy was developed to improve laccase production from Trametes versicolor mycelia cultures. The optimized strategy consisted of exposing 2-day-old mycelia cultures to 5-min ultrasonic treatments for two times with a 12-h interval at the fixed ultrasonic power and frequency (120 W, 40 kHz). After 5 days of culture, this strategy produced the highest extracellular laccase activity of 588.9 U/L among all treatments tested which was 1.8-fold greater than the control without ultrasound treatment. The ultrasonic treatment resulted in a higher pellet porosity that facilitated the mass transfer of nutrients and metabolites from the pellets to the surrounding liquid. Furthermore, the ultrasonic treatment induced the expression of the laccase gene (lcc), which correlated with a sharp increase in both extracellular and intracellular laccase activity. This is the first study to find positive effects of ultrasound on gene expression in fungal cells. These results provide a basis for understanding the stimulation of metabolite production and process intensification by ultrasonic treatment in filamentous fungal culture. PMID:22682477

Wang, Feng; Ma, An-Zhou; Guo, Chen; Zhuang, Guo-Qiang; Liu, Chun-Zhao

2013-01-01

40

Adsorption profile of lead on Aspergillus versicolor: a mechanistic probing.  

PubMed

The adsorption of lead on Aspergillus versicolor biomass (AVB) has been investigated in aqueous solution with special reference to binding mechanism in order to explore the possibilities of the biomass to address environmental pollution. AVB, being the most potent of all the fungal biomasses tested, has been successfully employed for reducing the lead content of the effluents of battery industries to permissible limit (1.0 mg L(-1)) before discharging into waterbodies. The results establish that 1.0 g of the biomass adsorbs 45.0 mg of lead and the adsorption process is found to depend on the pH of the solution with an optimum at pH 5.0. The rate of adsorption of lead by AVB is very fast initially attaining equilibrium within 3h following pseudo second order rate model. The adsorption process can better be described by Redlich-Peterson isotherm model compared to other ones tested. Scanning electron micrograph demonstrates conspicuous changes in the surface morphology of the biomass as a result of lead adsorption. Zeta potential values, chemical modification of the functional groups and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reveal that binding of lead on AVB occurs through complexation as well as electrostatic interaction. PMID:21159429

Bairagi, Himadri; Khan, Md Motiar R; Ray, Lalitagauri; Guha, Arun K

2011-02-15

41

Skin Characteristics in Patients with Pityriasis Versicolor Using Non-Invasive Method, MPA5  

PubMed Central

Background Skin pigmentary changes of pityriasis versicolor may occur as either hyperpigmented or hypopigmented lesions, depending on the outcome of interactions between Malassezia yeasts and the skin, such as lipoperoxidation process, stimulus of inflammatory cell to melanocytes, and increased thickness of keratin layer. Objective To investigate skin characteristic factors that enhance the susceptibility to Malassezia yeasts and provoke different color changes of pityriasis versicolor patients. Methods To clarify these factors, we investigated the skin characteristics of pityriasis versicolor patients, using a non-invasive method known as MPA 5® (Courage and Khazaka, Germany). A total of 90 normal healthy subjects and 30 pityriasis versicolor patients were included in this study. Results Both hyperpigmented and hypopigmented pityriasis versicolor skin lesions showed higher humidity, increased sebum excretion rate and increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL) values than normal healthy subjects. But no significant difference of specific Malassezia yeasts species between hyperpigmented and hypopigmented skin lesions was evident. Conclusion These results indicate that higher humidity and increased sebum level provide a better growing environment of Malassezia yeasts in the skin, leading to the assumption that interaction between Malassezia yeasts and skin barrier materials makes disruption of skin barrier causing increased TEWL. PMID:23197911

Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom

2012-01-01

42

First report of Elasmus polistis Burks (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) recovered from Polistes versicolor (Olivier) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) nests in Brazil.  

PubMed

The first record of Elasmus polistis Burks in Polistes versicolor (Olivier) nests in the Rio Grande do Sul state and in Brazil is provided. A total of 173 specimens of P. versicolor and 790 specimens of E. polistis were collected from two nests from Gramado and Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brazil. PMID:21952973

Dorfey, C; Köhler, A

2011-01-01

43

Ketoconazole 2% shampoo in the treatment of tinea versicolor: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Tinea versicolor is a common superficial fungal infection caused by a lipophilic yeast. This chronically recurring opportunistic infection is especially prevalent in tropical and semitropical regions. The topical short-term application of ketoconazole 2% shampoo may provide effective and safe therapy for tinea versicolor. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a single

David S. Lange; Henry M. Richards; Joseph Guarnieri; John M. Humeniuk; Ronald C. Savin; Blas A. Reyes; Janet Hickman; David M. Pariser; Robert J. Pariser; Elizabeth F. Sherertz; Rachel M. Grossman; Elvira M. Gisoldi; Mark A. Klausner

1998-01-01

44

Aspergillus section Versicolores: nine new species and multilocus DNA sequence based phylogeny.  

PubMed

?-tubulin, calmodulin, internal transcribed spacer and partial lsu-rDNA, RNA polymerase 2, DNA replication licensing factor Mcm7, and pre-rRNA processing protein Tsr1 were amplified and sequenced from numerous isolates belonging to Aspergillus sect. versicolor. The isolates were analyzed phylogenetically using the concordance model to establish species boundaries. Aspergillus austroafricanus, A. creber, A. cvjetkovicii, A. fructus, A. jensenii, A. puulaauensis, A. subversicolor, A. tennesseensis and A. venenatus are described as new species and A. amoenus, A. protuberus,A. sydowii, A. tabacinus and A. versicolor are accepted as distinct species on the basis of molecular and phenotypic differences. PCR primer pairs used to detect A. versicolor in sick building syndrome studies have a positive reaction for all of the newly described species except A. subversicolor. PMID:23155501

Jurjevic, Zeljko; Peterson, Stephen W; Horn, Bruce W

2012-06-01

45

A study on the antioxidant effect of Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide in rat brain tissues.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to investigate the antioxidant effect of Chinese medicine Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide on brain tissue and its mechanism in rats. SOD, MDA and GSH-Px levels in rat brain tissues were determined with SD rats as the animal model. The results showed that Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide can reduce the lipid peroxidation level in brain tissues during exhaustive exercise in rats, and can accelerate the removal of free radicals. The study concluded that its antioxidant effect is relatively apparent. PMID:24311873

Chen, Jiayu; Jin, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Liting; Yang, Linjun

2013-01-01

46

[Pityriasis versicolor : new aspects of an old disease].  

PubMed

Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is one of the most common infectious skin diseases, as well as the most common dermatosis associated with pigmentation alterations of the skin. PV is prevalent in 1% of the population living in temperate climate zones and more common during the summer. In tropical areas, PV is found in up to 50% of all patients consulting a dermatologist. Of the known Malassezia species, M. globosa is currently felt to play a key role in the pathogenesis of PV, as it is most commonly found in PV lesions. In addition, its round-shaped cells may contribute to the characteristic histology of the disease ("spaghetti and meatballs"). However, the clinical appearance of PV including hyper- and hypopigmentation, fluorescence of the lesions, as well as a lack of inflammation despite high fungal load cannot fully be explained by the presence of M. globosa, which is also found on healthy skin. In M. furfur a tryptophan-dependent metabolic pathway generates a number of indole pigments, which may be associated with the clinical appearance of PV. In the model organism Ustilago maydis it was shown that the formation of the indole compounds occurs spontaneously after initial conversion of tryptophan into indole pyruvate controlled by the key enzyme aminotransferase Tam 1. We review the present knowledge of PV and highlight the potential role of Tam1 in explaining the poorly understood aspects of the disease. Promising therapeutic results using the application of Tam1 inhibitors to treat PV support the enzyme's important role in the disease pathogenesis. PMID:23114508

Mayser, P A; Preuss, J

2012-11-01

47

Foundation pattern, productivity and colony success of the paper wasp, Polistes versicolor.  

PubMed

Polistes versicolor (Olivier) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) colonies are easily found in anthropic environments; however there is little information available on biological, ecological and behavioral interactions of this species under these environmental conditions. The objective of this work was to characterize the foundation pattern, the productivity, and the success of colonies of P. versicolor in anthropic environments. From August 2003 to December 2004, several colonies were studied in the municipal district of Juiz de Fora, Southeastern Brazil. It was possible to determine that before the beginning of nest construction the foundress accomplishes recognition flights in the selected area, and later begins the construction of the peduncle and the first cell. As soon as new cells are built, the hexagonal outlines appear and the peduncle is reinforced. Foundation of nests on gypsum plaster was significantly larger (p < 0.0001; chi2 test) in relation to the other types of substrate, revealing the synantropism of the species. On average, the P. versicolor nest presents 244.2 ± 89.5 (100-493) cells and a medium production of 171.67 ± 109.94 (37-660) adults. Cells that produced six individuals were verified. Usually, new colonies were founded by an association of females, responsible for the success of 51.5%. Although these results enlarge knowledge on the foundation pattern of P. versicolor in anthropic environments, other aspects of the foundation process require further investigation. PMID:20879919

Alves de Oliveira, Simone; Monteiro de Castro, Mariana; Prezoto, Fábio

2010-01-01

48

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF MALASSEZIA SPP. IN PYTIRIASIS VERSICOLOR IN KASHAN, IRAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a chronic superficial fungal disease caused by Malassezia spp. The incidence is as high as 30-40% in tropical climates. Epidemiological data suggest geographical variations in the rate of the isolated species from PV. Our aim was to identify Malassezia spp. from PV patients in Kashan, Iran. Methodology: Isolates of Malassezia were collected from 118 PV

Rezvan Moniri; Mehdi Nazeri; Shokouh Amiri; Babak Asghari

49

Decolorization of wastewater from an alcoholic fermentation process with Trametes versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decoloration by Trametes versicolor of molasses wastewater from an alcoholic fermentation factory was studied. Tests varying the concentrations of carbon source, nutrients, initial pH and mycelia were carried out in order to analyze their influence on the percentage decolorization, COD removal and decrease of ammonium content of the wastewater. Satisfactory results were obtained working with a low sucrose concentration and

G. González Benito; M. Peña Miranda; D. Rodríguez de los Santos

1997-01-01

50

Expression and potential function of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides in dermatophytosis and tinea versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This study was designed to characterize the role of the human cathelicidin LL-37 in fungal skin infections such as dermatophytosis and tinea versicolor. Methods: The in vitro antimicrobial activity of synthetic antimicrobial peptides including the human cathelicidin LL-37 against Malassezia furfur and several dermatophytes was determined. Immunostaining was performed to determine expression of cathelicidin in skin biopsies from patients

BelenL opez-Garcõ ´ a; Phillip H. A. Lee; Richard L. Gallo

2006-01-01

51

Pityriasis versicolor in school children in Cross River State of Nigeria.  

PubMed

Out of 2,353 primary school children aged 4-16 years in Cross River State of Nigeria examined, 88 (3.7%) showed lesions mycologically proven to be pityriasis versicolor. Incidence was highest (6.3%) in children aged 12-16. Lesions were much more common on the face than on other sites. PMID:2103592

Akpata, L E; Gugnani, H C; Utsalo, S J

1990-01-01

52

Identification and Speciation of Malassezia in Patients Clinically Suspected of Having Pityriasis Versicolor  

PubMed Central

Background: Malassezia is a lipid-dependent yeast known to cause Pityriasis versicolor, a chronic, recurrent superficial infection of skin and present as hypopigmented or hyperpigmented lesions on areas of skin. If not diagnosed and treated, it may lead to disfigurement of the areas involved and also result in deep invasive infections. Aim: The aim of the present study was to identify and speciate Malassezia in patients clinically suspected of having Pityriasis versicolor. Materials and Methods: Total 139 patients suspected of having Pityriasis versicolor were evaluated clinically and diagnosis was done by Wood's lamp examination, confirmed mycologically by using KOH, cultivation on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and modified Dixon agar at a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai. The total duration of study was 12 months. Results: Majority of the patients were males (59.71%) in the age group of 21-30 years (33.81%) who were students (30.21%) by profession. The incidence of Malassezia in Pityriasis versicolor was 50.35%. The most common isolate was M. globosa (48.57%), followed by M. furfur (34.28%). Majority of the patients had hypopigmented lesions, with M. globosa as the predominant isolate. Neck was the most common site affected; 88.48% were Wood's lamp positive of which 56.91% of Malassezia isolates grew on culture. KOH mount was positive in 82.01% of which 61.40% Malassezia isolates grew on culture. Conclusions: The procedure of culture and antifungal testing is required to be performed as different species of Malassezia are involved in Pityriasis versicolor and susceptibility is different among different species. Thus, it would help to prevent recurrences and any systemic complications. PMID:23723483

Shah, Avani; Koticha, Avani; Ubale, Milind; Wanjare, Shashir; Mehta, Preeti; Khopkar, Uday

2013-01-01

53

Hepatic and Extrahepatic Microsomal Electron Transport Components and Mixed-Function Oxygenases in the Marine Fish 'Stenotomus versicolor'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NADPH-cytochrome c reductase, benzo(s)pyrene hydroxylase and aminopyrine demethylase activities in hepatic microsomes from the marine fish scup (Stenotomus versicolor) were characterized according to dependence of pH, temperature, ionic strength and Mg2+....

J. J. Stegeman, R. L. Binder, A. Orren

1978-01-01

54

Lignin peroxidase from the wood-degrading basidiomycete Trametes versicolor. Studies of enzymic properties and gene structure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is a contribution to the identification and characterization, at a molecular level, of the enzymic machinery utilized by Trametes versicolor to effect ligninolysis. Emphasis has been given to lignin peroxidase and the genes encoding this enzyme...

L. Joensson

1994-01-01

55

Sociogenetic structure of Polistes (Aphanilopterus) versicolor Olivier, 1791 colonies (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistini).  

PubMed

The observation of two distinct, well-defined oviposition areas in nests of the primitively eusocial wasp Polistes versicolor suggests the presence of multiple egg-layers and territorial behaviors. Electrophoretic analysis of enzyme loci in pupae from 35 colonies revealed an average observed heterozygosity of 0.10 and the existence of private polymorphisms, thereby indicating a low dispersion in this species. No evidence of diploid males was found. Phenotypic segregation analysis revealed the presence of more than one egg-laying female in 15 out of 35 colonies, as well as spatially preferential oviposition in 2 out of 13 nests, with distinct oviposition areas. Genetic relatedness estimates for brood were lower than expected for haplodiploid species under monogynous conditions (r = 0.75 for female broods and r = 0.5 for male) in 4 of those 13 nests, thereby inferring complex sociogenetic structuring in Polistes versicolor colonies. PMID:21637576

Nagamati, Keize; Simokomaki, Kimie; Gruber, Caroline Vivian; Del Lama, Marco Antonio

2010-10-01

56

Role of laccase and low molecular weight metabolites from Trametes versicolor in dye decolorization.  

PubMed

The studies regarding decolorization of dyes by laccase may not only inform about the possible application of this enzyme for environmental purposes, but also may provide important information about its reaction mechanism and the influence of several factors that could be involved. In this paper, decolorization of crystal violet and phenol red was carried out with different fractions of extracellular liquids from Trametes versicolor cultures, in order to describe the role of laccase in this reaction. Moreover, the possible role of the low molecular weight metabolites (LMWMs) also produced by the fungus was evaluated. The results confirm the existence of a nonenzymatic decolorization factor, since the nonprotein fraction of the extracellular liquids from cultures of T. versicolor has shown decolorization capability. Several experiments were performed in order to identify the main compounds related to this ability, which are probably low molecular weight peroxide compounds. PMID:22566767

Moldes, Diego; Fernández-Fernández, María; Sanromán, M Ángeles

2012-01-01

57

Over production of lignocellulosic enzymes of Coriolus versicolor by genetic engineering methodology. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The project seeks to understand the biological and chemical processes involved in the secretion of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) by the hyphae, the basic unit of the filamentous fungus Coriolus versicolor. These studies are made to determine rational strategies for enhanced secretion of PPO, both with the use of recombinant DNA techniques and without. This effort focuses on recombinant DNA techniques to enhance enzyme production. The major thrust of this project was two-fold: to mass produce C. versicolor tyrosinase (polyphenol oxidase) by genetic engineering as well as cultural manipulations; and to utilize PPO as a biocatalyst in the processing of lignocellulose as a renewable energy resource. In this study, the assessment of genomic and cDNA recombinant clones with regards to the overproduction of PPO continued. Further, immunocytochemical techniques were employed to assess the mechanism(s) involved in the secretion of PPO by the hyphae. Also, factors influencing PPO secretion were examined.

Williams, A.L.

1998-07-01

58

Manganese peroxidase, produced by Trametes versicolor during pulp bleaching, demethylates and delignifies kraft pulp  

SciTech Connect

The white rot fungus Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor delignifies and bleaches kraft pulp. However, the process is slow compared with chemical bleaching and the cellulose is also attacked. This study attempts to determine the enzymology of fungal delignification and then applies the relevant enzymes directly to the pulp. Lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) have both been implicated in lignin biodegradations. However, the researchers show that MnP is the critical enzyme. It is produced by bleaching cultures of T. versicolor; its peak production occurs at the same time as the maximum rate of fungal culture bleaching, and the manganese-and peroxide-dependent demethylation and delignification of kraft pulp occurs in vitro. 50 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

Paice, M.G.; Reid, I.D.; Bourbonnais, R.; Archibald, F.S.; Jurasek, L. (Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada, Pointe Claire, Quebec (Canada))

1993-01-01

59

Fungal biodegradation of lignopolystyrene graft copolymers. [Pleurotus ostreatus; Phanerochaete chrysosporium; Trametes versicolor; Gloeophyllum trabeum  

Microsoft Academic Search

White rot basidiomycetes were able to biodegrade styrene (1-phenylethene) graft copolymers of lignin containing different proportions of lignin and polystyrene (poly(1-phenylethylene)). The biodegradation tests were run on lignin-styrene copolymerization products which contained 10.3, 32.2, and 50.4% (wt\\/wt) lignin. The polymer samples were incubated with the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Trametes versicolor and the brown rot fungus

O. Milstein; R. Gersonde; A. Huttermann; MengJiu Chen; J. J Meister

1992-01-01

60

Effect of environmental conditions on biological decolorization of textile dyestuff by C. versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of environmental conditions such as pH, media composition, carbon and nitrogen sources, TOC\\/N ratio, and dyestuff concentrations on decolorization of reactive phytalocyanin type textile dyestuff Everzol Turquoise Blue G by white rot fungi, Coriolus versicolor MUCL were investigated. pH = 4.5 and the media III were found to be the most suitable ones among the others tested. Compared to

Ilgi Karapinar Kapdan; Fikret Kargia; Geoffrey McMullan; Roger Marchant

2000-01-01

61

Decoloration of textile dyes by Trametes versicolor and its effect on dye toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amaranth, Tropaeolin O, Reactive Blue 15, Congo Red, and Reactive Black 5 were completely decolorized with no dye sorption by Trametes versicolor. Cibacron Brilliant Red 3G-P, Cibacron Brilliant Yellow 3B-A, and Remazol Brilliant Blue R were partially decolorized with some dye sorbed to the biomass. The Microtox assay before decol- oration showed that Amaranth and Tropaeolin O were not toxic

Juliana A. Ramsay; Thuy Nguyen

2002-01-01

62

Purification and Characterization of Cellobiose Dehydrogenases from the White Rot FungusTrametes versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white rot fungus Trametes versicolor degrades lignocellulosic material at least in part by oxidizing the lignin via a number of secreted oxidative and peroxidative enzymes. An extracellular reductive enzyme, cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH), oxidizes cellobiose and reduces insoluble Mn(IV)O2, commonly found as dark deposits in decaying wood, to form Mn(III), a powerful lignin-oxidizing agent. CDH also reduces ortho-quinones and produces

B. P. ROY; T. DUMONCEAUX; A. A. KOUKOULAS; S. ARCHIBALD

1996-01-01

63

Laccase mediated decolorization of vat dyes by Coriolus versicolor IBL04  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five indigenous white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus IBL-02, Phanerochaete chrysosporium IBL-03, Coriolus versicolor IBL-04, Ganoderma lucidum IBL-05 and Schizophyllum commune IBL-06 were screened for decolorization of four vat dyes, Cibanon red 2B-MD, Cibanon golden-yellow PK-MD, Cibanon blue GFJ-MD and Indanthrene direct black RBS. The screening experiment was run for 10 days with 0.01% dye solutions prepared in alkaline Kirk's basal

Muhammad Asgher; Shaheerah Batool; Haq Nawaz Bhatti; Razia Noreen; S. U. Rahman; M. Javaid Asad

2008-01-01

64

Different proportions of laccase isoenzymes produced by submerged cultures of Trametes versicolor grown on lignocellulosic wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor grown in submerged culture produced two laccase isoenzymes, LacI and LacII. Addition of insoluble lignocellulosic materials into the culture medium increased the total laccase activity. The proportion of laccase isoenzymes also changed depending on the lignocellulosic material employed, with ratios of activity LacII\\/LacI from 0.9 (barley straw) to 4.4 (grape stalks). Besides, this proportion played

D. Moldes; M. Lorenzo

2004-01-01

65

Properties of the ?-d-glucosidase (cellobiase) from the wood-rotting fungus, Coriolus versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural and kinetic parameters of the ß-d-glucosidase (cellobiase, ß-d-glucoside glucohydrolase) from Coriolus versicolor have been determined. It is a high molecular weight glycoprotein (300,000 d) composed 10% by weight of protein, 90% by weight of carbohydrate in which glucose is the primary hexose sugar. The Km for 4-nitrophenyl-ß-d-glucopyranoside (4 NPG) and cellobiose are 0.276 and 2.94 mM respectively at pH

Christine S. Evans

1985-01-01

66

Genetic transformation of Trametes versicolor to phleomycin resistance with the dominant selectable marker shble  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a stable, DNA-mediated transformation system for the white-rot basidiomycete Trametes versicolor based on the dominant selectable marker shble (phleomycin resistance). We employed a vector containing the selectable marker under control of expression sequences from the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune and a polyethylene glycol\\/CaCl2 protoplast-fusion technique to introduce the transforming DNA. This transformation system generated stable phleomycin-resistant transformants at

K. Bartholomew; G. Dos Santos; T. Dumonceaux; T. Charles; F. Archibald

2001-01-01

67

Effects of extracts of fiberglass insulations on the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus and A. versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water extracts of thermal and acoustic fiberglass insulations used in the duct work of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems supported germination of conidia and growth ofAspergillus versicolor (Vuillemin) Tiraboschi 1908–9 andAspergillus fumigatus Fresenius 1863. Urea, formaldehyde and unidentified organics were detected in the extracts. Formaldehyde in concentrations similar to those found in the extracts restricted the growth of

Ifeoma M. Ezeonu; Daniel L. Price; Sidney A. Crow; Donald G. Ahearn

1995-01-01

68

Transformation of halogen-, alkyl-, and alkoxy-substituted anilines by a lactase of Trametes versicolor  

SciTech Connect

The lactase of the fungus Trametes versicolor was able to polymerize various halogen-, alkyl-, and alkoxy-substituted anilines, showing substrate specificity similar to that of horseradish peroxidase, whereas the lactase of Rhizoctonia praticola was active only with p-methoxyaniline. The substrate specificities of the enzymes were determined by using gas chromatography to measure the decrease in substrate concentration during incubation. With p-chloroaniline as the substrate, the peroxidase and the Trametes lactase showed maximum activity near pH 4.2. The transformation of this substrate gave rise to a number of oligomers, ranging from dimers to pentamers, as determined by mass spectrometry. The product profiles obtained by high-pressure liquid chromatography were similar for the two enzymes. A chemical reaction was observed between p-chloroaniline and an enzymatically formed dimer, resulting in the formation of a trimer. All three enzymes oxidized p-methoxyaniline to 2-amino-5-p-anisidinobenzoquinone di-p-methoxyphenylimine, but only the T. versicolor lactase and the peroxidase caused the formation of a pentamer (2,5-di-p-anisidinobenzoquinone di-p-methoxyphenylimine). These results demonstrate that in addition to horseradish peroxidase, a T. versicolor lactase can also polymerize aniline derivatives.

Hoff, T.; Liu, S.Y.; Bollag, J.M.

1985-05-01

69

Geratology and decomposition of Spartina versicolor in a brackish Mediterranean marsh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most studies on plant decomposition in salt marshes have been carried out in Spartina-dominated marshes in North America. In contrast, few have focused on marshes in Mediterranean systems. Moreover, research into litter decay in estuarine systems has been conducted with plant material collected before natural senescence and death. Here we followed the growth, senescence, leaf fall, and nutrient dynamics of Spartina versicolor to examine litter decay in a Mediterranean coastal system. We studied the dynamics of fungi, meiofauna and algae associated with detached S. versicolor litter, and the effect of the microenvironment (above and underneath wracks of dead Spartina) on decomposition. The exponential decay coefficient rate ( k, day -1) was higher for leaves attached to standing plants (0.0019) than after leaf abscission (0.0002-0.001). The decomposition rate of detached leaves was highly variable and depended on the position of the litter. The large differences in decomposition rates between the two experimental conditions indicate that the microenvironment affected the associated litter community during the initial phase of decay. Water availability and high temperatures over the sediment surface increased the density of meiofauna and epiphyton and decreased fungal biomass during the first 20 days of the experiment. Fungal biomass was at the lower end of reported values, probably as a result of the drier conditions and high salinity in the Mediterranean marsh. Spartina versicolor detritus acted as a nutrient sink by immobilizing large amounts of N and P for at least one year.

Menéndez, Margarita; Sanmartí, Neus

2007-08-01

70

Molecular epidemiology of Malassezia globosa and Malassezia restricta in Sudanese patients with pityriasis versicolor.  

PubMed

Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial infection of the stratum corneum caused by Malassezia yeasts. The cutaneous Malassezia globosa and Malassezia restricta in Sudanese patients with pityriasis versicolor were elucidated using a molecular-based, culture-independent method and compared with that in healthy individuals. Scale samples were collected by applying an Opsite™ transparent dressing to lesional and non-lesional sites on 29 Sudanese patients with pityriasis versicolor and 54 healthy individuals. Malassezia DNA was extracted directly from the samples. The overall level of colonization by Malassezia globosa and Malassezia restricta was analyzed by real-time PCR using a TaqMan probe. The overall level of colonization by Malassezia at the lesional sites was higher than that at the non-lesional sites for all body sites, including the face, neck, cheeks, and trunk (2.7- to 6.0-fold increase). Both M. globosa and M. restricta were detected in patients and healthy individuals. However, M. globosa predominated at lesional sites, whereas the level of colonization by both species was similar in healthy individuals. PMID:23054329

Saad, M; Sugita, T; Saeed, H; Ahmed, A

2013-02-01

71

Malassezia yeast species isolated from Iranian patients with pityriasis versicolor in a prospective study.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of Malassezia species in pityriasis versicolor lesions and to examine if the range of species varies with patients characteristics such as: age, sex and family history and also clinical findings such as site and number of the lesions. In a prospective study from July 2006 to July 2007, the patients with a clinical diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor (n = 166) were asked to participate in the study. A total of 116 patients had positive culture for Malassezia species: M. globosa was found in 52 (31.3%) cases, M. furfur in 34 (20.5%) cases, M. pachydermatis in 12 (7.2%) cases, M. restricta in 12 (7.2%) cases, M. slooffiae in 6 (3.6%) cases. According to our data, M. globosa is the main species causing pityriasis versicolor, M. furfur was found to be the second-most frequent species. M. sympodialis and M. obtusa were not found in any case, and in 30.2% of patient's Malassezia culture was negative. PMID:19500258

Rasi, Abbas; Naderi, Reza; Behzadi, Ashkan Heshmatzade; Falahati, Mehraban; Farehyar, Shirin; Honarbakhsh, Yasamin; Akasheh, Amir Poya

2010-07-01

72

Lignin Peroxidase Activity Is Not Important in Biological Bleaching and Delignification of Unbleached Kraft Pulp by Trametes versicolor  

PubMed Central

The discovery in 1983 of fungal lignin peroxidases able to catalyze the oxidation of nonphenolic aromatic lignin model compounds and release some CO2 from lignin has been seen as a major advance in understanding how fungi degrade lignin. Recently, the fungus Trametes versicolor was shown to be capable of substantial decolorization and delignification of unbleached industrial kraft pulps over 2 to 5 days. The role, if any, of lignin peroxidase in this biobleaching was therefore examined. Several different assays indicated that T. versicolor can produce and secrete peroxidase proteins, but only under certain culture conditions. However, work employing a new lignin peroxidase inhibitor (metavanadate ions) and a new lignin peroxidase assay using the dye azure B indicated that secreted lignin peroxidases do not play a role in the T. versicolor pulp-bleaching system. Oxidative activity capable of degrading 2-keto-4-methiolbutyric acid (KMB) appeared unique to ligninolytic fungi and always accompanied pulp biobleaching. PMID:16348775

Archibald, Frederick S.

1992-01-01

73

Carbon and nitrogen balance of leaf-eating sesarmid crabs ( Neoepisesarma versicolor) offered different food sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon and nitrogen budgets for the leaf-eating crab, Neoepisesarma versicolor, were established for individuals living on pure leaf diets. Crabs were fed fresh (green), senescent (yellow) and partly degraded (brown) leaves of the mangrove tree Rhizophora apiculata. Ingestion, egestion and metabolic loss of carbon and nitrogen were determined from laboratory experiments. In addition, bacterial abundance in various compartments of the crabs' digestive tract was enumerated after dissection of live individuals. Ingestion and egestion rates (in terms of dry weight) were highest, while the assimilation efficiency was poorest for crabs fed on brown leaves. The low assimilation efficiency was more than counteracted by the high ingestion rate providing more carbon for growth than for crabs fed green and yellow leaves. In any case, the results show that all types of leaves can provide adequate carbon while nitrogen was insufficient to support both maintenance (yellow leaves) and growth (green, yellow and brown leaves). Leaf-eating crabs must therefore obtain supplementary nitrogen by other means in order to meet their nitrogen requirement. Three hypotheses were evaluated: (1) crabs supplement their diet with bacteria and benthic microalgae by ingesting own faeces and/or selective grazing at the sediment surface; (2) assimilation of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the crabs' own intestinal system; and (3) nitrogen storage following occasional feeding on animal tissues (e.g. meiofauna and carcasses). It appears that hypothesis 1 is of limited importance for N. versicolor since faeces and sediment can only supply a minor fraction of the missing nitrogen due to physical constraints on the amount of material the crabs can consume. Hypothesis 2 can be ruled out because tests showed no nitrogen fixation activity in the intestinal system of N. versicolor. It is therefore likely that leaf-eating crabs provide most of their nitrogen requirement from intracellular deposits following occasionally ingestion of animal tissue (hypothesis 3).

Thongtham, Nalinee; Kristensen, Erik

2005-10-01

74

¿Se ha desarrollado el mercado secundario de acciones colombiano durante el período 1988-2002?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo busca analizar el desarrollo del mercado secundario de acciones para Colombia desde 1988 hasta 2002. Para ello se toman cuatro variables: tamaño, liquidez, concentración e integración internacional. Esta investigación complementa trabajos anteriores sobre el mercado de acciones, como el de Demirgüç-Kunt y Levine (1995), a nivel internacional, y el de Arbeláez, Zuluaga y Guerra (2002) entre otros, a

Humberto Bernal Castro; ByronOrtega Gaitán

2004-01-01

75

Metabolites from Aspergillus versicolor, an endolichenic fungus from the lichen Lobaria retigera.  

PubMed

Three new anthraquinone derivatives (1-3) and one new artifact (4) were isolated, along with six known anthraquinone derivatives (5-10) and three xanthones (11-13), from a culture of an endolichenic fungus, Aspergillus versicolor, that was isolated from the lichen Lobaria retigera. The structures of these substances were determined on the basis of 1D and 2D (COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) NMR and MS analyses. The substances 1-4 were also tested for their cytotoxic activity. PMID:24815583

Dou, Yanli; Wang, Xiaoling; Jiang, Daifeng; Wang, Haiying; Jiao, Yang; Lou, Hongxiang; Wang, Xiaoning

2014-04-01

76

Structure of D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Palinurus versicolor in a tetragonal crystal form  

Microsoft Academic Search

D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (holo-GAPDH) fromPalinurus versicolor was crystallized in a novel crystal form by the method of sitting-drop vapor diffusion. The crystals have space groupP4212, cell parameters a=15.49 nm, c=8.03 nm and two subunits per asymmetric unit. The crystal structure at 0.34 nm was determined\\u000a by the molecular replacement method. The final model has crystallographicR\\u000a free andR factors of 0.274 and

Yuequan Shen; Shiying Song; Zhengjiong Lin

2000-01-01

77

Characterization and decolorization applicability of xerogel matrix immobilized manganese peroxidase produced from Trametes versicolor IBL-04.  

PubMed

A novel manganese peroxidase (MnP) isolated from solid state culture of Trametes versicolor IBL-04 was immobilized using xerogel matrix composed of trimethoxysilane (TMOS) and propyltetramethoxysilane (PTMS). FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the successful entrapment of MnP into the xerogel matrix. An immobilization efficiency of 92.2% was achieved with a purified active fraction containing 2 mg/mL MnP. After 24 h incubation at varying pH and temperatures, the immobilized MnP retained 82 and 75% activity at pH 4 and 80°C, respectively. Xerogel matrix immobilization enhanced the catalytic efficiency of entrapped MnP. Metal ions including Cu2+, Mn2+ and Fe2+ stimulated enzyme activity while cysteine, EDTA and Ag+ inhibited the activity. MnP preserved 82% of its initial activity during oxidation of MnSO4 in 10 consecutive cycles, demonstrating the reusability of xerogel entrapped MnP. The immobilized MnP could be stored for up to 75 days at 4°C without significant activity loss. To explore the industrial applicability of MnP, the immobilized MnP was tested for decolorization of textile industry effluent in a Packed Bed Reactor System (PBRS). After five consecutive cycles, 98.8% decolorization of effluent was achieved within 5 h. The kinetic properties, storage stability and reusability of entrapped MnP from T. versicolor IBL-04 reflect its prospects as biocatalyst for bioremediation and other industrial applications. PMID:23016633

Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir; Asgher, Muhammad

2013-05-01

78

Corolla morphology influences diversification rates in bifid toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The role of flower specialization in plant speciation and evolution remains controversial. In this study the evolution of flower traits restricting access to pollinators was analysed in the bifid toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores), a monophyletic group of ?30 species and subspecies with highly specialized corollas. Methods A time-calibrated phylogeny based on both nuclear and plastid DNA sequences was obtained using a coalescent-based method, and flower morphology was characterized by means of morphometric analyses. Directional trends in flower shape evolution and trait-dependent diversification rates were jointly analysed using recently developed methods, and morphological shifts were reconstructed along the phylogeny. Pollinator surveys were conducted for a representative sample of species. Key Results A restrictive character state (narrow corolla tube) was reconstructed in the most recent common ancestor of Linaria sect. Versicolores. After its early loss in the most species-rich clade, this character state has been convergently reacquired in multiple lineages of this clade in recent times, yet it seems to have exerted a negative influence on diversification rates. Comparative analyses and pollinator surveys suggest that the narrow- and broad-tubed flowers are evolutionary optima representing divergent strategies of pollen placement on nectar-feeding insects. Conclusions The results confirm that different forms of floral specialization can lead to dissimilar evolutionary success in terms of diversification. It is additionally suggested that opposing individual-level and species-level selection pressures may have driven the evolution of pollinator-restrictive traits in bifid toadflaxes. PMID:24142920

Fernández-Mazuecos, Mario; Blanco-Pastor, José Luis; Gómez, José M.; Vargas, Pablo

2013-01-01

79

Biodegradation and utilization of 4-n-nonylphenol by Aspergillus versicolor as a sole carbon and energy source.  

PubMed

4-n-Nonylphenol (4-n-NP) is an environmental pollutant with endocrine-disrupting activities that is formed during the degradation of nonylphenol polyethoxylates, which are widely used as surfactants. Utilization of 4-n-NP by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus versicolor as the sole carbon and energy source was investigated. By means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we showed that in the absence of any carbon source other than 4-n-NP in the medium, A. versicolor completely removed the xenobiotic (100mgL(-1)) after 3 d of cultivation. Moreover, mass spectrometric analysis of intracellular extracts led to the identification of eight intermediates. The mineralization of the xenobiotic in cultures supplemented with 4-n-NP [ring-(14)C(U)] as a growth substrate was also assessed. After 3 d of incubation, approximately 50% of the initially applied radioactivity was recovered in the form of (14)CO2, proving that this xenobiotic was completely metabolized and utilized by A. versicolor as a carbon source. Based on microscopic analysis, A. versicolor is capable of germinating spores under such conditions. To confirm these observations, a microcalorimetric method was used. The results show that even the highest amount of 4-n-NP initiates heat production in the fungal samples, proving that metabolic processes were affected by the use of 4-n-NP as an energetic substrate. PMID:25222932

Krupi?ski, Mariusz; Janicki, Tomasz; Pa?ecz, Bart?omiej; D?ugo?ski, Jerzy

2014-09-15

80

Leaf removal by sesarmid crabs in Bangrong mangrove forest, Phuket, Thailand; with emphasis on the feeding ecology of Neoepisesarma versicolor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field measurements on leaf removal by populations of sesarmid crabs at different locations in the Bangrong mangrove forest, Phuket, Thailand, indicated that crabs on average can remove 87% of the daily leaf litter fall by ingestion or burial. The removal rate is correlated positively with the number of crab burrows and negatively with tidal inundation time. The results from the field were supplemented with observations on the behavior of Neoepisesarma versicolor in laboratory microcosms and a mangrove mesocosm. N. versicolor feeds primarily at night and total time spent feeding was up to an order of magnitude higher in the artificial microcosms than under simulated in situ conditions in the mesocosm. Most of the time during both day and night was spent resting near the entrance or inside burrows. N. versicolor mainly feeds on mangrove leaves and scraps of food material from the sediment surface. This is supported by examinations of stomach content, which showed that 62% is composed of higher plant material and 38% of detritus and mineral particles from the sediment. The nutritive value of leaves and detritus is insufficient to maintain crab growth. Sesarmid crabs may instead obtain the needed nutrients by occasional consumption of nitrogen-rich animal tissues, such as carcasses of fish and crustaceans, as indicated by the presence of animal remains in the stomach and the willingness of crabs to consume fish meat. Laboratory experiments on leaf consumption and leaf preferences of N. versicolor indicate that they preferentially feed on brown leaves, if available, followed by green and yellow leaves. If all species of sesarmid crabs in the Bangrong mangrove forest consume leaves at the same rate as N. versicolor, they could potentially ingest 52% of the total litter fall.

Thongtham, Nalinee; Kristensen, Erik; Puangprasan, Som-Ying

2008-12-01

81

Studies of laccase from Trametes versicolor in aqueous solutions of several methylimidazolium ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Stability and kinetic behavior of laccase from Trametes versicolor in the presence of several ionic liquids from the methylimidazolium family have been investigated. In general laccase stability diminished as the size of the alkylic substitute in the methylimidazolium ring increased. Higher concentrations of ionic liquids caused more destabilization than lower ones. Thus, low concentrations of [C(2)mim(+)][EtSO(4)(-)] allowed maintaining enzymatic stability. [C(4)mim(+)][Cl(-)] appeared to have a stabilizing effect on laccase, as little activity decay was observed within three weeks. Kinetic studies indicated that both [C(2)mim(+)][EtSO(4)(-)] and [C(4)mim(+)][Cl(-)] inhibited laccase activity, although 10-fold more [C(2)mim(+)][EtSO(4)(-)] than [C(4)mim(+)][Cl(-)] was required to cause the same degree of inhibition. A kinetic model was developed to represent the experimental data. PMID:21669518

Domínguez, Alberto; Rodríguez, Oscar; Tavares, Ana Paula M; Macedo, Eugenia A; Longo, María Asunción; Sanromán, María Angeles

2011-08-01

82

Biological decolourisation of pulp mill effluent using white rot fungus Trametes versicolor.  

PubMed

The conventional biological treatment methods employed in the pulp and paper industries are not effective in reducing the colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The white-rot fungi are reported to have the ability to biodegrade the lignin and its derivatives. This paper is focused on the biological treatment of pulp mill effluent from a bagasse-based pulp and paper industry using fungal treatment. Experiments were conducted using the white rot fungus, Trametes versicolor in shake flasks operated in batch mode with different carbon sources. The decolourisation efficiencies of 82.5% and 80.3% were obtained in the presence of 15 g/L and 5 g/L of glucose and sucrose concentrations respectively with a considerable COD reduction. The possibility of reusing the grown fungus was examined for repeated treatment studies. PMID:24749195

Srinivasan, S V; Murthy, D V S; Swaminathan, T

2012-07-01

83

Synergistic effects of a combined exposure to herbicides and an insecticide in Hyla versicolor  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Combinations of the herbicides atrazine and metolachlor and the insecticide chlorpyrifos were tested under both laboratory and field conditions to determine their individual and combined effects on amphibian populations. In the lab Hyla versicolor tadpoles experienced 100% mortality when exposed to a high combination of the pesticides (2.0 mg/L atrazine, 2.54 mg/L metolachlor, 1.0 mg/L chlorpyrifos) whereas low concentrations of the pesticides (0.2 mg/L atrazine, 0.25 mg/L metolachlor, 0.1 mg/L chlorpyrifos) or high concentrations of either herbicides or insecticide alone caused lethargy, reduced growth and delayed metamorphosis but no significant mortality. In the field high herbicide, low insecticide and low herbicide, low insecticide mixtures significantly reduced amphibian populations compared to controls but in the low herbicide, low insecticide wetlands amphibian populations were able to recover through recruitment by the end of the season.

Mazanti, L.; Sparling, D. W.; Rice, C.; Bialek, K.; Stevenson, C.; Teels, B.

2003-01-01

84

Three new sterigmatocystin analogues from marine-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor MF359.  

PubMed

During the systematic screening of active compounds from marine-derived fungi, the extract of a strain of Aspergillus versicolor MF359 isolated from a marine sponge of Hymeniacidon perleve was identified for detailed chemical investigation. Three new secondary metabolites, named hemiacetal sterigmatocystin (1), acyl-hemiacetal sterigmatocystin (2), and 5-methoxydihydrosterigmatocystin (3), together with a known compound, aversin (4), were characterized. 1 represents a first structure of sterigmatocystin hemiacetal from nature. The antibacterial activities of these identified compounds were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Compound 3 showed activity against S. aureus and B. subtilis with MIC values of 12.5 and 3.125 ?g/mL, respectively. PMID:24458562

Song, Fuhang; Ren, Biao; Chen, Caixia; Yu, Ke; Liu, Xinru; Zhang, Yuhan; Yang, Na; He, Hongtao; Liu, Xueting; Dai, Huanqin; Zhang, Lixin

2014-04-01

85

Enhanced laccase production by Trametes versicolor using corn steep liquor as both nitrogen source and inducer.  

PubMed

A highly efficient strategy for laccase production by Trametes versicolor was developed using corn steep liquor (CSL) as both a nitrogen source and a laccase inducer. At the optimal CSL concentration of 20 gL(-1), an extracellular laccase activity of 633.3 UL(-1) was produced after a culture period of only 5 days. This represented a 1.96-fold increase relative to control medium lacking CSL. The addition of crude phenolic extracts from CSL improved laccase production to 91.8% greater than the control. Sinapinic acid, present in CSL, caused a reduction in laccase production, vanillic acid and ferulic acid (also present in CSL) synergistically induced laccase production by more than 100% greater than the control medium. Vanillic acid and ferulic acid provided the main contribution to the enhancement of laccase production. This study provides a basis for understanding the induction mechanism of CSL for laccase production. PMID:24951276

Wang, Feng; Hu, Jian-Hua; Guo, Chen; Liu, Chun-Zhao

2014-08-01

86

Prenylated indole diketopiperazines from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor.  

PubMed

Seven new prenylated indole diketopiperazines, versicamides A-G (1-7) and a novel chemical derivative from 7, versicamide H (8), along with three known analogic diketopiperazines (9-11) were obtained from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor HDN08-60. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques, including 2D NMR, ECD calculations, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, together with the assistance of further chemical conversions. The cytotoxicities of 1-8 were tested against the HeLa, HCT-116, HL-60, and K562 cell lines, but only 8 exhibited moderate activity against HL-60 cells, with an IC50 value of 8.7 ?M. Further investigation with target screening showed that 8 exhibited selective PTK inhibitory activities. PMID:25089636

Peng, Jixing; Gao, Huquan; Li, Jing; Ai, Jing; Geng, Meiyu; Zhang, Guojian; Zhu, Tianjiao; Gu, Qianqun; Li, Dehai

2014-09-01

87

A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled evaluation of short-term treatment with oral itraconazole in patients with tinea versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The use of short-term oral azoles is an alternative to topical therapy in patients with tinea versicolor.Objective: We compared the efficacy and safety of oral itraconazole with that of placebo in 36 patients with mycologically proven tinea versicolor.Methods: Patients were randomly assigned to 7 days of treatment with either itraconazole, 200 mg once daily, or placebo. A potassium hydroxide

Janet G. Hickman

1996-01-01

88

Effects of Kraft Pulp and Lignin on Trametes versicolor Carbon Metabolism  

PubMed Central

The white rot basidiomycete Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor can substantially increase the brightness and decrease the lignin content of washed, unbleached hardwood kraft pulp (HWKP). Monokaryotic strain 52J was used to study how HWKP and the lignin in HWKP affect the carbon metabolism and secretions of T. versicolor. Earlier work indicated that a biobleaching culture supernatant contained all components necessary for HWKP biobleaching and delignification, but the supernatant needed frequent contact with the fungus to maintain these activities. Thus, labile small fungal metabolites may be the vital biobleaching system components renewed or replaced by the fungus. Nearly all of the CO2 evolved by HWKP-containing cultures came from the added glucose, indicating that HWKP is not an important source of carbon or energy during biobleaching. Carbon dioxide appeared somewhat earlier in the absence of HWKP, but the culture partial O2 pressure was little affected by the presence of pulp. The presence of HWKP in a culture markedly increased the culture's production of a number of acidic metabolites, including 2-phenyllactate, oxalate, adipate, glyoxylate, fumarate, mandelate, and glycolate. Although the total concentration of these pulp-induced metabolites was only 4.3 mM, these compounds functioned as effective manganese-complexing agents for the manganese peroxidase-mediated oxidation of phenol red, propelling the reaction at 2.4 times the rate of 50 mM sodium malonate, the standard chelator-buffer. The presence of HWKP in a culture also markedly stimulated fungal secretion of the enzymes manganese peroxidase, cellulase, and cellobiose-quinone oxidoreductase, but not laccase (phenol oxidase) or lignin peroxidase. PMID:16348963

Roy, Brian P.; Archibald, Frederick

1993-01-01

89

[Pityriasis versicolor].  

PubMed

The common superficial infection caused by Malassezia yeasts raises even today several questions concerning important pathogenetic and therapeutical aspects like an effective prevention therapy. PMID:22233025

Abeck, Dietrich

2011-12-01

90

``Winter'' aggregations, colony cycle, and seasonal phenotypic change in the paper wasp Polistes versicolor in subtropical Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social wasps from temperate zones have clear annual colony cycles, and the young queens hibernate during winter. In the subtropics, the only previously reported evidence for the existence of “hibernation” is the facultative winter aggregations of females during harsh climate conditions. As in temperate-zone species analyzed so far, we show in this study that in the paper wasp, Polistes versicolor, a subtropical species, body size increases as an unfavorable season approaches. Our morphological studies indicate that larger females come from winter aggregations—that is, they are new queens. Multivariate analyses indicate that size is the only variable analyzed that shows a relationship to the differences. Given the absence of a harsh climate, we suggest that the occurrence of winter aggregations in tropical P. versicolor functions to allow some females to wait for better environmental conditions to start a new nest, rather than all being obliged to start a new nest as soon as they emerge.

Gobbi, Nivar; Noll, Fernando B.; Penna, Marcelo A. H.

2006-10-01

91

Examining multiple sublethal contaminants on the gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor): Effects of an insecticide, herbicide, and fertilizer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the single and interactive effects of an insecticide, an herbicide, and a fertilizer on gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles. Tadpoles were reared in mesocosms from hatching through metamorphosis and were exposed to the presence or absence of as many as three contaminants. Tadpoles did not appear to be more susceptible to single versus multiple contaminants, which may result from positive changes in food resources that compensate for the effects of other contaminants. ?? 2006 SETAC.

Boone, M. D.; Bridges-Britton, C. M.

2006-01-01

92

In vitro chemopreventive effects of plant polysaccharides (Aloe barbadensis Miller, Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum and Coriolus versicolor)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plant polysaccharide, Aloe gel extract, was reported to have an inhibitory effect on benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P)-DNA adduct formation in vitro and in vivo. Hence, chemopreven- tive effects of plant polysaccharides (Aloe barbadensis Miller (APS), Lentinus edodes (LPS), Ganoderma lucidum (GPS) and Coriolus versicolor (CPS)) were compared using in vitro short-term screening methods associated with both initi- ation and promotion processes

Hyung Sik Kim; Sam Kacew; Byung Mu Lee

1999-01-01

93

Comparative Efficacy and Tolerance of 1% Bifonazole Cream and Bifonazole Cream Vehicle in Patients with Tinea versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bifonazole 1% cream (Mycospor®1) was compared to its cream vehicle in the treatment of tinea versicolor, using a once-a-day application for 2 weeks. Patients were evaluated both clinically and mycologically in order to assess the efficacy and tolerance of the medication. 29 patients were evaluated by statistical analysis. Bifonazole cream 1% was shown to be significantly more effective in the

R. G. Mora; D. L. Greer

1984-01-01

94

Bioconversion of d-glucose into d-glucosone by immobilized glucose 2-oxidase from Coriolus versicolor at moderate pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immobilized glucose 2-oxidase (pyranose oxidase, pyranose:oxygen-2-oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.3.10) from Coriolus versicolor was used to convert d-glucose into d-glucosone at moderate pressures, up to 150bar, with compressed air in a modified commercial batch reactor. Several parameters affecting biocatalysis at moderate pressures were investigated as follows: pressure, different forms of immobilized biocatalysts, glucose concentration, pH, temperature and the presence of catalase.

Amin Karmali; José Coelho

2011-01-01

95

RANDOMIZED COMPARATIVE CLINICAL TRIAL OF ARTEMISIA SIEBERI 5% LOTION AND CLOTRIMAZOLE 1% LOTION FOR THE TREATMENT OF PITYRIASIS VERSICOLOR  

PubMed Central

Aims: To compare the therapeutic effects of topical Artremisia sieberi 5% lotion with topical clotrimazole 1% lotion in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor. Materials and Methods: 100 patients with pityriasis versicolor and microscopic identification of Malassezia furfur were randomly assigned to treatment with either topical Artemisia sieberi 5% lotion (group 1) or topical clotrimazole 1% lotion (group 2) for 2 weeks. Group 1 and group 2 consisted of 51 and 49 patients respectively. The patients were evaluated both clinically and mycologically at baseline and every 2 weeks for a period of 4 weeks. Results: At the end of the second week, clinical cure rates were 86.3% and 65.3% for group 1 and group 2 respectively (P<0.01), but at the same time mycological cure rate was 92.2% for group 1 and 73.5% for group 2 (P<0.05). At the end of the fourth week, clinical cure rates were 86.3% and 59.2% for group 1 and group 2 respectively (P<0.01), and at the same time mycologic cure rate was 96.1% for group 1 and 65.3% for group 2 (P<0.01). Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated that Artemisia sieberi 5% lotion was more effective than clotrimazole 1% lotion in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor. PMID:19882007

Rad, Farrokh; Aala, Farzad; Reshadmanesh, Naser; Yaghmaie, Rokshana

2008-01-01

96

Solid-state fermentation of rapeseed meal with the white-rot fungi trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus.  

PubMed

Rapeseed meal is valuable high-protein forage, but its nutritional value is significantly reduced by the presence of a number of antinutrients, including phenolic compounds. Solid-state fermentation with white-rot fungi was used to decrease the sinapic acid concentration of rapeseed meal. After 7 days of growth of Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus, the sinapic acid content of rapeseed meal was reduced by 59.9 and 74.5 %, respectively. At the end of the experiment, sinapic acid concentration of T. versicolor cultures decreased by 93%of the initial value; in the case of cultures of P. ostreatus, 93.2 % reduction was observed. Moreover, cultivation of white-rot fungi on rapeseed meal resulted in the intensive production of extracellular laccase, particularly strong during the late phases of growth of T. versicolor. The obtained results confirm that both fungal species may effectively be used to decompose antinutritional phenolics of rapeseed meal. Rapeseed meal may also find use as an inexpensive and efficient substrate for a biotechnological production of laccase by white-rot fungi. PMID:24022781

?uchowski, Jerzy; Pecio, ?ukasz; Jaszek, Magdalena; Stochmal, Anna

2013-12-01

97

Adsorption of Trametes versicolor laccase to soil iron and aluminum minerals: enzyme activity, kinetics and stability studies.  

PubMed

Laccases play an important role in the degradation of soil phenol or phenol-like substance and can be potentially used in soil remediation through immobilization. Iron and aluminum minerals can adsorb extracellular enzymes in soil environment. In the present study, we investigated the adsorptive interaction of laccase, from the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor, with soil iron and aluminum minerals and characterized the properties of the enzyme after adsorption to minerals. Results showed that both soil iron and aluminum minerals adsorbed great amount of laccase, independent of the mineral specific surface areas. Adsorbed laccases retained 26-64% of the activity of the free enzyme. Compared to the free laccase, all adsorbed laccases showed higher Km values and lower Vmax values, indicating a reduced enzyme-substrate affinity and a lower rate of substrate conversion in reactions catalyzed by the adsorbed laccase. Adsorbed laccases exhibited increased catalytic activities compared to the free laccase at low pH, implying the suitable application of iron and aluminum mineral-adsorbed T. versicolor laccase in soil bioremediation, especially in acid soils. In terms of the thermal profiles, adsorbed laccases showed decreased thermal stability and higher temperature sensitivity relative to the free laccase. Moreover, adsorption improved the resistance of laccase to proteolysis and extended the lifespan of laccase. Our results implied that adsorbed T. versicolor laccase on soil iron and aluminum minerals had promising potential in soil remediation. PMID:24225344

Wu, Yue; Jiang, Ying; Jiao, Jiaguo; Liu, Manqiang; Hu, Feng; Griffiths, Bryan S; Li, Huixin

2014-02-01

98

Production and Characterization of Trametes versicolor Mutants Unable To Bleach Hardwood Kraft Pulp  

PubMed Central

Protoplasts of the monokaryotic strain 52J of Trametes versicolor were treated with UV light and screened for the inability to produce a colored precipitate on guaiacol-containing agar plates. Mutants unable to oxidize guaiacol had absent or very low secretion of laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) proteins. All isolates unable to secrete MnP were also unable to bleach or delignify kraft pulp. One mutant strain, M49, which grew normally but did not oxidize guaiacol, was tested further with a number of other substrates whose degradation has been associated with delignification by white rot fungi. Compared with the parent, 52J, mutant M49, secreting no MnP and low laccase, could not brighten or delignify kraft pulp, produced less ethylene from 2-keto methiolbutyric acid, released much less (sup14)CO(inf2) from [(sup14)C]DHP (a synthetic lignin-like polymerizate), and produced much less methanol from pulp. This mutant also displayed decreased abilities to oxidize the dyes poly B-411, poly R-478, and phenol red compared with the wild-type strain and was also unable to decolorize kraft bleachery effluent or mineralize its organochlorine. Addition of purified MnP in conjunction with H(inf2)O(inf2), MnSO(inf4), and an Mn(III) chelator to M49 cultures partially restored methanol production, pulp delignification, and biobleaching in some cases. PMID:16535150

Addleman, K.; Dumonceaux, T.; Paice, M. G.; Bourbonnais, R.; Archibald, F. S.

1995-01-01

99

Kraft pulp bleaching and delignification by dikaryons and monokaryons of trametes versicolor  

SciTech Connect

To reduce the levels of chlorinated lignin residues in effluents from the pulp and paper industry, interest has focused on the white rot basidiomycete fungi. The kraft process, the most common commercial delignification method, produces a dark pulp which is bleached by use of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and caustic extraction. A dikaryon of Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor has been shown to bleach and delignify kraft pulp, offering a possible alternative to chlorine. A monokaryon strain, if comparable to the effect of the dikaryon, would be a much simpler system for study of mechanisms and genetic munipulation. The researchers compared strains of both and conclude that the following characteristics justify replacing the parent dikaryon with monokaryon 52J in future work on biobleaching and biological delignification: (1) reduced biomass and slower growth rate; (2)no dark pigment production; (3) superior biological bleaching ability; (4) a simpler system for genetic manipulation and biochemical analysis. The involvement of MnP, but not LP, in pulp bleaching, delignification is strongly suggested. 40 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Addleman, K.; Archibald, F. (Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada, Point Claire, Quebec (Canada))

1993-01-01

100

Manganese Peroxidase, Produced by Trametes versicolor during Pulp Bleaching, Demethylates and Delignifies Kraft Pulp  

PubMed Central

Previous work has shown that Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor bleaches kraft pulp brownstock with the concomitant release of methanol. In this work, the fungus is shown to produce both laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) but not lignin peroxidase during pulp bleaching. MnP production was enhanced by the presence of pulp and/or Mn(II) ions. The maximum level of secreted MnP was coincident with the maximum rate of fungal bleaching. Culture filtrates isolated from bleaching cultures produced Mn(II)- and hydrogen peroxide-dependent pulp demethylation and delignification. Laccase and MnP were separated by ion-exchange chromatography. Purified MnP alone produced most of the demethylation and delignification exhibited by the culture filtrates. On the basis of the methanol released and the total and phenolic methoxyl contents of the pulp, it appears that MnP shows a preference for the oxidation of phenolic lignin substructures. The extensive increase in brightness observed in the fungus-treated pulp was not found with MnP alone. Therefore, either the MnP effect must be optimized or other enzymes or compounds from the fungus are also required for brightening. Images PMID:16348850

Paice, M. G.; Reid, I. D.; Bourbonnais, R.; Archibald, F. S.; Jurasek, L.

1993-01-01

101

A multivariate analysis of genetic variation in the advertisement call of the gray treefrog, Hyla versicolor.  

PubMed

Genetic variation in sexual displays is crucial for an evolutionary response to sexual selection, but can be eroded by strong selection. Identifying the magnitude and sources of additive genetic variance underlying sexually selected traits is thus an important issue in evolutionary biology. We conducted a quantitative genetics experiment with gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor) to investigate genetic variances and covariances among features of the male advertisement call. Two energetically expensive traits showed significant genetic variation: call duration, expressed as number of pulses per call, and call rate, represented by its inverse, call period. These two properties also showed significant genetic covariance, consistent with an energetic constraint to call production. Combining the genetic variance-covariance matrix with previous estimates of directional sexual selection imposed by female preferences predicts a limited increase in call duration but no change in call rate despite significant selection on both traits. In addition to constraints imposed by the genetic covariance structure, an evolutionary response to sexual selection may also be limited by high energetic costs of long-duration calls and by preferences that act most strongly against very short-duration calls. Meanwhile, the persistence of these preferences could be explained by costs of mating with males with especially unattractive calls. PMID:24621402

Welch, Allison M; Smith, Michael J; Gerhardt, H Carl

2014-06-01

102

Female gray treefrogs, Hyla versicolor, are responsive to visual stimuli but unselective of stimulus characteristics.  

PubMed

The visual ecology of nocturnal anurans is poorly understood, but there is growing evidence that vision plays a role in important behaviors such as mate choice. While several recent studies have demonstrated that females are responsive to visual cues when selecting mates, the forces responsible for these preferences are unknown. We investigated the responsiveness of female gray treefrogs, Hyla versicolor, to video playbacks of calling conspecific males in which we varied attributes of the vocal sac, a conspicuous visual characteristic of calling males and a target of female choice in other species. Females responded surprisingly strongly to the video playbacks, but did so indiscriminately with respect to variation in vocal sac characteristics. We followed up on these results with a series of additional tests that examined female responses to abstract stimuli. Females continued to respond to such stimuli, leading us to conclude that their behavior was related to a generalized phototactic response. Because of this, we were unable to make conclusions regarding female preferences for vocal sac characteristics. Nonetheless, our results are significant in two respects. First, we illustrate that despite much effort into improving video playback methodologies, challenges remain, and we offer our experimental design as a method to ensure that appropriate conclusions can be drawn from such studies. Second, we argue that the female phototactic response has potentially significant behavioral implications and in general the consequences of anuran visual preferences deserve further investigation. PMID:25013111

Reichert, Michael S; Galante, Holland; Höbel, Gerlinde

2014-09-15

103

Fungal biodegradation of lignopolystyrene graft copolymers. [Pleurotus ostreatus; Phanerochaete chrysosporium; Trametes versicolor; Gloeophyllum trabeum  

SciTech Connect

White rot basidiomycetes were able to biodegrade styrene (1-phenylethene) graft copolymers of lignin containing different proportions of lignin and polystyrene (poly(1-phenylethylene)). The biodegradation tests were run on lignin-styrene copolymerization products which contained 10.3, 32.2, and 50.4{percent} (wt/wt) lignin. The polymer samples were incubated with the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Trametes versicolor and the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. White rot fungi degraded the plastic samples at a rate which increased with increasing lignin content in the copolymer sample. Both polystyrene and lignin components of the copolymer were readily degraded. Polystyrene pellets were not degradable in these tests. Degradation was verified for both incubated and control samples by weight loss, quantitative UV spectrophotometric analysis of both lignin and styrene residues, scanning electron microscopy of the plastic surface, and the presence of enzymes active in degradation during incubation. Brown rot fungus did not affect any of the plastics. White rot fungi produced and secreted oxidative enzymes associated with lignin degradation in liquid media during incubation with lignin-polystyrene copolymer.

Milstein, O.; Gersonde, R.; Huttermann, A. (Forstbotanisches Inst. der Univ. Gottingen (Germany)); MengJiu Chen; Meister, J.J (Univ. of Detroit Mercy, MI (United States))

1992-10-01

104

Pityriasis versicolor during anti-TNF-? monoclonal antibody therapy: therapeutic considerations.  

PubMed

Anecdotal reports have shown that tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? inhibition may cause unchecked superficial infection with the microorganisms responsible for pityriasis versicolor (PV). We observed several cases of PV, which is frequently resistant to topical therapies, in psoriatic patients undergoing anti-TNF-? monoclonal antibody therapy. To evaluate the incidence and the therapeutic management of PV in this group of individuals, between 1 January and 27 December 2010, we examined 153 psoriatic patients for the hypopigmented/hyperpigmented macular and scaling lesions associated with PV. All patients positive for PV were given topical therapy with miconazole nitrate cream twice daily for 28 days, after which they were re-evaluated. In patients non-responsive to topical therapy, we started systemic therapy with fluconazole, 300 mg week(-1) for 3 weeks. We diagnosed seven cases of PV. At the end of topical treatment, complete healing of lesions was observed in only one patient. In the other six patients, systemic treatment led to complete resolution of the infection. Although the onset of PV during anti-TNF-? therapy is seldom reported, it is not likely to be rare, but rather under-reported because of its limited pathological significance. In our opinion, the therapeutic management of this condition deserves greater consideration, as the use of topical treatments alone is largely ineffective compared with systemic treatment. PMID:22283428

Balestri, Riccardo; Rech, Giulia; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Antonucci, Angela; Ismaili, Alma; Patrizi, Annalisa; Bardazzi, Federico

2012-09-01

105

An open-label study of naftifine hydrochloride 1% gel in the treatment of tinea versicolor.  

PubMed

Tinea versicolor (TV) is a superficial cutaneous fungal infection characterized by cutaneous pigment changes, pruritus, scaling, and erythema. This open-label, single-center pilot study evaluated the efficacy and safety of naftifine 1% gel applied twice daily for 2 weeks in 10 men and women (median age 38 years) with TV. Baseline mycology status was determined by potassium hydroxide (KOH) and microscopy and clinical symptom severity (CSS) scored by the investigator using a 0 to 9 scale (0=absent, 9=worst). Patients applied naftifine HCI 1% gel to the affected area twice daily for 14 days. They returned for follow-up efficacy and safety assessments at the end of treatment (week 2), 2 weeks after treatment (week 4), and 6 weeks after treatment (week 8). All patients had a positive mycology at baseline; one was KOH negative at week 2, two were negative at week 4, and five (50%) were negative at week 8. Mean investigator total CSS score decreased from a baseline value of 4.7 to 3.2 at week 2 (32% improvement), 2.6 at week 4 (45% improvement), and 2.7 at week 8 (43% improvement). The patients rated their symptoms to be improved at all follow-up visits. There were no treatment-related adverse events during the study. These results suggest that naftifine 1% gel is a safe and efficacious topical treatment for TV. PMID:22165042

Gold, Michael H; Bridges, Tancy; Avakian, Edward; Plaum, Stefan; Pappert, Eric J; Fleischer, Alan B; Hardas, Bhushan

2011-01-01

106

High-level coproduction, purification and characterisation of laccase and exopolysaccharides by Coriolus versicolor.  

PubMed

In this study, a two-stage pH-shift fermentation process was developed for the coproduction of laccase and exopolysaccharides (EPS) by Coriolus versicolor. At the same time, laccase and EPS were purified and characterised in detail. The results showed that the highest laccase and EPS production reached 7680 U l(-1) and 8.2 g l(-1). Furthermore, the flow behaviour of fermentation broth was Newtonian and the maximum ?(ap) was 2.7×10(-3) Pa s. The MW of laccase was 64 kDa and it showed a pI value of 4.2. The CD analysis showed that laccase had a high ?-helical content (68%). The MW of the purified EPS was determined to be 1.8×10(6) Da, consisting of carbohydrates (87.6%) and proteins (12.4%). The EPS consisted of 17 amino acids, mainly serine (11.3%), glutamic acid (12.60%), leucine (13.3%) and phenylalanine (9.4%) in protein moiety, and three monosaccharides (galactose, mannose and xylose). PMID:24767046

Que, Youxiong; Sun, Shujing; Xu, Liping; Zhang, Yuye; Zhu, Hu

2014-09-15

107

Therapeutic efficacy and safety of the new antimycotic sertaconazole in the treatment of Pityriasis versicolor.  

PubMed

The activity of 7-chloro-3-[1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl) ethoxy-methyl]benzo[b]thiophene (sertaconazole, FI-7045, CAS 99592-32,2) was studied in a randomized parallel double-blind clinical trial on 21 patients suffering from Pityriasis versicolor (confirmed by KOH microscopic examination and exploration with Wood's light). The patients were divided into two treatment groups: one with 11 patients receiving sertaconazole 1% cream and the other with 10 patients receiving sertaconazole 2% cream. The cream was applied twice a day during 4 weeks. The data were assessed clinically and microscopically (optical and fluorescence). All the patients were cured (100% cure), showing excellent efficacy. A check-up performed after the end of the treatment showed no relapses of infection. The drug safety was optimum, since no local or general undesirable effects were recorded, nor were there any changes in the analytical parameters studied in the 21 patients. Because of its high antifungal activity and excellent safety, sertaconazole represents an important advance in the topical therapy of this disease. PMID:1627203

Nasarre, J; Umbert, P; Herrero, E; Roset, P; Márquez, M; Torres, J; Ortiz, J A

1992-05-01

108

Isolation and Identification of the Coal-Solubilizing Agent Produced by Trametes versicolor  

PubMed Central

Low-ranked coals were dissolved by using cell extracts derived from liquid cultures of Trametes versicolor. The coal-solubilizing agent (CSA) was separated from the broth components by a multistep isolation procedure including reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, ethanol fractionation, and recrystallization. Staircase voltammetry was used to show that two CSA moieties can coordinate to aqueous copper(II) ion. A molecular weight determination (using amperometry) gave an apparent molecular weight of 1.34 × 102 g/mol ± 8%. Nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that all protons on CSA are exchangeable in D2O and that there is only one type of carbon in CSA. The infrared spectrum of recrystallized CSA is identical to that of ammonium oxalate, and X-ray studies confirmed the crystal structure and composition of CSA to be that of ammonium oxalate monohydrate. The equivalent weight of the coal in solution, when the coal was dissolved by ammonium oxalate, is 7,940 g of coal per mol of iron present in the coal. PMID:16348335

Cohen, Martin S.; Feldman, Kathleen A.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Gray, Edward T.

1990-01-01

109

Simple fabrication of polymer-based Trametes versicolor laccase for decolorization of malachite green.  

PubMed

A highly efficient and stable biocatalyst (denoted D201_Lac) was fabricated by encapsulating Trametes versicolor laccase within a macroporous and strongly basic exchange resin D201 through a simple adsorption process. Transmission electron micrographs and Fourier transform infrared spectra of the resultant D201_Lac proved that nanosized laccase clusters were embedded into the inner nano-pores/channels of D201. As compared to the free laccase, D201_Lac showed enhanced resistance in the pH range of 3-7 or at temperature of 30-60°C. Besides, negligible laccase was leached out from the host polymer D201 in solution of pH 3-7 and NaCl concentration up to 0.5M, which might be attributed to the electrostatic attraction and the possible twining between long-chain laccase and the cross-linking host resin. Continuous seven-cycle batch decoloration of malachite green demonstrates that decoloration efficiency of D201_Lac kept constant for more than 320-h operation. PMID:22169216

Zhang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Shujuan; Pan, Bingcai; Hua, Ming; Zhao, Xin

2012-07-01

110

Diversification and Demography of the Oriental Garden Lizard (Calotes versicolor) on Hainan Island and the Adjacent Mainland  

PubMed Central

The Oriental garden lizard (Calotes versicolor) is one of the few non-gekkonid lizards that are geographically widespread in the tropics. We investigated its population dynamics on Hainan Island and the adjacent mainland of China and Vietnam, focusing on the impact of cyclic upheaval and submergence of land bridges during the Pleistocene. Our Bayesian phylogenetic analysis reveals two mitochondrial lineages, A and B, which are estimated to have coalesced about 0.26 million years ago (95% credibility interval: 0.05–0.61 million years ago). Lineage A contains individuals mainly from central and southern Wuzhi Mountain on Hainan Island, whereas lineage B mainly comprises individuals from other sites on the island plus the adjacent mainland. The estimated coalescence times within lineages A (0.05 million years ago) and B (0.13 million years ago) fall within a period of cyclical land-bridge formation and disappearance in the Pleistocene. A spatial analysis of molecular variance identified two distinct population groupings: I, primarily containing lineage A, and II, mainly consisting of lineage B. However, haplotypes from lineages A and B occur sympatrically, suggesting that gene flow is ongoing. Neither Wuzhi Mountain nor Qiongzhou Strait and Gulf of Tonkin act as barriers to gene flow among C. versicolor populations. Analyses of the data using mismatch distributions and extended Bayesian skyline plots provide evidence of a relatively stable population size through time for Group I, and moderate population expansions and contractions during the end of the Pleistocene for Group II. We conclude that the phylogeographical patterns of C. versicolor are the combined product of Pleistocene sea-level oscillations and nonphysical barriers to gene flow. PMID:23840304

Huang, Yong; Guo, Xianguang; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Shi, Haitao; Li, Jiatang; Li, Jun; Cai, Bo; Wang, Yuezhao

2013-01-01

111

Treatment of pityriasis versicolor with topical application of essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf - therapeutic pilot study*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Pityriasis versicolor is a fungal infection caused by Malassezia spp. that has frequent relapses. OBJECTIVES The main objective of this research was to perform phase I and II clinical studies, using formulations containing essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus in patients with pityriasis versicolor. METHODS Phase I study included twenty volunteers to ascertain the safety of the formulations. In phase II, 47 volunteers randomly received essential oil formulations at 1.25 ?L/mL concentration, for forty days. The shampoo should be applied three times a week and the cream twice a day. A control group in phase II, consisting of 29 volunteers, received the same formulations but with 2% ketoconazole as the active ingredient. RESULTS No significant adverse events were observed in volunteers during Phase I. In Phase II, 30 (63.83%) volunteers using essential oil and 18 (62.07%) using ketoconazole remained until the end of the study. We observed a predominance of lesions in disseminated form, with M. sympodialis detected as the predominant agent identified in cultures. After 40 days of treatment, the rate of mycological cure was 60% (p <0.05) for the group treated with essential oil of C. citratus and over 80% (p <0.05) for the group treated with ketoconazole formulations. CONCLUSIONS Notwithstanding the safety and antifungal effects observed in this study after application of formulations containing the essential oil of C. citratus, further studies with larger populations should be performed to confirm the actual potential of these formulations in the treatment of patients with Pityriasis versicolor. PMID:23793205

Carmo, Egberto Santos; Pereira, Fillipe de Oliveira; Cavalcante, Neuza Maria; Gayoso, Carla Wanderley; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira

2013-01-01

112

Psychrophilins E-H and Versicotide C, Cyclic Peptides from the Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus versicolor ZLN-60.  

PubMed

Four new cyclic peptides, psychrophilins E-H (1-4), possessing a rare amide linkage between the carboxylic acid in anthranilic acid (ATA) and the nitrogen from an indole moiety, along with a new ATA-containing hexapeptide, versicotide C (5), were obtained from the culture of the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor ZLN-60. The structures, including absolute configurations, were elucidated by a combination of HRESIMS, NMR, X-ray crystallography, TDDFT ECD calculations, and Marfey's method. Versicotide C (5) is the first natural cyclic hexapeptide containing two anthranilic acids. Compounds 1-5 were not cytotoxic, and compound 3 showed potent lipid-lowering effects. PMID:25246036

Peng, Jixing; Gao, Huquan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wang, Shuai; Wu, Chongming; Gu, Qianqun; Guo, Peng; Zhu, Tianjiao; Li, Dehai

2014-10-24

113

Influence of treatment conditions on the oxidation of micropollutants by Trametes versicolor laccase.  

PubMed

Many organic compounds present at low concentrations in municipal wastewater, such as various pharmaceuticals and biocides, are recalcitrant in conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). To improve their biodegradation, oxidoreductase enzymes such as laccases were tested. The goal was to find optimal conditions for the transformation of two anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals (diclofenac (DFC) and mefenamic acid (MFA)), one biocide (triclosan (TCN)) and one plastic additive (bisphenol A (BPA)) by Trametes versicolor laccase. Experiments were conducted in spiked solutions at different pH values (from 3 to 9), enzyme concentrations (70-1400 Ul(-1)), reaction times (0-26 hours) and temperatures (10, 25 and 40°C) following a Doehlert experimental design. A semi-empirical model was developed to understand better the combined effects of the four factors and to determine optimal values. This model was able to fit well the experimental data (R(2)>0.97) and showed good predictive ability. All four factors had a significant effect on the micropollutant oxidation with the greatest influence shown by pH. Results for single compounds were different from those obtained for mixtures of micropollutants. For instance, DFC transformation occurred at much higher rates in mixtures under alkaline conditions. Optimal conditions were compound-dependent, but were found to be between pH 4.5 to 6.5 and between 25°C to more than 40°C. A laccase concentration of 730 Ul(-1) was sufficient to obtain a high removal rate (>90%) of the four individual compounds (range of times: 40 min to 5 hours), showing the potential of laccases to improve biodegradation of environmentally persistent compounds. PMID:23831273

Margot, Jonas; Maillard, Julien; Rossi, Luca; Barry, D A; Holliger, Christof

2013-09-25

114

Interaction between perchlorate and iodine in the metamorphosis of Hyla versicolor  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Perchlorate (ClO4-) is a water-soluble, inorganic anion that is often combined with ammonium, potassium or other cations for use in industry and agriculture. Ammonium perchlorate, for example, is a potent oxidizer and is used in various military applications including rocket fuel. It has also been found in an historically widely used fertilizer, Chilean nitrate and in other fertilizers. It has been found in ground and surface waters of over 30 states and is considered a human health risk. Because of its similar atomic radius and volume, perchlorate competes with iodide for thyroid uptake and storage and thereby inhibits production of thyroid hormones. Amphibians may be particularly affected by perchlorate because they rely on the thyroid for metamorphosis. This study exposed early larval Hyla versicolor to concentrations of perchlorate ranging from 2.2 to 50 ppm to determine the effects of perchlorate on a native amphibian. In addition, three controls, 0 perchlorate, 0 perchlorate with 0.10 ppm iodide (C + I) and 50 ppm perchlorate + 0.10 ppm iodide (50 + I) were tested. Mortality (<11% with all treatments) and growth appeared to be unaffected by perchlorate. Inhibition of development started with 2.2 ppm perchlorate and little or no development occurred at 22.9 ppm and above. This inhibition was particularly apparent at the latter stages of development including hindlimb formation and metamorphosis. The estimated EC50 for total inhibition of metamorphosis at 70 days of treatment was 3.63 ppm. There was no evidence of inhibition of development with the 50 + I, C + I, or controls, indicating that the presence of small concentrations of iodide could counter the effects of perchlorate. When tadpoles that had been inhibited by perchlorate were subsequently treated with iodide, development through prometamorphosis progressed but mortality was very high.

Sparling, D.W.; Harvey, G.; Nzengung, V.

2003-01-01

115

Interaction between perchlorate and iodine in the metamorphosis of Hyla versicolor  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Perchlorate (ClO4-) is a water-soluble, inorganic anion that is often combined with ammonium, potassium or other cations for use in industry and agriculture. Ammonium perchlorate, for example, is a potent oxidizer and is used in various military applications including rocket fuel. It has also been found in an historically widely used fertilizer, Chilean nitrate and in other fertilizers. It has been found in ground and surface waters of over 30 states and is considered a human health risk. Because of its similar atomic radius and volume, perchlorate competes with iodide for thyroid uptake and storage and thereby inhibits production of thyroid hormones. Amphibians may be particularly affected by perchlorate because they rely on the thyroid for metamorphosis. This study exposed early larval Hyla versicolor to concentrations of perchlorate ranging from 2.2 to 50 ppm to determine the effects of perchlorate on a native amphibian. In addition, three controls, 0 perchlorate, 0 perchlorate with 0.10 ppm iodide (C + I) and 50 ppm perchlorate + 0.10 ppm iodide (50 + I) were tested. Mortality (< 11% with all treatments) and growth appeared to be unaffected by perchlorate. Inhibition of development started with 2.2 ppm perchlorate and little or no development occurred at 22.9 ppm and above. This inhibition was particularly apparent at the latter stages of development including hindlimb formation and metamorphosis. The estimated EC50 for total inhibition of metamorphosis at 70 days of treatment was 3.63 ppm. There was no evidence of inhibition of development with the 50 + I, C + I, or controls, indicating that the presence of small concentrations of iodide could counter the effects of perchlorate. When tadpoles that had been inhibited by perchlorate were subsequently treated with iodide, development through prometamorphosis progressed but mortality was very high.

Sparling, D.; Harvey, G.; Nzengung, V.

2003-01-01

116

Overexpression and characterization of laccase from Trametes versicolor in Pichia pastoris.  

PubMed

A laccase-encoding gene of Trametes versicolor, lccA, was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris X33. The lccA gene consists ofa 1560 bp open reading frame encoding 519 amino acids, which was classified into family copper blue oxidase. To improve the expression level of recombinant laccase in P. pastoris, conditions of the fermentation were optimized by the single factor experiments. The optimal fermentation conditions for the laccase production in shake flask cultivation using BMGY medium were obtained: the optimal initial pH 7.0, the presence of 0.5 mM Cu2+, 0.6% methanol added into the culture every 24 h. The laccase activity was up to 11.972 U/L under optimal conditions after 16 days of induction in a medium with 4% peptone. After 100 h of large scale production in 5 L fermenter the enzyme activity reached 18.123 U/L. The recombinant laccase was purified by ultrafiltration and (NH4)2SO4 precipitation showing a single band on SDS-PAGE, which had a molecular mass of 58 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature for the laccase were pH 2.0 and 50 degrees C with 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) as a substrate. The recombinant laccase was stable over a pH range of 2.0-7.0. The K(m) and the V(max) value of LccA were 0.43 mM and 82.3 U/mg for ABTS, respectively. PMID:25272733

Li, Q; Pei, J; Zhao, L; Xie, J; Cao, F; Wang, G

2014-01-01

117

The interactive effects of chytrid fungus, pesticides, and exposure timing on gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) larvae.  

PubMed

Aquatic organisms are often exposed to a wide variety of perturbations in nature, including pathogens and chemical contaminants. Despite the co-occurrence of these 2 stressors, few studies have examined the effects of chemical contaminants on host-pathogen dynamics. The authors tested the individual and combined effects on gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles of 2 commonly used pesticides (Roundup® and Sevin®) and the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). A fully factorial design was used, and tadpoles were exposed to Bd, Roundup, or Sevin alone, or a combination of Bd and either pesticide at 3 points during larval development (early, mid, late). It was predicted that pesticides would mediate the effect of Bd on tadpoles and reduce the likelihood of negative consequences of infection and that timing of exposure would influence these effects. Tadpoles exposed to Bd at the mid point experienced higher survival through metamorphosis than those exposed to Bd at the early or late points, while tadpoles exposed to Sevin at the early point experienced reduced survival compared with those exposed to Roundup or no-pesticide control at the same exposure point. Roundup ameliorated the effects of Bd on survival compared with tadpoles exposed to Bd alone, while there was no interactive effect of Sevin on survival. In addition, Sevin reduced mass of new metamorphs compared with Roundup and reduced snout-vent length compared with all other treatments. The present study supports the hypothesis that pesticides can mitigate the effects of Bd on amphibian hosts and that such effects may depend on the timing of exposure. PMID:24259231

Hanlon, Shane M; Parris, Matthew J

2014-01-01

118

Single-dose oral fluconazole versus topical clotrimazole in patients with pityriasis versicolor: A double-blind randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

This study was designed to compare the therapeutic effects of topical clotrimazole and systemic fluconazole in pityriasis versicolor. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was carried out in the dermatological clinic of Gorgan, northern Iran, between April 2006 and May 2007. All consecutive patients with pityriasis versicolor were included and randomly divided into two groups. In the first group (G1), patients underwent treatment with a single dose of fluconazole capsule (400 mg) and placebo cream. In the second group (G2), patients underwent treatment with clotrimazole cream (twice daily) and placebo capsule. The course of treatment was 2 weeks. All subjects were re-evaluated 2, 4 and 12 weeks after the end of the therapeutic course. After 2 weeks, the rate of complete resolution of disease was significantly higher in G2 than G1 (49.1% vs 30%). After 4 weeks, 41 patients (81.2%) of G1 and 52 patients (94.9%) of G2 showed complete resolution. After 12 weeks, 46 patients (92%) in G1 and 45 patients (81.8%) in G2 showed complete resolution. Recurrence rate in G1 and G2 were 6% and 18.2%, respectively. No complications were seen in either group. In this study, clinical response at week 4 was greater in the clotrimazole group than the fluconazole group. Recurrence at week 12 after treatment was less with oral fluconazole than clotrimazole cream. So, for better evaluation, more studies need to be done. PMID:20649710

Dehghan, Mohammad; Akbari, Negin; Alborzi, Nazila; Sadani, Somayeh; Keshtkar, Abas A

2010-08-01

119

Effects of Lycium barbarum extract on production and immunomodulatory activity of the extracellular polysaccharopeptides from submerged fermentation culture of Coriolus versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polysaccharopeptides (PSPs) from Coriolus versicolor have been used as immunomodulatory and anticancer agents. However, most studies have concentrated on the mycelial PSPs and not those in the fermented broth. On the other hand, Lycium barbarum fruit has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine for two millennia. Its extract contains various nutrients, minerals, and also polysaccharide–protein complexes, which are

Fang-Yi Lin; Yiu-Kay Lai; Hao-Chen Yu; Nan-Yin Chen; Chi-Yue Chang; Hui-Chen Lo; Tai-Hao Hsu

2008-01-01

120

Identification of Wnt4 as the ovary pathway gene and temporal disparity of its expression vis-a-vis testis genes in the garden lizard, Calotes versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex determination in the Indian garden lizard, Calotes versicolor, which lacks sex chromosomes and temperature-dependent sex determination, appears to be genically controlled, and previous studies have identified orthologues of Sox9, Dmrt1 and Androgen receptor (AR) as genes involved in testis differentiation in genetic males. In the pursuit of female pathway genes in this species, the present paper deals with the

Vidisha Tripathi; Rajiva Raman

2010-01-01

121

Comparison of two laccases from Trametes versicolor for application in the decolorization of dyes.  

PubMed

It has been previously demonstrated that laccases exhibit great potential for use in several industrial and environmental applications. In this paper, two laccase isoenzyme genes, lccB and lccC, were cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The sequence analysis indicated that the lccB and lccC genes consisted of 1,563 and 1,584 bp, and their open reading frames encoded 520 and 527 amino acids, respectively. They had 72.7% degree of identity in nucleotides and 86.7% in amino acids. The expression levels of LccB and LccC were up to 32,479 and 34,231 U/l, respectively. The recombinant laccases were purified by ultrafiltration and (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, showing a single band on SDS-PAGE, which had a molecular mass of 58 kDa. The optimal pH and temperature for LccB were 2.0 and 55°C with 2,2'-azino-bis-[3-ethylbenzthiazolinesulfonic acid (ABTS) as a substrate, whereas LccC exhibited optimal pH and temperature at 3.0 and 60°C. The apparent kinetic parameters of LccB were 0.43 mM for ABTS with a Vmax value of 51.28 U/mg, and the Km and Vmax values for LccC were 0.29 mM and 62.89 U/mg. The recombinant laccases were able to decolorize five types of dyes. Acid Violet 43 (100 g/ml) was completely decolorized by LccB or LccC (2 U/ml), and the decolorization of Reactive Blue KN-R (100 g/ml) was 91.6% by LccC (2 U/ml). Thus, the study characterizes useful laccase isoenzymes from T. versicolor that have the capability of being incorporated into the treatment of similar azo and anthraquinone dyes from dyeing industries. PMID:24448164

Li, Qi; Ge, Lin; Cai, Junli; Pei, Jianjun; Xie, Jingcong; Zhao, Linguo

2014-04-01

122

Secondary metabolites of a deep sea derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor CXCTD-06-6a and their bioactivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to obtain novel secondary metabolites, a deep sea inhabiting fungus Aspergillus versicolor CXCTD-06-6a was investigated. One new diketopiperazine brevianamide W ( 1a), as well as five known diketopiperazine alkaloids, diketopiperazine V ( 1b), brevianamide Q ( 2), brevianamide R ( 3), brevianamide K ( 4), and brevianamide E ( 5), were isolated from the EtOAc extract of the fermentation broth. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopy techniques (NMR, MS). The six compounds exhibited moderate radical scavenging activity against DPPH with clearance ratio of 55.0% ( 1a and 1b), 53.7% ( 2), 46.2% ( 3), 61.4% ( 4) and 19.3% ( 5) at a concentration of 13.9 ?mol L-1, respectively; while the positive control ascorbic acid showed a ratio of 70.3% at the concentration of 28.4 ?mol L-1.

Kong, Xianglan; Cai, Shengxin; Zhu, Tianjiao; Gu, Qianqun; Li, Dehai; Luan, Yepeng

2014-08-01

123

Historical Isolation versus Recent Long-Distance Connections between Europe and Africa in Bifid Toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores)  

PubMed Central

Background Due to its complex, dynamic and well-known paleogeography, the Mediterranean region provides an ideal framework to study the colonization history of plant lineages. The genus Linaria has its diversity centre in the Mediterranean region, both in Europe and Africa. The last land connection between both continental plates occurred during the Messinian Salinity Crisis, in the late Miocene (5.96 to 5.33 Ma). Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the colonization history of Linaria sect. Versicolores (bifid toadflaxes), which includes c. 22 species distributed across the Mediterranean, including Europe and Africa. Two cpDNA regions (rpl32-trnLUAG and trnK-matK) were sequenced from 66 samples of Linaria. We conducted phylogenetic, dating, biogeographic and phylogeographic analyses to reconstruct colonization patterns in space and time. Four major clades were found: two of them exclusively contain Iberian samples, while the other two include northern African samples together with some European samples. The bifid toadflaxes have been split in African and European clades since the late Miocene, and most lineage and speciation differentiation occurred during the Pliocene and Quaternary. We have strongly inferred four events of post-Messinian colonization following long-distance dispersal from northern Africa to the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Greece. Conclusions/Significance The current distribution of Linaria sect. Versicolores lineages is explained by both ancient isolation between African and European populations and recent events of long-distance dispersal over sea barriers. This result provides new evidence for the biogeographic complexity of the Mediterranean region. PMID:21779399

Fernández-Mazuecos, Mario; Vargas, Pablo

2011-01-01

124

Effects of polysaccharopeptide from Trametes Versicolor and amoxicillin on the gut microbiome of healthy volunteers: A randomized clinical trial.  

PubMed

Background Interactions between the microbial flora of the intestine and the human host play a critical role in maintaining intestinal health and in the pathophysiology of a wide variety of disorders such as antibiotic associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile infection, and inflammatory bowel disease. Prebiotics can confer health benefits by beneficial effects on the intestinal microbiome, whereas antibiotics can disrupt the microbiome leading to diarrhea and other side effects. Aim To compare the effects of the prebiotic, polysaccharopeptide from Trametes versicolor, to those of the antibiotic, amoxicillin, on the human gut microbiome Methods Twenty-four healthy volunteers were randomized to receive PSP, amoxicillin, or no treatment (control). Stool specimens were analyzed using bTEFAP microbial ecology methods on seven occasions over 8 weeks from each participant in the active treatment groups and on three occasions for the controls. Results Twenty-two of 24 participants completed the protocol. PSP led to clear and consistent microbiome changes consistent with its activity as a prebiotic. Despite the diversity of the human microbiome we noted strong microbiome clustering among subjects. Baseline microbiomes tended to remain stable and to overshadow the treatment effects. Amoxicillin treatment caused substantial microbiome changes most notably an increase in Escherichia/Shigella. Antibiotic associated changes persisted to the end of the study, 42 days after antibiotic therapy ended. Conclusions The microbiomes of healthy individuals show substantial diversity but remain stable over time. The antibiotic amoxicillin alters the microbiome and recovery from this disruption can take several weeks. PSP from T. versicolor acts as a prebiotic to modulate human intestinal microbiome composition. PMID:25006989

Pallav, Kumar; Dowd, Scot E; Villafuerte, Javier; Yang, Xiaotong; Kabbani, Toufic; Hansen, Joshua; Dennis, Melinda; Leffler, Daniel A; Newburg, David S; Kelly, Ciarán P

2014-07-01

125

Protective Effect of Coriolus versicolor Cultivated in Citrus Extract Against Nitric Oxide-Induced Apoptosis in Human Neuroblastoma SK-N-MC Cells.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive free radical and a messenger molecule in many physiological functions. However, excessive NO is believed to be a mediator of neurotoxicity. The medicinal plant Coriolus versicolor is known to possess anti-tumor and immune-potentiating activities. In this study, we investigated whether Coriolus versicolor possesses a protective effect against NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced apoptosis in the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-MC. We utilized 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, DNA fragmentation assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot analysis, and caspase-3 enzyme activity assay in SK-N-MC cells. MTT assay showed that SNP treatment significantly reduces the viability of cells, and the viabilities of cells pre-treated with the aqueous extract of Coriolus versicolor cultivated in citrus extract (CVE(citrus)) was increased. However, aqueous extract of Coriolus versicolor cultivated in synthetic medium (CVE(synthetic)) showed no protective effect and aqueous citrus extract (CE) had a little protective effect. The cell treated with SNP exhibited several apoptotic features, while those pre-treated for 1 h with CVE(citrus) prior to SNP expose showed reduced apoptotic features. The cells pre-treated for 1 h with CVE(citrus) prior to SNP expose inhibited p53 and Bax expressions and caspase-3 enzyme activity up-regulated by SNP. We showed that CVE(citrus) exerts a protective effect against SNP-induced apoptosis in SK-N-MC cells. Our study suggests that CVE(citrus) has therapeutic value in the treatment of a variety of NO-induced brain diseases. PMID:22110367

Kim, Byung-Chul; Kim, Youn-Sub; Lee, Jin-Woo; Seo, Jin-Hee; Ji, Eun-Sang; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Yong-Il; Kim, Chang-Ju

2011-06-01

126

Trametes versicolor Protein YZP Activates Regulatory B Lymphocytes - Gene Identification through De Novo Assembly and Function Analysis in a Murine Acute Colitis Model  

PubMed Central

Background Trametes versicolor (Yun-Zhi) is a medicinal fungus used as a chemotherapy co-treatment to enhance anti-tumor immunity. Although the efficacies of T. versicolor extracts have been documented, the active ingredients and mechanisms underlying the actions of these extracts remain uncharacterized. Results We purified a new protein, YZP, from the fruiting bodies of T. versicolor and identified the gene encoding YZP using RNA-seq and de novo assembly technologies. YZP is a 12-kDa non-glycosylated protein comprising 139 amino acids, including an 18-amino acids signal peptide. YZP induced a greater than 60-fold increase in IL-10 secretion in mice B lymphocytes; moreover, YZP specifically triggered the differentiation of CD1d+ B cells into IL-10-producing regulatory B cells (Bregs) and enhanced the expression of CD1d. YZP-induced B cells suppressed approximately 40% of the LPS-activated macrophage production of inflammatory cytokines in a mixed leukocyte reaction and significantly alleviated the disease activity and colonic inflammation in a DSS-induced acute colitis murine model. Furthermore, YZP activated Breg function via interaction with TLR2 and TLR4 and up-regulation of the TLR-mediated signaling pathway. Conclusions We purified a novel Breg-stimulating protein, YZP, from T. versicolor and developed an advanced approach combining RNA-seq and de novo assembly technologies.to clone its gene. We demonstrated that YZP activated CD1d+ Breg differentiation through TLR2/4-mediated signaling pathway, and the YZP-stimulated B cells exhibited anti-inflammatory efficacies in vitro and in murine acute colitis models. PMID:24019869

Kuan, Yen-Chou; Wu, Ying-Jou; Hung, Chih-Liang; Sheu, Fuu

2013-01-01

127

Fungal bio-treatment of spruce wood with Trametes versicolor for pitch control: Influence on extractive contents, pulping process parameters, paper quality and effluent toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipophilic low molar-mass constituents in wood chips for the paper industry result in low quality pulp, pitch deposition, and effluent toxicity. New biotechnological solutions such as fungal pre-treatment of wood chips can reduce pitch problems. This laboratory-scale study focuses on the potential and limitations of a fungal bio-treatment of Norway spruce chips with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Different fungal

Teris A. van Beek; Bram Kuster; Frank W. Claassen; Taisto Tienvieri; Frédérique Bertaud; Gilles Lenon; Michel Petit-Conil; Reyes Sierra-Alvarez

2007-01-01

128

The endemic Genista versicolor from Sierra Nevada National Park in Spain is nodulated by putative new Bradyrhizobium species and a novel symbiovar (sierranevadense).  

PubMed

Genista versicolor is an endemic legume from Sierra Nevada National Park which constitutes one of the UNESCO-recognized Biosphere Reserves. In the present study, a collection of strains nodulating this legume was analysed in characteristic soils of this ecosystem. Most strains nodulating G. versicolor belonged to rrs group I within the genus Bradyrhizobium and only one strain, named GV137, belonged to rrs group II from which only a single species, B. retamae, has been described in Europe to date. Strain GV137, and some strains from rrs group I, belonged to putative new species of Bradyrhizobium, although most strains from group I belonged to B. canariense, according to the ITS fragment and atpD gene analysis. This result contrasted with those obtained in Genista tinctoria in Northeast Europe whose endosymbionts were identified as B. japonicum. The analysis of the symbiotic nodC and nifH genes carried by G. versicolor-nodulating strains showed that most of them belonged to symbiovar genistearum, as did those isolated from G. tinctoria. Nevertheless, strain GV137, belonging to rrs group II, formed a divergent lineage that constituted a novel symbiovar within the genus Bradyrhizobium for which the name sierranevadense is proposed. This finding showed that the Genisteae are not restrictive legumes only nodulated by symbiovar genistearum, since Genista is a promiscuous legume nodulated by at least two symbiovars of Bradyrhizobium, as occurs in Retama species. PMID:24268094

Cobo-Díaz, José F; Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Fernández-González, Antonio J; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Toro, Nicolás; Velázquez, Encarna; Fernández-López, Manuel

2014-05-01

129

Effect of Coriolus versicolor supplemented diet on innate immune response and disease resistance in kelp grouper Epinephelus bruneus against Listonella anguillarum.  

PubMed

The effect of Coriolus versicolor extract supplemented diets on innate immune response and disease resistance in kelp grouper, Epinephelus bruneus against Listonella anguillarum, is reported. Kelp grouper were divided into four groups of 25 each and fed with C. versicolor enriched diets at 0% (control), 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1.0% level. After 30 days of feeding, all fish were injected interaperitoneally (i.p.) with 50 ?l of L. anguillarum (4.7 × 10(7) CFU) to investigate the immune parameters at weeks 1, 2, and 4. The reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species production were significantly enhanced in fish fed with 0.1% and 1.0% supplementation diets from weeks 1-4 when compared to the non enriched diet fed and infected control. The phagocytic activity significantly increased with 0.1% and 1.0% diets on weeks 2 and 4. The leucocyte myeloperoxidase content, lysozyme activity, and total protein level significantly increased when fed with 0.1% and 1.0% supplementation diets from weeks 1-4. The cumulative mortality was 35% and 45% in 1.0% and 0.1% enriched diet fed groups whereas it was 55% and 80% in 0.01% and 0% groups respectively. The present results suggest that diets enriched with C. versicolor at 0.1% or 1.0% level positively enhance the innate immune system and affords protection from L. anguillarum. PMID:22155010

Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Kim, Man-Chul; Kim, Ju-Sang; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

2012-02-01

130

Activation of dormant secondary metabolite production by introducing neomycin resistance into the deep-sea fungus, Aspergillus versicolor ZBY-3.  

PubMed

A new ultrasound-mediated approach has been developed to introduce neomycin-resistance to activate silent pathways for secondary metabolite production in a bio-inactive, deep-sea fungus, Aspergillus versicolor ZBY-3. Upon treatment of the ZBY-3 spores with a high concentration of neomycin by proper ultrasound irradiation, a total of 30 mutants were obtained by single colony isolation. The acquired resistance of the mutants to neomycin was confirmed by a resistance test. In contrast to the ZBY-3 strain, the EtOAc extracts of 22 of the 30 mutants inhibited the human cancer K562 cells, indicating that these mutants acquired a capability to produce antitumor metabolites. HPLC-photodiode array detector (PDAD)-UV and HPLC-electron spray ionization (ESI)-MS analyses of the EtOAc extracts of seven bioactive mutants and the ZBY-3 strain indicated that diverse secondary metabolites have been newly produced in the mutant extracts in contrast to the ZBY-3 extract. The followed isolation and characterization demonstrated that six metabolites, cyclo(D-Pro-D-Phe) (1), cyclo(D-Tyr-D-Pro) (2), phenethyl 5-oxo-L-prolinate (3), cyclo(L-Ile-L-Pro) (4), cyclo(L-Leu-L-Pro) (5) and 3?,5?,9?-trihydroxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-6-one (6), were newly produced by the mutant u2n2h3-3 compared to the parent ZBY-3 strain. Compound 3 was a new compound; 2 was isolated from a natural source for the first time, and all of these compounds were also not yet found in the metabolites of other A. versicolor strains. Compounds 1-6 inhibited the K562 cells, with inhibition rates of 54.6% (1), 72.9% (2), 23.5% (3), 29.6% (4), 30.9% (5) and 51.1% (6) at 100 ?g/mL, and inhibited also other human cancer HL-60, BGC-823 and HeLa cells, to some extent. The present study demonstrated the effectiveness of the ultrasound-mediated approach to activate silent metabolite production in fungi by introducing acquired resistance to aminoglycosides and its potential for discovering new compounds from silent fungal metabolic pathways. This approach could be applied to elicit the metabolic potentials of other fungal isolates to discover new compounds from cryptic secondary metabolites. PMID:25076061

Dong, Yuan; Cui, Cheng-Bin; Li, Chang-Wei; Hua, Wei; Wu, Chang-Jing; Zhu, Tian-Jiao; Gu, Qian-Qun

2014-08-01

131

Crystal Structure of Novel Metallocarboxypeptidase Inhibitor from Marine Mollusk Nerita versicolor in Complex with Human Carboxypeptidase A4*  

PubMed Central

NvCI is a novel exogenous proteinaceous inhibitor of metallocarboxypeptidases from the marine snail Nerita versicolor. The complex between human carboxypeptidase A4 and NvCI has been crystallized and determined at 1.7 ? resolution. The NvCI structure defines a distinctive protein fold basically composed of a two-stranded antiparallel ?-sheet connected by three loops and the inhibitory C-terminal tail and stabilized by three disulfide bridges. NvCI is a tight-binding inhibitor that interacts with the active site of the enzyme in a substrate-like manner. NvCI displays an extended and novel interface with human carboxypeptidase A4, responsible for inhibitory constants in the picomolar range for some members of the M14A subfamily of carboxypeptidases. This makes NvCI the strongest inhibitor reported so far for this family. The structural homology displayed by the C-terminal tails of different carboxypeptidase inhibitors represents a relevant example of convergent evolution. PMID:22294694

Covaleda, Giovanni; Alonso del Rivero, Maday; Chavez, Maria A.; Aviles, Francesc X.; Reverter, David

2012-01-01

132

Circulating thyroid hormone concentrations in relation to seasonal events in the male Indian garden lizard, Calotes versicolor.  

PubMed

Circulating thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were estimated by RIA in plasma samples of Calotes versicolor collected over a period of 28 months. Monthly observations on seasonal events, viz., molting, whole body O2 consumption, abdominal fat deposition, and testes weight were also made. Plasma T4 ranged from 0.16 to 4.63 ng/ml and T3 from 0 to 1.76 ng/ml during the course of the year. Peaks of T4 and T3 could be related with prehibernating (October/November) and posthibernating (March/April) periods, when scale shedding and O2 consumption were also enhanced. Maximum abdominal fat deposition was found in prehibernatory months (October/November). Thyroid hormone levels declined sharply with entry into hibernation. Abdominal fat deposits gradually decreased, being almost depleted by the end of hibernation. The gradual increase in thyroid hormone concentration in the later half of hibernation may be associated with increased lipolysis and preparation of the oncoming reproductive period. Although T4 and T3 profiles were apparently parallel, discrepancies were observed. Posthibernatory peak of T4 was maintained much longer than that of T3 which declined earlier. Also the rise in the prehibernatory T3 concentration was delayed as compared to that in T4. PMID:4054585

Kar, A; Chandola-Saklani, A

1985-10-01

133

Short- and long-term movements of painted lobster ( Panulirus versicolor) on a coral reef at Northwest Island, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding movements of palinurid (spiny) lobsters is important to fisheries management. However, movement data obtained with mark-capture techniques are often influenced by artefacts (e.g., displacement, tag-loss, tag-induced injury). To avoid these problems, a novel approach was employed to investigate the movements of an important coral reef palinurid, the painted lobster ( Panulirus versicolor). Eighty adult individuals were captured by hand near Northwest Island, Australia. Each lobster was tagged internally (with elastomer) and externally (with plastic zip-ties) to enable both short- (1-10 days) and long-term (6-24 months) observations. Shortly thereafter, all lobsters were manually returned to their shelters (dens). After 6-24 months, 44 lobsters were recaptured, giving an overall recapture rate of 55%. All of these individuals were recaptured within 500 m of their original den, thus indicating a high level of site-fidelity for this species. Short-term observations revealed that individuals moved frequently to and from nearby dens, and that male lobsters typically moved further than female lobsters. It is hypothesized that male lobsters move about their home range more actively, perhaps to seek mating opportunities or to defend resources. The significance of these observations is discussed with respect to the management of this important fishery resource.

Frisch, A. J.

2007-06-01

134

Purification an ?-galactosidase from Coriolus versicolor with acid-resistant and good degradation ability on raffinose family oligosaccharides.  

PubMed

An acid-tolerant ?-galactosidase (CVGI) was isolated from the fruiting bodies of Coriolus versicolor with a 229-fold of purification and a specific activity of 398.6 units mg?¹. It was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme gave a single band corresponding to a molecular mass of 40 kDa in SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. The ?-galactosidase was identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and its inner peptides were sequenced by ESI-MS/MS. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme were determined as 60 °C and 3.0, respectively. The enzyme was very stable at a temperature range of 4-50 °C and at a pH range of 2-5. Among the metal ions tested, Cu²?, Cd²? and Hg²? ions have been shown to partially inhibit the activity of ?-galactosidase, while the activity of CVGI was completely inactivated by Ag? ions. N-bromosuccinamide inhibited enzyme activity by 100 %, indicating the importance of tryptophan residue(s) at or near the active site. CVGI had wide substrate specificity (p-nitrophenyl galactoside, melidiose, raffinose and stachyose). After treatment with CVGI, raffinose family oligosaccharide was hydrolyzed effectively to yield galactose and sucrose. The results showed that the general properties of the enzyme offer potential for use of this ?-galactosidase in several production processes. PMID:24197787

Du, Fang; Liu, Qin; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, TziBin

2014-04-01

135

An Analysis of the Malassezia Species Distribution in the Skin of Patients with Pityriasis Versicolor in Chengdu, China  

PubMed Central

Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a common clinical problem associated with Malassezia species (Malassezia spp.). Controversies remain regarding the specific species involved in the development of PV. This study analyzed the difference in Malassezia spp. distribution in lesional and nonlesional skin in Chinese PV patients. A paired design was applied. Lesional and nonlesional scales from 24 cases were collected; real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect 10 different Malassezia spp. In lesional skin, the highest detection rates were for M. globosa (95.8%), M. restricta (91.7%), and M. sympodialis (50.0%). In nonlesional skin, the highest detection rates were for M. globosa (87.5%), M. restricta (79.2%), and M. dermatis (33.3%). A significant difference in the detection rate was only found for M. sympodialis (50.8% versus 20.8%, P = 0.04). Compared with nonlesional skin, the amount of M. globosa, M. restricta, and M. sympodialis in lesional skin was significantly higher (3.8 ± 1.3,??2.5 ± 1.1, and 3.2 ± 1.6 times higher, resp.). The results of this study do not indicate that M. globosa and M. restricta are directly correlated with PV development; however, M. sympodialis is more likely related to PV development in Chinese individuals.

Xie, Zhen; Ran, Yuping; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Min; Wan, Huiying; Li, Conghui

2014-01-01

136

Co-composting of spent coffee ground with olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure and effect of Trametes versicolor inoculation on the compost maturity.  

PubMed

The co-composting of spent coffee grounds, olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure was investigated on a semi-industrial scale. In order to reduce the toxicity of the phenolic fraction and to improve the degree of composting humification, composts were inoculated with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor in the early stages of the maturation phase. During composting, a range of physico-chemical parameters (temperature and both organic matter and C/N reduction), total organic carbon, total nitrogen, elemental composition, lignin degradation and spectroscopic characteristics of the humic acids (HAs) were determined; impacts of the composting process on germination index of Hordeum vulgare and Lactuca sativa were assessed. The coffee waste proved to be a highly compostable feedstock, resulting in mature final compost with a germination index of 120% in less than 5 months composting. In addition, inoculation with T. versicolor led to a greater degree of aromatization of HA than in the control pile. Moreover, in the inoculated mixture, lignin degradation was three times greater and HA increased by 30% (P<0.05), compared to the control pile. In the T. versicolor inoculated mixture, the averages of C and N were significantly enhanced in the HA molecules (P<0.05), by 26% and 22%, respectively. This improvement in the degree of humification was confirmed by the ratio of optical densities of HA solutions at 465 and 665 nm which was lower for HA from the treated mixture (4.5) than that from the control pile (5.4). PMID:22537889

Hachicha, Ridha; Rekik, Olfa; Hachicha, Salma; Ferchichi, Mounir; Woodward, Steve; Moncef, Nasri; Cegarra, Juan; Mechichi, Tahar

2012-07-01

137

Pityriasis versicolor: clinical-epidemiological characterization of patients in the urban area of Buerarema-BA, Brazil*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a cutaneous pigmentation disorder caused by a lipophilic yeast of the genus Malassezia sp. It is a superficial mycosis characterized by well-defined, slightly scaly skin lesions of variable color. In Brazil, the number of reported cases is small, and there are few epidemiological studies. OBJECTIVES: to assess incidence, characteristics of the lesions, effectiveness of the Zileri's Sign procedure, and the epidemiological profile of PV in the urban area of Buerarema - Bahia. METHODS: Biological samples were collected on pre-established days at Basic Health Care Units from July to September 2010. Sample collection was followed by laboratory diagnosis using Porto's Method. RESULTS: Of the 158 patients with suspected PV participating in the study, 105 (66.5%) were positive; 72 (68.6%) were female and 33 (31.4%) were male. Sex and location of lesions showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05). The region with the highest rate of cases of PV was found to be the center of the city, with 40.9% of diagnosed cases. The most affected age group was between 10 and 19 years. There was a significant association between the results produced through Zileri's Sign and Porto's Method in relation to positive and negative results (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results showed a higher prevalence of PV among individuals at puberty. The Zileri's Sign method proved to be counterproductive, because it showed low efficacy as a method for clinical diagnosis, yielding negative results for 36 (34.3%) patients who had been diagnosed with PV through laboratory examination. PMID:23739695

Santana, Juliano Oliveira; de Azevedo, Fernanda Luiza Andrade; Campos, Pedro Costa

2013-01-01

138

Flocculation and haze removal from crude beer using in-house produced laccase from Trametes versicolor cultured on brewer's spent grain.  

PubMed

The potential of brewer's spent grain (BSG), a common waste from the brewing industry, as a support-substrate for laccase production by the well-known laccase producer Trametes versicolor ATCC 20869 under solid-state fermentation conditions was assessed. An attempt was made to improve the laccase production by T. versicolor through supplementing the cultures with inducers, such as 2,2-azino bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), copper sulfate, ethanol, gallic acid, veratryl alcohol, and phenol. A higher laccase activity of 13506.2 ± 138.2 IU/gds (gram dry substrate) was obtained with a phenol concentration of 10 mg/kg substrate in a tray bioreactor after 12 days of incubation time. The flocculation properties of the laccase treated crude beer samples have been studied by using various parameters, such as viscosity, turbidity, ? potential, total polyphenols, and total protein content. The present results indicated that laccase (25 IU/L) showed promising results as a good flocculating agent. The laccase treatment showed better flocculation capacity compared to the industrial flocculation process using stabifix as a flocculant. The laccase treatments (25 IU/L) at 4 ± 1 °C and room temperature have shown almost similar flocculation properties without much variability. The study demonstrated the potential of in-house produced laccase using brewer's spent grain for the clarification and flocculation of crude beer as a sustainable alternative to traditional flocculants, such as stabifix and bentonite. PMID:22866699

Dhillon, Gurpreet Singh; Kaur, Surinder; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Verma, Mausam

2012-08-15

139

Characterization of purified and Xerogel immobilized Novel Lignin Peroxidase produced from Trametes versicolor IBL-04 using solid state medium of Corncobs  

PubMed Central

Background Cost-effective production of industrially important enzymes is a key for their successful exploitation on industrial scale. Keeping in view the extensive industrial applications of lignin peroxidase (LiP), this study was performed to purify and characterize the LiP from an indigenous strain of Trametes versicolor IBL-04. Xerogel matrix enzyme immobilization technique was applied to improve the kinetic and thermo-stability characteristics of LiP to fulfil the requirements of the modern enzyme consumer sector of biotechnology. Results A novel LiP was isolated from an indigenous T. versicolor IBL-04 strain. T. versicolor IBL-04 was cultured in solid state fermentation (SSF) medium of corn cobs and maximum LiP activity of 592?±?6 U/mL was recorded after five days of incubation under optimum culture conditions. The crude LiP was 3.3-fold purified with specific activity of 553 U/mg after passing through the DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex-G-100 chromatography columns. The purified LiP exhibited a relatively low molecular weight (30?kDa) homogenous single band on native and SDS-PAGE. The LiP was immobilized by entrapping in xerogel matrix of trimethoxysilane (TMOS) and proplytetramethoxysilane (PTMS) and maximum immobilization efficiency of 88.6% was achieved. The free and immobilized LiPs were characterized and the results showed that the free and immobilized LiPs had optimum pH 6 and 5 while optimum temperatures were 60°C and 80°C, respectively. Immobilization was found to enhance the activity and thermo-stability potential of LiP significantly and immobilized LiP remained stable over broad pH and temperature range as compare to free enzyme. Kinetic constants Km and Vmax were 70 and 56??M and 588 and 417 U/mg for the free and immobilized LiPs, respectively. Activity of this novel extra thermo-stable LiP was stimulated to variable extents by Cu2+, Mn2+ and Fe2+ whereas, Cystein, EDTA and Ag+ showed inhibitory effects. Conclusions The indigenously isolated white rot fungal strain T. versicolor IBL-04 showed tremendous potential for LiP synthesis in SSF of corncobs in high titters (592 U/mL) than other reported Trametes (Coriolus, Polyporus) species. The results obtained after dual phase characterization suggested xerogel matrix entrapment a promising tool for enzyme immobilization, hyper-activation and stabilization against high temperature and inactivating agents. The pH and temperature optima, extra thermo-stability features and kinetic characteristics of this novel LiP of T. versicolor IBL-04 make it a versatile enzyme for various industrial and biotechnological applications. PMID:22862820

2012-01-01

140

Suppression of cancer cell growth in vitro by the protein-bound polysaccharide of Coriolus versicolor QUEL (PS-K) with SOD mimicking activity.  

PubMed

The protein-bound polysaccharide of Coriolus versicolor QUEL (PS-K) expresses the mimicking activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Examination was made of the suppressive effects of PS-K on cancer cell lines cultured in vitro. The SOD activity of LLC-WRC-256 (Walker 256 fibrosarcoma) cell lines was less than that of NRK-49F (rat normal kidney fibroblast), H4-II-E (rat hepatoma) and H4-II-E-C3 (rat hepatoma) cell lines. This activity in Walker 256 fibrosarcoma cells increased by 3.6 times and H2O2 concentration, by 2.56 times by PS-K 500 micrograms/ml. Cell proliferation was consequently suppressed and living cells decreased to less than 50% of the cells cultured without PS-K. Catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity changed little by PS-K. The sensitivity of cancer cells to PS-K can be predetermined based on SOD activity in tumor tissue. PMID:7812358

Kobayashi, Y; Kariya, K; Saigenji, K; Nakamura, K

1994-01-01

141

Mimicking of superoxide dismutase activity by protein-bound polysaccharide of Coriolus versicolor QUEL, and oxidative stress relief for cancer patients.  

PubMed

The protein-bound polysaccharide of Coriolus versicolor QUEL (PS-K) has been found to express antioxidant activity as an "ion-radical scavenger" in diamine oxidation reactions. The mode of this expression was examined to determine whether the drug functioned as a simple radical scavenger or mimicked the action of superoxide dismutase (SOD). The latter was confirmed in both enzymatic and nonenzymatic superoxide anion radical (O2-.) producing systems in vitro. The SOD mimetic activity of PS-K was demonstrated by quantitative analysis of hydrogen peroxide as the end product of O2-., its formation being assisted catalytically by SOD or PS-K. Analysis by electron spin resonance also confirmed the SOD mimetic activity of PS-K in a xanthine-xanthine oxidase reaction. Relative SOD activity with PS-K was approximately 1/8,000 in a KO2-O2-.-producing system. The SOD mimetic activity of PS-K resisted treatment by 0.7N HCl, 0.7N NaOH, boiling for 30 minutes in a double water bath, and digestion by pronase. Fractionation according to differences in molecular mass caused no significant increase in relative SOD activity within a certain range of molecular mass, indicating that there is no definite molecule expressing SOD mimetic activity. Tumor-bearing rats and human patients with digestive tract cancer who suffered from oxidative stress were relieved by a single intraperitoneal administration of PS-K or a 1-day peroral prescription. PMID:1627273

Kariya, K; Nakamura, K; Nomoto, K; Matama, S; Saigenji, K

1992-03-01

142

Suppressive effects on cancer cell proliferation of the enhancement of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity associated with the protein-bound polysaccharide of Coriolus versicolor QUEL.  

PubMed

The protein-bound polysaccharide of Coriolus versicolor QUEL (PS-K) expresses superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimicking activity. Examination was made of the suppressive effects of PS-K on cancer cell lines cultured in vitro. SOD activity of incorporated PS-K was 5.88 u/mg in LLC-WRC-256 (Walker 256 fibrosarcoma) cells and 4.73 u/mg in NRK-49F (rat normal kidney fibroblast) cells. SOD activity in both cell types was enhanced about 7-8 times that of the original PS-K. PS-K was not incorporated into H4-11-E or H4-11-E-C3 (rat hepatoma) cells. SOD activity of 1 mg/ml PS-K incubated with cell homogenates of LLC-WRC-256 cells for 6 hours increased from 0.68 u/mg to 1.35 u/mg. SOD activity of PS-K 1 mg/ml in 0.05 M phosphate buffer incubated with 50 microM NADPH increased from 0.68 u/mg. The consumption of NADPH at the same concentration was confirmed spectrophotometically by incubation with PS-K. The mechanism for the enhancement of SOD activity associated with PS-K is considered to be collaboration with NADPH as an electron donor in the cytoplasm of cancer cells whose SOD and coupling enzyme activities are significantly lower than in normal cells. PMID:7812365

Kobayashi, Y; Kariya, K; Saigenji, K; Nakamura, K

1994-01-01

143

Lignin oxidation by laccase isozymes from Trametes versicolor and role of the mediator 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) in kraft lignin depolymerization.  

PubMed Central

Two laccase isozymes (I and II) produced by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor were purified, and their reactivities towards various substrates and lignins were studied. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of these enzymes were determined and compared to other known laccase sequences. Laccase II showed a very high sequence similarity to a laccase which was previously reported to depolymerize lignin. The reactivities of the two isozymes on most of the substrates tested were similar, but there were some differences in the oxidation rate of polymeric substrates. We found that the two laccases produced similar qualitative effects on kraft lignin and residual lignin in kraft pulp, with no evidence of a marked preference for depolymerization by either enzyme. However, the presence of the mediator 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) prevented and reversed the polymerization of kraft lignin by either laccase. The delignification of hardwood and softwood kraft pulps with the two isozymes and the mediator was compared; either laccase was able to reduce the kappa number of pulp, but only in the presence of 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate). PMID:7646025

Bourbonnais, R; Paice, M G; Reid, I D; Lanthier, P; Yaguchi, M

1995-01-01

144

Regulation of cell cycle transition and induction of apoptosis in HL-60 leukemia cells by the combination of Coriolus versicolor and Ganoderma lucidum.  

PubMed

Medicinal mushrooms have served as the mainstay of treatment for a variety of human illnesses in Asian countries, mostly as supplements by cancer patients. Extracts prepared from Trametes versicolor under the trade name of I'm-Yunity exhibit anti-tumorigenic activities, as supported by inhibition of the proliferation and induction of apoptosis in malignant cells. Similar effects have also been observed for the Reishi mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. The two mushrooms exert their medicinal activities primarily through a family of polysaccharo-peptides. Despite the common identity in their bioactive ingredients, whether their combination might elicit an expanded efficacy and mechanism has not been investigated. In the present study, we investigated similarities and differences between extracts prepared from I'm-Yunity and from a formulation denoted I'm-Yunity-Too combining I'm-Yunity and Ganoderma lucidum. By assaying their anti-proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects using human promyelocytic HL-60 cells, we found that the ethanolic extract of I'm-Yunity-Too was more active in inducing cell death compared to I'm-Yunity, based on measured changes in the expression of caspase 3 and Bax. Moreover, ethanolic extracts of I'm-Yunity-Too exhibited more potent activity compared to its aqueous extracts with regard to suppression of the growth and induction of apoptosis, as assayed by the more pronounced downregulation of phosphorylation of Rb and increased cleavage of poly(ADP?ribose) polymerase (PARP) from its native 112-kDa form to the inactive 89-kDa product. These results suggested that the chemopreventive potential of I'm-Yunity may be enhanced by adding Ganoderma lucidum and that their bioactive ingre-dients potentially exhibit mechanistic synergism suggesting a more efficacious adjunct in chemotherapy. PMID:23670292

Hsieh, Tze-Chen; Wu, Joseph M

2013-07-01

145

In vivo and in vitro anti-tumor and anti-metastasis effects of Coriolus versicolor aqueous extract on mouse mammary 4T1 carcinoma.  

PubMed

Coriolus versicolor (CV), a medicinal mushroom widely consumed in Asian countries, has been demonstrated to be effective in stimulation of immune system and inhibition of tumor growth. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-tumor and anti-metastasis effects of CV aqueous extract in mouse mammary carcinoma 4T1 cells and in 4T1-tumor bearing mouse model. Our results showed that CV aqueous extract (0.125-2 mg/ml) did not inhibit 4T1 cell proliferation while the non-cytotoxic dose of CV extract (1-2 mg/ml) significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion (p<0.05). Besides, the enzyme activities and protein levels of MMP-9 were suppressed by CV extract significantly. Animal studies showed that CV aqueous extract (1 g/kg, orally-fed daily for 4 weeks) was effective in decreasing the tumor weight by 36%, and decreased the lung metastasis by 70.8% against untreated control. Besides, micro-CT analysis of the tumor-bearing mice tibias indicated that CV extract was effective in bone protection against breast cancer-induced bone destruction as the bone volume was significantly increased. On the other hand, CV aqueous extract treatments resulted in remarkable immunomodulatory effects, which was reflected by the augmentation of IL-2, 6, 12, TNF-? and IFN-? productions from the spleen lymphocytes of CV-treated tumor-bearing mice. In conclusion, our results demonstrated for the first time that the CV aqueous extract exhibited anti-tumor, anti-metastasis and immunomodulation effects in metastatic breast cancer mouse model, and could protect the bone from breast cancer-induced bone destruction. These findings provided scientific evidences for the clinical application of CV aqueous extract in breast cancer patients. PMID:24856767

Luo, Ke-Wang; Yue, Grace Gar-Lee; Ko, Chun-Hay; Lee, Julia Kin-Ming; Gao, Si; Li, Long-Fei; Li, Gang; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Ping-Chung; Lau, Clara Bik-San

2014-01-01

146

Effects of photochemical oxidant injury of ponderosa and Jeffrey pines on susceptibility of sapwood and freshly cut stumps to Fomes annosus. [Pinus ponderosa; Pinus jeffreyi; Fomes annosus; Trichoderma spp. ; Polyporus versicolor; Poria Monticola  

SciTech Connect

Ponderosa and Jeffrey pine sapwood samples and freshly cut stumps from trees with different amounts of oxidant injury were inoculated with Fomes annosus. With stumps, percentage of surface cross-section area infected and extent of vertical colonization were determined 1 mo and 6-10 mo after inoculation, respectively. Increase in surface area infection with increased oxidant injury, expressed as upper-crown needle retention, was statistically significant for ponderosa pine (P=0.01), but was not for Jeffrey pine. Also, the rate of vertical colonization was greater in stumps from severely oxidant-injured trees than in those from slightly injured trees. The relationship between injury and colonization was significant for Jeffrey pine (P = 0.05) and for ponderosa pine at one site (P = 0.03), but nonsignificant (P = 0.18) for ponderosa pine at a second site. Increased susceptibility of stumps to F. annosus appeared to be associated with decreased colonization by other fungi (especially Trichoderma spp. and blue stain fungi). Laboratory tests indicated that decay susceptibility of excised sapwood to F. annosus apparently was not affected by oxidant injury with Jeffrey pine, but weight loss of ponderosa pine sapwood was correlated with decreased injury (greater needle retention). On the other hand, weight losses of Jeffrey pine caused by Polyporus versicolor and of ponderosa pine caused by Poria monticola were correlated with increased injury (increased needle chlorosis). 27 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

James, R.L.; Cobb, F.W. Jr.; Wilcox, W.W.; Rowney, D.L.

1980-01-01

147

Embarazo abdominal secundario tras una esterilización tubárica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ectopic pregnancy appears in the 10-12% of cases after tubal sterilization and it is usually located in the tube. 1% of ectopic pregnancies are abdominal and the implantation in omentum is a rare condition with only 16 described cases. According to Studdiford, they can be classified as primary or secondary depending on whether they are originated or not in

Elena M. Losa Pajares; Marco A. Arones Collantes; Leyre Gil Martínez-Acacio; Alejandro Pascual Martín; Vicente Almodóvar Rico; Gaspar González de Merlo

2007-01-01

148

Synthesis and effect of modification on methacylate - acrylate microspheres for Trametes versicolor laccase enzyme immobilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immobilization of laccase on the modified copolymer methacrylate-acrylate microspheres was studied. A poly (glycidyl methacrylate-co-n-butyl acrylate) microsphere consists of epoxy groups were synthesized using suspension photocuring technique. The epoxy group in poly (GMA-nBA) microspheres were converted into amino groups with aldehyde group. Laccase immobilization is based on having the amino groups on the enzyme surface and aldehyde group on the microspheres via covalent binding. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis proved the successful surface modification on microspheres. The FTIR spectrum shows the characteristic peaks at 1646 cm-1 assigned to the conformation of the polymerization that took place between monomer GMA and nBA respectively. In addition, after modification, FTIR peaks that assigned to the epoxy ring (844 cm-1 and 904 cm-1) were decreased. The results obtained from FTIR method signify good agreement with the epoxy content method. Hence, the activity of the laccase-immobilized microspheres increased upon increasing the epoxy content. Furthermore, poly (GMA-nBA) exhibited uniform microspheres with below 2 ?m surface. Immobilized enzyme showed a broader pH profile and higher temperature compared native enzyme.

Mazlan, Siti Zulaikha; Hanifah, Sharina Abu

2014-09-01

149

Adrenal hormones and oxidative metabolism of the garden lizard (Calotes versicolor).  

PubMed

Daily administration of adrenaline over a 10-day period invariably induced significant increases in the metabolic rate of the whole body and of specific tissue (liver, muscle, kidney and brain) of both intact and thyroidectomized lizards except during June (breeding season) when the presence of thyroid hormones was a prerequisite for the stimulation of oxygen consumption by the whole body, muscle, kidney and brain but not by the liver. Corticosterone had no effect on whole body oxygen consumption but stimulated, inhibited or was without influence on the oxygen consumption of individual tissues, depending on the season and the presence or absence of thyroid hormones. It is suggested that adrenaline, due to its temperature-independent calorigenic effect, acts as the emergency hormone for energy release and helps the animal to survive during hibernation (winter months) when almost all the endocrine glands are inactive. PMID:6655404

Gupta, B B; Thapliyal, J P

1983-11-01

150

Influence of the immobilization procedures on the electroanalytical performances of Trametes versicolor laccase based bioelectrode  

E-print Network

of biosensors [12,13] or biofuel cells [14,15]. In the case of laccase-based biosensor the enzymatic of these procedures has been realized by evaluating the enzymatic activity of the resulting bioelectrodes

Tuscia, Università Degli Studi Della

151

Applications of micellar enzymology to clean coal technology. [Laccase from Polyporus versicolor  

SciTech Connect

This project is designed to develop methods for pre-combustion coal remediation by implementing recent advances in enzyme biochemistry. The novel approach of this study is incorporation of hydrophilic oxidative enzymes in reverse micelles in an organic solvent. Enzymes from commercial sources or microbial extracts are being investigated for their capacity to remove organic sulfur from coal by oxidation of the sulfur groups, splitting of C-S bonds and loss of sulfur as sulfuric acid. Dibenzothiophen (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS) are serving as models of organic sulfur-containing components of coal in initial studies.

Walsh, C.T.

1990-07-24

152

Aspergillines A-E, Highly Oxygenated Hexacyclic Indole-Tetrahydrofuran-Tetramic Acid Derivatives from Aspergillus versicolor.  

PubMed

Aspergillines A-E (1-5) are highly oxygenated cyclopiazonic acid (CPA)-derived alkaloids bearing a rigid and sterically congested hexacyclic indole-tetrahydrofuran-tetramate scaffold, isolated from the endophytic fungus Aspergillus vesicolor. Apergillines A-C represent a new subclass of CPA-derived alkaloids, and aspergillines B and E possess a butanoic acid methyl ester moiety. The structures, including absolute configuration, were elucidated by interpretation of the NMR, X-ray crystallographic, and circular dichroism data. All compounds displayed anti-TMV and cytotoxic activities. PMID:25226561

Zhou, Min; Miao, Ming-Ming; Du, Gang; Li, Xiao-Nian; Shang, Shan-Zhai; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Zhi-Hua; Yang, Guang-Yu; Che, Chun-Tao; Hu, Qiu-Fen; Gao, Xue-Mei

2014-10-01

153

Pars intermedia of the pituitary gland and integumentary colour changes in the garden lizard Calotes versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The effect of light and of colour of the background on the secretory activity of the pars intermedia of the garden lizard has been investigated.2.Absence of light, as well as black illuminated background, produces increased acticity of the pars intermedia, proportional to the duration of the experiment.3.Pale illuminated background has no effect on the secretory activity of the pars intermedia.4.The

Shanta Nayar; K. R. Pandalai

1963-01-01

154

Pgina 1 de 2 Efectos secundarios de los medicamentos contra el VIH --Osteonecrosis,  

E-print Network

osteoporosis Osteonecrosis, osteopenia y osteoporosis ¿Qué es la osteonecrosis y cuáles son sus síntomas huesos y reducir los riesgos de caídas. ¿Qué son la osteopenia y la osteoporosis y cuáles son sus pérdida de hueso es grave, la afección se llama osteoporosis. No hay síntomas obvios en las primeras

Levin, Judith G.

155

Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Page 1 of 1 Reviewed 3/11/12  

E-print Network

Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Page 1 of 1 Reviewed 3/11/12 Tinea Versicolor What Causes Tinea Versicolor? Tinea versicolor is a harmless skin disorder caused by a yeast fungus living, or arms known as tinea versicolor. On untanned skin, tinea versicolor rash is pink to coppery tan

Yener, Aylin

156

PRODUCCI ON DE AEROSOLES PRIMARIOS, SECUNDARIOS Y OZONO EN LA REGI ON METROPOLITANA DE RIO DE JANEIRO ENFOCADO EN EMISIONES  

E-print Network

, donde ser´an variadas las particiones de etanol, gasolina y diesel en la flota urbana. RESUMO: Neste cuenta la especiaci´on en los tipos de flota (veh´iculos livianos y pesado) y de combustible (etanol cerca de 15 % de la flota y los movidos a gasolina (mezcla de 22 % de etanol y 78 % de gasolina

Barbosa, Henrique

157

The influence of commercial diets on growth and survival in the commercially important sea cucumber Holothuria scabra var. versicolor (Conand, 1986) (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been enormous commercial interest in culturing tropical sea cucumbers in countries where sea cucumber populations have been overexploited. The production of sea cucumber juveniles in the hatch- ery requires suitable feeds to maximize survival rates and promote somatic growth. However, so far no research has evaluated the relative efficacy of commercially available feeds for promoting somatic growth and

Daniel Azari; Beni Giraspy; Grisilda Ivy

2008-01-01

158

Immobilization of laccase from Trametes versicolor on a modified PVDF microfiltration membrane: characterization of the grafted support and application in removing a phenylurea pesticide in wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laccase immobilization onto a hydrophilic PVDF microfiltration membrane and its application for removing a herbicide derivative, N?,N?-(dimethyl)-N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)urea (2-HF), from waste water were studied. 2-HF was transformed via an oxidation reaction catalyzed by laccase mostly into an insoluble product, which was simultaneously separated by filtration through the membrane. The microfiltration membrane used to graft laccase was treated with hydrazine to form

C. Jolivalt; S. Brenon; E. Caminade; C. Mougin; M. Pontié

2000-01-01

159

Production and Gelatin Entrapment of Laccase from Trametes versicolor and its Application to Quantitative Determination of Phenolic Contents of Commercial Fruit Juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laccase (benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductase; EC 1.10.3.2) is a particularly promising enzyme for several industrial fields, including food industries, since this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of ortho and para-diphenols, amino-phenols, polyphenols, polyamines, lignins, and aryl diamines as well as some inorganic ions coupled to the reduction of molecular dioxygen to water. In this study, laccase was produced from one of the

Y?ld?z Deniz Unal; Nurdan Kasikara Pazarlioglu

2011-01-01

160

Purification, characterization and application of laccase from Trametes versicolor for colour and phenolic removal of olive mill wastewater in the presence of 1- hydroxybenzotriazole  

Microsoft Academic Search

o C. The optimum pH (4.0 and 5.0) and Km (28.6 and 5 µM) values using syringaldazine as substrate were found for L1 and L2, respectively. The enzymes were able to oxidize several compounds and were strongly inhibited by sodium azide, L-cysteine and dithiothreitol. The 75% of the N-terminal sequences were identical in both forms and similarities around 40 -

Rosana C. Minussi; Márcio A. Miranda; José A. Silva; Carmen V. Ferreira; Hiroshi Aoyama; Domenico Rotilio; Gláucia M. Pastore; Nelson Durán

161

TRANSFORMATION OF 2-HYDROXYDIBENZOFURAN BY LACCASES OF THE WHITE ROT FUNGI TRAMETES VERSICOLOR AND PYCNOPORUS CINNABARINUS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF OLIGOMERIZATION PRODUCTS. (R823847)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

162

Oxidation of aromatic alcohols by laccase from Trametes versicolor mediated by the 2,2?-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) cation radical and dication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidation of aromatic alcohols, such as non-phenolic lignin model compounds, by oxidised species of 2,2?-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic\\u000a acid) (ABTS) has been investigated. The cation radical and dication formed from ABTS were both capable of oxidising aromatic\\u000a alcohols to aldehydes. The reactions terminated at the level of the aldehyde and no acids were formed. The cation radical\\u000a and dication worked in a cycle

A. Majcherczyk; C. Johannes; A. Hüttermann

1999-01-01

163

-Roadside Revegetation with native plants -1 Applied Vegetation Science  

E-print Network

versicolor, Juncus effusus, Eriophorum vaginatum, Clin- tonia borealis and Cornus canadensis in a greenhouse in the greenhouse, whereas C. borealis and C. canadensis seeds did not. Along roadsides, only I. versicolor seeds

Mallik, Azim U.

164

Ketoconazole Topical  

MedlinePLUS

... skin on the feet and between the toes), tinea versicolor (fungal infection of the skin that causes brown ... skin. Prescription ketoconazole shampoo is used to treat tinea versicolor. Over-the-counter ketoconazole shampoo is used to ...

165

Skin color - patchy  

MedlinePLUS

... medication reactions or certain drugs Sunburn or suntan Tinea versicolor Unevenly applying sunscreen, leading to areas of ... ketoconazole, or tolnaftate (Tinactin) lotion can help treat tinea versicolor. Apply as directed to the affected area ...

166

Matematicas Para El Primer Ciclo Secundario, Volumen II (Parte 2). Traduccion Preliminar de la Edicion en Ingles Revisada. (Mathematics for Junior High School, Volume II, Part 2. Preliminary Translation of the Revised English Edition).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is part two of a two-part SMSG mathematics text for junior high school students. Key ideas emphasized are structure of arithmetic from an algebraic viewpoint, the real number system as a progressing development, and metric and non-metric relations in geometry. Chapter topics include real numbers, similar triangles, variation, polyhedrons,…

Anderson, R. D.; And Others

167

Matematicas Para El Primer Ciclo Secundario, Volumen II (Parte 1). Traduccion Preliminar de la Edicion en Ingles Revisada. (Mathematics for Junior High School, Volume II, Part 1. Preliminary Translation of the Revised English Edition).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is part one of a two-part SMSG mathematics text for junior high school students. Key ideas emphasized are structure of arithmetic from an algebraic viewpoint, the real number system as a progressing development, and metric and non-metric relations in geometry. Chapter topics include number line and coordinates, equations, scientific notation,…

Anderson, R. D.; And Others

168

Matematicas Para El Primer Ciclo Secundario, Volumen I (Parte 1). Traduccion Preliminar de la Edicion Inglesa Revisada. (Mathematics for Junior High School, Volume I, Part 1, Preliminary Translation of the Revised English Edition).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is part one of a two-part SMSG mathematics text for junior high school students. Key ideas emphasized are structure of arithmetic from an algebraic viewpoint, the real number system, and metric and non-metric relations in geometry. Topics included are numbers; cardinal numbers; geometry of lines, points, and planes; geometry of angles,…

Anderson, R. D.; And Others

169

Matematicas Para El Primer Ciclo Secundario, Volumen I (Parte 2). Traduccion Preliminar de la Edicion Inglesa Revisada. (Mathematics for Junior High School, Volume I, Part 2. Preliminary Translation of the Revised English Edition).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is part two of a two-part SMSG mathematics text for junior high school students. Key ideas emphasized are structure of arithmetic from an algebraic viewpoint, the real number system, and metric and non-metric relations in geometry. Included are chapters on the rational number system; parallels, parallelograms, triangles, and right prisms;…

Anderson, R. D.; And Others

170

Research Article The importance of spatial scale for conservation and assessment of anuran  

E-print Network

), eastern gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor), spring peeper (Pseudacris crucifer), and green frog (Rana clamitans melanota). The western chorus frog (Pseudacris triseriata) was predicted most effectively

Howe, Robert W.

171

Fungal Skin Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... of Fungal Skin Infections Candidiasis Overview of Dermatophytoses (Ringworm, Tinea) Athlete's Foot Jock Itch Scalp Ringworm Body Ringworm Beard Ringworm Dermatophytid Reaction Tinea Versicolor ...

172

Consejos para pacientes que reciben radioterapia  

Cancer.gov

Serie de nueve (9) hojas sobre los efectos secundarios de la radioterapia. Cada hoja contiene recomendaciones y sugerencias prácticas para ayudarle a controlar los efectos secundarios durante la radioterapia, y a que se sienta mejor durante el tratamiento.

173

Consejos para pacientes que reciben quimioterapia  

Cancer.gov

Serie de dieciocho (18) hojas sobre los efectos secundarios de la quimioterapia. Cada hoja contiene recomendaciones y sugerencias prácticas para ayudarle a controlar los efectos secundarios durante la quimioterapia, y a que se sienta mejor durante el tratamiento.

174

Comparative studies of fungal degradation of single or mixed bioaccessible reactive azo dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screening using several fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes versicolor and Aureobasidium pullulans) was performed on the degradation of syringol derivatives of azo dyes possessing either carboxylic or sulphonic groups, under optimized conditions previously established by us. T. versicolor showed the best biodegradation performance and its potential was confirmed by the degradation of differently substituted fungal bioaccessible dyes. Enzymatic

M. Adosinda M. Martins; Nelson Lima; Armando J. D. Silvestre; M. João Queiroz

2003-01-01

175

Experimental Infections in Rabbits and Humans with Pityrosporum orbiculare and P. ovale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to produce experimental tinea versicolor in rabbits and humans with Pityrosporum orbiculare and P. ovale.P. orbiculare and P. ovale were inoculated, with and without occlusion, on the inside of the ear in 10 male rabbits and on the upper arm in 10 patients with a history of tinea versicolor, and in 3 healthy volunteers.After

Jan Faergemann; Torsten Fredriksson

1981-01-01

176

Skin - abnormally dark or light  

MedlinePLUS

... fungal infections (such as tinea versicolor) Pityriasis alba Vitiligo ... Ortonne JP, Passeron T. Vitiligo and other disorders of hypopigmentation. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, eds. Dermatology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

177

EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT METHODS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF DNA FROM FUNGAL CONIDIA BY QUANTITATIVE COMPETITIVE PCR ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Five different DNA extraction methods were evaluated for their effectiveness in recovering PCR templates from the conidia of a series of fungal species often encountered in indoor air. The test organisms were Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartaru...

178

Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Studies on Hepatic Microsomal Cytochrome P-450 from a Marine Teleost Fish.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450 from fish (Stenotomus versicolor), untreated or treated with 3-methylcholanthrene, 5,6-benzo-flavone, or tricaine methanesulfonate, exhibited an absorption maximum at 450 nm when reduced and ligated to CO. Microsomes fr...

M. Chevion, J. J. Stegeman, J. Peisach, W. E. Blumberg

1977-01-01

179

Laboratory research on the efficacy of chlorine dioxide fumigation for the remediation of mold-contaminated buildings--conference paper  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this project was to determine the efficacy ofCl02 fumigation to inactivate viable mold, mycotoxins, and allergens on building materials. Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus Jumigatus, Chaetomium globosum, and Stachybotrys chartarum were indivi...

180

www.carleton.ca/~kbstorey ADAPTATIONS TO COLD  

E-print Network

- GARTER SNAKES - LIZARDS (some) Garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis Painted turtle hatchlings Chrysemys picta marginata #12;12/19/2012 7 Box turtle, Terrapene carolina "OSCAR" GRAY TREE FROG Hyla versicolor

Storey, Kenneth B.

181

Observer Name(s) & contact info Circle the zone you are in  

E-print Network

# - Number of species observed in sighting Common Name Scientific Name Easting 1 Painted Turtle Chrysemys picta 2 Gray Tree Frog Hyla versicolor 3 Diamondback Terrapin Malaclemys terrapin 4 Red-Spotted Newt

Columbia University

182

S pin y Lobsters UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR  

E-print Network

(Mexico) Japan 1 Species Distribution Panulirus laevicauda Bermuda to northeastern South America Panulirus Mediterranean, West Africa Panulirus versicolor Indo-Pacific Dr. Fenner A. Chace, Curator, Division of Marine

183

Sertaconazole Topical  

MedlinePLUS

... of the skin in the groin or buttocks), tinea versicolor (fungal infection that causes brown or light colored spots on the chest, back, arms, legs, or neck), and tinea manuum (fungal infection on the hands). Sertaconazole cream ...

184

Cutaneous infestations and infections.  

PubMed

Cutaneous infections and infestations are common problems in childhood and adolescence. This article provides an update focusing on the diagnosis and management of several frequently encountered infections and infestations: scabies, bedbugs, head lice, tinea capitis, and tinea versicolor. PMID:21815448

Haisley-Royster, Camille

2011-04-01

185

Skin Rashes and Other Changes  

MedlinePLUS

... anywhere on your body? Yes This may be RINGWORM, a fungal infection that's most common in children. ... in light-colored patches? Yes This may be TINEA VERSICOLOR, a discoloration caused by a fungus. Tinea ...

186

Nombramientos SECRETARIOS  

E-print Network

Dr. Isaac Hernández Calderón Física Dr. Alexander Poznyak Gorbatch Control Automático Dra. Ma. del types of fungal bioreactors with inmmobilized Trametes versicolor for post-treated weak black liquor

187

Regulation of coal polymer degradation by fungi. Eighth quarterly report, [January--March 1996  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported on solubilization of low-rank coal by enzyme activity derived from Trametes versicolor or P. chrysosporium. Specifically during the reporting period efforts were directed towards the determining the effect of pH on solubilization of leonardite, the role of laccase in low coal solubilization and metabolism, the decolorization of soluble coal macromolecule by P. chrysosprium and T. versicolor in solid agar gel, and the solubilization of low rank coal in slurry cultures and solid phase reactors.

Irvine, R.L. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences; Bumpus, J.A. [University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1996-07-28

188

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis: clinical presentation with varied forms of lesions.  

PubMed

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis is a rare inherited skin disorder spread by HPV, with cases linked to chromosome X. It is characterized by hypo- or hyper-pigmented macular lesions, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions and an early tendency to develop skin malignancies. We present a case of epidermodysplasia verruciformis with a variety of lesions such as multiple plane warts, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions and aggressive squamous cell carcinoma on the face. PMID:22068772

Sá, Naiana Bittencourt de; Guerini, Marina Besen; Barbato, Mariana Tremel; Di Giunta, Gabriella; Nunes, Daniel Holthausen

2011-01-01

189

[Anti-fungal resistant hypopigmented macules in an adolescent].  

PubMed

Progressive macular hypomelanosis of the trunk is a disease of unknown origin that often goes unrecognized in the clinical setting. We present an adolescent with this condition initially diagnosed as tinea versicolor. She was asymptomatic, with hypopigmented macules located on the trunk and with no previous history of inflammation, infection or injury. Progressive macular hypomelanosis is a common disorder that has frequently been misdiagnosed, probably because it is often considered a post-inflammatory hypopigmentation or pityriasis versicolor. PMID:22935838

Martínez Martínez, M L; Azaña Defez, J M; López Villaescusa, M T; Gómez Sánchez, M

2012-09-01

190

Embryonic thermosensitivity and hatchling morphology differ between two coexisting lizards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We incubated eggs of two coexisting lizards, Phrynocephalus frontalis and Phrynocephalus versicolor, at three constant temperatures (24, 28 and 32 °C) to examine whether they differ in embryonic thermosensitivity and hatchling morphology. Eggs incubated at the three temperatures produced morphologically different hatchlings in P. versicolor but not in P. frontalis. Snout-vent length (SVL), body mass and head width were greater in P. versicolor hatchlings from the 24 °C treatment than those from the 32 °C treatment when accounting for differences in initial egg mass, and tail length was smaller in P. versicolor hatchlings from the 24 °C treatment than those from the 32 °C treatment when accounting for differences in final egg mass. Body mass, head length, head width, tail length, fore-limb length and hind-limb length were greater in P. frontalis hatchlings than in P. versicolor hatchling when accounting for differences in initial or final egg mass. Moreover, P. frontalis females produce larger hatchlings than do P. versicolor females of the same SVL not only by laying larger eggs, but also by investing more dry materials (and thus, more energy) into the egg. Given a link between interspecific competition (and niche restriction) and morphology, it seems likely that morphological differences at hatching may facilitate the coexistence of the two lizards. The two lizards differed in embryonic thermosensitivity and water uptake by eggs during incubation, suggesting that they use different microhabitats in the area of sympatry.

Qu, Yan-Fu; Li, Hong; Gao, Jian-Fang; Ji, Xiang

2011-07-01

191

Functional genomics of a generalist parasitic plant: Laser microdissection of host-parasite interface reveals host-specific patterns of parasite gene expression  

PubMed Central

Background Orobanchaceae is the only plant family with members representing the full range of parasitic lifestyles plus a free-living lineage sister to all parasitic lineages, Lindenbergia. A generalist member of this family, and an important parasitic plant model, Triphysaria versicolor regularly feeds upon a wide range of host plants. Here, we compare de novo assembled transcriptomes generated from laser micro-dissected tissues at the host-parasite interface to uncover details of the largely uncharacterized interaction between parasitic plants and their hosts. Results The interaction of Triphysaria with the distantly related hosts Zea mays and Medicago truncatula reveals dramatic host-specific gene expression patterns. Relative to above ground tissues, gene families are disproportionally represented at the interface including enrichment for transcription factors and genes of unknown function. Quantitative Real-Time PCR of a T. versicolor ?-expansin shows strong differential (120x) upregulation in response to the monocot host Z. mays; a result that is concordant with our read count estimates. Pathogenesis-related proteins, other cell wall modifying enzymes, and orthologs of genes with unknown function (annotated as such in sequenced plant genomes) are among the parasite genes highly expressed by T. versicolor at the parasite-host interface. Conclusions Laser capture microdissection makes it possible to sample the small region of cells at the epicenter of parasite host interactions. The results of our analysis suggest that T. versicolor’s generalist strategy involves a reliance on overlapping but distinct gene sets, depending upon the host plant it is parasitizing. The massive upregulation of a T. versicolor ?-expansin is suggestive of a mechanism for parasite success on grass hosts. In this preliminary study of the interface transcriptomes, we have shown that T. versicolor, and the Orobanchaceae in general, provide excellent opportunities for the characterization of plant genes with unknown functions. PMID:23302495

2013-01-01

192

A study of over production and enhanced secretion of enzymes. Quarterly report 1  

SciTech Connect

The current project is concerned with the over-production and enhanced secretion of PPO, cellulase and lignin peroxidase. The project is divided into two segments: over-production of lignocellulolytic enzymes by genetic engineering methodologies and hyper-production and enhanced secretion of these enzymes by biochemical/electron microscopical techniques. The former approach employs recombinant DNA procedures, ligation of appropriate nuclease generated DNA fragments into a vector and the subsequent transformation of Escherichia coli to yield E. coli harboring a C. versicolor DNA insert. The biochemistry/electron microscopical method involves substrate induction and the time-dependent addition of respiration and PPO inhibitors to elevate C.versicolor`s ability to synthesize and secrete lignocellulosic enzymes. In this connection, cell fractionation/kinetic analysis, TEM immunoelectron microscopic localization and TEM substrate localization of PPO are being employed to assess the route of secretion. Both approaches will culminate in the batch culture of either E. coli or C. versicolor, in a fermentor with the subsequent development of rapid isolation and purification procedures to yield elevated quantities of pure lignocellulosic enzymes. During the past year, research effort were directed toward determining the route of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) secretion by the wood-decay fungus, Coriolus versicolor. In addition, research activities were continued to over-produce and to purify PPO as well as define the time-dependent intra- and extra-cellular appearances of C. versicolor ligninases and cellulases.

Dashek, W.V.

1992-12-28

193

Superficial fungal infections.  

PubMed

Superficial fungal infections arise from a pathogen that is restricted to the stratum corneum, with little or no tissue reaction. In this Seminar, three types of infection will be covered: tinea versicolor, piedra, and tinea nigra. Tinea versicolor is common worldwide and is caused by Malassezia spp, which are human saprophytes that sometimes switch from yeast to pathogenic mycelial form. Malassezia furfur, Malassezia globosa, and Malassezia sympodialis are most closely linked to tinea versicolor. White and black piedra are both common in tropical regions of the world; white piedra is also endemic in temperate climates. Black piedra is caused by Piedraia hortae; white piedra is due to pathogenic species of the Trichosporon genus. Tinea nigra is also common in tropical areas and has been confused with melanoma. PMID:15451228

Schwartz, Robert A

194

Superficial fungal infections.  

PubMed

Tinea capitis, tinea corporis, and pityriasis versicolor are common superficial fungal infections in the pediatric population. • Tinea capitis is the most common dermatophyte infection worldwide. In North America, the cause is almost exclusively T tonsurans. Diagnosis of tinea capitis usually can be made by clinical features alone, especially when occipital or postauricular lymphadenopathy is present. Skin scrapings prepared with potassium hydroxide for microscopic examination, or a cotton swab for fungal culture, usually are diagnostic. • Treatment of tinea capitis requires systemic antifungal therapy. Terbinafine and griseofulvin are both effective against T tonsurans and are FDA-approved for this indication in children. • Adjunctive topical therapy for the patient and household contacts decreases transmission of this infection. • Topical antifungal therapy usually is effective for tinea corporis and pityriasis versicolor. However, recurrences of pityriasis versicolor are common. PMID:22474120

Kelly, Brendan P

2012-04-01

195

Food partitioning of leaf-eating mangrove crabs ( Sesarminae): Experimental and stable isotope ( 13C and 15N) evidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of mangrove leaves as a full diet for sesarmid crabs has been questioned for decades. Since these leaves are nitrogen-poor, sesarmids probably obtain nitrogen from other sources to sustain growth. The aim of this study was to assess the food partitioning of the sesarmid species Neoepisesarma versicolor with emphasis on nitrogen allocation. The preference for animal tissue when crabs were pre-fed diets of different nitrogen content was determined in the laboratory. Furthermore, the possible in situ diet composition of N. versicolor was established from carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signature ( ?13C and ?15N) of freshly caught individuals and their potential food sources, using a concentration-dependent mixing model. N. versicolor showed significantly higher feeding preferences for fish meat when pre-fed leaf material without than with access to meat, indicating that this crab species can meet its nitrogen demand by ingesting animal tissue. The stable isotope mixing model based on in situ materials suggests that the diet of N. versicolor consists of ˜60% leaves in terms of biomass, leaving ˜40% for other sources such as animal tissue and benthic microorganisms. The biomass contribution from animal tissues, in form of e.g. other crustaceans and fish carcasses, was found to account for ˜15%. Despite the relative low biomass fraction, animal food sources may contribute with up to half of the nitrogen in the diet of N. versicolor. The quantity of ingested sediment most likely exceeds that of animal tissues. However, due to the low concentration of assimilable microalgae and other microorganism, we propose that sediment associated sources are less important as a nitrogen source for N. versicolor than hitherto presumed.

Kristensen, Ditte K.; Kristensen, Erik; Mangion, Perrine

2010-05-01

196

Species delimitation in Trametes: a comparison of ITS, RPB1, RPB2 and TEF1 gene phylogenies.  

PubMed

Trametes is a cosmopolitan genus of white rot polypores, including the "turkey tail" fungus, T. versicolor. Although Trametes is one of the most familiar genera of polypores, its species-level taxonomy is unsettled. The ITS region is the most commonly used molecular marker for species delimitation in fungi, but it has been shown to have a low molecular variation in Trametes resulting in poorly resolved phylogenies and unclear species boundaries, especially in the T. versicolor species complex (T. versicolor sensu stricto, T. ochracea, T. pubescens, T. ectypa). Here we evaluate the performance of three protein-coding genes (TEF1, RPB1, RPB2) for species delimitation and phylogenetic reconstruction in Trametes. We obtained 59 TEF1, 34 RPB1 and 55 RPB2 sequences from 69 individuals, focusing on the T. versicolor complex and performed phylogenetic analyses with maximum likelihood and parsimony methods. All three protein-coding genes outperformed ITS for separating species in the T. versicolor complex. The multigene phylogenetic analysis shows the highest amount of resolution and supported nodes separating T. ectypa, T. ochracea, T. pubescens and T. versicolor with strong support. In addition three slineages are resolved in the species complex of T. elegans. The T. elegans complex includes three species: T. elegans (based on material from Puerto Rico, Belize, the Philippines), T. aesculi (from North America) and T. repanda (from Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Venezuela). The utility of gene markers varies, with TEF1 having the highest PCR and sequencing success rate and RPB1 offering the best backbone resolution for the genus. PMID:24898532

Carlson, Alexis; Justo, Alfredo; Hibbett, David S

2014-01-01

197

Case for diagnosis.  

PubMed

A 27-year-old mixed-raced (pardo) female patient presented with flat ovate hypochromic plaques with a rough surface on the back and upper limbs, with an aspect resembling pityriasis versicolor. She reports family history involving a brother with similar lesions. Lab tests, including anti-HIV, showed no alterations and a histopathological examination showed enlarged keratinocytes with basophilic and microvacuolated cytoplasm occupying the upper portion of the spinous layer and the granulous layer. After anatomic-clinical correlation, the diagnosis of epidermodysplasia verruciformis pityriasis versicolor like was confirmed. PMID:21603836

Ribas, Jonas; Corrêa, Clarisse de Albuquerque; Cavalcante, Melissa de Souza Melo

2011-01-01

198

Heat and microbial treatments for nutritional upgrading of wheat straw  

SciTech Connect

The ligninolytic activities of four cellulolytic organisms were compared using straw. Only Aspergillus japonicus and Polyporous versicolor appreciably degraded lignin with A. japonicus yielding the most protein. In solid culture, most protein was produced by P. versicolor, closely followed by A. japonicus. Pertreatment of the straw by hot water facilitated biodegradation and protein production. The nutritional value of the residual straw was also increased by some fungal cultures. The greatest amount of degradable polysaccharide in the straw was made available by A. japonicus in liquid media and Pleurotus ostreatus in solid media. 29 references.

Milstein, O.; Vered, Y.; Sharma, A.; Gressel, J.; Flowers, H.M.

1986-03-01

199

Consejos para pacientes que reciben radioterapia  

Cancer.gov

Una serie de 11 páginas individuales que ofrece consejos sobre cómo controlar los efectos secundarios de la radioterapia. Cada página incluye el punto de vista de personas con cancer sobre la radioterapia.

200

Terapia hormonal para el cáncer de próstata  

Cancer.gov

Hoja informativa que describe la terapia hormonal y su función en el tratamiento del cáncer de próstata. Incluye información acerca de los tipos diferentes de terapia hormonal, cómo se usan y los efectos secundarios posibles.

201

La quimioterapia y usted: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Publicación para personas que van a recibir o que ya están recibiendo quimioterapia contra el cáncer. Contiene información sobre la quimioterapia y sus efectos secundarios y describe cómo puede cuidarse durante y después del tratamiento.

202

La radioterapia y usted: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Publicación para personas que van a recibir o que ya están recibiendo radioterapia contra el cáncer. Contiene información sobre la radioterapia y sus efectos secundarios y describe cómo puede cuidarse durante y después del tratamiento.

203

La radioterapia y usted: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer  

Cancer.gov

E-book para personas que van a recibir o que ya están recibiendo radioterapia contra el cáncer. Contiene información sobre la radioterapia y sus efectos secundarios y describe cómo puede cuidarse durante y después del tratamiento.

204

Terapia hormonal para el cáncer de seno  

Cancer.gov

Hoja informativa que describe la terapia hormonal y su función en la prevención y tratamiento del cáncer de seno. Incluye información acerca de los efectos secundarios posibles y de los fármacos que pueden interferir con la terapia hormonal.

205

Nutritional evaluation of wild yam ( Dioscorea spp.) tubers of Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild yams make a significant contribution to diets of tribal people in Nepal. However, there is insufficient study of their nutritional value. In this paper, four wild yam species: Dioscorea bulbifera, D. versicolor, D. deltoidea and D. triphylla, were studied. The dry matter ranged from 19.8 to 30.5% on a fresh weight basis. The ranges of crude protein, ash, crude

Megh Raj Bhandari; Takanori Kasai; Jun Kawabata

2003-01-01

206

Effects of Disease and Pond Drying on Gray Tree Frog Growth, Development, and Survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogens have important effects on host growth, behavior, and population dynamics. Nevertheless, the impact of parasitic infection on host populations may be strong- ly context dependent. For example, the outcome of host-pathogen interactions may be subject to change based on the level of abiotic stress experienced by the host. In northeastern Connecticut, USA, larvae of the gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor)

Joseph M. Kiesecker; David K. Skelly

2001-01-01

207

Immobilized Peroxidase as a Valuable Tool in the Remediation of Aromatic Pollutants and Xenobiotic Compounds: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors attempted to survey literature based on the role of immobilized peroxidases in the treatment and remediation of various types of organic pollutants present in wastewater. Peroxidases from fungal (Caldariomyces fumago, Lentinula edodes, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus pulmonarius, Aspergillus oryzae, Trametes versicolor, Chrysonilia sitophila [TFB-27441]) and plant sources (horseradish, turnip, tomato, soybean, bitter gourd, white radish chayote, and Saccharum uvarum)

Qayyum Husain; Roland Ulber

2011-01-01

208

Evaluation of different methods for the extraction of DNA from fungal conidia by quantitative competitive PCR analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five different DNA extraction methods were evaluated for their effectiveness in recovering PCR templates from the conidia of a series of fungal species often encountered in indoor air. The test organisms were Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartarum, Cladosporium herbarum and Alternaria alternata. The extraction methods differed in their use of different cell lysis procedures. These included grinding in liquid

Richard A Haugland; John L Heckman; Larry J Wymer

1999-01-01

209

Amphibians & Reptiles of the Lake Erie Island Region (Erie and Ottawa Co., Ohio and Essex Co., Ontario). Species in bold are known  

E-print Network

and terrestrial habitats. However, some species skip the aquatic stage and their entire life cycle occurs on land Frogs and Toads Cricket FrogE Acris crepitans American Toad Bufo americanus Fowler's ToadT Bufo fowleri Gray Treefrog Hyla versicolor Spring Peeper Pseudacris crucifer Western Chorus Frog Pseudacris

King, Richard B.

210

Date/Time: Friday 16 Sept: to // Saturday 17 Sept: to Number of search hours (total): hours (Fri) // hours (Sat)  

E-print Network

Cove Zone: Common Name Scientific Name FH HF HC NB PI OTHER (name site) 1 Painted Turtle Chrysemys picta 2 Eastern Hognose Snake Heterodon platirhinos 3 Gray Tree Frog Hyla versicolor 4 Diamondback cinereus 7 Spring Peeper Pseudacris crusifer 8 Eastern Garter Snake Thamnophis sauritus 9 Common Garter

Columbia University

211

Lignin biodegradation and ligninolytic enzyme studies during biopulping of Acacia mangium wood chips by tropical white rot fungi.  

PubMed

White rot fungi are good lignin degraders and have the potential to be used in industry. In the present work, Phellinus sp., Daedalea sp., Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus coccineus were selected due to their relatively high ligninolytic enzyme activity, and grown on Acacia mangium wood chips under solid state fermentation. Results obtained showed that manganese peroxidase produced is far more compared to lignin peroxidase, suggesting that MnP might be the predominating enzymes causing lignin degradation in Acacia mangium wood chips. Cellulase enzyme assays showed that no significant cellulase activity was detected in the enzyme preparation of T. versicolor and Phellinus sp. This low cellulolytic activity further suggests that these two white rot strains are of more interest in lignin degradation. The results on lignin losses showed 20-30% of lignin breakdown at 60 days of biodegradation. The highest lignin loss was found in Acacia mangium biotreated with T. versicolor after 60 days and recorded 26.9%, corresponding to the percentage of their wood weight loss recorded followed by P. coccineus. In general, lignin degradation was only significant from 20 days onwards. The overall percentage of lignin weight loss was within the range of 1.02-26.90% over the biodegradation periods. Microscopic observations conducted using scanning electron microscope showed that T. versicolor, P. coccineus, Daedalea sp. and Phellinus sp. had caused lignin degradation in Acacia mangium wood chips. PMID:25187145

Liew, C Y; Husaini, A; Hussain, H; Muid, S; Liew, K C; Roslan, H A

2011-06-01

212

The evaluation of white rot fungi in the decoloration of textile dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the five species of white rot fungi evaluated for their ability to decolorize Amaranth, Remazol Black B, Remazol Orange, Remazol Brilliant Blue, Reactive Blue, and Tropaeolin O in agar plates, Bjerkandera sp. BOS55, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Trametes versicolor displayed the greatest extent of decoloration. In static aqueous culture, the three cultures formed fungal mats which did not decolorize any

J Swamy; J. A. Ramsay

1999-01-01

213

Decolorization of textile dyes by laccases from a newly isolated strain of Trametes modesta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four ligninolytic fungi, Trametes modesta, Trametes hirsuta, Trametes versicolor and Sclerotium rolfsii, were compared for their ability to produce laccases. The fungal laccases were screened for their ability to decolorize eight synthetic dyes (anthraquinone, azo, indigo and triarylmethane). The decolorization rate depended both on the source of the enzyme preparation and on the structure of the dye. Based on laccase

G. S Nyanhongo; J Gomes; G. M Gübitz; R Zvauya; J Read; W Steiner

2002-01-01

214

Durability of rubberwood ( Hevea brasiliensis) treated with peppermint oil, eucalyptus oil, and their main components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anti-fungal activities of two essential oils (peppermint oil and eucalyptus oil) and their main components (menthol and eucalyptol, respectively) against molds (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Penicillium sp.) and a white-rot decay fungus (Trametes versicolor) identified from rubberwood surfaces were investigated. The broth dilution method and the agar diffusion technique were employed to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and

Narumol Matan; Weerapong Woraprayote; Warasri Saengkrajang; Niphaphorn Sirisombat; Nirundorn Matan

2009-01-01

215

Investigation of growth responses in saprophytic fungi to charred biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of a study testing the response of two saprophytic white-rot fungi species, Pleurotus pulmonarius and Coriolus versicolor, to charred biomass (charcoal) as a growth substrate. We used a combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, elemental abundance measurements, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (C and N) to investigate fungal colonisation of control and incubated samples of

Philippa L. Ascough; Craig J. Sturrock; Michael I. Bird

2010-01-01

216

Electrochemical studies of a truncated laccase produced in Pichia pastoris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cDNA that encodes an isoform is laccase from Trametes versicolor (LCCI), as well as a truncated version (LCCIa), was subcloned and expressed by using the yeast Pichia pastoris as the heterologous host. The amino acid sequence of LCCIa is identical to that of LCCI except that the final 11 amino acids at the C terminus of LCCI are replaced

MIRJANA GELO-PUJIC; HYUG-HAN KIM; NATHAN G. BUTLIN; G. TAYHAS R. PALMORE

1999-01-01

217

2003 TAXONOMY OF THE EARLY CRETACEOUS BELEMNITE SPECIES AULACOTEUTHIS ABSOLUTIFORMIS (SINZOW, 1877) AND ITS TYPE STATUS J. Mutterlose 1 & E  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent field work in the Early Cretaceous succession of the Ulyanovsk - Syzran - Saratov region, Volga River, Russia has shown that the belemnite species Aulacoteuthis absolutiformis occurs in the lower part of the Upper Hauterivian Speetoniceras versicolor ammonite Zone. These findings are in accordance with the original species assignment by Sinzow (1875, 1877). A. absolutiformis was lateron misidentified by

J. Baraboshkin

218

Enhanced decolourisation ability of laccase towards various synthetic dyes by an electrocatalysis technology.  

PubMed

Laccase in culture filtrates of Trametes versicolor degraded a number of structurally different dyes by about 30% after 30 min though only 5% of Azure B was degraded in 1 h and Poly R-478 and fuchsin were not degraded at all even after 24 h. However, by using enzymatic electrocatalysis technology all dyes were decolourised in about 30 to 135 min. PMID:12882152

Cameselle, C; Pazos, M; Lorenzo, M; Sanromán, M A

2003-04-01

219

Ligninolytic enzyme activity: A comparison of the veratryl alcohol and Azure B assay systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ligninolytic enzyme activities in cell-free culture filtrates of Coriolus versicolor, Fusarium solani and Phanaerochaete chrysosporium were assessed using a veratryl alcohol oxidation assay system and results compared with those obtained using a relatively new assay system based on the oxidation of Azure B.

V.-N. Tariq; W. T. Irvine

1995-01-01

220

MITOCHONDRIAL DNA VARIATION POPULATION STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION OF THE COMMON GRACKLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. The Common,Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula) includes two phenotypically dif- ferentiated forms, the Purple Grackle (Q. q. quiscula), which breeds along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States, and the Bronzed Grackle (Q. q. versicolor), which occurs over the rest of eastern North America. These grackles meet and hybridize in a zone that stretches from northeastern to the extreme

Quiscalus Quiscula; Robert M. Zink; William L. Rootes; Donna L. Dittmann

221

Studies on the solubilization of German coal by fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The capability of seven basidiomycetes (Trametes versicolor, Poria placenta, Pleurotus florida, P. ostreatus, P. sajor-caju, P. eryngii, Stropharia sp.), one ascomycete (Chaetomium globosum) and five hyphomycetes and moulds (Humicola grisea, Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus terreus, Paecilomyces varioti, Papulaspora immersa) to solubilize medium and high volatile bituminous coals (types A and B) as well as four types of lignite B from

J. Reiss

1992-01-01

222

Inhibition and Stimulation Effects in Communities of Wood Decay Fungi: Exudates from Colonized Wood Influence Growth by Other Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of exudates from uncolonized and from partly decayed beech wood on the extension rates of 16 later stage decay fungi were investigated. The partly decayed wood had been colonized by the pyrenomycete Eutypa spinosa, or the basidiomycetes Fomes fomentarius, Stereum hirsutum, and Trametes versicolor, all known as common early decay agents in European beech forests. Sterilized wood pieces

J. Heilmann-Clausen; L. Boddy

2005-01-01

223

Laccase-catalyzed decolorization of synthetic dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial dyes are not uniformly susceptible to microbial attack in conventional aerobic treatment because of their unique and stable chemical structures. Three synthetic dyes with typical chromophores (anthraquinone, azo and indigo) were decolorized by a white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. The responsible enzyme for dye decomposition was laccase, an extracellular oxidase released by the fungus under the conditions of slow growth

Yuxing Wong; Jian Yu

1999-01-01

224

ENHANCED ENZYMATIC REMOVAL OF CHLOROPHENOLS IN THE PRESENCE OF CO-SUBSTRATES. (R823847)  

EPA Science Inventory

The effect of reactive co-substrates such as guaiacol and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol on the removal of chlorinated phenols by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and a laccase from the fungus Trametes versicolor was investigated. Addition of 50 mM guaiacol enhanced the precipitation of 4-ch...

225

The effects of collembola grazing on microbial activity in decomposing leaf litter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground leaf litter was inoculated with the fungus Coriolus versicolor and incubated in respirometers for 6 days (“fresh” cultures) or 33 days (“senescent” cultures) before different number of Folsomia candida were added. Grazing by 5 animals stimulated O2 consumption in both series of cultures but 10, 15 or 20 animals inhibited microbial respiration. The stimulatory effect was less marked in

R. D. G. Hanlon; J. M. Anderson

1979-01-01

226

Effect of relative humidity on fungal colonization of fiberglass insulation.  

PubMed

Fiberglass duct liners and fiberglass duct boards from eight buildings whose occupants complained of unacceptable or moldy odors in the air were found to be heavily colonized by fungi, particularly by Aspergillus versicolor. Unused fiberglass was found to be susceptible to fungal colonization in environmental chambers dependent upon relative humidity. No colonization was observed at relative humidities below 50%. PMID:8031101

Ezeonu, I M; Noble, J A; Simmons, R B; Price, D L; Crow, S A; Ahearn, D G

1994-06-01

227

Fungal production of volatiles during growth on fiberglass.  

PubMed

Acoustic and thermal fiberglass insulation materials used in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems were colonized with fungi in laboratory chambers. The mixed fungal population, principally Aspergillus versicolor, Acremonium obclavatum, and Cladosporium herbarum, produced odoriferous volatiles, including 2-ethyl hexanol, cyclohexane, and benzene. These volatiles may be related to poor indoor air quality and the sick building syndrome. PMID:7993098

Ezeonu, I M; Price, D L; Simmons, R B; Crow, S A; Ahearn, D G

1994-11-01

228

Effect of relative humidity on fungal colonization of fiberglass insulation.  

PubMed Central

Fiberglass duct liners and fiberglass duct boards from eight buildings whose occupants complained of unacceptable or moldy odors in the air were found to be heavily colonized by fungi, particularly by Aspergillus versicolor. Unused fiberglass was found to be susceptible to fungal colonization in environmental chambers dependent upon relative humidity. No colonization was observed at relative humidities below 50%. Images PMID:8031101

Ezeonu, I M; Noble, J A; Simmons, R B; Price, D L; Crow, S A; Ahearn, D G

1994-01-01

229

Fungal production of volatiles during growth on fiberglass.  

PubMed Central

Acoustic and thermal fiberglass insulation materials used in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems were colonized with fungi in laboratory chambers. The mixed fungal population, principally Aspergillus versicolor, Acremonium obclavatum, and Cladosporium herbarum, produced odoriferous volatiles, including 2-ethyl hexanol, cyclohexane, and benzene. These volatiles may be related to poor indoor air quality and the sick building syndrome. PMID:7993098

Ezeonu, I M; Price, D L; Simmons, R B; Crow, S A; Ahearn, D G

1994-01-01

230

The influence of fungal food quality on the growth and fecundity of Folsomia candida (Collembola: Isotomidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Basidiomycete fungi Coriolus versicolor and Hypholoma fasciculare were grown in liquid media containing 2, 20, 200 and 2,000 ppm nitrogen (as asparagine) and fed to cultures of Folsomia candida. Collembola feeding on both species of fungi exhibited trends of increased moulting and egg laying rates up to 200 ppm N and an inhibition of growth and fecundity at 2,000

R. G. Booth; J. M. Anderson

1979-01-01

231

Comparison of ligninolytic activities of selected white-rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six fast growing ligninolytic white-rot fungi were compared with Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The results showed that the fungi have similar ligninolytic systems, although minor differences exist. Like in P. chrysosporium the ligninolytic system could be induced by veratryl alcohol in Coriolus versicolor and Chrysosporium pruinosum. These three lignin peroxidase producing fungi were the fastest lignin degraders in stationary cultures, whereas in

Roland Waldner; Matti S. A. Leisola; Armin Fiechter

1988-01-01

232

A diversified approach to evaluate biostimulation and bioaugmentation strategies for heavy-oil-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

A diversified approach involving chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicity assessment of soil polluted by heavy mineral oil was adopted, in order to improve our understanding of the biodegradability of pollutants, microbial community dynamics and ecotoxicological effects of various bioremediation strategies. With the aim of improving hydrocarbon degradation, the following bioremediation treatments were assayed: i) addition of inorganic nutrients; ii) addition of the rhamnolipid-based biosurfactant M(AT10); iii) inoculation of an aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading microbial consortium (TD); and iv) inoculation of a known hydrocarbon-degrading white-rot fungus strain of Trametes versicolor. After 200 days, all the bioremediation assays achieved between 30% and 50% total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) biodegradation, with the T. versicolor inoculation degrading it the most. Biostimulation and T. versicolor inoculation promoted the Brevundimonas genus concurrently with other ?-proteobacteria, ?-proteobacteria and Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides (CFB) as well as Actinobacteria groups. However, T. versicolor inoculation, which produced the highest hydrocarbon degradation in soil, also promoted autochthonous Gram-positive bacterial groups, such as Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. An acute toxicity test using Eisenia fetida confirmed the improvement in the quality of the soil after all biostimulation and bioaugmentation strategies. PMID:22858534

Lladó, S; Solanas, A M; de Lapuente, J; Borràs, M; Viñas, M

2012-10-01

233

MITOCHONDRIAL DNA VARIATION, POPULATION STRUCTURE, AND EVOLUTION OF THE COMMON GRACKLE (QUISCALUS QUISCULA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula) includes two phenotypically dif- ferentiated forms, the Purple Grackle (Q. q. quiscula), which breeds along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States, and the Bronzed Grackle (Q. q. versicolor), which occurs over the rest of eastern North America. These grackles meet and hybridize in a zone that stretches from northeastern to the extreme

ROBERT M. ZINK; WILLIAM L. ROOTES; DONNA L. DITTMANN

234

Succession analysis of plant communities in abandoned croplands in the eastern Loess Plateau of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data were collected simultaneously at different succession stages, and were analysed using the quantitative classification method (TWINSPAN) and the ordination technique (DCA). The succession series of plant communities from abandoned croplands of loess soils was as follows: Assoc. Ixeris chinensis var. versicolor+Setaria viridis ? Assoc. Artemisia spp. ? Assoc. Artemisia lavandulaefolia+Elymus dahuricus ? Assoc. Elymus dahuricus+Poa annua+Artemisia spp. ? Assoc.

J.-T. Zhang

2005-01-01

235

Aerodynamic characteristics and respiratory deposition of fungal fragments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of fungal fragments and to estimate their respiratory deposition. Fragments and spores of three different fungal species ( Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium melinii, and Stachybotrys chartarum) were aerosolized by the fungal spore source strength tester (FSSST). An electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) measured the size distribution in real-time and collected the aerosolized fungal particles simultaneously onto 12 impactor stages in the size range of 0.3-10 ?m utilizing water-soluble ZEF-X10 coating of the impaction stages to prevent spore bounce. For S. chartarum, the average concentration of released fungal fragments was 380 particles cm -3, which was about 514 times higher than that of spores. A. versicolor was found to release comparable amount of spores and fragments. Microscopic analysis confirmed that S. chartarum and A. versicolor did not show any significant spore bounce, whereas the size distribution of P. melinii fragments was masked by spore bounce. Respiratory deposition was calculated using a computer-based model, LUDEP 2.07, for an adult male and a 3-month-old infant utilizing the database on the concentration and size distribution of S. chartarum and A. versicolor aerosols measured by the ELPI. Total deposition fractions for fragments and spores were 27-46% and 84-95%, respectively, showing slightly higher values in an infant than in an adult. For S. chartarum, fragments demonstrated 230-250 fold higher respiratory deposition than spores, while the number of deposited fragments and spores of A. versicolor were comparable. It was revealed that the deposition ratio (the number of deposited fragments divided by that of deposited spores) in the lower airways for an infant was 4-5 times higher than that for an adult. As fungal fragments have been shown to contain mycotoxins and antigens, further exposure assessment should include the measurement of fungal fragments for evaluating mold exposures in damp buildings.

Cho, Seung-Hyun; Seo, Sung-Chul; Schmechel, Detlef; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Reponen, Tiina

236

Submicronic fungal bioaerosols: high-resolution microscopic characterization and quantification.  

PubMed

Submicronic particles released from fungal cultures have been suggested to be additional sources of personal exposure in mold-contaminated buildings. In vitro generation of these particles has been studied with particle counters, eventually supplemented by autofluorescence, that recognize fragments by size and discriminate biotic from abiotic particles. However, the fungal origin of submicronic particles remains unclear. In this study, submicronic fungal particles derived from Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, and Penicillium chrysogenum cultures grown on agar and gypsum board were aerosolized and enumerated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). A novel bioaerosol generator and a fungal spores source strength tester were compared at 12 and 20 liters min(-1) airflow. The overall median numbers of aerosolized submicronic particles were 2 × 10(5) cm(-2), 2.6 × 10(3) cm(-2), and 0.9 × 10(3) cm(-2) for A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, and P. chrysogenum, respectively. A. fumigatus released significantly (P < 0.001) more particles than A. versicolor and P. chrysogenum. The ratios of submicronic fragments to larger particles, regardless of media type, were 1:3, 5:1, and 1:2 for A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, and P. chrysogenum, respectively. Spore fragments identified by the presence of rodlets amounted to 13%, 2%, and 0% of the submicronic particles released from A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, and P. chrysogenum, respectively. Submicronic particles with and without rodlets were also aerosolized from cultures grown on cellophane-covered media, indirectly confirming their fungal origin. Both hyphae and conidia could fragment into submicronic particles and aerosolize in vitro. These findings further highlight the potential contribution of fungal fragments to personal fungal exposure. PMID:25217010

Afanou, Komlavi Anani; Straumfors, Anne; Skogstad, Asbjørn; Nilsen, Terje; Synnes, Ole; Skaar, Ida; Hjeljord, Linda; Tronsmo, Arne; Green, Brett James; Eduard, Wijnand

2014-11-15

237

Using Plasma-liPid metabolites to index Changes in liPid ReseRves of fRee-living lesseR sCaUP (AythyA Affinis)  

E-print Network

CaUP (AythyA Affinis) Michael J. anteau1,3 and alan d. afton2 1 School of Renewable Natural Resources ( xu ) k ( ) 22 L Su (Aythya affinis; 600­1,000 ). T xu 75% (F = 28.85, = 2 1, accepted 14 July 2007. K : Aythya affinis, , , L Su, , , . Uso de Metabolitos Lipídicos del Plasma como un

Afton, Alan D.

238

The mycobiota of three dry-cured meat products from Slovenia.  

PubMed

The surface mycobiota of three types of Slovenian dry-cured meat products were isolated from a total of 75 items of product that were sampled periodically during the drying/ripening stage of processing. The predominant filamentous fungal genus isolated was Penicillium. Eurotium spp., Aspergillus versicolor and Cladosporium spp. were isolated from only two of the products. Eight Penicillium species were identified. Penicillium nordicum was recovered frequently. Penicillium nalgiovense was recovered less frequently, from one product only (a salami), while a yet-to-be described species Penicillium "milanense" was isolated from 21 items. The other penicillia were rarely isolated. Of the isolated and identified species, those that can produce mycotoxins are: A. versicolor, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium chrysogenum, P. nordicum, and Penicillium polonicum. Their growth on dry-cured meat products is undesirable. PMID:21356440

Sonjak, Silva; Li?en, Mia; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

2011-05-01

239

A protein from Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis C.J. Mou with strong removal activity against the natural steroid hormone, estriol: purification, characterization, and identification as a laccase.  

PubMed

A protein with strong removal activity against the natural estrogen estriol was purified from a culture supernatant of Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis C.J. Mou. The protein was characterized as a laccase and had a molecular mass of 60kDa on SDS-PAGE. The enzyme was most active at pH 7.0 and 50°C. The partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme showed homology with laccases from mushrooms, such as Pleurotus ostreatus, Coriolus versicolor (current name: Trametes versicolor), Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, and P. eryngii. A recombinant yeast assay confirmed that laccase treatment was very efficient for removing the estrogenic activity of steroid estrogens. Our results suggest that the enzyme may be applicable as a potential factor for removing natural steroid hormones. PMID:23040398

Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Shintani, Kayo; Nakanishi-Anjyuin, Akiko; Nakazawa, Masami; Kusuda, Mizuho; Nakatani, Fumiki; Kawaguchi, Takashi; Tsujiyama, Sho-Ichi; Kawanishi, Masanobu; Yagi, Takashi; Miyatake, Kazutaka

2012-12-10

240

Concerted electron/proton transfer mechanism in the oxidation of phenols by laccase.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess structural requirements in the enzyme/substrate interactions that are responsible for tuning the enzymatic reactivity. To better assess the role of the aspartic residue in the substrate-binding pocket of basidiomycete-type laccases, we compared the catalytic efficiency of wild-type enzymes to that of a mutant in which carboxylic acid residue Asp206 was changed to alanine. Oxidation efficiency towards phenolic substrates by laccases of Trametes villosa, Trametes versicolor and a T. versicolor D206A mutant was studied at two pH values. By the Hammett approach and Marcus analysis, we obtained unambiguous evidence that the oxidation takes place by a concerted electron/proton transfer (EPT) mechanism, and that at pH 5 (optimum pH for enzyme activity) the phenolic proton is transferred to Asp206 during the concerted electron/proton transfer process. PMID:24151197

Galli, Carlo; Madzak, Catherine; Vadalà, Raffaella; Jolivalt, Claude; Gentili, Patrizia

2013-12-16

241

Sensitivity of amphibian embryos tadpoles and larvae to enhanced UV-B radiation in natural pond conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Temperate zone amphibians,are exposed,to the maximum,change,in UV-B radiation influx during early stages of their development. Embryos and tadpoles of six anurans, Bufo americanus, Rana sylvatica, Rana pipiens, Rana clamitans, Rana catesbeiana, and Hyla versicolor, and embryos and larvae of two salamanders, Ambystoma maculatum (the yellow-spotted salamander) and Ambystoma laterale (the blue-spotted salamander), were exposed to different UV-B radiation regimes

Douglas Crump; Michael Berrill; Donna Coulson; David Lean; Lise Mcgillivray; Alex Smith

2000-01-01

242

Responses of amphibian populations to water and soil factors in experimentally-treated aquatic macrocosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival of anuran embryos and tadpoles is reduced in acidic (pH2SO4 and Al2(SO4)3 and lined with either comparatively high metal, low organic matter clay soils or lower metal, higher organic matter loams. Northern cricket frog (Acris crepitans) tadpole abundance was less in acidified macrocosms than in circumneutral ones (pHyla versicolor) abundance was affected by an interaction between soil and acidification

D. W. Sparling; T. P. Lowe; D. Day; K. Dolan

1995-01-01

243

Bioremediation of PAHs-contaminated soil through composting: Influence of bioaugmentation and biostimulation on contaminant biodegradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil through composting was investigated. The selected PAHs included: fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, and chrysene, with concentrations simulating a real creosote sample. The degradation of PAHs (initial concentration 1 g of total PAHs kg?1 dry soil) was assessed applying bioaugmentation with the white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor and biostimulation using compost

Tahseen Sayara; Eduard Borràs; Gloria Caminal; Montserrat Sarrà; Antoni Sánchez

2011-01-01

244

Effect of spent cotton stalks on color removal and chemical oxygen demand lowering in olive oil mill wastewater by white rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater from olive oil mill was decolorized (and its chemical oxygen demand reduced in static cultivation) using the fungiCoriolus versicolor, Funalia trogii, Phanerochœte chrysosporium andPleurotus sajor-caju. The effect of cotton stalk on decolorizing and COD removing capability was demonstrated.P. chrysosporium (in 20% medium with cotton stalk) reduced the COD by 48% and color by 58%,F. trogii (in 30% medium with

S. Kahraman

1999-01-01

245

On Suicidal punishment among \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-founding queens ('co-foundresses') of the obligate desert fungus garden ant Acromyrmex versicolor exhibit a forager specialist who subsumes all foraging risk prior to first worker eclosion (Rissing et al., 1989); laboratory observations suggest a 'coordination' mechanism (sensu Aumann, 1974; Rosenthal, 1974; cf. Pollock, 1994b, 1996) that assigns task-specific risk without contention among (unrelated) co-foundresses (Rissing et al., 1989, 1996). In

Gregory B. Pollock; Antonio Cabrales; Steven W. Rissing

2004-01-01

246

Evaluation of accelerated decay of wood plastic composites by Xylophagus fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resistance to fungal attack of wood plastic composites (WPCs) containing 40% polypropylene and 60% either pine, maple or oak, wt%\\/wt%, was examined. WPCs specimens were made using the hot press system. Resistance to decay was evaluated using soil block and agar tests. Test specimens were exposed to either white-rot fungi, Trametes versicolor or Phanerochaete chrysosporium, or the brown-rot fungi

M. G. Lomelí-Ramírez; H. G. Ochoa-Ruiz; F. J. Fuentes-Talavera; S. García-Enriquez; M. A. Cerpa-Gallegos; J. A. Silva-Guzmán

2009-01-01

247

Comparison of Gas Chromatography and Mineralization Experiments for Measuring Loss of Selected Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congeners in Cultures of White Rot Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

phenyl, and 2,2*,4,4*,5,5*-hexachlorobiphenyl. The congener tested for mineralization was 2,4*,5-(U-14C)TCB. Culture supernatants were also assayed for lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase activities. Of the fungi tested, two strains of Bjerkandera adusta (UAMH 8258 and UAMH 7308), one strain of Pleurotus ostreatus (UAMH 7964), and Trametes versicolor UAMH 8272 gave the highest biodegradation and mineralization. P. chry- sosporium ATCC 24725, a

LEE A. BEAUDETTE; STEPHEN DAVIES; PHILLIP M. FEDORAK; OWEN P. WARD; MICHAEL A. PICKARD

248

Total synthesis of aspeverin via an iodine(III)-mediated oxidative cyclization.  

PubMed

The first total synthesis of aspeverin, a prenylated indole alkaloid isolated from Aspergillus versicolor in 2013, is described. Key steps utilized to assemble the core structure of the target include a highly diastereoselective Diels-Alder reaction, a Curtius rearrangement, and a unique strategy for installation of the geminal dimethyl group. A novel iodine(III)-initiated cyclization was then used to install the bicyclic urethane linkage distinctive to the natural product. PMID:25171639

Levinson, Adam M

2014-09-19

249

Which water potential? Differences between isopiestic thermocouple psychrometer measurements of intact and excised plant materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water potentials of leaves from well-watered plants were measured. There were species-specific differences in both the total\\u000a and the osmotic potentials of pea (Pisum sativum), tradescantia (Tradescantia versicolor), rose (Rosa hybrida), bitter lemon (Citrus aurantium) and olive (Olea europaea). With tradescantia the potential measured after the destruction of turgor by freezing was less negative than before, a result\\u000a which suggests

Man Singh Manohar

1971-01-01

250

The combined effects of boron and oil heat treatment on the properties of beech and Scots pine wood. Part 2: Water absorption, compression strength, color changes, and decay resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of oil treatments on several properties of wood treated with boron compounds was studied: water absorption, water\\u000a repellent efficiency, compression strength parallel to grain, color changes, and decay resistance against Coniophora puteana and Coriolus versicolor. Oil heat treatment evidently decreased the water absorption to approximately 20% and increased water repellent efficiency\\u000a to 80–90% after 2 weeks immersion in water.

Eylem Dizman Tomak; Hannu Viitanen; Umit C. Yildiz; Mark Hughes

2011-01-01

251

A chloroplast DNA deletion located in RNA polymerase gene rpoC2 in CMS lines of sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fertile lines of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were shown to differ from cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines by the presence of a 3.8 kb HindIII chloroplast DNA fragment in the former and a smaller (3.7 kb) fragment in the latter. DNA\\/DNA hybridization studies showed that these two fragments are homologous. Fertile plants from S. versicolor, S. almum, S. halepense, and Sorghastrum

Zengjian Chen; S. Muthukrishnan; George H. Liang; Keith F. Schertz; Gary E. Hart

1993-01-01

252

Detoxification of substituted phenols by oxidoreductive enzymes through polymerization reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laccases from the fungiRhizoctonia praticola andTrametes versicolor as well as horseradish peroxidase and tyrosinase were evaluated for their ability to polymerize phenolic contaminants. The removal of phenols through polymerization depended on the chemical structure and concentration of the substrate, pH of the reaction mixture, activity of the enzyme, length of incubation, and temperature. The enzymes retained their activity throughout a

J. Dec; J.-M. Bollag

1990-01-01

253

Chemical characterisation of cheese associated fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work in our laboratory has demonstrated that the most common contaminating fungi on different types of cheese are;Penicillium commune, P. nalgiovense, P. solitum, P. discolor, P. roqueforti, P. crustosum, P. nordicum andAspergillus versicolor. On blue cheese a new speciesP. caseifulvum has been discovered as a surface contaminant. A large number of known and unknown metabolites have been described from

Thomas Ostenfeld Larsen; Jørn Smedsgaard; Flemming Lund; Jens C. Frisvad; Manfred Gareis

2000-01-01

254

Toxigenic fungi isolated from Roquefort cheese.  

PubMed

To evaluate the potential for mycotoxin production by fungi contaminating blue-veined cheese, as well as by the ripening fungus, Penicillium roqueforti, the fungal flora of six of local and imported brands was determined. A total of 19 fungi were isolated from the six brands tested. Fourteen of the isolates were toxic to chicken embryos. The toxigenic fungi produced the following mycotoxins: Aspergillus fumigatus, kojic acid; A. versicolor, sterigmatocystin; Penicillium roqueforti, penicillic acid and unidentified toxic metabolites. PMID:440405

Moubasher, A H; Abdel-Kader, M I; El-Kady, I A

1979-02-28

255

Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis in a Patient with Hodgkin's Disease: Characterization of a New Papillomavirus Type and Interferon Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new human papillomaviurs (HPV) was discovered in disseminated, macular, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions on the skin of the neck, face, scalp, and public region of a 42-year-old male suffering from Hodgkin's disease. Histopathology revealed features characteristic of epidermodysplasia verruciformis (ev). In contrast to classical ev, the lesions were almost exclusively seen in previously irradiated and UV-exposed skin areas. Papillomavirus capsid

Gerd Gross; Klaus Ellinger; Angelika Roussaki; Pawel G. Fuchs; Hans-Hartmut Peter; Herbert Pfister

1988-01-01

256

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis induced by a new human papillomavirus (HPV8)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new case of epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is reported in a 35-year-old man characterized by multiple common warts, flat warts, psoriasis-form lesions, and pityriasis-versicolor-(PV) like lesions. There was no familial history, no mental retardation, and no malignant changes. Human papilloma virus type 8 was identified in PV-like lesions. Immunologic studies detected no abnormalities: Delayed skin tests, DNCB sensitization, levels of

A. L. Claudy; J. L. Touraine; D. Mitanne

1982-01-01

257

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis. Clinical and light-and electron-microscopic observations during etretinate therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) were treated with etretinate for 9–13 months. The patients had lesions characteristic of EV, including flat warts, common genital warts, pityriasis-versicolor-like lesions and malignant changes such as actinic keratosis and Bowenoid cancer in situ. During etretinate treatment, some flattening of the warts was observed in all three patients, and the lesions on the chest

L. O. Kanerva; E. Johansson; K.-M. Niemi; J. Lauharanta; O. P. Salo

1985-01-01

258

Mediator role of veratryl alcohol in the lignin peroxidase-catalyzed oxidative decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Blue R  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignin peroxidase (LiP) produced by Trametes versicolor decolorizes Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) in the presence as well as in the absence of veratryl alcohol (VA). VA enhances and stabilizes the RBBR-decolorization rates by lignin peroxidase. RBBR has better substrate reactivity than VA for LiP. RBBR is also decolorized directly by LiP and competitively inhibits VA oxidation by LiP. In

Viral Christian; Rohit Shrivastava; Dharmendra Shukla; Hasmukh Modi; Bharatkumar Rajiv Manuel Vyas

2005-01-01

259

Biofuel cell and phenolic biosensor based on acid-resistant laccase–glutaraldehyde functionalized chitosan–multiwalled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite film  

Microsoft Academic Search

To immobilize laccase (Lac) from Trametes versicolor that shows its maximum enzymatic activity in acidic aqueous solutions, the biopolymer chitosan (CS) was chemically modified with glutaraldehyde (GA) to form GA functionalized CS (GAfCS), which was then allowed to react with Lac to form a Lac–GAfCS composite that is robust in weakly acidic solutions (two-step protocol), as confirmed by quartz crystal

Yueming Tan; Wenfang Deng; Bin Ge; Qingji Xie; Jinhua Huang; Shouzhuo Yao

2009-01-01

260

Carbon electrodes for direct electron transfer type laccase cathodes investigated by current density–cathode potential behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct electron transfer from carbon electrodes to adsorbed laccase (EC 1.10.3.2) from Trametes versicolor is widely used to enable mediatorless enzymatic biofuel cell cathodes. However, data published so far are poorly comparable in terms of oxygen reduction performance. We thus present a comparative characterization of carbon-based electrode materials as cathode in half-cell configuration, employing adsorbed laccase as oxygen reduction catalyst.Open

Stefanie Rubenwolf; Oliver Strohmeier; Arne Kloke; Sven Kerzenmacher; Roland Zengerle; Felix von Stetten

2010-01-01

261

Effect of enzyme extracts isolated from white-rot fungi on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of in vitro experiments were completed to evaluate the potential of enzyme extracts, obtained from the white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor (TV1, TV2), Bjerkandera adusta (BA) and Fomes fomentarius (FF), to increase degradation of cell wall components of wheat straw. The studies were conducted as a completely randomized design and analysed using one-way ANOVA. Enzyme activities of the extracts,

M. A. M. Rodrigues; P. Pinto; R. M. F. Bezerra; A. A. Dias; C. V. M. Guedes; V. M. G. Cardoso; J. W. Cone; L. M. M. Ferreira; J. Colaço; C. A. Sequeira

2008-01-01

262

Reversible immobilization of laccase to poly(4-vinylpyridine) grafted and Cu(II) chelated magnetic beads: Biodegradation of reactive dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(4-vinyl pyridine), poly(VP), as a novel metal-chelating fibrous polymer was grafted on the magnetic beads. Poly(4-VP) grafted and\\/or Cu(II) ions chelated magnetic beads were used for reversible immobilization of Trametes versicolor laccase, and the amounts of immobilized laccase on the beads were determined as 36.8 and 56.4mg\\/g beads, respectively. The adsorption of laccase on both modified magnetic beads appeared to

Gülay Bayramo?lu; Meltem Yilmaz; M. Yakup Arica

2010-01-01

263

Enhanced production of laccase in Trametes vesicolor by the addition of ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a medium containing 40 g ethanol l-1, laccase production by Trametes versicolor was 2.6 unit per ml of the supernatant, which was over 20 times higher than that without ethanol. Laccase activity with ethanol was quite comparable to that with the well-known inducers such as veratryl alcohol, xylidine and guaiacol. With other white-rot fungi, Coriolus hirsutus and Grifola frondosa, ethanol had

In-Young Lee; Kyung-Hee Jung; Choong-Hwan Lee; Young-Hoon Park

1999-01-01

264

Effect of aromatic compounds on the production of laccase and manganese peroxidase by white-rot basidiomycetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three white-rot fungi displayed a wide diversity in their response to supplemented aromatic compounds. Pyrogallol stimulated\\u000a Cerrena unicolor laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) synthesis in synthetic medium 2.5- and 2-fold, respectively, whereas 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene\\u000a (TNT) brought about a 2.8-fold increase in laccase yield by Trametes versicolor in submerged fermentation of ethanol production residue. No effect of the tested aromatic compounds on

Vladimir Elisashvili; Eva Kachlishvili; Tamar Khardziani; Spiros N. Agathos

2010-01-01

265

Bacterial versus fungal laccase: potential for micropollutant degradation  

PubMed Central

Relatively high concentrations of micropollutants in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents underscore the necessity to develop additional treatment steps prior to discharge of treated wastewater. Microorganisms that produce unspecific oxidative enzymes such as laccases are a potential means to improve biodegradation of these compounds. Four strains of the bacterial genus Streptomyces (S. cyaneus, S. ipomoea, S. griseus and S. psammoticus) and the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor were studied for their ability to produce active extracellular laccase in biologically treated wastewater with different carbon sources. Among the Streptomyces strains evaluated, only S. cyaneus produced extracellular laccase with sufficient activity to envisage its potential use in WWTPs. Laccase activity produced by T. versicolor was more than 20 times greater, the highest activity being observed with ash branches as the sole carbon source. The laccase preparation of S. cyaneus (abbreviated LSc) and commercial laccase from T. versicolor (LTv) were further compared in terms of their activity at different pH and temperatures, their stability, their substrate range, and their micropollutant oxidation efficiency. LSc and LTv showed highest activities under acidic conditions (around pH 3 to 5), but LTv was active over wider pH and temperature ranges than LSc, especially at near-neutral pH and between 10 and 25°C (typical conditions found in WWTPs). LTv was also less affected by pH inactivation. Both laccase preparations oxidized the three micropollutants tested, bisphenol A, diclofenac and mefenamic acid, with faster degradation kinetics observed for LTv. Overall, T. versicolor appeared to be the better candidate to remove micropollutants from wastewater in a dedicated post-treatment step. PMID:24152339

2013-01-01

266

Qualitative and quantitative PCR methods using species-specific primer for detection and identification of wood rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species-specific oligonucleotide primers for detecting wood rot fungi, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Trametes versicolor, Coniophora puteana, and Serpula lacrymans, and the primer detecting a group of related fungi to G. sepiarium were developed. These primer sequences were picked up from the internal transcribed spacer region between small-subunit rDNA\\u000a and large-subunit rDNA. The species selectivities of the developed primers were checked. Real-time polymerase

Sakae Horisawa; Yoh Sakuma; Shuichi Doi

2009-01-01

267

A Potentially Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV5) Found in Two Renal Allograft Recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have observed 2 immunosuppressed renal allograft recipients with skin lesions induced by human papillomavirus type 5 (HPV-5). One recipient had multiple pityriasis versicolor-like (PV-like) skin lesions on his arms and trunk, and multiple Bowenoid in-situ skin cancers. The other had 2 warty lesions on the back of her fingers. Structural antigens of human papillomavirus type 5 (HPV-5) were identified

Marvin Lutzner; Odile Croissant; Marie-Françoise Ducasse; Henri Kreis; Jean Crosnier; Gérard Orth

1980-01-01

268

Effect of steam explosion on biodegradation of lignin in wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of steam explosion pretreatment on biodegradation of lignin in wheat straw was studied in this paper. Through experiments and analysis, 0.8MPa operation pressure and 1:20 wheat straw to water ratio are optimum for destroying lignin and the maximum of lignin loss rate is 19.94%. After steam explosion pretreatment, the wheat straw was retted by Trametes versicolor for 40

Lian-hui Zhang; Dong Li; Li-jun Wang; Ti-peng Wang; Lu Zhang; Xiao Dong Chen; Zhi-huai Mao

2008-01-01

269

Application of chemical and physical agents in model systems to controlling phenoloxidase enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several chemical and physical anti-browning agents are studied in different model systems in which caffeic acid (as substrate)\\u000a and laccase from Trametes versicolor (LAC) and polyphenoloxidase from sunflower seeds (PPO) (as enzymes) are used to emulate the browning reaction. Temperature\\u000a and low electric current were the tested physical agents, while acetic acid, sodium acetate, sodium chloride and, finally,\\u000a sodium bisulfite

Antonella De Leonardis; Giuseppe Lustrato; Vincenzo Macciola; Giancarlo Ranalli

2010-01-01

270

Colonization of fiberglass insulation used in heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The number of fungal species colonizing thermal and acoustic fiberglass insulations used in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems was fewer than that obtained from initial direct culture of these insulations. The colonization, determined by the microscopic observation of conidiophores with conidia, was primarily of acrylic-latex-facing material, but eventually the fungi permeated the fiberglass matrix. Isolates ofAspergillus versicolor

D. L. Price; R. B. Simmons; I. M. Ezeonu; S. A. Crow; D. G. Ahearn

1994-01-01

271

Influence of growth regulators and elicitors on cell growth and ?-tocopherol and pigment productions in cell cultures of Carthamus tinctorius L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the effects of plant growth hormones, incubation period, biotic (Trametes versicolor, Mucor sp., Penicillium notatum, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Fusarium oxysporum) and abiotic (NaCl, MgSO4, FeSO4, ZnSO4, and FeCl3) elicitors on cell growth and ?-tocopherol and pigment (red and yellow) productions in Carthamus tinctorius cell cultures. The cell growth and ?-tocopherol and pigment contents improved significantly on

Smita P. Chavan; Vinayak H. Lokhande; Kirti M. Nitnaware; Tukaram D. Nikam

2011-01-01

272

Vesiculobullous syphilis: a case involving an unusual cutaneous manifestation of secondary syphilis.  

PubMed

The recent resurgence of syphilis mandates that clinicians maintain a heightened suspicion for Treponema infection, and that they be aware of the variety of cutaneous presentations that may mimic eczema, psoriasis, drug eruption, erythema multiforme, lichen planus, tinea versicolor, seborrheic dermatitis, mycosis fungoides, or other lichenoid lesions. In this report, we describe an unusual case of secondary syphilis in an adult woman, and briefly review the wide array of syphilitic dermopathy that could present to the foot and ankle surgeon. PMID:21106408

Schnirring-Judge, Molly; Gustaferro, Cynthia; Terol, Coralia

2011-01-01

273

Antifungal and antibacterial activities of Araucaria araucana (Mol.) K. Koch heartwood lignans.  

PubMed

Five lignans (secoisolariciresinol, pinoresinol, eudesmin, lariciresinol, and lariciresinol-4-methyl ether) were isolated from an MeOH extract from Araucaria araucana (Mol.) K. Koch wood for the first time in this species and their structures determined with spectroscopic methods. The antimicrobial activities of these compounds were determined for the bacteria Citrobacter sp., Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and for the white rooting and staining fungi Mucor miehei, Paecilomyces variotii, Ceratocystis pilifera, Trametes versicolor, and Penicillium notatum, and in addition, the MeOH extract was evaluated against Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Fusarium moniliforme, F. sporotrichum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The most sensitive bacteria against pinoresinol were the Gram-positive. However, secoisolariciresinol exhibited a significant antifungal activity on fungi of white rooting and wood staining and this compound completely inhibited the mycelial growth of T. versicolor and C. pilifera at 300 and 400 microg per disc, respectively, whereas pinoresinol showed a moderate inhibitory activity. On the other hand, the MeOH extract had the highest activity against rooting and staining and pathogenic fungi as well as T. versicolor, Fusarium spp. and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, inhibiting completely the growth at 400 microg per disc. PMID:16610214

Céspedes, Carlos L; Avila, J Guillermo; García, Ana M; Becerra, José; Flores, Cristian; Aqueveque, Pedro; Bittner, Magalis; Hoeneisen, Maritza; Martinez, Miguel; Silva, Mario

2006-01-01

274

Influence of growth regulators and elicitors on cell growth and ?-tocopherol and pigment productions in cell cultures of Carthamus tinctorius L.  

PubMed

The present study examined the effects of plant growth hormones, incubation period, biotic (Trametes versicolor, Mucor sp., Penicillium notatum, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Fusarium oxysporum) and abiotic (NaCl, MgSO(4), FeSO(4), ZnSO(4), and FeCl(3)) elicitors on cell growth and ?-tocopherol and pigment (red and yellow) productions in Carthamus tinctorius cell cultures. The cell growth and ?-tocopherol and pigment contents improved significantly on Murashige and Skoog (MS) liquid medium containing 50.0 ?M ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 2.5 ?M 6-Benzyladenine (BA) at 28 days of incubation period. Incorporation of T. versicolor (50 mg l(-1)) significantly enhanced the production of ?-tocopherol (12.7-fold) and red pigment (4.24-fold). Similarly, supplementation of 30 mg l(-1) T. versicolor (7.54-fold) and 70 mg l(-1) Mucor sp. (7.40-fold) significantly increased the production of yellow pigment. Among abiotic elicitors, NaCl (50-70 mg l(-1)) and MgSO(4) (10-30 mg l(-1)) significantly improved production of ?-tocopherol (1.24-fold) and red pigment (20-fold), whereas yellow pigment content increased considerably by all the abiotic elicitor treatments. Taken together, the present study reports improved productions of ?-tocopherol and the pigment as a stress response of safflower cell cultures exposed to these elicitors. PMID:21120469

Chavan, Smita P; Lokhande, Vinayak H; Nitnaware, Kirti M; Nikam, Tukaram D

2011-03-01

275

Evaluation of biotechnological potentials of some industrial fungi in economical lipid accumulation and biofuel production as a field of use.  

PubMed

Considering the vast number of scientific reports on various potential uses of fungi, there was an attempt to select the best lipid producer of some fungi at optimized conditions (Aspergillus versicolor, Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus arrhizus, Tramates versicolor). The aim was to offer new fields of use to the industries already culturing and using such materials. Aspergillus versicolor mycelia were found to be accumulating the highest amount of lipids. Experiments to improve lipid accumulation and transesterification properties were performed in molasses medium; the first steps were testing the effects of different pH values and different nitrogen sources on lipid accumulation. Various concentrations of KNO(3) (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 gL(-1)) and molasses (6%, 8%, 10%) were tried in order to find the optimum carbon and nitrogen requirements. Maximum lipid content was 22.8% in the samples containing 6% molasses solution and 1.0 gL(-1) KNO(3) at pH 4 after 10 days of incubation. The highest fatty acid ethyl ester yield of these samples was 77% (5.0 ethanol:oil, 0.4 sulfuric acid:oil at 30°C for 6 hr). Since the crude lipids were rich in C16 and C18 fatty acids, this was considered as suitable feedstock for biodiesel production. PMID:24320234

Karatay, Sevgi Ertu?rul; Dönmez, Gönül

2014-01-01

276

Correlation of brightening with cumulative enzyme activity related to lignin biodegradation during biobleaching of kraft pulp by white rot fungi in the solid-state fermentation system.  

PubMed Central

Biobleaching of hardwood unbleached kraft pulp (UKP) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor was studied in the solid-state fermentation system with different culture media. In this fermentation system with low-nitrogen and high-carbon culture medium, pulp brightness increased by 15 and 30 points after 5 days of treatment with T. versicolor and P. chrysosporium, respectively, and the pulp kappa number decreased with increasing brightness. A comparison of manganese peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP), and laccase activities assayed by using fungus-treated pulp and the filtrate after homogenizing the fungus-treated pulp in buffer solution indicated that enzymes secreted from fungi were adsorbed onto the UKP and that assays of these enzyme activities should be carried out with the treated pulp. Time course studies of brightness increase and MnP activity during treatment with P. chrysosporium suggested that it was difficult to correlate them on the basis of data obtained on a certain day of incubation, because the MnP activity fluctuated dramatically during the treatment time. When brightness increase and cumulative MnP, LiP, and laccase activities were determined, a linear relationship between brightness increase and cumulative MnP activity was found in the solid-state fermentation system with both P. chrysosporium and T. versicolor. This result suggests that MnP is involved in brightening of UKP by white rot fungi. PMID:7574600

Katagiri, N; Tsutsumi, Y; Nishida, T

1995-01-01

277

Comparative assessment of three ligninolytic fungi for removal of phenolic endocrine disruptors from freshwaters and sediments.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-n-nonylphenol (NP) are two endocrine disruptor compounds dangerous to animals, especially aquatics, and humans. They can be leached from urban and industrial wastes and contaminate the environment. White rot fungi produce ligninolytic enzymes capable of biodegrading aromatic contaminants, including some endocrine disruptors. This investigation has evaluated the potential of three fungal species, Trametes versicolor, Stereum hirsutum and Pleurotus ostreatus, to remove BPA at a concentration of 4.6 mg L(-1) from two freshwaters, a lake and a river, and both BPA and NP each at a concentration of 10 mg kg(-1) from the corresponding sediments. A comparative assessment of mycelial growth during biodecontamination showed that, in general, the maximum fungal hyphae elongation was observed with T. versicolor in freshwaters and with P. ostreatus in sediments. The fungi T. versicolor and P. ostreatus exhibited a similar capacity for removing BPA from the two freshwaters, whereas S. hirsutum was much more effective in the decontamination of lake water than river water. A significant disappearance of both BPA and NP was shown in the two sediments inoculated with each fungus, especially of BPA in the lake sediment and of NP in the river sediment. The most effective removal of the two contaminants from sediments occurred during the first seven days after fungal inoculation. PMID:24191495

Loffredo, Elisabetta; Castellana, Giancarlo; Traversa, Andreina; Senesi, Nicola

2013-01-01

278

Terapias adyuvantes y neoadyuvantes para el cáncer de seno  

Cancer.gov

Hoja informativa que explica las terapias adyuvantes (tratamiento que se administra además de la terapia primaria para aumentar la posibilidad de supervivencia a largo plazo) y las neoadyuvantes (terapia que se administra antes de la terapia principal). Contiene información sobre los efectos secundarios y sobre los riesgos y beneficios de estas terapias.

279

Anatomía de la cadena de prestación de salud en Colombia en el régimen contributivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

El sistema de prestación de salud en el régimen contributivo en Bogota se analiza como una cadena productiva de prestación de servicios. Se identifican los miembros primarios y secundarios de la cadena, su estructura vertical y horizontal y los procesos transversales que se dan en la cadena. La descripción de la cadena permite identificar el problema principal que la aqueja:

Yuri GORBANEFF; Sergio TORRES; Nelson CONTRERAS

2004-01-01

280

Hoja informativa sobre la calidad del aire interior  

E-print Network

· Moho · Polen · Caspa del pelo de los animales · Humo secundario del tabaco · Formaldehído · Monóxido de deshumidificador para ayudar a controlar el moho. · Limpie para eliminar el polvo y el pelo de los animales

281

Síndrome antifosfolípido  

Microsoft Academic Search

El Síndrome Antifosfolípido (SAF) se suele manifestar sobre todo en mujeres (80%), entre los 20 y 40 años. Se divide en SAF primario (sin manifestaciones clíni- cas ni biológicas de ninguna otra enfermedad) y SAF secundario (asociado a otras patologías: lupus eritema- toso sistémico (LES) y otras enfermedades de naturaleza autoinmune). Los Anticuerpos Antifosfolípidos (AAF) mejor estudia- dos son los

R Gómez Moreno; N Monge Ropero; A Calvo Cebrián; S Fraga Campo

2004-01-01

282

Climatic variation and the distribution of an amphibian polyploid complex  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. The establishment of polyploid populations involves the persistence and growth of the polyploid in the presence of the progenitor species. Although there have been a number of animal polyploid species documented, relatively few inquiries have been made into the large-scale mechanisms of polyploid establishment in animal groups. Herein we investigate the influence of regional climatic conditions on the distributional patterns of a diploid-tetraploid species pair of gray treefrogs, Hyla chrysoscelis and H. versicolor (Anura: Hylidae) in the mid-Atlantic region of eastern North America. 2. Calling surveys at breeding sites were used to document the distribution of each species. Twelve climatic models and one elevation model were generated to predict climatic and elevation values for gray treefrog breeding sites. A canonical analysis of discriminants was used to describe relationships between climatic variables, elevation and the distribution of H. chrysoscelis and H. versicolor. 3. There was a strong correlation between several climatic variables, elevation and the distribution of the gray treefrog complex. Specifically, the tetraploid species almost exclusively occupied areas of higher elevation, where climatic conditions were relatively severe (colder, drier, greater annual variation). In contrast, the diploid species was restricted to lower elevations, where climatic conditions were warmer, wetter and exhibited less annual variation. 4. Clusters of syntopic sites were associated with areas of high variation in annual temperature and precipitation during the breeding season. 5. Our data suggest that large-scale climatic conditions have played a role in the establishment of the polyploid H. versicolor in at least some portions of its range. The occurrence of the polyploid and absence of the progenitor in colder, drier and more varied environments suggests the polyploid may posses a tolerance of severe environmental conditions that is not possessed by the diploid progenitor. 6. Our findings support the hypothesis that increased tolerance to severe environmental conditions is a plausible mechanism of polyploid establishment.

Otto, C.R.V.; Snodgrass, J.W.; Forester, D.C.; Mitchell, J.C.; Miller, R.W.

2007-01-01

283

Evaluation of ten wild nigerian mushrooms for amylase and cellulase activities.  

PubMed

Amylases and cellulases are important enzymes that can be utilized for various biological activities. Ten different wild Nigerian mushrooms (Agaricus blazei, Agaricus sp., Corilopsis occidentalis, Coriolus versicolor, Termitomyces clypeatus, Termitomyces globulus, Pleurotus tuber-regium, Podoscypha bolleana, Pogonomyces hydnoides, and Nothopanus hygrophanus) were assayed for production of these secondary metabolites. The results revealed that most of the tested wild fungi demonstrated very good amylase and cellulase activities. With the incorporation of carboxymethyl-cellulose (a carbon source) into the culture medium, Agaricus blazei had the highest amylolytic activity of 0.60 unit/mL (at 25?, pH 6.8). This was followed in order by P. tuber-regium and Agaricus sp. with 0.42 and 0.39 unit/mL, respectively (p ? 0.05). Maltose and sucrose supplementation into the submerged liquid medium made N. hygrophanus and P. hydnoides to exhibit very low amylase activities of 0.09 and 0.11 unit/mL, respectively. Introducing peptone (an organic nitrogen source) into the basal medium enhanced the ability of C. versicolor to produce a cellulase value of 0.74 unit/mL. Other organic nitrogen sources that supported good cellulase activities were yeast extract and urea. Sodium nitrate (inorganic nitrogen source) generally inhibited cellulase production in all mushrooms. The best carbon source was carboxymethyl-cellulose, which promoted very high cellulase activity of 0.67 unit/mL in C. versicolor, which was followed in order by P. tuber-regium, T. chypeatus, and C. occidentalis (p ? 0.05). Sucrose was the poorest carbon compound, supporting the lowest values of 0.01, 0.01, and 0.14 unit/mL in P. hydnoides, A. blazei, and Agaricus sp., respectively. PMID:22783085

Jonathan, Segun Gbolagade; Adeoyo, Olusegun Richard

2011-06-01

284

Regulation of coal polymer degradation by fungi. Tenth Quartery report, October 1996--December 1996  

SciTech Connect

It has long been known that low rank coal such as leonardite can be solubilized by strong base (>pH 12). Recent discoveries have also shown that leonardite is solubilized by Lewis bases at considerably lower pH values and by fungi that secrete certain Lewis bases (i.e., oxalate ion). During the current reporting period we have studied the ability of a strong base (sodium hydroxide, pH 12), and two fungi, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor, to solubilize Argonne Premium Coals. In general, Argonne Premium Coals were relatively resistant to base mediated solubilization. However, when these coals were preoxidized (150{degrees}C for seven days), substantial amounts of several coals were solubilized. Most affected were the Lewiston-Stockton bituminous coal, the Beulah-Zap lignite, the Wyodak-Anderson subbituminous coal and the Blind Canyon bituminous coal. Argonne Premium Coals were previously shown by us to be relatively resistant to solubilization by sodium oxalate. When preoxidized coals were treated with sodium oxalate, only the Beulah-Zap lignite was substantially solubilized. Although very small amounts of the other preoxidized coals were solubilized by treatment with oxalate, the small amount of solubilization that did take place was generally increased relative to that observed for coals that were not preoxidized. None of the Argonne Premium Coals were solubilized by P. chrysosporium or T. versicolor. Of considerable interest, however, is the observation that P. chrysosporium and T. versicolor mediated extensive solubilization of Lewiston-Stockton bituminous coal, the Beulah-Zap lignite and the Wyodak-Anderson subbituminous coal.

Irvine, R.L. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences; Bumpus, J.A. [Univ. of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1997-01-28

285

Identification of a laccase from Ganoderma lucidum CBS 229.93 having potential for enhancing cellulase catalyzed lignocellulose degradation.  

PubMed

Based on a differential pre-screening of 44 white-rot fungi on a lignocellulose-supplemented minimal medium, four basidiomycetes were selected for further study: Ganoderma lucidum, Polyporus brumalis, Polyporus ciliatus and Trametes versicolor. Only G. lucidum was able to grow vividly on malt extract or minimal media supplemented with alkali lignin. When grown on malt extract or minimal medium supplemented with lignocellulose (sugar cane bagasse), the crude G. lucidum protein extract exhibited high laccase activity, ?3U/mL toward syringaldazine. This activity was 13-17 fold higher than the corresponding activities of the crude protein extracts of P. brumalis, P. ciliatus and T. versicolor. Native PAGE electrophoresis of the crude G. lucidum extract confirmed the presence of an active laccase. The G. lucidum laccase had a molecular weight of ?62.5kDa, and a Km value of 0.107mM (determined on ABTS). A partial amino acid sequence analysis of four short de novo sequenced peptides, defined after trypsin digest analysis using MALDI-TOF MS/MS analysis, revealed 64-100% homology to sequences in related laccases in the UniProt database, but also indicated that certain sequence stretches had low homology. Addition of the laccase-rich G. lucidum broth to lignocellulosic biomass (pretreated sugar cane bagasse) together with a state-of-the-art cellulase enzyme preparation (Cellic™CTec1) produced significantly increased cellulolytic yields, which were also better than those obtained with a T. versicolor laccase addition, indicating that the laccase from G. lucidum has unique properties that may be momentous in lignocellulosic biomass conversion. PMID:24315640

Sitarz, Anna K; Mikkelsen, Jørn D; Højrup, Peter; Meyer, Anne S

2013-12-10

286

(?)Ternatin, a highly N-methylated cyclic heptapeptide that inhibits fat accumulation: structure and synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly N-methylated cyclic heptapeptide, (?)-ternatin, was isolated from the mushroom Coriolus versicolor, which significantly suppressed fat accumulation against 3T3-L1 murine adipocytes (EC50=0.14 ?g\\/mL). Although ternatin was previously reported to be antibacterial or antimicrobial compound, its inhibitory effect on fat accumulation has been first shown. The structure of (?)-ternatin was revised to be a cyclo [d-allo-Ile1-l-(NMe)Ala2-l-(NMe)Leu3-l-Leu4-l-(NMe)Ala5-d-(NMe)Ala6-(2R,3R)-3-hydroxy-Leu7] by spectroscopic analysis and

Kenichiro Shimokawa; Itsuka Mashima; Akiko Asai; Kaoru Yamada; Masaki Kita; Daisuke Uemura

2006-01-01

287

Regulation of coal polymer degradation by fungi. Eighth quarterly report, [April--June 1996  

SciTech Connect

This project addresses the solubilization of low-rank coal (leonardite) by lignin degrading fungi. During this reporting period efforts were focused on determining the effect of pH on coal solubilization by oxalate ion and other biologically important compounds that might function as metal chelators, on the role of laccase in coal solubilization and metabolism, on decolorization of soluble coal macromolecule by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and T. versicolor in solid agar media, and on solubilization of coal in slurry cultures and solid phase reactors.

Irvine, R.L. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences; Bumpus, J.A. [University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1996-07-28

288

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis: an unusual malignant transformation.  

PubMed

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare, life-long heritable disease caused due to a unique susceptibility to human papilloma virus. The disseminated verrucous lesions and pityriasis versicolor-like lesions persist from early childhood and can transform into a cutaneous malignancy in a fourth of patients. Malignant transformation into syringoid eccrine carcinoma (SEC) has been reported only once so far. SEC is an extremely invasive, rare, locally destructive, slowly growing adnexal tumor. We hereby report the association of EV with SEC in a 29-year-old male. PMID:23254737

Agrawal, Prachi G; Mahajan, Sunanda A; Khopkar, Uday S; Kharkar, Vidya D

2013-01-01

289

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis associated with HPV 10.  

PubMed

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare, inherited dermatologic condition demonstrating an increased susceptibility to specific HPV genotypes, resulting in both benign and malignant skin lesions. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis lesions are frequently described as pityriasis versicolor-like scaly macules, flat wart-like papules, or verrucous and seborrhic keratosis-like papules and plaques. Acquired EV has been described in patients with HIV and in those who are on immunosuppressive therapy. We discuss a patient with congenital EV who presents with skin lesions associated with HPV 10, a less frequently cited causative subtype, and histological findings that are not classic for EV. PMID:24021362

Zahir, Amir; Craig, Lauren; Rady, Peter; Tyring, Stephen; Ehrlich, Alison

2013-01-01

290

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis associated with plasmablastic lymphoma and hepatitis B virus infection.  

PubMed

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis is a rare genodermatosis characterized by inherited susceptibility to infection with certain papillomaviruses, which leads to the development of disseminated plane wart-like lesions. In some patients, lesions resembling pityriasis versicolor appear. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis has also been reported in immunosuppressed patients, most notably those with HIV infection. The affected patients are predisposed to development of skin and mucosal malignancies. We describe the rare occurrence of plasmablastic lymphoma in a patient with long lasting epidermodysplasia verruciformis and hepatitis B virus infection. PMID:23317490

Shayanfar, Nasrin; Babaheidarian, Pegah; Rahmani, Hoda; Azadmanesh, Keyhan; Sohrabi, Amir; Mohammadpour, Masoud; Mirzaie, Ali Zare; Parvaneh, Nima

2012-12-01

291

Complete mitochondrial genome of the ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus (Galliformes: Phasianidae).  

PubMed

The complete mitochondrial genome of Phasianus colchicus is 16,692 bp in length and composed of 13 typical protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and 1 putative control region. One extra nucleotide "C" is present in nad3 of P. colchicus, which is found in many other birds and is thought not to be translated. All protein-coding, rRNA, and tRNA genes have more than 99.0% nucleotide sequence similarity with the previously reported individual, except for cox3 and tRNA (Pro) genes which has more similarity with Phasianus versicolor. PMID:22950703

Li, Xifeng; Ren, Qiongqiong; Kan, Xianzhao; Qian, Chaoju; Li, Xixi; Qian, Min

2013-04-01

292

Laccase-mediator system for alcohol oxidation to carbonyls or carboxylic acids: toward a sustainable synthesis of profens.  

PubMed

By combining two green and efficient catalysts, such as the commercially available enzyme laccase from Trametes versicolor and the stable free radical 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO), the oxidation in water of some primary alcohols to the corresponding carboxylic acids or aldehydes and of selected secondary alcohols to ketones can be accomplished. The range of applicability of bio-oxidation is widened by applying the optimized protocol to the oxidation of enantiomerically pure 2-arylpropanols (profenols) into the corresponding 2-arylpropionic acids (profens), in high yields and with complete retention of configuration. PMID:25044433

Galletti, Paola; Pori, Matteo; Funiciello, Federica; Soldati, Roberto; Ballardini, Alberto; Giacomini, Daria

2014-09-01

293

Inhibitory effects of spices on growth and toxin production of toxigenic fungi.  

PubMed Central

The inhibitory effects of 29 commercial powdered spices on the growth and toxin production of three species of toxigenic Aspergillus were observed by introducing these materials into culture media for mycotoxin production. Of the 29 samples tested, cloves, star anise seeds, and allspice completely inhibited the fungal growth, whereas most of the others inhibited only the toxin production. Eugenol extracted from cloves and thymol from thyme caused complete inhibition of the growth of both Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus versicolor at 0.4 mg/ml or less. At a concentration of 2 mg/ml, anethol extracted from star anise seeds inhibited the growth of all the strains. PMID:6769391

Hitokoto, H; Morozumi, S; Wauke, T; Sakai, S; Kurata, H

1980-01-01

294

Inhibitory effects of spices on growth and toxin production of toxigenic fungi.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effects of 29 commercial powdered spices on the growth and toxin production of three species of toxigenic Aspergillus were observed by introducing these materials into culture media for mycotoxin production. Of the 29 samples tested, cloves, star anise seeds, and allspice completely inhibited the fungal growth, whereas most of the others inhibited only the toxin production. Eugenol extracted from cloves and thymol from thyme caused complete inhibition of the growth of both Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus versicolor at 0.4 mg/ml or less. At a concentration of 2 mg/ml, anethol extracted from star anise seeds inhibited the growth of all the strains. PMID:6769391

Hitokoto, H; Morozumi, S; Wauke, T; Sakai, S; Kurata, H

1980-04-01

295

Screening of micro-organisms for decolorization of melanins produced by bluestain fungi.  

PubMed

A total of 17 fungi and four bacteria were screened for their ability to decolorize melanin, using isolated extracellular melanin of the bluestain fungus Aureobasidium pullulans as substrate. On agar media, decolorization was observed by four fungal strains: Bjerkandera adusta VTT-D-99746, Galactomyces geotrichum VTT-D-84228, Trametes hirsuta VTT-D-95443 and Trametes versicolor VTT-D-99747. The four fungi were more efficient on nitrogen-limited medium than on complete medium. The melanin-decolorizing activity of G. geotrichum appeared to be located on the mycelium and could be liberated into the medium enzymatically. PMID:11330716

Rättö, M; Chatani, M; Ritschkoff, A C; Viikari, L

2001-03-01

296

[How I explore...skin by photodiagnosis using skin fluorescence and its functional imaging].  

PubMed

Under specific light illumination, skin produces peculiar fluorescent aspects. Such property can be used to provide diagnostic arguments or to disclose some peculiar functions of the skin. Some superficial infections (erythrasma, tinea versicolor, dermatophytic tinea,..) reveal fluorescence that may be intense. The pilosebaceous follicles enriched in Propionibacterium spp show fluorescence. Such property is lost during some anti-acne treatments. A quenching effect is observed after application of sunscreens. The (pre)neoplastic areas prepared for dynamic phototherapy become fluorescent. Pyranine labeling of the stratum corneum exhibits fluorescence allowing the assessment of the renewal activity of the epidermis. PMID:21086585

Szepetiuk, G; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Quatresooz, P; Piérard, G E

2010-09-01

297

Superficial fungal infections of the male genitalia: a review.  

PubMed

Fungal infections of the genitals are probably more common than realized; however, relatively few reports concerning fungal genital infections exist in the literature. In this review, the fungal microbiota of the penis are highlighted, and the epidemiological characteristics of Candida balanitis, penile pityriasis versicolor, and tinea genitalis are addressed. In addition, the benefits of circumcision on male genital infections are included. However, systemic mycoses affecting the penis and/or scrotum will not be addressed in this review. To obtain a reliable diagnosis of genital fungal infections, medical history, clinical examination, and mycological and histological investigations of the lesions are critical. PMID:21668404

Aridogan, Ibrahim Atilla; Izol, Volkan; Ilkit, Macit

2011-08-01

298

Superficial fungal infections in children.  

PubMed

Superficial fungal infections can involve the hair, skin, and nails. Most affected children are healthy, although immunosuppression is a risk factor for more severe presentation. Causative organisms typically are members of the Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton genera (dermatophytes), can be acquired from other infected humans, animals, or soil, and illicit a host inflammatory response. Nondermatophyte infections include pityriasis versicolor. In this article, the most common clinical presentations, diagnostic recommendations, and treatment algorithms for dermatophyte and nondermatophyte mycoses in children and adolescents are described. PMID:24636655

Hawkins, Danielle M; Smidt, Aimee C

2014-04-01

299

Removal of estrogenic activity of isobutylparaben and n butylparaben by laccase in the presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the presence of a redox mediator, 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT), iso-butylparaben (iso-BP) and n-butylparaben (n-BP) were treated with laccase from white rot fungus Trametes versicolor. HPLC analysis demonstrated that iso-BP and n-BP almost completely disappeared from the reaction mixture after 4 h of treatment with the laccase-HBT system. Using the\\u000a yeast two-hybrid assay system, it was also confirmed that the laccase-HBT system

Hirohito Mizuno; Hirofumi Hirai; Shingo Kawai; Tomoaki Nishida

2009-01-01

300

[Farmer's lung antigens in Germany].  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that besides the long-known farmer's lung antigen sources Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (Micropolyspora faeni), Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, and Aspergillus fumigatus, additionally the mold Absidia (Lichtheimia) corymbifera as well as the bacteria Erwinia herbicola (Pantoea agglomerans) and Streptomyces albus may cause farmer's lung in Germany. In this study the sera of 64 farmers with a suspicion of farmer's lung were examined for the following further antigens: Wallemia sebi, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Eurotium amstelodami. Our results indicate that these molds are not frequent causes of farmer's lung in Germany. PMID:22477566

Sennekamp, J; Joest, M; Sander, I; Engelhart, S; Raulf-Heimsoth, M

2012-05-01

301

Comparison of DNA extraction methodologies used for assessing fungal diversity via ITS sequencing.  

PubMed

Traditional methods of assessing fungal exposure have been confounded by a number of limiting variables. The recent utilization of molecular methods such as internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes has provided improved insight into the diversity of fungal bioaerosols in indoor, outdoor and occupational environments. However, ITS analyses may also be confounded by a number of methodological limitations. In this study, we have optimized this technology for use in occupational or environmental studies. Three commonly used DNA extraction methodologies (UltraClean Soil kit, High Pure PCR Template kit, and EluQuik/DNeasy kit) were compared in terms of sensitivity and susceptibility to PCR inhibitors in dust for three common fungal bioaerosols, Aspergillus versicolor, Rhizopus microsporus and Wallemia sebi. Environmental dust samples were then studied using each extraction methodology and results were compared to viable culture data. The extraction methods differed in terms of their ability to efficiently extract DNA from particular species of fungi (e.g. Aspergillus versicolor). In addition, the ability to remove PCR inhibitors from dust samples was most effective using the soil DNA extraction kit. The species composition varied greatly between ITS clone libraries generated with the different DNA extraction kits. However, compared to viable culture data, ITS clone libraries included additional fungal species that are incapable of growth on solid culture medium. Collectively, our data indicated that DNA extraction methodologies used in ITS sequencing studies of occupational or environmental dust samples can greatly influence the fungal species that are detected. PMID:22230933

Rittenour, William R; Park, Ju-Hyeong; Cox-Ganser, Jean M; Beezhold, Donald H; Green, Brett J

2012-03-01

302

Comparison of laccase production levels in Pichia pastoris and Cryptococcus sp. S-2.  

PubMed

The heterologous expression of the laccase gene from Trametes versicolor and Gaeumannomyces graminis was evaluated in the yeasts Pichia pastoris and Cryptococcus sp. S-2. The expression levels of both laccase genes in Cryptococcus sp. S-2 were considerably higher than those in P. pastoris. The codon usage of Cryptococcus sp. S-2 as well as the GC content were similar to those of T. versicolor and G. graminis. These results suggest that using a host with a similar codon usage for the expressed gene may improve protein expression. The use of Cryptococcus sp. S-2 as a host may be advantageous for the heterologous expression of genes with high GC content. Moreover, this yeast provides the same advantages as P. pastoris for the production of recombinant proteins, such as growth on minimal medium, capacity for high-density growth during fermentation, and capability for post-translational modifications. Therefore, we propose that Cryptococcus sp. S-2 be used as an expression host to improve enzyme production levels when other hosts have not yielded good results. PMID:23200414

Nishibori, Nahoko; Masaki, Kazuo; Tsuchioka, Hiroaki; Fujii, Tsutomu; Iefuji, Haruyuki

2013-04-01

303

Transcriptional response of lignin-degrading enzymes to 17?-ethinyloestradiol in two white rots.  

PubMed

Fungal, ligninolytic enzymes have attracted a great attention for their bioremediation capabilities. A deficient knowledge of regulation of enzyme production, however, hinders the use of ligninolytic fungi in bioremediation applications. In this work, a transcriptional analyses of laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) production by two white rots was combined with determination of pI of the enzymes and the evaluation of 17?-ethinyloestradiol (EE2) degradation to study regulation mechanisms used by fungi during EE2 degradation. In the cultures of Trametes versicolor the addition of EE2 caused an increase in laccase activity with a maximum of 34.2?±?6.7?U g?¹ of dry mycelia that was observed after 2 days of cultivation. It corresponded to a 4.9 times higher transcription levels of a laccase-encoding gene (lacB) that were detected in the cultures at the same time. Simultaneously, pI values of the fungal laccases were altered in response to the EE2 treatment. Like T.?versicolor, Irpex lacteus was also able to remove 10?mg l?¹ EE2 within 3 days of cultivation. While an increase to I.?lacteus?MnP activity and MnP gene transcription levels was observed at the later phase of the cultivation. It suggests another metabolic role of MnP but EE2 degradation. PMID:23170978

P?enosilová, L; K?esinová, Z; Amemori, A Slavíková; Cajthaml, T; Svobodová, K

2013-05-01

304

Antiviral activity of Basidiomycete mycelia against influenza type A (serotype H1N1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 in cell culture.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the in vitro antiviral activity of the mycelia of higher mushrooms against influenza virus type A (serotype H1N1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), strain BH. All 10 investigated mushroom species inhibited the reproduction of influenza virus strain A/FM/1/47 (H1N1) in MDCK cells reducing the infectious titer by 2.0-6.0 lg ID50. Four species, Pleurotus ostreatus, Fomes fomentarius, Auriporia aurea, and Trametes versicolor, were also determined to be effective against HSV-2 strain BH in RK-13 cells, with similar levels of inhibition as for influenza. For some of the investigated mushroom species-Pleurotus eryngii, Lyophyllum shimeji, and Flammulina velutipes-this is the first report of an anti-influenza effect. This study also reports the first data on the medicinal properties of A. aurea, including anti-influenza and antiherpetic activities. T. versicolor 353 mycelium was found to have a high therapeutic index (324.67), and may be a promising material for the pharmaceutical industry as an anti-influenza and antiherpetic agent with low toxicity. Mycelia with antiviral activity were obtained in our investigation by bioconversion of agricultural wastes (amaranth flour after CO2 extraction), which would reduce the cost of the final product and solve some ecological problems. PMID:25358999

Krupodorova, Tetiana; Rybalko, Svetlana; Barshteyn, Victor

2014-10-01

305

Effect of growth substrate, method of fermentation, and nitrogen source on lignocellulose-degrading enzymes production by white-rot basidiomycetes.  

PubMed

The exploration of seven physiologically different white rot fungi potential to produce cellulase, xylanase, laccase, and manganese peroxidase (MnP) showed that the enzyme yield and their ratio in enzyme preparations significantly depends on the fungus species, lignocellulosic growth substrate, and cultivation method. The fruit residues were appropriate growth substrates for the production of hydrolytic enzymes and laccase. The highest endoglucanase (111 U ml(-1)) and xylanase (135 U ml(-1)) activities were revealed in submerged fermentation (SF) of banana peels by Pycnoporus coccineus. In the same cultivation conditions Cerrena maxima accumulated the highest level of laccase activity (7,620 U l(-1)). The lignified materials (wheat straw and tree leaves) appeared to be appropriate for the MnP secretion by majority basidiomycetes. With few exceptions, SF favored to hydrolases and laccase production by fungi tested whereas SSF was appropriate for the MnP accumulation. Thus, the Coriolopsis polyzona hydrolases activity increased more than threefold, while laccase yield increased 15-fold when tree leaves were undergone to SF instead SSF. The supplementation of nitrogen to the control medium seemed to have a negative effect on all enzyme production in SSF of wheat straw and tree leaves by Pleurotus ostreatus. In SF peptone and ammonium containing salts significantly increased C. polyzona and Trametes versicolor hydrolases and laccase yields. However, in most cases the supplementation of media with additional nitrogen lowered the fungi specific enzyme activities. Especially strong repression of T. versicolor MnP production was revealed. PMID:18716810

Elisashvili, Vladimir; Kachlishvili, Eva; Penninckx, Michel

2008-11-01

306

Reactivities of various mediators and laccases with kraft pulp and lignin model compounds.  

PubMed

Laccase-catalyzed oxygen delignification of kraft pulp offers some potential as a replacement for conventional chemical bleaching and has the advantage of requiring much lower pressure and temperature. However, chemical mediators are required for effective delignification by laccase, and their price is currently too high at the dosages required. To date, most studies have employed laccase from Trametes versicolor. We have found significant differences in reactivity between laccases from different fungi when they are tested for pulp delignification in the presence of the mediators 2,2(prm1)-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT). A more detailed study of T. versicolor laccase with ABTS and HBT showed that HBT gave the most extensive delignification over 2 h but deactivated the enzyme, and therefore a higher enzyme dosage was required. Other mediators, including 1-nitroso-2-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-nitroso-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, promazine, chlorpromazine, and Remazol brilliant blue, were also tested for their ability to delignify kraft pulp. Studies with dimeric model compounds indicated that the mechanisms of oxidation by ABTS and HBT are different. In addition, oxygen uptake by laccase is much slower with HBT than with ABTS. It is proposed that the dication of ABTS and the 1-oxide radical of HBT, with redox potentials in the 0.8- to 0.9-V range, are required for pulp delignification. PMID:16535747

Bourbonnais, R; Paice, M G; Freiermuth, B; Bodie, E; Borneman, S

1997-12-01

307

Regulation of coal polymer degradation by fungi. Fourth quarterly progress report, May 1995--June 1995  

SciTech Connect

To test the hypothesis that coal (leonardite) Solubilization and the subsequent depolymerization of the solubilized coal macromolecules are distinct events in lignin degrading fungi. In addition to T versicolor, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, another lignin degrading fungus that also has the ability to solubilize coal, will be studied. To test the hypothesis that the processes of coal (leonardite) solubilization and coal macro molecule depolymerization in lignin degrading fungi can be regulated by altering the nutritional status of the microorganism. Coal solubilization is expected to occur in nutrient rich media whereas depolymerization of solubilized coal macromolecules is expected to occur in nutrient limited media. To determine the role of extracellular enzymes (laccases, lignin peroxidases and Mn peroxidases) that are secreted by lignin degrading fungi during coal solubilization or coal macro molecule depolymerization. To assess the role of enzymatically generated oxygen radicals, non-radical active oxygen species, veratryl alcohol radicals and Mn{sup +++} complexes in coal macro molecule depolymerization. To characterize products of coal solubilization and coal macro molecule depolymerization that are formed by T. versicolor and P. chrysosporium and their respective extracellular enzymes. Solubilization products formed using oxalic acid and other metal chelators will also be characterized and compared.

Irvine, R.L.

1995-07-24

308

Degradation of C60 Fullerol by White-Rot Basidiomycete Fungi: Implications for Environmental Release of Nanomaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industrially produced carbon-based nanomaterials, including fullerenes and fullerols, will be introduced into the environment in increasing amounts over the next century. Oxygenated fullerenes are likely to be produced in the environment through both biotic and abiotic weathering, and yet the environmental fate of compounds like hydroxylated fullerenes are almost unknown. This study examines the ability of two white rot basidiomycete fungi (Phlebia tremellosa and Trametes versicolor) to metabolize and degrade 13C-labeled C60 fullerol. Both of these fungi were shown to degrade fullerol to CO2 both in the presence of wood tissue and without, and incorporate trace amounts of the carbon into fungal biomass. Absorbance data also indicate that a significant portion of the original fullerol was broken down into small molecular weight metabolites. Phlebia tremellosa proved to be, in general, more aggressive towards fullerol degradation than Trametes versicolor. These findings represent the report of fungal degradation of this important nanomaterial and also provide valuable information about the possible environmental fates of this compound.

Schreiner, K. M.; Filley, T. R.; Bolskar, R. D.; Blanchette, R. A.

2008-12-01

309

Effect of Low Doses of Guaiacol and Ethanol on Enzymatic Activity of Fungal Cultures  

PubMed Central

The influence of low doses of guaiacol and ethanol, the natural effectors of lignin and phenolics transformations, on laccase and peroxidase activities produced by two strains of Basidiomycetes, Pleurotus sajor-caju and Trametes versicolor, was evaluated. Fungal mycelia were grown for 2 weeks on liquid media containing serial dilutions of guaiacol or ethanol ranging from 100?1 to 100?20 mol/L. Laccase and peroxidase activities in the medium were measured at the end of 2 weeks. The effect of low doses of guaiacol and ethanol on enzyme activities was manifested in an oscillating manner. Similar response patterns were observed when pure enzymes were exposed to the same serial dilutions of guaiacol and ethanol. T. versicolor cultures enriched with 40 mmol guaiacol (simulating natural environmental conditions) also displayed oscillating enzyme activity patterns in response to serial dilutions of guaiacol, but the maximum enzyme activity values were increased compared to those observed in cultures not receiving 40 mmol guaiacol. The differences between maxima and minima varied among the experimental groups and depended on the species of fungus, type of effector, and kind of enzyme. The results suggest the possibility of subtle regulation of enzymatic activity on the molecular level. PMID:19330120

Malarczyk, Elzbieta; Jarosz-Wilkolazka, Anna; Kochmanska-Rdest, Janina

2003-01-01

310

Sequence and comparison of mitochondrial genomes in the genus Nerita (Gastropoda: Neritimorpha: Neritidae) and phylogenetic considerations among gastropods.  

PubMed

In the present study, we determined the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of three Neritas, Nerita versicolor, Nerita tessellata, and Nerita fulgurans. We present an analysis of the features of their gene content and genome organization and compare these within the genus Nerita, and among the main gastropod groups. The new sequences were used in a phylogenetic analysis including all available gastropod mitochondrial genomes. Genomic lengths were quite conserved, being 15,866bp for N. versicolor, 15,741bp for N. tessellata and 15,343bp for N. fulgurans. Intergenic regions were generally short; genes are transcribed from both strands and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T. The high similarity in nucleotide content of the different sequences, gene composition, as well as an identical genomic organization among the Nerita species compared in this study, indicates a high degree of conservation within this diverse genus. Values ??of Ka/Ks of the 13 protein coding genes (PCGs) of Nerita species ranged from 0 to 0.18, and suggested different selection pressures in gene sequences. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses using concatenated DNA sequences of the 13 PCGs and the two rRNAs, and of amino acid sequences strongly supported Neritimorpha and Vetigastropoda as sister groups. PMID:24798873

Arquez, Moises; Colgan, Donald; Castro, Lyda R

2014-06-01

311

White-rot fungi capable of decolourising textile dyes under alkaline conditions.  

PubMed

Twelve white-rot fungal strains belonging to seven different species were screened on plates under alkaline condition to study the decolourisation of the textile dyes Reactive Black 5 and Poly R-478. Three strains of Trametes versicolor (Micoteca da Universidade do Minho (MUM) 94.04, 04.100 and 04.101) and one strain of Phanerochaete chrysosporium (MUM 94.15) showed better decolourisation results. These four strains were used for decolourisation studies in liquid culture medium. All four selected strains presented more efficient decolourisation rates on Reactive Black 5 than on Poly R-478. For both dyes on solid and liquid culture media, the decolourisation capability exhibited by these strains depended on dye concentration and pH values of the media. Finally, the decolourisation of Reactive Black 5 by T. versicolor strains MUM 94.04 and 04.100 reached 100 %. In addition, the highest white-rot fungi ligninolytic enzyme activities were found for these two strains. PMID:23008155

Ottoni, Cristiane A; Santos, Cledir; Kozakiewicz, Zofia; Lima, Nelson

2013-05-01

312

Degradation of lindane and endosulfan by fungi, fungal and bacterial laccases.  

PubMed

The ability of two white-rot fungi (Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus) and one brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum) to degrade two organochlorine insecticides, lindane and endosulfan, in liquid cultures was studied and dead fungal biomass was examined for adsorption of both insecticides from liquid medium. Lindane and endosulfan were also treated with fungal laccase and bacterial protein CotA, which has laccase activities. The amount of degraded lindane and endosulfan increased with their exposure period in the liquid cultures of both examined white-rot fungi. Endosulfan was transformed to endosulfan sulphate by T. versicolor and P. ostreatus. A small amount of endosulfan ether was also detected and its origin was examined. Degradation of lindane and endosulfan by a brown rot G. trabeum did not occur. Mycelial biomasses of all examined fungi have been found to adsorb lindane and endosulfan and adsorption onto fungal biomass should therefore be considered as a possible mechanism of pollutant removal when fungal degradation potentials are studied. Bacterial protein CotA performed more efficient degradation of lindane and endosulfan than fungal laccase and has shown potential for bioremediation of organic pollutants. PMID:23736895

Ul?nik, A; Kralj Cigi?, I; Pohleven, F

2013-12-01

313

Transcriptional response of lignin-degrading enzymes to 17?-ethinyloestradiol in two white rots  

PubMed Central

Fungal, ligninolytic enzymes have attracted a great attention for their bioremediation capabilities. A deficient knowledge of regulation of enzyme production, however, hinders the use of ligninolytic fungi in bioremediation applications. In this work, a transcriptional analyses of laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) production by two white rots was combined with determination of pI of the enzymes and the evaluation of 17?-ethinyloestradiol (EE2) degradation to study regulation mechanisms used by fungi during EE2 degradation. In the cultures of Trametes versicolor the addition of EE2 caused an increase in laccase activity with a maximum of 34.2 ± 6.7 U g?1 of dry mycelia that was observed after 2 days of cultivation. It corresponded to a 4.9 times higher transcription levels of a laccase-encoding gene (lacB) that were detected in the cultures at the same time. Simultaneously, pI values of the fungal laccases were altered in response to the EE2 treatment. Like T. versicolor, Irpex lacteus was also able to remove 10 mg l?1 EE2 within 3 days of cultivation. While an increase to I. lacteus?MnP activity and MnP gene transcription levels was observed at the later phase of the cultivation. It suggests another metabolic role of MnP but EE2 degradation. PMID:23170978

Prenosilova, L; Kresinova, Z; Amemori, A Slavikova; Cajthaml, T; Svobodova, K

2013-01-01

314

Development of Fungal Inocula for Bioaugmentation of Contaminated Soils  

PubMed Central

This report describes novel fungal inocula for bioaugmentation of soils contaminated with hazardous organic compounds. The inocula are in the form of pelleted solid substrates coated with a sodium alginate suspension of fungal spores or mycelial fragments and incubated until overgrown with the mycelium of selected lignin-degrading fungi. The organisms evaluated were Phanerochaete chrysosporium (BKM F-1767, ATCC 42725), P. sordida (HHB-8922-Sp), Irpex lacteus (Mad-517, ATCC 11245), Bjerkandera adusta (FP-135160-Sp, ATCC 62023), and Trametes versicolor (MD-277). The pelleted fungal inocula resisted competition and proliferation from indigenous soil microbes, were lower in moisture content than current fungal inocula, and had sufficient mechanical strength to allow handling and introduction into the soil without a change in the mechanical consistency of the pellets. Inoculated at a rate of 3% in artificially contaminated nonsterile soil, I. lacteus, B. adusta, and T. versicolor removed 86, 82, and 90%, respectively, of the pentachlorophenol in 4 weeks. A mathematical model was developed to explain moisture distribution in a hydrogel-coated pelleted substrate. PMID:16535337

Lestan, D.; Lamar, R. T.

1996-01-01

315

Trametes meyenii possesses elevated dye degradation abilities under normal nutritional conditions compared to other white rot fungi  

PubMed Central

Several species of white-rot fungi were investigated for their utility in prolonged decolouration of the recalcitrant sulfonated azo dye, amaranth. Trametes pubescens, T. multicolor, T. meyenii and T. versicolor decoloured amaranth azo-dye best on low-nitrogen agar-solidified media whereas Bjerkandera adusta and Phlebia radiata were most effective in low nitrogen medium supplemented with manganese. Trametes cotonea did not decolour effectively under any condition. The decolouring Trametes species were also effective in liquid culture whereas B. adusta and P. radiata were not. Trametes meyenii, T. pubescens and T. multicolor were equal to or better than commonly employed T. versicolor at decolouring amaranth. This is the first study to show the dye decolouration potential of T. meyenii, T. pubescens, and T. multicolor. Supplementing with Mn(II) increased assayable manganese peroxidase activity, but not long-term decolouration, indicating that laccase is the main decolourizing enzyme in these Trametes species. This appears to be because of inadequate Mn3+ chelation required by manganese peroxidase because adding relatively low amounts of malonate enhanced decolouration rates. The ability of Trametes meyenii to simultaneously decolour dye over prolonged periods of time while growing in relatively nutrient-rich medium appears to be unique amongst white-rot fungi, indicating its potential in wastewater bioremediation. PMID:25401075

2014-01-01

316

Synthetic dye decolorization by three sources of fungal laccase  

PubMed Central

Decolorization of six synthetic dyes using three sources of fungal laccase with the origin of Aspergillus oryzae, Trametes versicolor, and Paraconiothyrium variabile was investigated. Among them, the enzyme from P. variabile was the most efficient which decolorized bromophenol blue (100%), commassie brilliant blue (91%), panseu-S (56%), Rimazol brilliant blue R (RBBR; 47%), Congo red (18.5%), and methylene blue (21.3%) after 3 h incubation in presence of hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT; 5 mM) as the laccase mediator. It was also observed that decolorization efficiency of all dyes was enhanced by increasing of HBT concentration from 0.1 mM to 5 mM. Laccase from A. oryzae was able to remove 53% of methylene blue and 26% of RBBR after 30 min incubation in absence of HBT, but the enzyme could not efficiently decolorize other dyes even in presence of 5 mM of HBT. In the case of laccase from T. versicolor, only RBBR was decolorized (93%) in absence of HBT after 3 h incubation. PMID:23369690

2012-01-01

317

Observaciones clínicas sobre ochenta casos tratados con prazosin solo y asociado a otros antihipertensores  

Microsoft Academic Search

ResumenFueron estudiados ochenta pacientes hipertensos, a los que se les administr? prazosin, ya sea solo o asociado a beta-bloqueadores, metildopa, diur?ticos, o una combinacion de varias de estas drogas en las hipertensiones severas. El 72,5% respondi? positivamente al tratamiento, mientras que el 27,5% o bien no respondi? a la?medicacion, o present? efectos secundarios que obligaron a suspender el uso de

E. Benzecry

1980-01-01

318

Investigacin Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional  

E-print Network

moleculares microbianos en suelos. Ana Carmela Ramos Valdivia Biotecnología del metabolismo secundario y la interés industrial Refugio Rodríguez Vázquez Biorremediación de suelo y agua. Aplicación de residuos agroindustriales en la biorremediación de suelos, enzimas fúngicas en la degradación de compuestos orgánicos

319

La quimioterapia y usted  

Cancer.gov

Hable con su doctor y enfermera sobre lo que puede esperar durante la quimioterapia. Es posible que le sugieran que lea ciertas secciones de este libro. También podrían sugerirle que siga algunos consejos que se dan en este libro para controlar los efectos secundarios. No lea este libro de principio a fin. Lea sólo aquellas secciones que necesita ahora. Consulte el índice para ver una lista de los temas que se tratan en este libro.

320

Descubrimiento y selección de herbicidas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Históricamente, los herbicidas se han descubierto por selección al azar de la actividad sobre malezas de interés, con colecciones de químicos.  Aunque totalmente empírico, este enfoque ha sido sorprendentemente exitoso y ha producido esencialmente todos los herbicidas comerciales que hoy se usan.  Más recientemente, las compañías de agroquímicos han adoptado estrategias direccionadas, usando ensayos  in vitro, relaciones  estructura del compuesto/actividad, y ensayos de perfilamiento de  mARNs, proteínas y metabolitos.  Estos últimos enfoques, en combinación  con filtros estrictos, están diseñados para explotar avances recientes en la tecnología y para tomar ventaja de nuestro mejor entendimiento de los sistemas biológicos.

321

Distribution and mycotoxin-producing ability of some fungal isolates from the air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research was carried out on presence and prevalence of common fungal air spores at locations in Croatia. The sampling method employed in the study was by exposure 350 of Petri agar plates to the air for 10 min. Approximately 3400 colonies were found and mould spores belonging to 22 fungal genera were identified. Cladosporium (44.7%), Penicillium (34.4%), Alternaria (26.3%), Aspergillus (21.6%) and Absidia (12.2%) were the most prevalent fungi encountered. Investigation of toxigenic potential of airborne fungi isolates of genera Aspergillus, Fusarium and Trichoderma showed 16.9% mycotoxin-producing strains. The production of aflatoxin B 1 by A. flavus sterigmatocystin by A. versicolor zearalenon and T-2 toxin by F. graminearum and diacetoscirpenol by strains of T. viride were obtained.

Cvetni?, Zdenka; Pepeljnjak, S.

322

Chemical characterisation of cheese associated fungi.  

PubMed

Recent work in our laboratory has demonstrated that the most common contaminating fungi on different types of cheese are;Penicillium commune, P. nalgiovense, P. solitum, P. discolor, P. roqueforti, P. crustosum, P. nordicum andAspergillus versicolor. On blue cheese a new speciesP. caseifulvum has been discovered as a surface contaminant. A large number of known and unknown metabolites have been described from the above mentioned cheese associated fungi from both synthetic media and real samples. Based on chemotaxonomy our laboratory has discovered thatP. roqueforti should be divided into three species:P. roqueforti (from cheese),P. carneum (from meat) andP. paneum (from bread). SimilarlyP. verrucosum should be divided intoP. verrucosum (from cereals) andP. nordicum (from cheese and meat products). Both species produce ochratoxins, however, only the former species produce citrinin. PMID:23605429

Larsen, T O; Smedsgaard, J; Lund, F; Frisvad, J C; Gareis, M

2000-03-01

323

Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine  

PubMed Central

This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms (???? b? x? mó g?; Agaricus blazei, ?? yún zh?; Coriolus versicolor, ?? líng zh?; Ganoderma lucidum, ?? xi?ng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, ??? niú zh?ng zh?; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps (???? d?ng chóng xià c?o), pomegranate (?? shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea (?? l? chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic (?? dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric (?? ji?ng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba (?? q?ng h?o; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120

Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

2012-01-01

324

Spiders that decorate their webs at higher frequency intercept more prey and grow faster.  

PubMed

Many orb-weaving spiders decorate their webs with extra, bright white, ultraviolet light reflecting silk. Previous studies suggest that these decorations increase a spider's foraging efficiency by improving web attractiveness, which is known as the prey-attraction hypothesis. One assumption of this hypothesis is that individuals which decorate their webs at a higher frequency are expected to have a higher growth rate. Using a decoration-building orb-weaving spider, Argiope versicolor, I show a strong positive relationship between the growth rate in terms of weight gain and the frequency of decoration-building, as well as the rate of insect interception. This is the first study to reveal a fitness consequence of decorating behaviour in spiders. PMID:16096085

Li, Daiqin

2005-09-01

325

Combined submerged and solid substrate fermentation for the bioconversion of lignocellulose  

SciTech Connect

A novel two-stage bioreactor has been designed for a combined submerged (SF) and solid substrate fermentation (SSF) of wheat straw. The straw was pretreated with steam, and cellulases from the culture fluid of Trichoderma reesei were adsorbed on it for increased bio-convertibility. SSF was conducted in the top part of the bioreactor by inoculating the straw with a 36-h mycelial culture of T. reesei, or Coriolus versicolor. In the bottom part of the fermenter, Endomycopsis fibuliger was grown in SF. The SF liquor was recirculated through the SSF stage at 24 hour intervals to remove glucose and other metabolites that may inhibit growth, and to maintain optimum moisture level and temperature. The removed glucose and other metabolites provided nutrients for the yeast in the SF stage. The combined fermentation resulted in overall higher biomass yield, increased bioconversion, increased cellulase production, and increased digestibility compared with single SSF or SF. (Refs. 16).

Viesturs, U.E.; Strikauska, S.V.; Leite, M.P.; Berzins, A.J.; Tengerdy, R.P.

1987-01-01

326

Antifungal activity of 10 Guadeloupean plants.  

PubMed

Screening of the antifungal activities of ten Guadeloupean plants was undertaken to find new extracts and formulations against superficial mycoses such as onychomycosis, athlete's foot, Pityriasis versicolor, as well as the deep fungal infection Pneumocystis pneumonia. For the first time, the CMI of these plant extracts [cyclohexane, ethanol and ethanol/water (1:1, v/v)] was determined against five dermatophytes, five Candida species, Scytalidium dimidiatum, a Malassezia sp. strain and Pneumocystis carinii. Cytotoxicity tests of the most active extracts were also performed on an HaCat keratinocyte cell line. Results suggest that the extracts of Bursera simaruba, Cedrela odorata, Enterolobium cyclocarpum and Pluchea carolinensis have interesting activities and could be good candidates for developing antifungal formulations. PMID:23280633

Biabiany, Murielle; Roumy, Vincent; Hennebelle, Thierry; François, Nadine; Sendid, Boualem; Pottier, Muriel; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Rouaud, Isabelle; Lohézic-Le Dévéhat, Françoise; Joseph, Henry; Bourgeois, Paul; Sahpaz, Sevser; Bailleul, François

2013-11-01

327

Bacterial-fungal interactions enhance power generation in microbial fuel cells and drive dye decolourisation by an ex situ and in situ electro-Fenton process.  

PubMed

In this work, the potential for sustainable energy production from wastes has been exploited using a combination fungus-bacterium in microbial fuel cell (MFC) and electro-Fenton technology. The fungus Trametes versicolor was grown with Shewanella oneidensis so that the bacterium would use the networks of the fungus to transport the electrons to the anode. This system generated stable electricity that was enhanced when the electro-Fenton reactions occurred in the cathode chamber. This configuration reached a stable voltage of approximately 1000 mV. Thus, the dual benefits of the in situ-designed MFC electro-Fenton, the simultaneous dye decolourisation and the electricity generation, were demonstrated. Moreover, the generated power was effectively used to drive an ex situ electro-Fenton process in batch and continuous mode. This newly developed MFC fungus-bacterium with an in situ electro-Fenton system can ensure a high power output and a continuous degradation of organic pollutants. PMID:24035817

Fernández de Dios, María Ángeles; del Campo, Araceli González; Fernández, Francisco Jesús; Rodrigo, Manuel; Pazos, Marta; Sanromán, María Ángeles

2013-11-01

328

Dibenzyl Sulfide Metabolism by White Rot Fungi  

PubMed Central

Microbial metabolism of organosulfur compounds is of interest in the petroleum industry for in-field viscosity reduction and desulfurization. Here, dibenzyl sulfide (DBS) metabolism in white rot fungi was studied. Trametes trogii UAMH 8156, Trametes hirsuta UAMH 8165, Phanerochaete chrysosporium ATCC 24725, Trametes versicolor IFO 30340 (formerly Coriolus sp.), and Tyromyces palustris IFO 30339 all oxidized DBS to dibenzyl sulfoxide prior to oxidation to dibenzyl sulfone. The cytochrome P-450 inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole eliminated dibenzyl sulfoxide oxidation. Laccase activity (0.15 U/ml) was detected in the Trametes cultures, and concentrated culture supernatant and pure laccase catalyzed DBS oxidation to dibenzyl sulfoxide more efficiently in the presence of 2,2?-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) than in its absence. These data suggest that the first oxidation step is catalyzed by extracellular enzymes but that subsequent metabolism is cytochrome P-450 mediated. PMID:12571066

Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Wong, Eddie T.; Dettman, Heather; Gray, Murray R.; Pickard, Michael A.

2003-01-01

329

Identification of Volatile Metabolites from Five Fungal Species Cultivated on Two Media  

PubMed Central

Five fungal species, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium commune, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Paecilomyces variotii, and Phialophora fastigiata, were cultivated on two media, malt extract agar and dichloran glycerol agar. Culture flasks provided with inlet and outlet tubes were used and purified, and humidified air was constantly led through the flasks. Air samples from the cultures were sorbed on Tenax GR and analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography. The produced volatile metabolites were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Various hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones, ethers, esters, sulfur-containing compounds, and terpenes were identified. The most commonly produced substances were 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methylfuran, and dimethyl disulfide. The production was highly dependent on both medium and species. PMID:16535095

Sunesson, A.; Vaes, W.; Nilsson, C.; Blomquist, G.; Andersson, B.; Carlson, R.

1995-01-01

330

A study of overproduction and enhanced secretion of enzymes. Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

Wood decay within forests, a significant renewable photosynthetic energy resource, is caused primarily by Basidiomycetous fungi, e.g., white rot fungi. These organisms possess the ability to degrade lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose, the main organic polymers of wood. In the case of the white rot fungi, e.g., Coriolus versicolor, the capacity results from the fungus` ability to elaborate extracellular cellulolytic and ligninolytic enzymes. With regard to the latter, at least one of the enzymes, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) appears within a defined growth medium. This proposal focuses on the over-production and enhanced secretion of PPO, cellulase and lignin peroxidase. There are two major sections to the proposal: (1) overproduction of lignocellulolytic enzymes by genetic engineering methodologies and hyper-production and enhanced secretion of these enzymes by biochemical/electro microscopical techniques and (2) the biochemical/electron microscopical method involves substrate induction and the time-dependent addition of respiration and PPO enzymes.

Dashek, W.V.

1993-09-01

331

Composition and antimicrobial activity of Seseli globiferum essential oil.  

PubMed

The essential oil from aerial parts of Seseli globiferum Vis. obtained by hydrodistillation with Clevenger-type apparatus was analyzed by GC-MS. Twenty-eight compounds were identified, representing 99.4% of the total oil. The main components of the oil were sabinene (38.0%), alpha-pinene (21.2%) and beta-phellandrene (13.5%). The microbial growth inhibitory properties of the isolated essential oil were determined using the broth microdilution method against seven bacterial species: Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 13311), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Enterobacter cloacae (clinical isolates), Bacillus cereus (clinical isolates), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228), Micrococcus flavus (ATCC 10240) and three fungal species: Aspergillus niger (ATCC 6275), Aspergillus versicolor (ATCC 11730), Trichoderma viride (IAM 5061) and Penicillium funiculosum (ATCC 36839). The essential oil showed activity against bacteria P. aeruginosa, followed by M flavus, L. monocytigenes and E. coli, and all investigated fungal species. PMID:21922927

Jana?kovi?, Peda; Sokovi?, Marina; Vujisi?, Ljubodrag; Vajs, Vlatka; Vuckovi?, Ivan; Krivosej, Zoran; Marin, Petar D

2011-08-01

332

The complete mitochondrial genome of Chrysolophus pictus (Galliformes: Phasianidae) and a phylogenetic analysis with related species.  

PubMed

The 16,678 bp mitochondrial genome of the Chrysolophus pictus has been sequenced in this paper. To determine the phylogentic position of C. pictus with related species within Phasianidae, the phylogenetic tree was reconstructed with the concatenated nucleotide dataset of the 12 heavy-strand-encoded protein genes. The phylogenetic analysis was carried out using maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods. MP and BI phylogenetic trees here showed similar topology and consistently suggested that C. pictus shared a close relationship with Phasianus versicolor. The results also showed that the Meleagris gallopavo possessed a basal phylogenetic position within Phasianidae, which may imply that it should be classified into the Phasianidae. PMID:22165827

Li, Hui-Min; Shi, Jing-Ping; Zeng, De-Long; Zeng, Zhen-Hua; Qin, Xin-Min

2011-10-01

333

Reversible immobilization of laccase to poly(4-vinylpyridine) grafted and Cu(II) chelated magnetic beads: biodegradation of reactive dyes.  

PubMed

Poly(4-vinyl pyridine), poly(VP), as a novel metal-chelating fibrous polymer was grafted on the magnetic beads. Poly(4-VP) grafted and/or Cu(II) ions chelated magnetic beads were used for reversible immobilization of Trametes versicolor laccase, and the amounts of immobilized laccase on the beads were determined as 36.8 and 56.4 mg/g beads, respectively. The adsorption of laccase on both modified magnetic beads appeared to follow the Langmuir isotherm model. The degradation of textile dyes with immobilized laccase on the metal chelated magnetic beads was evaluated in a batch system. Three different reactive textile dyes (i.e., Reactive Green 19, Reactive Red 2 and Reactive Brown 10) were successfully degraded in the enzyme reactor. It was observed that the decolorization rate varied widely with chemical structure and types of the substitute group of the reactive dye molecules. PMID:20388589

Bayramo?lu, Gülay; Yilmaz, Meltem; Arica, M Yakup

2010-09-01

334

Regulation of Coal Polymer Degradation by Fungi  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies in our laboratory used a spectrophotometric assay to study biomimetic solubilization of leonardite by sodium oxalate. It was found, however, that in extended incubations of several days, this assay resulted in overestimation of the percent of leonardite that was solubilized. This problem did not appear to be significant for short term incubations (ie., up to -24 h) and was circumvented in long term incubations by using a gravimetric assay to assay for solubilization. In other studies during this reporting period we examined oxalate production by P. chrysosporium and T. versicolor grown in Fahreus-Reinhammar medium in agitated pelleted culture. It was found that in this system concentrations of oxalate are produced that are much lower than those that would be optimal for leonardite solubilization.

Irvin, R.L. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences; Bumpus, J.A. [University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1997-04-30

335

Screening for ligninolytic enzymes from autochthonous fungi and applications for decolorization of Remazole Marine Blue  

PubMed Central

This study presents new and alternative fungal strains for the production of ligninolytic enzymes which have great potential to use in industrial and biotechnological processes. Thirty autochthonous fungal strains were harvested from Bornova-Izmir in Turkiye. In the fresh fruitbody extracts laccase, manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase activities, which are the principal enzymes responsible for ligninocellulose degradation by Basidiomycetes, were screened. Spores of some of the basidiomycetes species such as Cortinarius sp., Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Abortiporus biennis, Lyophyllum subglobisporium, Ramaria stricta, Ganoderma carnosum, Lactarius delicious ve Lepista nuda were isolated and investigated optimum cultivation conditions in submerged fermentation for high yields of ligninolytic enzyme production. In addition, isolated fungal strains were monitored on agar plates whether having the capability of decolorization of a textile dye Remazol Marine Blue. PMID:24031371

Erden, Emre; Ucar, M. Cigdem; Gezer, Tekin; Pazarlioglu, Nurdan Kasikara

2009-01-01

336

Purification and Properties of Neurospora crassa Laccase  

PubMed Central

Extracellular Neurospora laccase (p-diphenol:oxygen oxidoreductase; EC 1.10.3.2) has been purified to apparent homogeneity by classical purification techniques. The enzyme, which consists of mainly one form, has a molecular weight of 64,800 and contains 11% carbohydrate. The ultraviolet, visible, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra indicate that both type I and type II copper are present, as described for the Polyporus versicolor enzyme. With the exception of phloroglucinol, only para- and ortho-diphenols serve as effective substrates for the enzyme. Like the extracellular form, intracellular laccase is a glycoprotein as shown by its ability to bind to Concanavalin A Sepharose. Other studies, including gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography, revealed no differences between the intracellular and extracellular enzymes, suggesting that intracellular laccase is destined for excretion by the cell. Images PMID:4278681

Froehner, Stanley C.; Eriksson, Karl-Erik

1974-01-01

337

Electroactive nanobiomolecular architectures of laccase and cytochrome c on electrodes: applying silica nanoparticles as artificial matrix.  

PubMed

Fully electroactive multilayer architectures combining the redox protein cytochrome c and the enzyme laccase by the use of silica nanoparticles as artificial matrix have been constructed on gold electrodes capable of direct dioxygen reduction. Laccase form Trametes versicolor and cytochrome c from horse heart were electrostatically coimmobilized by alternate deposition with interlayers of silica nanoparticles in a multilayer fashion. The layer formation has been monitored by quartz crystal microbalance. The electrochemical properties and performance of the nanobiomolecular entities were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, indicating, that a multistep electron transfer cascade, from the electrode via cytochrome c in the layered system toward the enzyme laccase, and here to molecular dioxygen was achieved. The response of the novel architecture is based on direct electron exchange between immobilized proteins and can be tuned by the assembly process. PMID:24804981

Feifel, Sven Christian; Kapp, Andreas; Lisdat, Fred

2014-05-20

338

Potentialities of a membrane reactor with laccase grafted membranes for the enzymatic degradation of phenolic compounds in water.  

PubMed

This paper describes the degradation of phenolic compounds by laccases from Trametes versicolor in an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR). The enzymatic membranes were prepared by grafting laccase on a gelatine layer previously deposited onto ?-alumina tubular membranes. The 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (DMP) was selected  from among the three different phenolic compounds tested (guaiacol, 4-chlorophenol and DMP) to study the performance of the EMR in dead end configuration. At the lowest feed substrate concentration tested (100 mg·L-1), consumption increased with flux (up to 7.9 × 103 mg·h-1·m-2 at 128 L·h-1·m-2), whereas at the highest substrate concentration (500 mg·L-1), it was shown that the reaction was limited by the oxygen content. PMID:25295628

Chea, Vorleak; Paolucci-Jeanjean, Delphine; Sanchez, José; Belleville, Marie-Pierre

2014-01-01

339

Label-free fluorometric method for monitoring conformational flexibility of laccase based on a selective laccase sensor.  

PubMed

A facile and selective fluorescence sensor for laccase determination has been proposed depending on the interaction between 3-azidocoumarin and trametes versicolor (Tv) laccase in this paper. The azido group of 3-azidocoumarin that is electron-rich ?-nitrogen can directly interact with histidines that coordinate to three copper sites through hydrogen bonds and forms a new complex, which decreases the electron-donating ability of the azido group, leading to enhance the fluorescence intensity of the sensing system. Also, other common proteins have no significant interference for the proposed laccase sensor. Additionally, the proposed fluorescence sensor is extended to demonstrate the conformational flexibility of Tv laccase by the urea denaturant. A good consistency of the results obtained with the presented laccase sensor and CD spectra is performed. Furthermore, the relationship between the catalytic activity and the unfolding percentage of the unfolded Tv laccase through the proposed laccase sensor is also elucidated well. PMID:24117223

Qiu, Suyan; Lin, Zhenyu; Zhou, Yaomin; Li, Ruili; Zhang, Jinyan; Zhang, Dawen; Luo, Linguang; Guo, Longhua; Qiu, Bin; Chen, Guonan

2013-11-19

340

Microbial screening test for lignite degradation. Quarterly progress report No. 3, July 1-September 30, 1985  

SciTech Connect

Degradation of Beulah std No. 3 lignite was carried out by means of cupric oxidation, modified-autoclaved-cupric oxidation, sodium dichromate oxidation, and also by biological methods. Assessment of the yield of alkaline-soluble and methanol soluble products of both cupric oxidation and modified cupric oxidation (on a moisture-free and ash-free basis) was carried out by both ion chromatography and gel permeation chromatography. Fractionation of lignite for natural-uninoculated-biological growth resulted in no growth for both benzene-methanol fraction and alkaline filtrate fraction, whereas that of alkaline geletinous fraction resulted in positive growth of unidentified white-rot fungi. Acclimation of Polyporus versicolor to lignite was attempted. 10 refs.

Yen, T.F.

1985-01-01

341

Fungal endophytes characterization from four species of Diplazium Swartz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four species on genus Diplazium namely Diplazium tomentosum, D. sorzogonense, D. asperum and D. accedens of Peninsular Malaysia were studied for presence of fungal endophyte. The objective of this study is to characterize fungal endophytes in the rhizome of four Diplazium species. The rhizome was surface sterilized and incubated to isolate fungal endophytes. Characterization of the colonies was performed by macroscopic morphological, microscopic identification, types of hyphae and mycelium, and spore structure. For isolation that produces spores, the structure of conidiophores and conidia were identified. From this study, four fungal have been isolated and determined as Aspergillus sp. (isolates AE 1), Aspergillus fumigatus (isolates AE 2), Aspergillus versicolor (isolates AE 3) and Verticillium sp. (isolates AE 4). The fungal isolates from this study were classified from the same family Moniliaceae.

Affina-Eliya, A. A.; Noraini, T.; Nazlina, I.; Ruzi, A. R.

2014-09-01

342

Salidroside production by hairy roots of Rhodiola sachalinensis obtained after transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes.  

PubMed

Hairy roots induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes grow faster, and are considered as genetically stable. These hairy roots can be used as an interesting material for the production of secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical value. Salidroside has been identified as the major compounds from the roots of Rhodiola sachalinensis A. BOR. Here, we provide an update that adds new perspectives on the prospects and challenges of producing Salidroside from hairy roots induced by Agrobacterium rhizogene in Rhodiola sachalinensis A. BOR. For high salidroside production, the optimal concentration for precursor (Tyrosol, Tyrosine, and Phenylalanine) and elicitor (Aspergillus niger, Coriolus versicolor, and Ganoderma lucidum) was added in the LB liquid medium, respectively. The addition of elicitor in the liquid MS medium and the utilization of precursor from chemical feeding enhanced biomass accumulation and salidroside production. The optimal concentration for elicitor and precursor in the liquid medium was 0.05 mg/l and 1 mmol/l, respectively. PMID:17329834

Zhou, Xiaofu; Wu, Yuxia; Wang, Xingzhi; Liu, Bao; Xu, Hongwei

2007-03-01

343

The influence of moisture content variation on fungal pigment formation in spalted wood  

PubMed Central

Eight fungal species known to produce wood pigmentation were tested for reaction to various moisture contents in two hardwood species. Fungal pigmentation by Trametes versicolor and Xylaria polymorpha was stimulated at low water concentrations in both Acer saccharum (sugar maple) and Fagus grandifolia (American beech), while Inonotus hispidus and Polyporus squamosus were stimulated above 22-28% and 34-38% moisture content in beech and in sugar maple respectively. Fomes fomentarius and Polyporus brumalis produced maximum pigmentation in beech at 26 - 41% and in sugar maple at 59 - 96% moisture content. The pink staining Scytalidium cuboideum pigmented both wood species at above 35% moisture content. This research indicates that controlling the moisture content values of wood substrates can stimulate the intensity of pigmentation of specific fungi when spalting wood for decorative and commercial purpose. PMID:23245292

2012-01-01

344

Purification and properties of Neurospora crassa laccase.  

PubMed

Extracellular Neurospora laccase (p-diphenol:oxygen oxidoreductase; EC 1.10.3.2) has been purified to apparent homogeneity by classical purification techniques. The enzyme, which consists of mainly one form, has a molecular weight of 64,800 and contains 11% carbohydrate. The ultraviolet, visible, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra indicate that both type I and type II copper are present, as described for the Polyporus versicolor enzyme. With the exception of phloroglucinol, only para- and ortho-diphenols serve as effective substrates for the enzyme. Like the extracellular form, intracellular laccase is a glycoprotein as shown by its ability to bind to Concanavalin A Sepharose. Other studies, including gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography, revealed no differences between the intracellular and extracellular enzymes, suggesting that intracellular laccase is destined for excretion by the cell. PMID:4278681

Froehner, S C; Eriksson, K E

1974-10-01

345

[Moulds and yeasts in bottled water and soft drinks].  

PubMed

Some damaged cartons of soft drinks and carbonated water were analyzed to detect the microorganisms that caused the damage. The contaminants of sugar used in the production of one of the drinks were also studied. The methods of Déak & Beuchat and Pitt & Hocking were used for the identification of yeasts and moulds, respectively. The agents of the spoilage of soft drinks were Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The microorganisms found in sugar were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, P. anomala and Rhizopus stolonifer. Paecilomyces fulvus and Penicillium glabrum were observed in carbonated water. PMID:17037258

Ancasi, E G; Carrillo, L; Benítez Ahrendts, M R

2006-01-01

346

The use of white-rot fungi as active biofilters  

SciTech Connect

White-rot fungi, growing on lignocellulosic substrates, have been successfully used as active organisms in biofilters. Filters using these fungi have a very high biological active surface area, allowing for high degrees of retention, a comparatively low pressure drop, and a high physical stability. The unspecific action of the extracellular enzymes of the white-rot fungi allows for the degradation of a wide variety of substances by the same organism. Degradation of several compounds in the gas phase by the white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Bjerkandera adusta, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium was tested. Among the aromatic solvents, styrene was the compound that was most readily degraded, followed by ethylbenzene, xylenes, and toluene. Tetrahydrofuran and dichloromethane were also degraded, whereas dioxane could not be attacked by fungi under the conditions used. Acrylonitrile and aniline were degraded very well, whereas pyridine was resistant to degradation. The process for removing styrene is now in the scaling-up stage.

Braun-Luellemann, A.; Johannes, C.; Majcherczyk, A.; Huettermann, A. [Univ. Goettingen (Germany). Forstbotanisches Inst.

1995-12-31

347

Bugs as drugs, Part 1: Insects: the "new" alternative medicine for the 21st century?  

PubMed

Insects and insect-derived products have been widely used in folk healing in many parts of the world since ancient times. Promising treatments have at least preliminarily been studied experimentally. Maggots and honey have been used to heal chronic and post-surgical wounds and have been shown to be comparable to conventional dressings in numerous settings. Honey has also been applied to treat burns. Honey has been combined with beeswax in the care of several dermatologic disorders, including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, tinea, pityriasis versicolor, and diaper dermatitis. Royal jelly has been used to treat postmenopausal symptoms. Bee and ant venom have reduced the number of swollen joints in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Propolis, a hive sealant made by bees, has been utilized to cure aphthous stomatitis. Cantharidin, a derivative of the bodies of blister beetles, has been applied to treat warts and molluscum contagiosum. Combining insects with conventional treatments may provide further benefit. PMID:20806997

Cherniack, E Paul

2010-07-01

348

Air sampling of fungal spores on filters. An investigation on passive sampling and viability.  

PubMed

In this study, glycerol was tested as a collection substrate for passive bioaerosol sampling. Filters (mixed cellulose acetate and nitrate) were soaked in glycerol and exposed for an aerosol from three different fungal species: Penicillum commune, Aspergillus versicolor and Paecilomyces variotii. The passive sampling method was compared with a closed-face polycarbonate filter sampling method. Exposure was performed in an exposure chamber. The total number of spores was determined by microscopic techniques, and the cultivable number was determined by cultivation on Malt Extract Agar dishes. The glycerol soaked filter demonstrated a good correlation with the closed-face sampler with regard to the total count. Spores stored in a pumped filter cassette were not affected by storage for up to 7 days. On the other hand, the culturability of the spores was markedly decreased after 1 day when stored on glycerol soaked filters. PMID:11529137

Näsman, A; Blomquist, G; Levin, J O

1999-08-01

349

Sertaconazole: updated review of a topical antifungal agent.  

PubMed

Sertaconazole is an imidazole-type antifungal agent that has shown considerable in vitro activity against pathogenic fungi. Various studies carried out in animal models, clinical and toxicologic trials have confirmed the value of sertaconazole in the topical treatment of superficial mycoses in dermatology and gynecology. After several years of clinical experience in the topical treatment of dermatophytosis and Tinea versicolor, the substance has been approved for gynecologic candidiasis in Europe. Sertaconazole has a wide action spectrum that includes yeasts and dermatophyte fungi, and it is also active against bacteria, mainly Gram-positive cocci, making it highly efficient in the treatment of polymicrobial infections. The recent approval of the molecule by the US Food and Drug Administration, and the appearance of a new formulation of sertaconazole for the treatment of onychomycoses on a weekly administrative basis, are all data relevant to the process of marketing the product. PMID:15954850

Carrillo-Muñoz, Alfonso J; Giusiano, Gustavo; Ezkurra, Pilar Ariadna; Quindós, Guillermo

2005-06-01

350

Natural Mediators in the Oxidation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Laccase Mediator Systems  

PubMed Central

The oxidation of polycyclic aromatic compounds was studied in systems consisting of laccase from Trametes versicolor and so-called mediator compounds. The enzymatic oxidation of acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, and fluorene was mediated by various laccase substrates (phenols and aromatic amines) or compounds produced and secreted by white rot fungi. The best natural mediators, such as phenol, aniline, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol were as efficient as the previously described synthetic compounds ABTS [2,2?-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. The oxidation efficiency increased proportionally with the redox potentials of the phenolic mediators up to a maximum value of 0.9 V and decreased thereafter with redox potentials exceeding this value. Natural compounds such as methionine, cysteine, and reduced glutathione, containing sulfhydryl groups, were also active as mediator compounds. PMID:10653713

Johannes, Christian; Majcherczyk, Andrzej

2000-01-01

351

Malassezia infections: a medical conundrum.  

PubMed

Malassezia yeasts have long been considered commensal fungi, unable to elicit significant damage. However, they have been associated with a diversity of cutaneous diseases, namely pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia folliculitis, seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and confluent and reticulate papillomatosis. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathogenic mechanisms of these fungi, but none have been confirmed. More recently, such organisms have been increasingly isolated from bloodstream infections raising serious concern about these fungi. Given the difficulty to culture these yeasts to proceed with speciation and antimicrobial susceptibility tests, such procedures are most often not performed and the cutaneous infections are treated empirically. The recurring nature of superficial skin infections and the potential threat of systemic infections raise the need of faster and more sensitive techniques to achieve isolation, identification, and antimicrobial susceptibility profile. This article reviews and discusses the latest available data concerning Malassezia infections and recent developments about diagnostic methods, virulence mechanisms, and susceptibility testing. PMID:24569116

Pedrosa, Ana Filipa; Lisboa, Carmen; Gonçalves Rodrigues, Acácio

2014-07-01

352

Essential Role of the N- and C-terminals of Laccase from Pleurotus florida on the Laccase Activity and Stability.  

PubMed

POXA1b is the most thermostable laccase isoenzyme from Pleurotus ostreatus. POXA1b is remarkably stable at alkaline pH (the t1/2 at pH 10 was 30 days), and its C-terminal affects its catalytic and stability properties. We cloned POXA1c from P. florida, which showed 99 % identity with POXA1b. POXA1c was functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris. The functions of the N and C termini of POXA1c were investigated using site-directed mutagenesis. Compared with POXA1c, the N-terminal R5V site effectively increased the specific activities for 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and guaiacol by 2- and 3.5-fold, respectively. A C-terminal truncated mutant, POXA1c?13, also increased the specific activities for ABTS and guaiacol by 2.3- and 3.4-fold, respectively. A double mutant, POXA1c?13-R5V, combined the R5V and ?13 effects. The specific activity of this double mutant for ABTS was 1,321 U/mg, which indicated a 4-fold increase compared with the wild type. The role of residue V5 on laccase catalytic properties was also observed for laccases from Trametes versicolor and Rigidoporus lignosus. The specific activities of the V5R of the laccases from T. versicolor and R. lignosus were half of that of the wild type. The pH and thermal stability analysis of POXA1c and its mutants showed that the enzymes were remarkably stable because they showed 63 % residual activity after incubation for 108 h at 30 °C over a pH range of 4.5 to 9.0. Similar results were observed for POXA1c?13-R5V. POXA1c?13-R5V can be widely used in industrial biotechnology because of its excellent catalytic properties. PMID:25161036

Hu, Meirong; Zhou, Xue; Shi, Yiping; Lin, Jianhui; Irfan, Muhammad; Tao, Yong

2014-11-01

353

Mineral-microorganism interactions in Acid Mine Drainage environments: preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minerals play a key role in controlling the mobility and distribution of metals and metalloids of environmental concern in supergenic environments. These are involved in a variety of processes, spanning the alteration of primary minerals to the formation of secondary authigenic phases and can represent a source or a trap for Potentially Ecotoxic Elements (PTEs). Soil, sediments, and waters heavily polluted with PTEs through AMD processes are a reservoir of a unusual bacteria and fungi well adapted to these toxic environments. Classical studies of biotic weathering have mainly focused on water-mineral interaction and on the ability of microorganism to influence the soil solution chemical composition. In this work, we analyzed two different representative ochreous and greenish-blue AMD colloidal precipitates in order to i) characterize the biota population present in these colloidal minerals and ii) verify the bioaccumulation of PTEs into the fungi and the potential impact of bacteria in the geochemistry of the system. The samples are composed by nanocrystalline goethite which contains high amounts of Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni and woodwardite that is characterized by Cu, Zn, Ni, Y, and Ce. These precipitates were examined in order to evaluate the presence of fungal strains and to extract bacteria DNA. The preliminary results of fungi characterization show an interesting and selected mycobiota able to survive under unfavourable environmental conditions. A significant number of fungal strains was isolated in pure culture. Most of them belong to the genus Mucor and Penicillium. It is worth noting the presence of Trametes versicolor, a macrofungal lignicolous species already known for heavy metal biosorption capability from aqueous solution (Gülay et al 2003). The same colloidal precipitates have been processed to extract bacteria DNA, using a specific procedure developed for DNA extraction from sediments. The results gave a good yield of nucleic acids and the positive PCR amplification of 16S rDNA accomplished the first step for future metagenomic analysis. Gülay B., Sema B., M. Yakup A.. 2003 Biosorption of heavy metal ions on immobilized white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Journal of Hazardous Materials B101 (2003) 285-300

Carbone, Cristina; Zotti, Mirca; Pozzolini, Marina; Giovine, Marco; Di Piazza, Simone; Mariotti, Mauro; Lucchetti, Gabriella

2014-05-01

354

Determination of fungal activity in modified wood by means of micro-calorimetry and determination of total esterase activity  

PubMed Central

Beech and pine wood blocks were treated with 1,3-dimethylol-4,5-dihydroxyethylen urea (DMDHEU) to increasing weight percent gains (WPG). The resistance of the treated specimens against Trametes versicolor and Coniophora puteana, determined as mass loss, increased with increasing WPG of DMDHEU. Metabolic activity of the fungi in the wood blocks was assessed as total esterase activity (TEA) based on the hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate and as heat or energy production determined by isothermal micro-calorimetry. Both methods revealed that the fungal activity was related with the WPG and the mass loss caused by the fungi. Still, fungal activity was detected even in wood blocks of the highest WPG and showed that the treatment was not toxic to the fungi. Energy production showed a higher consistency with the mass loss after decay than TEA; higher mass loss was more stringently reflected by higher heat production rate. Heat production did not proceed linearly, possibly due to the inhibition of fungal activity by an excess of carbon dioxide. PMID:18542949

Verma, Pradeep; Dyckmans, Jens; Militz, Holger

2008-01-01

355

Spices Mycobiota and Mycotoxins Available in Saudi Arabia and Their Abilities to Inhibit Growth of Some Toxigenic Fungi  

PubMed Central

The prevalence and population density of the mycobiota of 50 samples belonging to 10 kinds of spices (anise, black pepper, red pepper, black cumin, peppermint, cardamom, clove, cumin, ginger and marjoram) which collected from different places in Jeddah Governorate were studied. The natural occurrence of mycotoxins in those samples was also investigated. Fifteen genera and thirty - one species of fungi in addition to one species variety were isolated and identified during this study. The most common genera were Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. Aflatoxins (12~40 µg/kg) were detected in the extract of 5 samples of each of anise seeds and black pepper fruits; three samples of black cumin seeds and on sample only of each of peppermint and marjoram leaves out of 5 samples tested of each. Sterigmatocystin (15~20 µg/kg) was detected in some samples of red pepper, cumin and marjoram. The inhibitory effects of 10 kinds of powdered spices were tested against 3 toxigenic isolates of fungi (Aspergillus flavus, A. versicolor and Penicillium citrinum). Clove proved to be antimycotic compounds. It inhibited the growth of the tested toxigenic fungi. Black pepper, peppermint, cardamom, cumin and marjoram completely inhibited aflatoxins production, while black pepper and cardamom also completely inhibited sterigmatocystin production. PMID:24015069

2007-01-01

356

Protein-bound polysaccharide activates dendritic cells and enhances OVA-specific T cell response as vaccine adjuvant.  

PubMed

Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) is a hot water extract from Trametes versicolor mushroom. It has been used traditionally in Asian countries for its immune stimulating and anti-cancer effects. We have recently found that PSK can activate Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). TLR2 is highly expressed on dendritic cells (DC), so the current study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of PSK on DC activation and the potential of using PSK as a vaccine adjuvant. In vitro experiments using mouse bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC) demonstrated that PSK induces DC maturation as shown by dose-dependent increase in the expression of CD80, CD86, MHCII, and CD40. PSK also induces the production of multiple inflammatory cytokines by DC, including IL-12, TNF-?, and IL-6, at both mRNA and protein levels. In vivo experiments using PSK as an adjuvant to OVAp323-339 vaccine showed that PSK as adjuvant leads to enlarged draining lymph nodes with higher number of activated DC. PSK also stimulates proliferation of OVA-specific T cells, and induces T cells that produce multiple cytokines, IFN-?, IL-2, and TNF-?. Altogether, these results demonstrate the ability of PSK to activate DC in vitro and in vivo and the potential of using PSK as a novel vaccine adjuvant. PMID:23735481

Engel, Abbi L; Sun, Guan-Cheng; Gad, Ekram; Rastetter, Lauren R; Strobe, Katie; Yang, Yi; Dang, Yushe; Disis, Mary L; Lu, Hailing

2013-12-01

357

Biotransformation of the antibiotic agent flumequine by ligninolytic fungi and residual antibacterial activity of the transformation mixtures.  

PubMed

Flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, is applied preferably in veterinary medicine, for stock breeding and treatment of aquacultures. Formation of drug resistance is a matter of general concern when antibiotics such as flumquine occur in the environment. Thus, biodegradation of flumequine in solution was investigated using five different ligninolytic fungi. Irpex lacteus, Dichomitus squalens, and Trametes versicolor proved most efficient and transformed more than 90% of flumequine within 6 or even 3 days. Panus tigrinus and Pleurotus ostreatus required up to 14 days to remove >90% of flumequine. Analyses of the metabolites by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry suggest different transformation pathways for the different fungal strains. Structure proposals were elaborated for 8 metabolites. 7-Hydroxy-flumequine and flumequine ethyl ester were identified as common metabolites produced by all ligninolytic fungi. The largest variety of metabolites was formed by D. squalens. Residual antibacterial activity of the metabolite mixtures was tested using gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. While for the less efficient P. tigrinus and P. ostreatus cultures the antibacterial activities corresponded to the residual concentrations of flumequine, a remarkable antibacterial activity remained in the D. squalens cultures although flumequine was transformed to more than 90%. Obviously, antibacterially active transformation products were formed by this fungal strain. PMID:24261869

Cvan?arová, Monika; Moeder, Monika; Filipová, Alena; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Cajthaml, Tomáš

2013-12-17

358

Evaluation of the antifungal effects of bio-oil prepared with lignocellulosic biomass using fast pyrolysis technology.  

PubMed

This study was performed to investigate the utility of bio-oil, produced via a fast pyrolysis process, as an antifungal agent against wood-rot fungi. Bio-oil solutions (25-100 wt.%) were prepared by diluting the bio-oil with EtOH. Wood block samples (yellow poplar and pitch pine) were treated with diluted bio-oil solutions and then subjected to a leaching process under hot water (70°C) for 72 h. After the wood block samples were thoroughly dried, they were subjected to a soil block test using Tyromyces palustris and Trametes versicolor. The antifungal effect of the 75% and 100% bio-oil solutions was the highest for both wood blocks. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that some chemical components in the bio-oil solution could agglomerate together to form clusters in the inner part of the wood during the drying process, which could act as a wood preservative against fungal growth. According to GC/MS analysis, the components of the agglomerate were mainly phenolic compounds derived from lignin polymers. PMID:22784866

Kim, Kwang Ho; Jeong, Han Seob; Kim, Jae-Young; Han, Gyu Seong; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Joon Weon

2012-10-01

359

Monoclonal antibodies against a 97-kilodalton antigen from Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed Central

We prepared a panel of five monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against Aspergillus flavus that all reacted against one 97-kDa antigen by western blot (immunoblot). Flow cytometry demonstrated that these antibodies bound (in increasing degrees) to all morphologic stages of A. flavus growth: conidia, swollen conidia, and hyphae. Cross-reactivity among species was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of fungal culture filtrates. Four MAbs reacted with 10 of 11 A. flavus isolates, and the fifth one reacted with 9 of them. One MAb also reacted with A. fumigatus, two reacted with A. niger, A. wentii, and A. nidulans, and all five reacted with A. ochraceus. None reacted with A. terreus, A. glaucus, A. versicolor, or a Penicillium species. Each MAb bound to A. flavus hyphae in formalin-fixed paraffin sections of a muscle biopsy from a confirmed human case of invasive aspergillosis. In summary, these MAbs identified a 97-kDa antigen found on A. flavus that is both surface bound and an exoantigen. Either the same or a cross-reacting antigen is present in A. fumigatus and other Aspergillus species. Images PMID:7496924

Hetherington, S V; Henwick, S; Parham, D M; Patrick, C C

1994-01-01

360

Does common spatial origin promote the auditory grouping of temporally separated signal elements in grey treefrogs?  

PubMed Central

‘Sequential integration’ represents a form of auditory grouping in which temporally separated sounds produced by the same source are perceptually bound together over time into a coherent ‘auditory stream’. In humans, sequential integration plays important roles in music and speech perception. In this study of the grey treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis), we took advantage of female selectivity for advertisement calls with conspecific pulse rates to investigate common spatial location as a cue for sequential integration. We presented females with two temporally interleaved pulse sequences with pulse rates of 25 pulses/s, which is half the conspecific pulse rate and more similar to that of H. versicolor, a syntopically breeding heterospecific. We tested the hypothesis that common spatial origin between the two pulse sequences would promote their integration into a coherent auditory stream with an attractive conspecific pulse rate. As the spatial separation between the speakers broadcasting the interleaved pulse sequences decreased from 180° to 0°, more females responded and females exhibited shorter response latencies and travelled shorter distances en route to a speaker. However, even in the 180° condition, most females (74%) still responded. Detailed video analyses revealed no evidence to suggest that patterns of female phonotaxis resulted from impaired abilities to localize sound sources in the spatially separated conditions. Together, our results suggest that females were fairly permissive of spatial incoherence between the interleaved pulses sequences and that common spatial origin may be only a relatively weak cue for sequential integration in grey treefrogs. PMID:19727419

Bee, Mark A.; Riemersma, Kasen K.

2008-01-01

361

Lipid peroxidation as a possible secondary mechanism of sterigmatocystin toxicity.  

PubMed

Sterigmatocystin (Stg), a major secondary metabolite of Aspergillus versicolor and A. nidulans, is the precursor of aflatoxin B1. In this study, male albino rats were treated with Stg-contaminated diet for 30 days, resulting in reduced levels of glutathione, ascorbic acid, and alpha-tocopherol. The activity of catalase in liver was reduced, whereas an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase was observed. The levels of cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5, cytochrome b5 reductase, cytochrome c reductase, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide formation significantly increased in the Stg- treated rat liver microsomes. Hepatic parenchymal cell injury, necrosis, and Kupffer cells proliferation were noticed in histological sections of liver from animals treated with Stg. Overall results suggest that generation of free radicals imposes depletion of antioxidants. This led to enhanced lipid peroxidation. The observed elevation of hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances appears to originate mainly from the damaged Kupffer cells. As a result, elevated levels of serum marker enzymes were also observed. PMID:11727790

Sivakumar, V; Thanislass, J; Niranjali, S; Devaraj, H

2001-08-01

362

Protection by fungal starters against growth and secondary metabolite production of fungal spoilers of cheese.  

PubMed

The influence of fungal starter cultures on growth and secondary metabolite production of fungal contaminants associated with cheese was studied on laboratory media and Camembert cheese. Isolates of the species Penicillium nalgiovense, P. camemberti, P. roqueforti and Geotrichum candidum were used as fungal starters. The species P. commune, P. caseifulvum, P. verrucosum, P. discolor, P. solitum, P. coprophilum and Aspergillus versicolor were selected as contaminants. The fungal starters showed different competitive ability on laboratory media and Camembert cheese. The presence of the Penicillium species, especially P. nalgiovense, showed an inhibitory effect on the growth of the fungal contaminants on laboratory media. G. candidum caused a significant inhibition of the fungal contaminants on Camembert cheese. The results indicate that G. candidum plays an important role in competition with undesirable microorganisms in mould fermented cheeses. Among the starters, P. nalgiovense caused the largest reduction in secondary metabolite production of the fungal contaminants on the laboratory medium. On Camembert cheese no significant changes in metabolite production of the fungal contaminants was observed in the presence of the starters. PMID:9706802

Nielsen, M S; Frisvad, J C; Nielsen, P V

1998-06-30

363

Parallel changes in mate-attracting calls and female preferences in autotriploid tree frogs  

PubMed Central

For polyploid species to persist, they must be reproductively isolated from their diploid parental species, which coexist at the same time and place at least initially. In a complex of biparentally reproducing tetraploid and diploid tree frogs in North America, selective phonotaxis—mediated by differences in the pulse-repetition (pulse rate) of their mate-attracting vocalizations—ensures assortative mating. We show that artificially produced autotriploid females of the diploid species (Hyla chrysoscelis) show a shift in pulse-rate preference in the direction of the pulse rate produced by males of the tetraploid species (Hyla versicolor). The estimated preference function is centred near the mean pulse rate of the calls of artificially produced male autotriploids. Such a parallel shift, which is caused by polyploidy per se and whose magnitude is expected to be greater in autotetraploids, may have facilitated sympatric speciation by promoting reproductive isolation of the initially formed polyploids from their diploid parental forms. This process also helps to explain why tetraploid lineages with different origins have similar advertisement calls and freely interbreed. PMID:22113033

Tucker, Mitch A.; Gerhardt, H. C.

2012-01-01

364

Amperometric catechol biosensor based on laccase immobilized on nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC)/PVA matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A functionalized nitrogen-containing ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC), which shows good electrical properties, was synthesized by the carbonization of polyaniline inside a SBA-15 mesoporous silica template. Based on this, through entrapping laccase onto the N-OMC/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film a facilely fabricated amperometric biosensor was developed. Laccase from Trametes versicolor was assembled on a composite film of a N-OMC/PVA modified Au electrode and the electrochemical behavior was investigated. The results indicated that the N-OMC modified electrode exhibits electrical properties towards catechol. The optimum experimental conditions of a biosensor for the detection of catechol were studied in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the sensitivity of the biosensor was 0.29 A*M-1 with a detection limit of 0.31 ?M and a linear detection range from 0.39 ?M to 8.98 ?M for catechol. The calibration curve followed the Michaelis-Menten kinetics and the apparent Michaelis-Menten \\left( K_{M}^{app} \\right) was 6.28 ?M. This work demonstrated that the N-OMC/PVA composite provides a suitable support for laccase immobilization and the construction of a biosensor.

Guo, Meiqing; Wang, Hefeng; Huang, Di; Han, Zhijun; Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaojun; Chen, Jing

2014-06-01

365

Fungal Fragments as Indoor Air Biocontaminants  

PubMed Central

The aerosolization process of fungal propagules of three species (Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium melinii, and Cladosporium cladosporioides) was studied by using a newly designed and constructed aerosolization chamber. We discovered that fungal fragments are aerosolized simultaneously with spores from contaminated agar and ceiling tile surfaces. Concentration measurements with an optical particle counter showed that the fragments are released in higher numbers (up to 320 times) than the spores. The release of fungal propagules varied depending on the fungal species, the air velocity above the contaminated surface, and the texture and vibration of the contaminated material. In contrast to spores, the release of fragments from smooth surfaces was not affected by air velocity, indicating a different release mechanism. Correlation analysis showed that the number of released fragments cannot be predicted on the basis of the number of spores. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with monoclonal antibodies produced against Aspergillus and Penicillium fungal species showed that fragments and spores share common antigens, which not only confirmed the fungal origin of the fragments but also established their potential biological relevance. The considerable immunological reactivity, the high number, and the small particle size of the fungal fragments may contribute to human health effects that have been detected in buildings with mold problems but had no scientific explanation until now. This study suggests that future fungal spore investigations in buildings with mold problems should include the quantitation of fungal fragments. PMID:12089037

Gorny, Rafal L.; Reponen, Tiina; Willeke, Klaus; Schmechel, Detlef; Robine, Enric; Boissier, Marjorie; Grinshpun, Sergey A.

2002-01-01

366

In Vitro Bleaching of Hardwood Kraft Pulp by Extracellular Enzymes Excreted from White Rot Fungi in a Cultivation System Using a Membrane Filter  

PubMed Central

To clarify the role of excreted extracellular enzymes during long-term incubation in a pulp biobleaching system with white rot fungi, we developed a cultivation system in which a membrane filter is used; this membrane filter can prevent direct contact between hyphae and kraft pulp, but allows extracellular enzymes to attack the kraft pulp. Phanerochaete sordida YK-624 brightened the pulp 21.4 points to 54.0% brightness after a 5-day in vitro treatment; this value was significantly higher than the values obtained with Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Coriolus versicolor after a 7-day treatment. Our results indicate that cell-free, membrane-filtered components from the in vitro bleaching system are capable of delignifying unbleached kraft pulp. Obvious candidates for filterable reagents capable of delignifying and bleaching kraft pulp are peroxidase and phenoloxidase proteins. The level of secreted manganese peroxidase activity in the filterable components was substantial during strain YK-624 in vitro bleaching. A positive correlation between the level of manganese peroxidase and brightening of the pulp was observed. PMID:16349219

Kondo, Ryuichiro; Kurashiki, Kenji; Sakai, Kokki

1994-01-01

367

PSP activates monocytes in resting human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: immunomodulatory implications for cancer treatment.  

PubMed

Polysaccharopeptide (PSP), from Coriolus versicolor, has been used as an adjuvant to chemotherapy, and has demonstrated anti-tumor and immunomodulating effects. However its mechanism remains unknown. To elucidate how PSP affects immune populations, we compared PSP treatments both with and without prior incubation in phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) - a process commonly used in immune population experimentation. We first standardised a capillary electrophoresis fingerprinting technique for PSP identification and characterisation. We then established the proliferative capability of PSP on various immune populations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, using flow cytometry, without prior PHA treatment. It was found that PSP significantly increased the number of monocytes (CD14(+)/CD16(-)) compared to controls without PHA. This increase in monocytes was confirmed using another antibody panel of CD14 and MHCII. In contrast, proliferations of T-cells, NK, and B-cells were not significantly changed by PSP. Thus, stimulating monocyte/macrophage function with PSP could be an effective therapeutic intervention in targeting tumors. PMID:23497877

Sekhon, Bhagwant Kaur; Sze, Daniel Man-Yuen; Chan, Wing Keung; Fan, Kei; Li, George Qian; Moore, Douglas Edwin; Roubin, Rebecca Heidi

2013-06-15

368

Geographical variation of St. Lucia Parrot flight vocalizations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Parrots are vocal learners and many species of parrots are capable of learning new calls, even as adults. This capability gives parrots the potential to develop communication systems that can vary dramatically over space. St. Lucia Parrot (Amazona versicolor) flight vocalizations were examined for geographic variation between four different sites on the island of St. Lucia. Spectrographic cross-correlation analysis of a commonly used flight vocalization, the p-chow call, demonstrated quantitative differences between sites. Additionally, the similarity of p-chows decreased as the distance between sites increased. Flight call repertoires also differed among sites; parrots at the Des Bottes and Quilesse sites each used one flight call unique to those sites, while parrots at the Barre de L'Isle site used a flight call that Quilesse parrots gave only while perched. It is unclear whether the vocal variation changed clinally with distance, or whether there were discrete dialect boundaries as in a congener, the Yellow-naped Parrot (Amazona auropalliata, Wright 1996). The geographical scale over which the St. Lucia Parrot's vocal variation occurred was dramatically smaller than that of the Yellow-naped Parrot. Similar patterns of fine-scale vocal variation may be more widespread among other parrot species in the Caribbean than previously documented.

Kleeman, P.M.; Gilardi, J.D.

2005-01-01

369

The Malassezia Genus in Skin and Systemic Diseases  

PubMed Central

Summary: In the last 15 years, the genus Malassezia has been a topic of intense basic research on taxonomy, physiology, biochemistry, ecology, immunology, and metabolomics. Currently, the genus encompasses 14 species. The 1996 revision of the genus resulted in seven accepted taxa: M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. sympodialis, M. globosa, M. obtusa, M. restricta, and M. slooffiae. In the last decade, seven new taxa isolated from healthy and lesional human and animal skin have been accepted: M. dermatis, M. japonica, M. yamatoensis, M. nana, M. caprae, M. equina, and M. cuniculi. However, forthcoming multidisciplinary research is expected to show the etiopathological relationships between these new species and skin diseases. Hitherto, basic and clinical research has established etiological links between Malassezia yeasts, pityriasis versicolor, and sepsis of neonates and immunocompromised individuals. Their role in aggravating seborrheic dermatitis, dandruff, folliculitis, and onychomycosis, though often supported by histopathological evidence and favorable antifungal therapeutic outcomes, remains under investigation. A close association between skin and Malassezia IgE binding allergens in atopic eczema has been shown, while laboratory data support a role in psoriasis exacerbations. Finally, metabolomic research resulted in the proposal of a hypothesis on the contribution of Malassezia-synthesized aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands to basal cell carcinoma through UV radiation-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:22232373

Magiatis, Prokopios; Hantschke, Markus; Bassukas, Ioannis D.; Velegraki, Aristea

2012-01-01

370

Historical aspects of dermatomycoses.  

PubMed

Physicians have been aware of superficial fungal infections for centuries, but the causal agents and treatments of fungal infections remained unknown until the mid-1800s, when numerous important findings were reported. Among the relevant researchers in the field of superficial mycoses were Remak, who found the fungal nature of favus in 1837; Berg, who reported oral candidosis in 1841; and Wilkinson, who described vaginal candidosis in 1849. Tinea versicolor was described clinically in 1846 by Eichstedt, and its etiologic agent was identified in 1853. Beigel reported white piedra in 1856, and Cerqueira, tinea nigra in 1891. The book Les Tiegnes was published by Sabouraud in 1910, and black piedra infection was described by Horta in 1911. In 1927, Nannizzi reported the description of the sexual state of Microsporum gypseum. The current classification of dermatophytes was published by Emmons in 1934, and the taxonomy of yeast fungi was described by Lodder and Kreger-van Rij in 1952. Finally, the successful treatment of tinea capitis with griseofulvin by Gentles in 1958 saved many patients with tinea capitis from permanent hair loss, a common side effect after treatment with thallium. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. PMID:20347652

Negroni, Ricardo

2010-03-01

371

Optimal management of fungal infections of the skin, hair, and nails.  

PubMed

Superficial fungal infections are chronic and recurring conditions. Tinea capitis is a scalp infection, primarily affecting prepubescent children. Ringworm infections, such as tinea corporis and tinea cruris, involve the glabrous skin. Tinea nigra is a rare mycotic infection that may be related to travel abroad. Piedra, black or white, is limited to the hair shaft without involvement of the adjacent skin. Pityriasis (tinea) versicolor and seborrheic dermatitis are dermatoses associated with yeasts of the genus Malassezia that affect the lipid-rich areas of the body. The taxonomy of the Malassezia yeasts has been revised to include nine species, eight of which have been recovered from humans. Tinea pedis, an infection of the feet and toes, is one of the most common forms of dermatophytosis. Onychomycosis is a fungal infection affecting the nail bed and nail plate; it may be chronic and can be difficult to treat. In instances where the superficial fungal infection is severe or chronic, an oral antifungal agent should be considered. Terbinafine, itraconazole, and fluconazole are oral antifungals that are effective in the treatment of superficial mycoses. PMID:15301570

Gupta, Aditya K; Cooper, Elizabeth A; Ryder, Jennifer E; Nicol, Karyn A; Chow, Melody; Chaudhry, Maria M

2004-01-01

372

Susceptibility of natural killer (NK) cells to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their restoration by the mimics of superoxide dismutase (SOD).  

PubMed

Natural killer (NK) cells are susceptible to reactive oxygen species (ROS), and lose the activity by the effects of ROS. Cancer bearing hosts usually suffer from oxidative stress (OS), and the NK-activity decreases to a significantly lower level than normal controls. Superoxide dismutase (SOD)-mimicking substances, such as protein-bound polysaccharide of Coriolus versicolor (Fr) QUEL (PSK) and iron-chelating chlorine e6-Na (FeCNa), can restore the NK-activity of cancer bearing hosts, when collaborating with catalase. Incorporation of 3H-thymidine by ROS-treated NK-cells is not affected, indicating that these cells are still active in the nucleic acid metabolism. Intraperitoneal administration of anti-Asialo GM1 antibody extinguished the NK-activity. NK-cells affected by ROS lost the adherence to target cancer cells in both in vitro and in vivo. ROS may change the surface charge of NK-cells to anionic, resulting in an inability of adhesion to target cancer cells which usually show the negative surface charge. PMID:10850363

Nakamura, K; Matsunaga, K

1998-08-01

373

Removal of the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) by laccase-mediated systems.  

PubMed

Numerous efforts have been made to remove emerging trace organic contaminants, such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). This study examined the removal of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) by Trametes versicolor laccase and its laccase-mediator systems. Experimental results showed that DEET was poorly removed by laccase alone. The poor removal efficiency of DEET by laccase may be attributed to the presence of strong withdrawing electron group (-CO-N [CH2-CH3]2) in the chemical structure of DEET. Experimental results also indicated that DEET might be indirectly oxidized by laccase-mediator systems. More than 50% initial DEET amount was removed by laccase in the presence of a redox mediator, such as 2,2'-azino-bis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] (ABTS) or 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT). However, laccase activity was considerably decreased in the presence of a redox mediator (ABTS or HBT). Further studies on identification of degradation byproducts and degradation pathways are recommended. PMID:24034986

Tran, Ngoc Han; Hu, Jiangyong; Urase, Taro

2013-11-01

374

Mold infestation of wet spray-applied cellulose insulation.  

PubMed

Mold investigations were conducted in four buildings that had been insulated with wet spray-applied cellulose insulation (WSACI). Bulk WSACI samples were collected and analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) methods. Airborne mold was evaluated using both Burkard total mold spore and Andersen culturable/viable sampling methods. Although reportedly treated with biocidal borates, QPCR analyses indicated that elevated concentrations of mold cells (reported as spore equivalents per gram) may be present in WSACI. QPCR analyses showed the following: (1) very high concentrations of Penicillium chrysogenum in samples from two of four buildings; (2) very high concentrations of Stachybotrys chartarum in samples from one building and a more moderate presence in a second; (3) moderately high concentrations of Aspergillus versicolor in samples from one building and more moderate concentrations in a second; (4) the presence of the opportunistic pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, in samples from three of the four buildings, and (5) the presence of 22 of 23 target mold species. Elevated airborne total mold spore concentrations were observed in all four of the buildings investigated. Culturable/viable airborne mold concentrations were moderately elevated in three of the four buildings. Mold genera/types present were relatively consistent among airborne mold samples collected by both methods and bulk sample analyses. Results of this study suggest that WSACI has the potential to cause elevated airborne mold levels in buildings where it has been applied and pose significant mold exposure and public health risks. PMID:16499151

Godish, Thad J; Godish, Diana R

2006-01-01

375

Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by new isolates of white rot fungi.  

PubMed Central

Eight rapid Poly R-478 dye-decolorizing isolates from The Netherlands were screened in this study for the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) supplied at 10 mg liter(-1). Several well-known ligninolytic culture collection strains, Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKM-F-1767, Trametes versicolor Paprican 52, and Bjerkandera adusta CBS 595.78 were tested in parallel. All of the strains significantly removed anthracene, and nine of the strains significantly removed benzo(a)pyrene beyond the limited losses observed in sterile liquid and HgCl2-poisoned fungus controls. One of the new isolates, Bjerkandera sp. strain Bos 55, was the best degrader of both anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene, removing 99.2 and 83.1% of these compounds after 28 days, respectively. Half of the strains, exemplified by strains of the genera Bjerkandera and Phanerochaete, converted anthracene to anthraquinone, which was found to be a dead-end metabolite, in high yields. The extracellular fluids of selected strains were shown to be implicated in this conversion. In contrast, four Trametes strains removed anthracene without significant accumulation of the quinone. The ability of Trametes strains to degrade anthraquinone was confirmed in this study. None of the strains accumulated PAH quinones during benzo(a)pyrene degradation. Biodegradation of PAH by the various strains was highly correlated to the rate by which they decolorized Poly R-478 dye, demonstrating that ligninolytic indicators are useful in screening for promising PAH-degrading white rot fungal strains. PMID:1637159

Field, J A; de Jong, E; Feijoo Costa, G; de Bont, J A

1992-01-01

376

Three-dimensional organization of three-domain copper oxidases: A review  

SciTech Connect

'Blue' copper-containing proteins are multidomain proteins that utilize a unique redox property of copper ions. Among other blue multicopper oxidases, three-domain oxidases belong to the group of proteins that exhibit a wide variety of compositions in amino acid sequences, functions, and occurrences in organisms. This paper presents a review of the data obtained from X-ray diffraction investigations of the three-dimensional structures of three-domain multicopper oxidases, such as the ascorbate oxidase catalyzing oxidation of ascorbate to dehydroascorbate and its three derivatives; the multicopper oxidase CueO (the laccase homologue); the laccases isolated from the basidiomycetes Coprinus cinereus, Trametes versicolor, Coriolus zonatus, Cerrena maxima, and Rigidoporus lignosus and the ascomycete Melanocarpus albomyces; and the bacterial laccases CotA from the endospore coats of Bacillus subtilis. A comparison of the molecular structures of the laccases of different origins demonstrates that, structurally, these objects are highly conservative. This obviously indicates that the catalytic activity of the enzymes under consideration is characterized by similar mechanisms.

Zhukhlistova, N. E., E-mail: amm@ns.crys.ras.ru; Zhukova, Yu. N.; Lyashenko, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Zaitsev, V. N. [University of St. Andrews, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences (United Kingdom); Mikhailov, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

2008-01-15

377

Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from the cerrado of the centralwestern region of Brazil  

PubMed Central

Ethanol extracts from six selected species from the Cerrado of the Central-Western region of Brazil, which are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and other medical conditions, namely Erythroxylum suberosum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae), Hyptis crenata Pohl. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae), Roupala brasiliensis Klotz. (Proteaceae), Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (Simaroubaceae), Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae) and Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) March. (Burseraceae), as well as fractions resulting from partition of these crude extracts, were screened in vitro for their antifungal and antibacterial properties. The antimicrobial activities were assessed by the broth microdilution assay against six control fungal strains, Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans, and five control Gram-positive and negative bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Toxicity of the extracts and fractions against Artemia salina was also evaluated in this work. All plants investigated showed antimicrobial properties against at least one microorganism and two species were also significantly toxic to brine shrimp larvae. The results tend to support the traditional use of these plants for the treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders and/or skin diseases, opening the possibility of finding new antimicrobial agents from these natural sources. Among the species investigated, Hyptis crenata, Erythroxylum suberosum and Roupala brasiliensis were considered the most promising candidates for developing of future bioactivity-guided phytochemical investigations. PMID:24031956

Violante, Ivana Maria Povoa; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Batista, Ana Lucia; Chang, Marilene Rodrigues; Pott, Vali Joana; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues

2012-01-01

378

The application of dermal papillary rings in dermatology by in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) allows noninvasive visualization of human skin in vivo, without needing to fix or section the tissue. Melanocytes and pigmented keratinocytes at the level of the basal layer form bright dermal papillary rings which are readily amenable to identify in confocal images. Our purpose was to explore the role of dermal papillary rings in assessment of lesion location, the diagnosis, differential diagnosis of lesions and assessment of therapeutic efficacy by in vivo CLSM. Seventy-one patients were imaged with the VivaScope 1500 reflectance confocal microscope provided by Lucid, Inc. The results indicate that dermal papillary rings can assess the location of lesion; the application of dermal papillary rings can provide diagnostic support and differential diagnosis for vitiligo, nevus depigmentosus, tinea versicolor, halo nevus, common nevi, and assess the therapeutic efficacy of NBUVB phototherapy plus topical 0.1 percent tacrolimus ointment for vitiligo. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the dermal papillary rings play an important role in the assessment the location of lesion, diagnosis, differential diagnosis of lesions and assessment of therapeutic efficacy by in vivo CLSM. CLSM may be a promising tool for noninvasive examination in dermatology. However, larger studies are needed to expand the application of dermal papillary rings in dermatology.

Xiang, W. Z.; Xu, A. E.; Xu, J.; Bi, Z. G.; Shang, Y. B.; Ren, Q. S.

2010-08-01

379

Protein-bound polysaccharide-K induces IL-1? via TLR2 and NLRP3 inflammasome activation.  

PubMed

Inflammasome activation has been shown to regulate both innate and adaptive immune responses. It is important to investigate whether immune-enhancing natural products can also activate inflammasome. The current study examined the potential of protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK), a hot water extract from Trametes versicolor, to activate inflammasome. Using THP-1 cells, we have demonstrated that PSK induces both pro-IL-1? and mature IL-1? in THP-1 cells in a caspase 1- and NLRP3-dependent manner. PSK also induces IL-1? and IL-18 in human PBMC. Cathepsin B is required for PSK-induced inflammasome activation as CA-074-Me, a cathepsin B inhibitor, significantly decreased PSK-induced IL-1?. PSK induces NLRP3 at both mRNA and protein level. Comparison of PSK-induced IL-1? in bone marrow-derived macrophages from wild type C57BL/6 mice, TLR2(-/-), P2X7R(-/-) and NLRP3(-/-) mice demonstrated that PSK-induced IL-1? is dependent on both TLR2 and NLRP3. P2X7R is not required for PSK-induced inflammasome activation, but enhances PSK-induced caspase-1 activation and IL-1? induction. Altogether, these results demonstrated that PSK induces inflammasome activation and production of IL-1? in a TLR2- and NLRP3-dependent mechanism. These results provide novel insights into the mechanisms of the immune modulatory effects of PSK. PMID:24323452

Yang, Yi; Inatsuka, Carol; Gad, Ekram; Disis, Mary L; Standish, Leanna J; Pugh, Nirmal; Pasco, David S; Lu, Hailing

2014-11-01

380

Diverse deep-sea fungi from the South China Sea and their antimicrobial activity.  

PubMed

We investigated the diversity of fungal communities in nine different deep-sea sediment samples of the South China Sea by culture-dependent methods followed by analysis of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Although 14 out of 27 identified species were reported in a previous study, 13 species were isolated from sediments of deep-sea environments for the first report. Moreover, these ITS sequences of six isolates shared 84-92 % similarity with their closest matches in GenBank, which suggested that they might be novel phylotypes of genera Ajellomyces, Podosordaria, Torula, and Xylaria. The antimicrobial activities of these fungal isolates were explored using a double-layer technique. A relatively high proportion (56 %) of fungal isolates exhibited antimicrobial activity against at least one pathogenic bacterium or fungus among four marine pathogenic microbes (Micrococcus luteus, Pseudoaltermonas piscida, Aspergerillus versicolor, and A. sydowii). Out of these antimicrobial fungi, the genera Arthrinium, Aspergillus, and Penicillium exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities, while genus Aureobasidium displayed only antibacterial activity, and genera Acremonium, Cladosporium, Geomyces, and Phaeosphaeriopsis displayed only antifungal activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate the diversity and antimicrobial activity of culturable deep-sea-derived fungi in the South China Sea. These results suggest that diverse deep-sea fungi from the South China Sea are a potential source for antibiotics' discovery and further increase the pool of fungi available for natural bioactive product screening. PMID:23736224

Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Zhang, Yun; Xu, Xin-Ya; Qi, Shu-Hua

2013-11-01

381

Fat of the wild avian filarial nematode Chandlerella quiscali (Onchocercidae: Filarioidea) in the domestic chicken.  

PubMed

Chandlerella quiscali is a filarial nematode parasitizing the brain of the common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula versicolor), blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata bromia), brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater ater), and starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Filarial infections of many wild bird species are common but natural infections of domestic fowl are rare. The habits of many wild birds commonly bring them in close association with domestic poultry. Because of the high prevalence of C. quiscali in grackles (98%) and the pathogenesis it might cause in an unnatural host, this parasite was used to test the receptiveness of the domestic chicken as a host. Microfilariae of C. quiscali were injected into chickens and adult worms were transplanted into the brain or body cavity of other chickens. One group of experimental chickens was immunosuppressed (IS) while another group was not immunosuppressed (NIS). Microfilariae circulated in the blood of IS and NIS chickens for at least 56 days. There was no significant difference in the number of microfilariae recovered from IS and NIS chickens. Adult worms were encapsulated in the brain of NIS chickens and in the body cavity of IS and NIS chickens. Worms survived for 36 hr in the brains of IS chickens. Past 36 hr the worms were shriveled and dead, apparently the result of a physiological and/or nutritional deficiency in the brain. PMID:7393850

Granath, W O

1980-05-01

382

Polysaccharide-K augments docetaxel-induced tumor suppression and antitumor immune response in an immunocompetent murine model of human prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer has high mortality rates and limited treatment options. Novel therapies are needed to better contend with this disease. Polysaccharide-K® (PSK), an extract of the mushroom Trametes versicolor, has immunomodulatory and tumor suppressive activities. PSK is used in Asia as a cancer immunotherapy. However, its benefit in combination with taxanes for prostate cancer is unknown. We examined whether PSK would enhance docetaxel-induced apoptosis and augment anti-tumor immune responses in orthotopic tumors using transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP)-C2-bearing mice. Combining PSK with docetaxel induced significantly higher tumor suppression than either treatment alone (p<0.05), including a reduction in tumor proliferation and enhanced apoptosis. Combined PSK and docetaxel treatment led to a lower decrease in number of white blood cells than docetaxel alone, an effect accompanied by increased numbers of tumor-infiltrating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. PSK with or without docetaxel significantly enhanced mRNA expression of IFN-? compared to control, but did not significantly alter T-regulatory FoxP3 mRNA expression in tumors. PSK also augmented docetaxel-induced splenic natural killer cell cytolytic activity against YAC-1 target cells (p=0.045). This study is the first to show that PSK enhances docetaxel-induced prostate cancer tumor suppression, apoptosis and antitumor responses. PMID:22159900

WENNER, CYNTHIA A.; MARTZEN, MARK R.; LU, HAILING; VERNERIS, MICHAEL R.; WANG, HONGBO; SLATON, JOEL W.

2012-01-01

383

Effects of leachate from tree leaves and grass litter on tadpoles.  

PubMed

Tree species composition can change as a result of succession, climate change, fire suppression, and invasive species. These changes clearly affect forests, but they can also affect aquatic ecosystems based on differences in the input quality of leaf litter, such as plant secondary compounds. These compounds vary in type and concentration depending on species and can be toxic to aquatic organisms. To examine toxic effects on Pseudacris maculata and Pseudacris crucifer tadpoles, we conducted 60-d laboratory experiments to compare leaf litter leachate from a dominant canopy species (red oak) and nonnative species (white pine) with an aquatic grass (prairie cordgrass) and plain water control. An additional experiment examined the effects of white pine on Bufo americanus, Hyla versicolor, and tannin concentrations in natural ponds. Compared with the control and grass, tree leaf extracts resulted in reduced tadpole survival. Leached compounds from pine reduced tadpole survival to 3 d or less. Tadpoles were able to metamorphose in significant numbers only from the two controls. The lowered survival with the red oak treatment might have been caused by lowered dissolved oxygen or high tannin concentrations. However, pine is known to have high concentrations of toxic monoterpenes, which should be investigated further. We found that tannin concentrations in natural ponds were much lower than the test concentrations, indicating that these results may represent worst-case scenarios or unrealistic concentrations. PMID:22488805

Earl, Julia E; Cohagen, Kara E; Semlitsch, Raymond D

2012-07-01

384

Frog virus 3-like infections in aquatic amphibian communities.  

PubMed

Frog virus 3 (FV3) and FV3-like viruses, are members of the genus Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae), and they have been associated with infectious diseases that may be contributing to amphibian population declines. We examined the mode of transmission of an FV3-like virus, and potential hosts and reservoirs of the virus in a local amphibian community. Using the polymerase chain reaction to detect infected animals, we found an FV3-like virus in south-central Ontario, Canada, amphibian communities, where it infects sympatric amphibian species, including ranid and hylid tadpoles (Rana sylvatica, Hyla versicolor, and Pseudacris spp.), larval salamanders (Ambystoma spp.), and adult eastern-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens). The high prevalence of FV3-like infections in caudate larvae suggests that salamanders are likely to be both hosts and reservoirs. In laboratory FV3 challenges of R. sylvatica, the rate of infection was dependent on the amount of virus to which the animals were exposed. In addition, although vertical transmission was suspected, horizontal transmission through exposure to infected pond water is the most likely route of infection in tadpoles. Based on our observations, a simple model of FV3/FV3-like virus transmission postulates that, in aquatic amphibian communities, transmission of the virus occurs between anuran and urodele species, with ambystomatid salamanders the most likely reservoir for the ranavirus in our study. PMID:18263826

Duffus, A L J; Pauli, B D; Wozney, K; Brunetti, C R; Berrill, M

2008-01-01

385

Freeze-induced expression of a novel gene, fr47, in the liver of the freeze-tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica.  

PubMed

The ability to endure the freezing of body fluids is well developed as an adaptation for winter survival in several species of woodland frogs. Recently, the mechanisms supporting natural freeze tolerance have been shown to include the expression of novel genes. One such novel gene, fr47, codes for a 390-amino acid protein present in the livers of freeze-tolerant anurans (Rana sylvatica, Pseudacris crucifer, Hyla versicolor) but not in freeze-intolerant species (Rana pipiens, Scaphiopus couchii). Regulatory influences on gene and protein expression were investigated using R. sylvatica. Northern blot analysis showed that transcript levels were increased following 24 h of freezing (5.1-fold), 24 h of anoxia exposure (6.4-fold), or the loss of 20% of total body water (2.7-fold). Immunoblotting with anti-FR47 antibody indicated that protein levels increased during freezing and thawing, but decreased somewhat during anoxia or dehydration exposure, although rebounding during recovery. These results suggest that (i) FR47 function is important for freeze survival, and (ii) that control at the protein level may be exerted posttranscriptionally. Finally, assessment of putative signal transduction pathways regulating fr47 gene expression, via in vitro incubations of liver slices, indicated the involvement of a protein kinase C-mediated pathway. PMID:12531477

McNally, J Dayre; Sturgeon, Christopher M; Storey, Kenneth B

2003-01-27

386

Preliminary amphibian health survey in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area.  

PubMed

To detect aquatic animal diseases of national concern, 111 individual amphibians, including wood frogs Rana sylvatica (28), spring peepers Pseudacris crucifer (35), red-spotted newts Notophthalmus viridescens (41), and gray tree frogs Hyla versicolor (7), were sampled at seven different sites in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area (DGNRA), Pennsylvania, from June 14 to July 19, 2007. These samples were screened for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and viral pathogens at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Fish Health Center in Lamar, Pennsylvania. Cell culture revealed cytopathic effect (CPE) in two cell lines (epithelioma papillosum cyprini and fathead minnow) inoculated with liver, kidney, and spleen samples from one sample pool of Notophthalmus viridescens (4 individuals). Polymerase chain reaction was conducted on cell culture supernatant exhibiting CPE. Sequencing revealed the resulting product to be identical to frog virus 3, a ranavirus in the family Iridoviridae. Upon gross examination, two Notophthalmus viridescens were found to exhibit dermal swelling and lethargy. Histological examination of these lesions revealed involvement by an Ichthyophonus sp. In summary, two pathogens of concern were found in amphibians in the DGNRA: a ranavirus with a major capsid protein sequence identical to that of frog virus 3 and a mesomycetozoan, Ichthyophonus sp. Although no epizootic die-offs were observed during this health survey, the results warrant further research into the distribution of these pathogens throughout the DGNRA because they have the potential to cause mass mortalities in amphibians. PMID:20848885

Glenney, Gavin W; Julian, James T; Quartz, William M

2010-06-01

387

Common environmental allergens causing respiratory allergy in India.  

PubMed

Respiratory allergy affects all age groups but the children are the worst affected by the respiratory allergy. Bioparticles from different biological sources are the main cause of allergy. Pollen grains, fungal spores, insect and other materials of biological origin form the most important allergen load in the air. For the efficient diagnosis of the allergy and its effective treatment it is very important to know about the prevalence, seasonal and annual variations of aeroallergens of the area. India being the climatically diversed country, there is diversity in the flora and fauna of different parts of the country. Atmospheric surveys carried out in different parts of India reveal that, Alanus nitida, Amarantus spinosus, Argemone mexicana Cocos nucifera, Betula utilis, Borasus flabellifer, Caraica papaya, Cedrus deodara, Cassia fistula, Parthenium, Chenopodium album, Dodonaea viscosa, Malotus phillipensis, Plantago ovata, Prosopis juliflora, Ricinus communis, Holoptelea intergifolia are the allergenically important pollens of the country. Among the fungal aeroallergens, Alternaria, Candida aibieans, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus japonicus, Cladosporium cladosporoides, Fusarium roseum, Ganoderma lucidum,Neurospora sitophila Helminthosporium, Ustilago trtici, Uromyses are important allergens. Dust mites D. farinae, D.pteronyssinus are also important source of inhalant allergens particularly in the coastal areas of the country. Cockroaches, beetles, weevils, mosquitoes, house flies also contribute towards the aeroallergen load and are allergenically implicated. Avoidance of the indoor and outdoor aeroallergens is recommended for better management of respiratory allergy. PMID:12003301

Singh, A B; Kumar, Pawan

2002-03-01

388

Degradation of three aromatic dyes by white rot fungi and the production of ligninolytic enzymes.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the degradation of aromatic dyes and the production of ligninolytic enzymes by 10 white rot fungi. The results of this study revealed that Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, Pleurotus pulmonarius, Ganoderma lucidum, Trametes suaveolens, Stereum ostrea and Fomes fomentarius have the ability to efficiently degrade congo red on solid media. However, malachite green inhibited the mycelial growth of these organisms. Therefore, they did not effectively decolorize malachite green on solid media. However, P. cinnabarinus and P. pulmonarius were able to effectively decolorize malachite green on solid media. T. suaveolens and F. rosea decolorized methylene blue more effectively than any of the other fungi evaluated in this study. In liquid culture, G. lucidum, P. cinnabarinus, Naematoloma fasciculare and Pycnoporus coccineus were found to have a greater ability to decolorize congo red. In addition, P. cinnabarinus, G. lucidum and T. suaveolens decolorized methylene blue in liquid media more effectively than any of the other organisms evaluated in this study. Only F. fomentarius was able to decolorize malachite green in liquid media, and its ability to do so was limited. To investigate the production of ligninolytic enzymes in media containing aromatic compounds, fungi were cultured in naphthalene supplemented liquid media. P. coccineus, Coriolus versicolor and P. cinnabarinus were found to produce a large amount of laccase when grown in medium that contained napthalene. PMID:23990745

Jayasinghe, Chandana; Imtiaj, Ahmed; Lee, Geon Woo; Im, Kyung Hoan; Hur, Hyun; Lee, Min Woong; Yang, Hee-Sun; Lee, Tae-Soo

2008-06-01

389

Coupling occurs before breakdown during biotransformation of Acid Blue 62 by white rot fungi.  

PubMed

Only few data exist on the metabolites produced during the biotransformation of anthraquinonic dyes by white rot fungi (WRF). During the biotransformation of an anthraquinonic dye Acid Blue 62 (ABu62) using Pycnoporus sanguineus MUCL 41582 strain, it was previously demonstrated that the blue colour of the medium turned to red before complete dye decolourisation. To better understand the phenomenon, this study carried out ABu62 biotransformation with five different WRF strains (Coriolopsis polyzona MUCL 38443, Perenniporia ochroleuca MUCL 41114, Perenniporia tephropora MUCL 41562, P. sanguineus MUCL 38531 and Trametes versicolor MUCL 38412) and compared with P. sanguineus MUCL 41582 previously described. A multi-methodological approach (using capillary electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, HPLC, UV, NMR and IR spectroscopies) was developed to characterise the metabolites involved and monitor their apparition. Seven metabolites were commonly found with all strains, suggesting a common metabolic pathway for ABu62 biotransformation. During the first days, dimer and oligomers of the initial ABu62 molecule were observed: the main one absorbed in the 500nm region, explaining the red colour appearance of the medium. This main metabolite was made up of two molecules of ABu62 linked by an azo bond, minus a cyclohexyl moiety. After a longer incubation time, breakdown products were observed. Based on these products characterizations, a bioconversion pathway was proposed. PMID:17825354

Vanhulle, Sophie; Enaud, Estelle; Trovaslet, Marie; Billottet, Ludovic; Kneipe, Laurence; Habib Jiwan, Jean-Louis; Corbisier, Anne-Marie; Marchand-Brynaert, Jacqueline

2008-01-01

390

Laccases from Aureobasidium pullulans.  

PubMed

Laccases are polyphenol oxidases (EC 1.10.3.2) that have numerous industrial and bioremediation applications. Laccases are well known as lignin-degrading enzymes, but these enzymes can play numerous other roles in fungi. In this study, 41 strains of the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans were examined for laccase production. Enzymes from A. pullulans were distinct from those from lignin-degrading fungi and associated with pigment production. Laccases from strains in phylogenetic clade 5, which produced a dark vinaceous pigment, exhibited a temperature optimum of 50-60°C and were stable for an hour at 50°C, unlike enzymes from the lignin-degrading fungi Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus. Laccase purified from A. pullulans strain NRRL 50381, a representative of clade 5, was glycosylated but had a molecular weight of 60-70kDa after Endo H treatment. Laccase purified from strain NRRL Y-2568, which produced a dark olivaceous pigment, was also glycosylated, but had a molecular weight of greater than 100kDa after Endo H treatment. PMID:23683702

Rich, Joseph O; Leathers, Timothy D; Anderson, Amber M; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Manitchotpisit, Pennapa

2013-06-10

391

Prediction of Toxigenic Fungal Growth in Buildings by Using a Novel Modelling System  

PubMed Central

There is growing concern about the adverse effects of fungal bioaerosols on the occupants of damp dwellings. Based on an extensive analysis of previously published data and on experiments carried out within this study, critical limits for the growth of the indoor fungi Eurotium herbariorum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Stachybotrys chartarum were mathematically described in terms of growth limit curves (isopleths) which define the minimum combination of temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) at which growth will occur. Each growth limit curve was generated from a series of data points on a T-RH plot and mathematically fitted by using a third-order polynomial equation of the form RH = a3T3 + a2T2 + a1T + a0. This fungal growth prediction model was incorporated within the ESP-r (Environmental Systems Performance [r stands for “research”]) computer-based program for transient simulation of the energy and environmental performance of buildings. For any specified location, the ESP-r system is able to predict the time series evolution of local surface temperature and relative humidity, taking explicit account of constructional moisture flow, moisture generation sources, and air movement. This allows the predicted local conditions to be superimposed directly onto fungal growth curves. The concentration of plotted points relative to the curves allows an assessment of the risk of fungal growth. The system’s predictive capability was tested via laboratory experiments and by comparison with monitored data from a fungus-contaminated house. PMID:10543791

Rowan, Neil J.; Johnstone, Cameron M.; McLean, R. Craig; Anderson, John G.; Clarke, Joe A.

1999-01-01

392

Nanostructured enzymatic biosensor based on fullerene and gold nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and analytical applications.  

PubMed

In this work a novel electrochemical biosensing platform based on the coupling of two different nanostructured materials (gold nanoparticles and fullerenols) displaying interesting electrochemical features, has been developed and characterized. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) exhibit attractive electrocatalytic behavior stimulating in the last years, several sensing applications; on the other hand, fullerene and its derivatives are a very promising family of electroactive compounds although they have not yet been fully employed in biosensing. The methodology proposed in this work was finalized to the setup of a laccase biosensor based on a multilayer material consisting in AuNPs, fullerenols and Trametes versicolor Laccase (TvL) assembled layer by layer onto a gold (Au) electrode surface. The influence of different modification step procedures on the electroanalytical performance of biosensors has been evaluated. Cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) were used to characterize the modification of surface and to investigate the bioelectrocatalytic biosensor response. This biosensor showed fast amperometric response to gallic acid, which is usually considered a standard for polyphenols analysis of wines, with a linear range 0.03-0.30 mmol L(-1) (r(2)=0.9998), with a LOD of 0.006 mmol L(-1) or expressed as polyphenol index 5.0-50 mg L(-1) and LOD 1.1 mg L(-1). A tentative application of the developed nanostructured enzyme-based biosensor was performed evaluating the detection of polyphenols either in buffer solution or in real wine samples. PMID:24441023

Lanzellotto, C; Favero, G; Antonelli, M L; Tortolini, C; Cannistraro, S; Coppari, E; Mazzei, F

2014-05-15

393

Non-parallel coevolution of sender and receiver in the acoustic communication system of treefrogs.  

PubMed Central

Advertisement calls of closely related species often differ in quantitative features such as the repetition rate of signal units. These differences are important in species recognition. Current models of signal-receiver coevolution predict two possible patterns in the evolution of the mechanism used by receivers to recognize the call: (i) classical sexual selection models (Fisher process, good genes/indirect benefits, direct benefits models) predict that close relatives use qualitatively similar signal recognition mechanisms tuned to different values of a call parameter; and (ii) receiver bias models (hidden preference, pre-existing bias models) predict that if different signal recognition mechanisms are used by sibling species, evidence of an ancestral mechanism will persist in the derived species, and evidence of a pre-existing bias will be detectable in the ancestral species. We describe qualitatively different call recognition mechanisms in sibling species of treefrogs. Whereas Hyla chrysoscelis uses pulse rate to recognize male calls, Hyla versicolor uses absolute measurements of pulse duration and interval duration. We found no evidence of either hidden preferences or pre-existing biases. The results are compared with similar data from katydids (Tettigonia sp.). In both taxa, the data are not adequately explained by current models of signal-receiver coevolution. PMID:12350274

Schul, Johannes; Bush, Sarah L

2002-01-01

394

Collection efficiencies of an electrostatic sampler with superhydrophobic surface for fungal bioaerosols  

PubMed Central

We recently developed an electrostatic precipitator with superhydrophobic surface (EPSS), which collects particles into a 10- to 40-?l water droplet allowing achievement of very high concentration rates (defined as the ratio of particle concentration in the collection liquid vs. the airborne particle concentration per time unit) when sampling airborne bacteria. Here, we analyzed the performance of this sampler when collecting three commonly found fungal spores – Cladosporium cladosporioides, Penicillium melinii, and Aspergillus versicolor – under different operating conditions. We also adapted adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-based bioluminescence for the analysis of collection efficiency and the concentration rates. The collection efficiency ranged from 10 to 36% at a sampling flow rate of 10 l/min when the airborne fungal spore concentration was approximately 105–106 spores/m3 resulting in concentration rates in the range of 1 × 105–3 × 105/min for a 10-?l droplet. The collection efficiency was inversely proportional to the airborne spore concentration and it increased to above 60% for common ambient spore concentrations, e.g., 104–105 spores/m3. The spore concentrations determined by the ATP-based method were not statistically different from those determined by microscopy and allowed us to analyze spore concentrations that were too low to be reliably detected by microscopy. PMID:21204982

Han, T.; Nazarenko, Y.; Lioy, P. J.; Mainelis, G.

2014-01-01

395

White-rot basidiomycete-mediated decomposition of C60 fullerol.  

PubMed

Industrially produced carbon-based nanomaterials (CNM), including fullerenes and nanotubes, will be introduced into the environment in increasing amounts in the next decades. One likely environmental chemical transformation of C60 is oxidation to C60 fullerol through both abiotic- and biotic-mediated means. Unfortunately, knowledge of the environmental fate of oxidized CNM is lacking. This study used bulk and compound-specific 13C stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry techniques and spectroradiometry analysis to examine the ability of two white rot basidiomycete fungi (Phlebia tremellosa and Trametes versicolor) to metabolize and degrade an oxygenated CNM, C60 fullerol. After 32 weeks of decay, both fungi were able to bleach and oxidize fullerol to CO2. Additionally, the fungi incorporated minor amounts of the fullerol carbon into lipid biomass. These findings are significant in that they represent the first report of direct biodegradation and utilization of any fullerene derivative and provide valuable information about the possible environmental fates of other CNM. PMID:19534129

Schreiner, Kathryn M; Filley, Timothy R; Blanchette, Robert A; Bowen, Brenda Beitler; Bolskar, Robert D; Hockaday, William C; Masiello, Caroline A; Raebiger, James W

2009-05-01

396

A chloroplast DNA deletion located in RNA polymerase gene rpoC2 in CMS lines of sorghum.  

PubMed

Fertile lines of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were shown to differ from cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines by the presence of a 3.8 kb HindIII chloroplast DNA fragment in the former and a smaller (3.7 kb) fragment in the latter. DNA/DNA hybridization studies showed that these two fragments are homologous. Fertile plants from S. versicolor, S. almum, S. halepense, and Sorghastrum nutans (Yellow Indiangrass) also have the 3.8 kb fragment, and CMS lines studied containing A1, A2 and A3 cytoplasms have the 3.7 kb fragment. The size difference between the two fragments was localized to a 1.0 kb SacI-HindIII fragment by restriction mapping. A 165 bp deletion, which is flanked by a 51 bp tandem repeat, was identified in the CMS lines by sequencing the clones. Comparison of the two sequences with those from maize, rice, tobacco, spinach, pea, and liverwort revealed that the deleted sequence is located in the middle of the RNA polymerase beta" subunit encoded by the gene rpoC2. The amino acid sequence deleted in the CMS lines is in a monocot-specific region which contains two protein motifs that are characteristic of several transcriptional activation factors, namely, a leucine zipper motif and an acidic domain capable of forming an amphipathic alpha-helix. Further studies designed to determine whether or not the deletion is involved in CMS of sorghum are underway. PMID:8437572

Chen, Z; Muthukrishnan, S; Liang, G H; Schertz, K F; Hart, G E

1993-01-01

397

Oxalate production by wood-rotting fungi growing in toxic metal-amended medium.  

PubMed

In this report, we have identified oxalic acid as an important metabolite elaborated in the response of wood-rotting fungi to toxic metal stress. The formation of oxalate crystals by white rot fungi (Bjerkandera fumosa, Phlebia radiata and Trametes versicolor) and the brown rot fungus Fomitopsis pinicola, grown on media containing high levels of toxic metal ions has been visualized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray micro-analysis (EDXA) and HPLC. There were no significant differences between the growth of controls (metal-free) and on the 0.5% CaCO(3), Co(3)(PO(4))(2) or Zn(3)(PO(4))(2)-amended plates. ZnO inhibited the growth of all strains. Crystals were not detected in Zn(3)(PO(4))(2)-amended plates. The four examined strains displayed the formation of crystals on ZnO, Co(3)(PO(4))(2) and CaCO(3)-amended plates. PMID:12738291

Jarosz-Wilkolazka, Anna; Gadd, Geoffrey M

2003-07-01

398

In vitro acaricidal efficacy of plant extracts from Brazilian flora and isolated substances against Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

The tick Rhipicephalus microplus causes significant losses in livestock cattle and has developed increasing resistance to the primary acaricides that are used to treat these infections. The objective of this study was to identify new biomolecules or isolated substances showing acaricidal activity from plants. Larval packet tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of 11 species of plants and three isolated substances (betulinic acid, eugenol, and nerolidol) on R. microplus. An adult female immersion test was performed with the substance that showed the highest larvicidal activity, which was evaluated for inhibition of reproduction. Tests using Licania tomentosa, Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Hymenaea courbaril, Stryphnodendron obovatum, Jacaranda cuspidifolia, Jacaranda ulei, Struthanthus polyrhizus, Chrysobalanus icaco, Vernonia phosphorea, Duguetia furfuracea, and Simarouba versicolor extracts as well as the isolated substance betulinic acid indicated lower acaricidal effects on R. microplus larvae. The extract displaying the best larvicidal activity was the ethanolic extract from L. tomentosa at a concentration of 60%, resulting in a mortality rate of 40.3%. However, nerolidol and eugenol showed larvicidal activity, which was highest for eugenol. Nerolidol caused a 96.5% mortality rate in the R. microplus larvae at a high concentration of 30%, and eugenol caused 100% mortality at a concentration of 0.3%. In the adult immersion test, 5% eugenol was identified as a good biomolecule for controlling R. microplus, as demonstrated by its high acaricidal activity and inhibition of oviposition. PMID:24221889

Valente, Paula Pimentel; Amorim, Juliana Mendes; Castilho, Rachel Oliveira; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Ribeiro, Múcio Flávio Barbosa

2014-01-01

399

Use of Cl and C isotopic fractionation to identify degradation and sources of polychlorinated phenols: mechanistic study and field application.  

PubMed

The widespread use of chlorinated phenols (CPs) as a wood preservative has led to numerous contaminated sawmill sites. However, it remains challenging to assess the extent of in situ degradation of CPs. We evaluated the use of compound-specific chlorine and carbon isotope analysis (Cl- and C-CSIA) to assess CP biotransformation. In a laboratory system, we measured isotopic fractionation during oxidative 2,4,6-trichlorophenol dechlorination by representative soil enzymes (C. fumago chloroperoxidase, horseradish peroxidase, and laccase from T. versicolor). Using a mathematical model, the validity of the Rayleigh approach to evaluate apparent kinetic isotope effects (AKIE) was confirmed. A small but significant Cl-AKIE of 1.0022 ± 0.0006 was observed for all three enzymes, consistent with a reaction pathway via a cationic radical species. For carbon, a slight inverse isotope effect was observed (C-AKIE = 0.9945 ± 0.0019). This fractionation behavior is clearly distinguishable from reported reductive dechlorination mechanisms. Based on these results we then assessed degradation and apportioned different types of technical CP mixtures used at two former sawmill sites. To our knowledge, this is the first study that makes use of two-element CSIA to study sources and transformation of CPs in the environment. PMID:23210465

Aeppli, Christoph; Tysklind, Mats; Holmstrand, Henry; Gustafsson, Örjan

2013-01-15

400

Effects of road deicer (NaCl) and amphibian grazers on detritus processing in pond mesocosms.  

PubMed

Road deicers have been identified as potential stressors in aquatic habitats throughout the United States, but we know little regarding associated impacts to ecosystem function. A critical component of ecosystem function that has not previously been evaluated with respect to freshwater salinization is the impact on organic matter breakdown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate cumulative effects of road deicers and tadpole grazers on leaf litter breakdown rate (g d(-1) ) and microbial respiration (mg O(2) ?g leaf(-1) h(-1) ). To test this interaction, in May 2008 the authors added dry leaf litter (Quercus spp.) to forty 600-L pond mesocosms and inoculated each with algae and zooplankton. In a full-factorial design, they manipulated a realistic level of road salt (ambient or elevated at 645?mg?L(-1) Cl(-) ) and tadpole (Hyla versicolor) presence or absence. The elevated chloride treatment reduced microbial respiration by 24% in the presence of tadpoles. The breakdown of leaf litter by tadpoles occurred 9.7% faster under ambient chloride conditions relative to the elevated chloride treatment. Results of the present study suggest that the microbial community is directly impacted by road deicers and heavy tadpole grazing under ambient conditions limits microbial capacity to process detritus. Road salts and tadpoles interact to limit microbial respiration, but to a lesser extent leaf mass loss rate, thereby potentially restricting energy flow from detrital sources in pond ecosystems. PMID:22821388

Van Meter, Robin J; Swan, Christopher M; Trossen, Carrie A

2012-10-01

401

Biosensor based on laccase immobilized on plasma polymerized allylamine/carbon electrode.  

PubMed

In this work, a simple and rapid method was used to functionalize carbon electrode in order to efficiently immobilize laccase for biosensor application. A stable allylamine coating was deposited using a low pressure inductively excited RF tubular plasma reactor under mild plasma conditions (low plasma power (10 W), few minutes) to generate high density amine groups (N/C ratio up to 0.18) on rough carbon surface electrodes. The longer was the allylamine plasma deposition time; the better was the surface coverage. Laccase from Trametes versicolor was physisorbed and covalently bound to these allylamine modified carbon surfaces. The laccase activities and current outputs measured in the presence of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazole-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) showed that the best efficiency was obtained for electrode plasma coated during 30 min. They showed also that for all the tested electrodes, the activities and current outputs of the covalently immobilized laccases were twice higher than the physically adsorbed ones. The sensitivity of these biocompatible bioelectrodes was evaluated by measuring their catalytic efficiency for oxygen reduction in the presence of ABTS as non-phenolic redox substrate and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (DMP) as phenolic one. Sensitivities of around 4.8 ?A mg(-1)L and 2.7 ?A mg(-1)L were attained for ABTS and DMP respectively. An excellent stability of this laccase biosensor was observed for over 6 months. PMID:23706201

Ardhaoui, Malika; Bhatt, Sudhir; Zheng, Meihui; Dowling, Denis; Jolivalt, Claude; Khonsari, Farzaneh Arefi

2013-08-01

402

[Fungal nail infections - an update. Part 2 - From the causative agent to diagnosis - conventional and molecular procedures].  

PubMed

Trichophyton (T.) rubrum is the most frequently isolated dermatophyte in onychomycosis, both in Germany and worldwide. T. interdigitale (formerly T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale) follows in second place. A further however rarely isolated dermatophyte in onychomycosis is Epidermophyton floccosum. Candida parapsilosis, Candida guilliermondii, and Candida albicans, followed by Trichosporon spp. are the most important yeasts which are found in onychomycosis. The molds most often responsible include Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, and several Aspergillus species, e. g. Aspergillus versicolor, and Fusarium spp. These so called non-dermatophyte molds (NDM) are increasingly isolated as emerging pathogens in onychomycosis. The diagnosis of onychomycosis should be verified in the mycology laboratory. Conventional diagnostic methods include the direct examination, ideally using fluorescence staining with Calcofluor® or Blancophor®, and culture. However, new molecular biological methods primarily employing the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for direct detection of dermatophyte DNA in skin scrapings and nail samples have been introduced into routine mycological diagnostics. The diagnostic sensitivity is higher when both conventional and molecular procedures are combined. PMID:22037818

Nenoff, P; Ginter-Hanselmayer, G; Tietz, H-J

2012-02-01

403

Laccase biosensors based on different enzyme immobilization strategies for phenolic compounds determination.  

PubMed

Different enzyme immobilization approaches of Trametes versicolor laccase (TvL) onto gold surfaces and their influence on the performance of the final bioanalytical platforms are described. The laccase immobilization methods include: (i) direct adsorption onto gold electrodes (TvL/Au), (ii) covalent attachment to a gold surface modified with a bifunctional reagent, 3,3'-Dithiodipropionic acid di (N-succinimidyl ester) (DTSP), and (iii) integration of the enzyme into a sol-gel 3D polymeric network derived from (3-mercaptopropyl)-trimethoxysilane (MPTS) previously formed onto a gold surface (TvL/MPTS/Au). The characterization and applicability of these biosensors are described. Characterization is performed in aqueous acetate buffer solutions using atomic force microscopy (AFM), providing valuable information concerning morphological data at the nanoscale level. The response of the three biosensing platforms developed, TvL/Au, TvL/DTSP/Au and TvL/MPTS/Au, is evaluated in the presence of hydroquinone (HQ), used as a phenolic enzymatic substrate. All systems exhibit a clear electrocatalytic activity and HQ can be amperometrically determined at -0.10 V versus Ag/AgCl. However, the performance of biosensors - evaluated in terms of sensitivity, detection limit, linear response range, reproducibility and stability - depends clearly on the enzyme immobilization strategy, which allows establishing its influence on the enzyme catalytic activity. PMID:24054609

Casero, E; Petit-Domínguez, M D; Vázquez, L; Ramírez-Asperilla, I; Parra-Alfambra, A M; Pariente, F; Lorenzo, E

2013-10-15

404

Photoenhanced toxicity of a carbamate insecticide to early life stage anuran amphibians  

USGS Publications Warehouse

African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) and gray tree frog (Hyla versicolor) embryos and tadpoles were exposed to sublethal levels of carbaryl, a broad-spectrum insecticide, and ultraviolet radiation to determine interactive and sublethal effects. Ultraviolet intensity (UV-B [285-320 nm] plus LIV-A [321-400 nm]) was controlled with various types of plastic filters and quantified with a scanning spectroradiometer. Significant differences in swimming activity and mortality of both species were evident during the 96-h experiments. Ultraviolet-B radiation alone and carbaryl in the presence of UV-B significantly decreased swimming activity of both species. As little as 1.5% intensity of ambient solar UV-B radiation photoactivated carbaryl. Toxicity of 7.5 mg/L earbaryl increased by 10-fold in the presence of UV-B in all species and life stages tested. Our results indicate that photoenhancement by solar UV-B radiation should be considered when evaluating the toxicity of contaminants to amphibians and other organisms.

Zaga, A.; Little, E.E.; Rabeni, C.F.; Ellersieck, M.R.

1998-01-01

405

Wood decomposing abilities of diverse lignicolous fungi on nondecayed and decayed beech wood.  

PubMed

We tested the decay abilities of 28 isolates from 28 lignicolous fungal species (Basidiomycota, Ascomycota and Zygomycota) with the pure culture test. We used beech wood powder in varying moisture conditions and decay stages (nondecayed, intermediately decayed and well decayed) as substrates. The weight loss in wood powder was -0.2-17.8%. Five isolates of Basidiomycota (Bjerkandera adusta, Mycena haematopus, Omphalotus guepiniformis, Trametes hirsuta, Trametes versicolor) caused high weight losses in nondecayed wood. We detected significant effects of decay stage on weight loss in wood in most isolates tested, whereas moisture content rarely had an effect on weight loss. Among Basidiomycota and Xylariaceae in Ascomycota weight loss was greater for nondecayed wood than for intermediately and well decayed wood. In contrast four isolates in Ascomycota (Scytalidium lignicola, Trichoderma hamatum, T. harzianum, T. koningii) caused substantial weight loss in intermediately and well decayed wood, although they rarely caused weight loss in nondecayed wood. Zygomycota caused low weight loss in wood. Wood decay stages also affected decomposition of wood chemical components. Acid-unhydrolyzable residue (AUR) decomposition was reduced, whereas holocellulose decomposition was stimulated by some strains of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota in well decayed wood. T. harzianum in particular caused significant weight loss of holocellulose in well decayed wood, although this fungus caused negligible weight loss of both AUR and holocellulose in nondecayed wood. We discuss these changes in the decay patterns of AUR and holocellulose with varying wood decay stages in relation to the role of fungal decomposition of woody debris in forests. PMID:21262989

Fukasawa, Yu; Osono, Takashi; Takeda, Hiroshi

2011-01-01

406

The effects of fungi pre-treatment of poplar chips on the kraft fiber properties.  

PubMed

Poplar chips were pre-treated by Trametes versicolor for 1, 2 and 3 weeks. Pre-treated chips, after washing, have been air dried for kraft pulping to achieve pulp kappa number of about 20. Pulp samples have been analyzed by Bauer Mc Nett, Kajaani analyzer and SEM. The results indicated that fungi pre-treatment of chips can degrade lignin and carbohydrates and affect kraft pulping and fiber characteristics. Higher chemical charge in pulping, lower fine and higher long fiber fraction were observed in pre-treated pulp samples in comparison with others. Fiber length, cross sectional area, width, cell wall thickness and volume index were increased by increasing pre-treatment time while fine length, fiber coarseness and curl have been reduced. Based on the study findings, with respect to higher fiber length, lower fine, and lower fiber curl and coarseness, 2-weeks pre-treatment of chips was recommended to produce acceptable overall fiber properties in kraft pulping. PMID:21232938

Garmaroody, Esmaeil Rasooly; Resalati, Hossein; Fardim, Pedro; Hosseini, Seyyed Ziaeddin; Rahnama, Kamran; Saraeeyan, Ahmad Reza; Mirshokraee, Seyyed Ahmad

2011-03-01

407

Evaluation of Argentinean white rot fungi for their ability to produce lignin-modifying enzymes and decolorize industrial dyes.  

PubMed

The decolorizing capacity of 26 white rot fungi from Argentina was investigated. Extracellular production of ligninolytic enzymes by mycelium growing on solid malt extract/glucose medium supplemented with different dyes (Malachite Green, Azure B, Poly R-478, Anthraquinone Blue, Congo Red and Xylidine), dye decolorization and the relationship between these two processes were studied. Only ten strains decolorized all the dyes, all ten strains produced laccase, lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase on solid medium. However, six of the strains could not decolorize any of the dyes; all six strains tested negative for lignin peroxidase, and produced less than 0.05 U/g agar of manganese peroxidase. Comparing the isolates with the well-known dye-degrader Phanerochaete chrysosporium, a new fungus was identified: Coriolus versicolor f. antarcticus, potentially a candidate for use in biodecoloration processes. Eighteen day-old cultures of this fungus were able to decolorize in an hour 28%, 30%, 43%, 88% and 98% of Xylidine (24 mg/l), Poly R-478 (75 mg/l), Remazol Brilliant Blue R (9 mg/l), Malachite Green (6 mg/l) and Indigo Carmine (23 mg/l), respectively. Laccase activity was 0.13 U/ml, but neither lignin peroxidase nor manganese peroxidase were detected in the extracellular fluids for that day of incubation. PMID:15158509

Levin, L; Papinutti, L; Forchiassin, F

2004-09-01

408

EVER2 Deficiency is Associated with Mild T-cell Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by persistent flat warts or pityriasis versicolor-like lesions caused by betapapillomaviruses (EV-HPVs). Autosomal recessive EVER1 and EVER2 deficiencies account for EV in most patients. The mechanisms by which mutations in these partners of the Zinc transporter ZnT1 impair host defense against EV-HPVs are still poorly understood. Keratinocytes of EVER-deficient patients display an alteration of zinc homeostasis and an enhanced proliferative activity. Since EVER proteins are highly expressed in T lymphocytes, we aimed to assess the impact of EVER2 deficiency on T-cell development and function. We studied circulating lymphocyte populations in three adult EV patients sharing the same EVER2 mutation (T150fsX3). We found a normal count of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and a normal proliferative capacity in response to anti-CD3 stimulation. However, we observed a significant increase of memory CD4+ and effector memory CD8+ T cells, a bias of the TCR V?? and V?? repertoires and an increase of skin-homing CD4+ T-cell subsets. Our findings suggest that EVER2-deficient patients display mild T-cell abnormalities. It remains unclear whether these abnormalities result from EVER deficiency, chronic EV-HPV infection, or both. PMID:22903682

Crequer, Amandine; Picard, Capucine; Pedergnana, Vincent; Lim, Annick; Zhang, Shen-Ying; Abel, Laurent; Majewski, Slawomir; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Jablonska, Stefania; Orth, Gerard; Jouanguy, Emmanuelle

2013-01-01

409

EVER2 deficiency is associated with mild T-cell abnormalities.  

PubMed

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by persistent flat warts or pityriasis versicolor-like lesions caused by betapapillomaviruses (EV-HPVs). Autosomal recessive EVER1 and EVER2 deficiencies account for EV in most patients. The mechanisms by which mutations in these partners of the Zinc transporter ZnT1 impair host defense against EV-HPVs are still poorly understood. Keratinocytes of EVER-deficient patients display an alteration of zinc homeostasis and an enhanced proliferative activity. Since EVER proteins are highly expressed in T lymphocytes, we aimed to assess the impact of EVER2 deficiency on T-cell development and function. We studied circulating lymphocyte populations in three adult EV patients sharing the same EVER2 mutation (T150fsX3). We found a normal count of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and a normal proliferative capacity in response to anti-CD3 stimulation. However, we observed a significant increase of memory CD4(+) and effector memory CD8(+) T cells, a bias of the TCR V?? and V?? repertoires and an increase of skin-homing CD4(+) T-cell subsets. Our findings suggest that EVER2-deficient patients display mild T-cell abnormalities. It remains unclear whether these abnormalities result from EVER deficiency, chronic EV-HPV infection, or both. PMID:22903682

Crequer, Amandine; Picard, Capucine; Pedergnana, Vincent; Lim, Annick; Zhang, Shen-Ying; Abel, Laurent; Majewski, Slawomir; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Jablonska, Stefania; Orth, Gerard; Jouanguy, Emmanuelle

2013-01-01

410

Autosomal dominant epidermodysplasia verruciformis: a clinicotherapeutic experience in two cases.  

PubMed

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by a unique susceptibility to cutaneous infection by a group of phylogenetically related human papilloma viruses (HPVs). These patients show a defect in cell-mediated immunity specific toward the causative HPVs that lead to lifelong disease. The defect is usually inherited as autosomal recessive trait and presents clinically with plane warts, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions and reddish verrucous plaques. Dysplastic and malignant changes in the form of actinic keratoses, Bowen's disease and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are common but metastasis occurs rarely. A totally effective treatment against EV is as yet highly desirable. Two siblings having autosomal dominant EV presented with multiple actinic keratoses in addition to classic lesions. One of them had also developed well-differentiated SCC over forehead with metastases to regional lymph nodes. They were treated with combination of excision of small malignant/premalignant lesions, topical 5-flurouracil and sun protection. Additionally, elective excision/grafting of large SCC was performed after chemotherapy/radiotherapy in patient with metastatic SCC. Oral acitretin (25 mg/day) was of benefit in the other patient. Overall clinicotherapeutic experience in both the patients is discussed here. PMID:20826999

Vohra, Surbhi; Sharma, Nand Lal; Shanker, Vinay; Mahajan, Vikram K; Jindal, Nidhi

2010-01-01

411

Human papillomavirus and squamous cell cancer of the skin--epidermodysplasia verruciformis-associated human papillomavirus revisited.  

PubMed

As squamous cell cancer (SCC) is the most common malignancy in organ transplant recipients, a viral etiology has been proposed. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is found more often in organ transplant recipients than in the general population, but its role in cancer development has been debated for years. As a model of susceptibility of HPV the inherited disease epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) has been investigated intensively. EV is an autosomal-recessive skin disease leading to multiple flat warts and pityriasis versicolor-like macules in early youth. EV patients are at great risk of developing skin cancer due to a lack of defense against beta HPV. Beta HPV are causally involved in the formation of skin cancer in patients afflicted with EV. Beta HPV has frequently been detected in SCC and its early lesions such as actinic keratoses. Depending on the methods used, a prevalence of 30-90% has been reported for beta HPV for SCC in organ transplant recipients, while this prevalence in the general population is lower, but still considerable at 50%. Epidemiologic studies in the general population seem to suggest that beta HPV plays a role in the formation of SCC, both for invasive and in situ lesions. PMID:22377919

Arnold, Andreas W; Hofbauer, Günther F L

2012-01-01

412

Lewandowsky and lutz dysplasia: report of two cases in a family.  

PubMed

Lewandowsky and Lutz dysplasia, also known as epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), is an inherited disorder in which there is widespread and persistent infection with human papilloma virus, defect in cell-mediated immunity and propensity for malignant transformation. Differential clinical and histopathologic evolutions of lesions in two cases of familial EV are compared and discussed in detail. Cases were followed up for 7 years. Detailed history, clinical features and investigations, including skin biopsy from different sites at different times, were examined. Generalized pityriasis versicolor like hypopigmented lesions in both the cases, together with variable pigmented nodular actinic keratosis like lesions on sun-exposed areas, were present. Multiple skin biopsies done from various sites on different occasions revealed features typical of EV along with lesions, i.e., actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease, basal and squamous cell carcinoma, in the elder sibling. However, skin biopsy of the other sibling showed features of EV and seborrheic keratosis only till date. This study reveals that the disease progression is variable among two individuals of the same family. Malignant lesions were seen only on sun-exposed areas and may be associated with other skin lesions or infections such as angiokeratoma of Fordyce and tinea cruris, as seen in this report. PMID:21716545

Bhutoria, Bhawna; Shome, Kaushik; Ghosh, Sulekha; Bose, Koushik; Datta, Chhanda; Bhattacharya, Subodh

2011-03-01

413

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome--vascular type (ecchymotic variant): cutaneous and dermatopathologic features.  

PubMed

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome - vascular type, the only lethal form, is rarely reported in dermatology literature. It is characterized by translucent, atrophic skin, easy bruising, arterial, intestinal and/or uterine fragility manifesting as varicose veins, aneurysms and vascular/visceral/uterine rupture. As its dermatopathologic features are not well elucidated, diagnosis is often made after a catastrophic complication or at autopsy. This 36 year-old non-consanguineous male had brown-black plaques with atrophy and frequent ulceration over legs and dorsal feet and tortuous varicose veins around ankles for the past 15 years. Perivenous skin was translucent and hypopigmented. He had multiple and ecchymotic keloids and small atrophic, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions over trunk. He did not have hypermobile/hyperextensible skin and joints and showed no systemic or investigative abnormality. Histopathologic features of atrophic lesion included blood extravasation in atrophic epidermis/dermis, focal clustering and dilatation of blood vessels, malformed vessel walls, abundant hemosiderin in the dermis and homogenously stained/whorled patterned collagen especially around blood vessels. Pathology of keloidal lesion showed new collagen and vascular fragility. These histopathologic features appear of diagnostic value especially in patients who have compatible clinical findings but cannot afford confirmation by biochemical testing for abnormal synthesis of type III procollagen or identification of mutations in the COL3A1 gene. PMID:19278438

Sharma, Nand L; Mahajan, Vikram K; Gupta, Neelam; Ranjan, Nitin; Lath, Anju

2009-04-01

414

Overcoming bottlenecks of enzymatic biofuel cell cathodes: crude fungal culture supernatant can help to extend lifetime and reduce cost.  

PubMed

Enzymatic biofuel cells (BFCs) show great potential for the direct conversion of biochemically stored energy from renewable biomass resources into electricity. However, enzyme purification is time-consuming and expensive. Furthermore, the long-term use of enzymatic BFCs is hindered by enzyme degradation, which limits their lifetime to only a few weeks. We show, for the first time, that crude culture supernatant from enzyme-secreting microorganisms (Trametes versicolor) can be used without further treatment to supply the enzyme laccase to the cathode of a mediatorless BFC. Polarization curves show that there is no significant difference in the cathode performance when using crude supernatant that contains laccase compared to purified laccase in culture medium or buffer solution. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the oxygen reduction activity of this enzymatic cathode can be sustained over a period of at least 120 days by periodic resupply of crude culture supernatant. This is more than five times longer than control cathodes without the resupply of culture supernatant. During the operation period of 120 days, no progressive loss of potential is observed, which suggests that significantly longer lifetimes than shown in this work may be possible. Our results demonstrate the possibility to establish simple, cost efficient, and mediatorless enzymatic BFC cathodes that do not require expensive enzyme purification procedures. Furthermore, they show the feasibility of an enzymatic BFC with an extended lifetime, in which self-replicating microorganisms provide the electrode with catalytically active enzymes in a continuous or periodic manner. PMID:23801592

Sané, Sabine; Jolivalt, Claude; Mittler, Gerhard; Nielsen, Peter J; Rubenwolf, Stefanie; Zengerle, Roland; Kerzenmacher, Sven

2013-07-01

415

Variation in anti-parasite behaviour and infection among larval amphibian species.  

PubMed

Along with immune defences, many animals exhibit effective anti-parasite behaviours such as parasite avoidance and removal that influence their susceptibility to infection. Host ecology and life history influence investment into comparatively fixed defences such as innate immunity but may affect the strength of anti-parasite behaviours as well. We investigated activity levels in five different species of larval amphibian with varying life histories and ecology in control, novel food stimulus, and trematode parasite (Echinoparyphium sp.) threat conditions. There was a significant interaction of species and treatment given that American toad (Bufo americanus), wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus), and bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) tadpoles generally increased their activity when parasite infectious stages were present while grey tree frogs (Hyla versicolor) and northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) did not, even though activity was negatively related to infection. In addition, there was considerable variation among species in their susceptibility to parasitism, with infection prevalence ranging from 17% in bullfrog tadpoles to 70% in wood frogs. However, amphibian life history (larval and adult traits) was not related to parasitism or level of anti-parasite behaviour at the species level. Consequently, we suggest that future investigations include more species with a range of life history traits and also consider host ecology, particularly if conspicuous anti-parasite behaviours are more likely in amphibian species that experience a relatively low risk of predation. PMID:24337712

Koprivnikar, Janet; Redfern, Julia C; Mazier, Hannah L

2014-04-01

416

The Response of Gray Treefrogs to Anesthesia by Tricaine Methanesulfonate (TMS or MS-222)  

PubMed Central

The design of anesthetic protocols for frogs is commonly hindered by lack of information. Results from fishes and rodents do not always apply to frogs, and the literature in anurans is concentrated on a few species. We report on the response of treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis and H. versicolor) to tricaine methanesulfonate. Body mass did not differ significantly between the species or between sexes. In the first exposure of a frog to TMS, variation in induction time was best explained by species (H. chrysoscelis resisted longer) and body mass (larger animals resisted longer). Multiple exposures revealed a strong effect of individual variation on induction time and a significant increase of induction time with number of previous anesthesia events within the same day. Recovery time was mostly explained by individual variation, but it increased with total time in anesthetic and decreased with induction time. It also increased with number of days since the last series of anesthesias and decreased with number of previous uses of the anesthetic bath. This is one of the first studies of anesthesia in hylids and also one of the first assessments of the factors that influence the variability of the response to anesthesia within a species. PMID:24851186

Paduano, Mary; Colafrancesco, Kaitlen C.; Wong, Sarah A.; Caldwell, Michael S.; Gridi-Papp, Marcos

2014-01-01

417

[Unusual fungal species causing onychomycosis.].  

PubMed

Dermatomycoses caused by non-dermatophytic mycelial fungi are very rare with the exception of onychomycoses. Controversies regarding the pathogenic role often arise when these species and yeasts are isolated from nail scrapings. Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis are the species identified more frequently from nails, particularly from finger nails. Because they could be resident flora of the skin, cultures should be interpreted according to clinical data, direct microscopic observation of clinical samples, and quantification of colonies. The recognition of other yeasts, such as Candida guillermondii, Candida famata or Candida krusei is more problematic. Isolation of moulds form toe nails accounts for 2 to 12% in different studies, with a prevalence of 7.6% in Barcelona being Scopulariopsis brevicaulis the most frequent species, but Aspergillus versicolor is also a particular etiologic agent of onychomycosis (2.5%). To confirm the etiology of any onychomycosis, standard criteria for mycological diagnosis and identification of moulds should be strictly applied. Experience in the diagnosis of superficial mycosis due to new species of fungi is required for improving current knowledge on the prevalence and clinical importance of this type of infections. PMID:18473597

López-Jodra, O; Torres-Rodríguez, J M

1999-10-01

418

Oral terbinafine (Lamisil) in the treatment of fungal infections of the skin and nails.  

PubMed

The efficacy and safety of antifungal drugs depend upon their mode of action, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and its relationship to the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), the spectrum of activity and drug kinetics at the involved site. Terbinafine acts at the fungal cell wall. Its MIC against dermatophytes is the lowest of all currently available systemic antifungal agents. It is the only one with an MIC:MFC ratio of 1:1 so that terbinafine should be effective over very short treatment durations in dermatophyte infections of the scalp, palms and soles, and nail, providing that drug penetration is adequate, as it appears to be. Therapeutic levels persist for a considerable period after the cessation of treatment, also favouring short-duration therapy. Terbinafine is effective against all varieties of dermatophyte. Terbinafine given over 4 weeks or less is effective against Trichophyton of the scalp in children and adults. Its efficacy in zoophilic ectrothrix infection is anecdotal, but it is likely on theoretical grounds. Terbinafine is also effective against pityriasis versicolor and vaginal candidosis, but only topically. As of March 1996, around 3,000,000 patients have been treated worldwide with terbinafine, mostly for 12 weeks for toe-nail onychomycosis. Gastro-intestinal disturbance and minor skin rashes are seen in 5 and 2% of patients, respectively. PMID:9154400

Roberts, D T

1997-01-01

419

Cutaneous fungal infection following renal transplantation: a case control study.  

PubMed

The prevalence of cutaneous fungal infection was studied in 72 patients who had undergone renal transplantation and compared with a group of age and sex matched controls. Samples were obtained from toe nails, toe webs, and the upper back; clinically suspicious lesions from other areas were also examined. A total of 576 sites were sampled (288 in each group). Pathogenic fungi were identified from 44 sites (15%) in the renal transplant (RT) group compared with 26 sites (9%) in the control group, (P less than 0.05). However, site-specific differences were less marked; no difference was found between the RT group and controls when the results from the toe nails and toe webs were analysed separately. Trichophyton mentagrophytes was the most common species isolated from both groups. Colonization of the back with Pityrosporum yeasts was significantly more common in the RT group, but few patients in either group had tinea versicolor. 'Mixed infections', with more than one species of fungus isolated in an individual, were only found in the RT group. We also examined the relationship between the presence of fungal infection and the presence or absence of cutaneous malignancy in the renal transplant group. No increase in the prevalence of fungal colonization was found in those patients who had developed cutaneous malignancy compared with those who had not. PMID:3318908

Shuttleworth, D; Philpot, C M; Salaman, J R

1987-11-01

420

Volatile metabolites produced by six fungal species compared with other indicators of fungal growth on cereal grains.  

PubMed Central

Six fungal species, Penicillium brevicompactum, P. glabrum, P. roqueforti, Aspergillus flavus, A. versicolor, and A. candidus, were inoculated on moistened and autoclaved wheat and oat grains. They were cultivated in glass vessels provided with an inlet and outlet for air. Air was passed through the vessels to collect volatile fungal metabolites on porous polymer adsorbents attached to the outlet. Samples were collected at two fungal growth stages. Adsorbed compounds were thermally desorbed, separated by gas chromatography, and identified by mass spectrometry. Differences in the production of volatile metabolites depended more on the fungal species than on the grain type. The fungal growth stage was not an important factor determining the composition of volatiles produced. 3-Methylfuran was produced in similar amounts regardless of the fungal species and substrate (oat versus wheat). The production of volatile metabolites was compared with the production of ergosterol and CO2 and the number of CFU. The production of volatile metabolites was more strongly correlated with accumulated CO2 production than with actual CO2 production and more strongly correlated with ergosterol contents of the grain than with numbers of CFU. PMID:1514807

Borjesson, T; Stollman, U; Schnurer, J

1992-01-01

421

Chemopreventive Effect of PSP Through Targeting of Prostate Cancer Stem Cell-Like Population  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence suggested that prostate cancer stem/progenitor cells (CSC) are responsible for cancer initiation as well as disease progression. Unfortunately, conventional therapies are only effective in targeting the more differentiated cancer cells and spare the CSCs. Here, we report that PSP, an active component extracted from the mushroom Turkey tail (also known as Coriolus versicolor), is effective in targeting prostate CSCs. We found that treatment of the prostate cancer cell line PC-3 with PSP led to the down-regulation of CSC markers (CD133 and CD44) in a time and dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, PSP treatment not only suppressed the ability of PC-3 cells to form prostaspheres under non-adherent culture conditions, but also inhibited their tumorigenicity in vivo, further proving that PSP can suppress prostate CSC properties. To investigate if the anti-CSC effect of PSP may lead to prostate cancer chemoprevention, transgenic mice (TgMAP) that spontaneously develop prostate tumors were orally fed with PSP for 20 weeks. Whereas 100% of the mice that fed with water only developed prostate tumors at the end of experiment, no tumors could be found in any of the mice fed with PSP, suggesting that PSP treatment can completely inhibit prostate tumor formation. Our results not only demonstrated the intriguing anti-CSC effect of PSP, but also revealed, for the first time, the surprising chemopreventive property of oral PSP consumption against prostate cancer. PMID:21603625

Liu, Ji; Lee, Davy Tak-Wing; Chiu, Yung-Tuen; Ma, Stephanie; Ng, Irene Oi-Lin; Wong, Yong-Chuan; Chan, Franky Leung; Ling, Ming-Tat

2011-01-01

422

Fungal biodegradation of hard coal by a newly reported isolate, Neosartorya fischeri.  

PubMed

Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) has been observed to grow sporadically on the surface of coal dumps in the Witbank coal mining area of South Africa. Root zone investigation indicated that a number of fungal species may be actively involved in the biodegradation of hard coal, thus enabling the survival of the plant, through mutualistic interaction, in this extreme environment. In an extensive screening program of over two thousand samples, the Deuteromycete, Neosartorya fischeri, was isolated and identified. The biodegradation of coal by N. fischeri was tested in flask studies and in a perfusion fixed-bed bioreactor used to simulate the coal dump environment. The performance of N. fischeri was compared to Phanaerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes (Polyporus) versicolor, previously described in coal biodegradation studies. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry of the biodegradation product indicated oxidation of the coal surface and nitration of the condensed aromatic structures of the coal macromolecule as possible reaction mechanisms in N. fischeri coal biodegradation. This is a first report of N. fischeri-mediated coal biodegradation and, in addition to possible applications in coal biotechnology, the findings may enable development of sustainable technologies in coal mine rehabilitation. PMID:19016511

Igbinigie, Eric E; Aktins, Simon; van Breugel, Yvonne; van Dyke, Susan; Davies-Coleman, Michael T; Rose, Peter D

2008-11-01

423

Enhanced reduction of phenol content and toxicity in olive mill wastewaters by a newly isolated strain of Coriolopsis gallica.  

PubMed

The search for novel microorganisms able to degrade olive mill wastewaters (OMW) and withstand the toxic effects of the initially high phenolic concentrations is of great scientific and industrial interest. In this work, the possibility of reducing the phenolic content of OMW using new isolates of fungal strains (Coriolopsis gallica, Bjerkandera adusta, Trametes versicolor, Trichoderma citrinoviride, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Trametes trogii, and Fusarium solani) was investigated. In vitro, all fungal isolates tested caused an outstanding decolorization of OMW. However, C. gallica gave the highest decolorization and dephenolization rates at 30 % v/v OMW dilution in water. Fungal growth in OMW medium was affected by several parameters including phenolic compound concentration, nitrogen source, and inoculum size. The optimal OMW medium for the removal of phenolics and color was with the OMW concentration (in percent)/[(NH4)2SO4]/inoculum ratio of 30:6:3. Under these conditions, 90 and 85 % of the initial phenolic compounds and color were removed, respectively. High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis of extracts from treated and untreated OMW showed a clear and substantial reduction in phenolic compound concentrations. Phytotoxicity, assessed using radish (Raphanus sativus) seeds, indicated an increase in germination index of 23-92 % when a 30 % OMW concentration was treated with C. gallica in different dilutions (1/2, 1/4, and 1/8). PMID:23979847

Daâssi, Dalel; Belbahri, Lassaad; Vallat, Armelle; Woodward, Steve; Nasri, Moncef; Mechichi, Tahar

2014-02-01

424

Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR  

SciTech Connect

Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequences of each of the PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

D`Souza, T.M.; Boominathan, K.; Reddy, C.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

1996-10-01

425

Microfungi in cultivated fields in Eski?ehir provience (Turkey).  

PubMed

The soil microfungi flora was investigated in four locations of Eski?ehir (Turkey). 56 soil samples were seasonaly collected from 14 stations in the areas of Karacahöyük, Bahçecik, OGU I, and OGU II. A total of 110 species belonging to 32 genera were encountered including Absidia, Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Beauveria, Botryoderma, Chaetomium, Chrysosporium, Cladosporium, Eupenicillium, Eurotium, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gliocladium, Gonytrichum, Metarrhizium, Mucor, Myrothecium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Phoma, Plectosphaerella, Rhizoctania, Rhizopus, Scopulariopsis, Septonema, Stachybotrys, Trichocladium, Trichoderma, Ulocladium, Verticillium, and Wardomyces. Twenty five species were more frequent (all locations) while twenty seven species were rare (only one sample). Mainly, Acremonium kiliense, Aspergillus ochraceus, A. terricola var. americanus, A. versicolor, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Gliocladium roseum, Penicillium chrysogenum, P. corylophum, P. expansum, P. griseofulvum, P. implicatum, P. restrictum, and Stachybotrys chartarum were the most common and abundant microfungi in all locations. Five species Aspergillus subsessilis, A. terreus var. africanus, Eupenicillium egyptiacum, Paecilomyces ramosus, and Penicillium novae-zeelandiae are likely to be newly recorded for Turkey. The microfungi number in Eski?ehir soils was between 25,000-234,000 CFU/g (mean value at 126,375 CFU/g). PMID:16028200

Demirel, Rasime; Ilhan, Semra; Asan, Ahmet; Kinaci, Engin; Oner, Setenay

2005-01-01

426

In Vitro Susceptibility Testing of Aspergillus spp.: Comparison of Etest and Reference Microdilution Methods for Determining Voriconazole and Itraconazole MICs  

PubMed Central

The performance of the Etest for voriconazole and for itraconazole susceptibility testing of 376 isolates of Aspergillus spp. was assessed in comparison with the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) proposed standard microdilution broth method. The NCCLS method employed RPMI 1640 broth medium, and MICs were read after incubation for 48 h at 35°C. Etest MICs were determined with RPMI agar containing 2% glucose and were read after incubation for 48 h at 35°C. The isolates included A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, A. versicolor, A. glaucus, A. nidulans, A. ustus, and A. sydowii. Overall agreement percentages between the Etest and microdilution MICs were 97.6% for voriconazole and 95.8% for itraconazole. Where a discrepancy was observed between Etest and the reference method, the Etest tended to give lower values with voriconazole and higher values with itraconazole. The Etest method using RPMI agar appears to be a useful method for determining the voriconazole and itraconazole susceptibilities of Aspergillus spp. PMID:12624040

Pfaller, J. B.; Messer, S. A.; Hollis, R. J.; Diekema, D. J.; Pfaller, M. A.

2003-01-01

427

Applications of micellar enzymology to clean coal technology  

SciTech Connect

This project is designed to develop methods for pre-combustion coal remediation by implementing recent advances in enzyme biochemistry. The novel approach of this study is incorporation of hydrophilic oxidative enzymes in reverse micelles in an organic solvent. Enzymes from commercial sources or microbial extracts are being investigated for their capacity to remove organic sulfur from coal by oxidation of the sulfur groups, splitting of C-S bonds and loss of sulfur as sulfuric acid Dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethlyphenylsulfide (EPS) are serving as models of organic sulfur-containing components of coal in initial studies. A goal of this project is to define a reverse micelle system that optimizes the catalytic activity of enzymes toward desulfurization of model compounds and ultimately coal samples. Among the variables which will be examined are the surfactant, the solvent, the water:surfactant ration and the pH and ionic strength of the aqueous phase. Studies were carried out with HRP, Type I RZ=1.2 and Type VI RZ=3.2 and laccase from Polyporus versicolor. Substrates for HRP assays included hydrogen peroxide, DBT, DBT sulfoxide, and DBT sulfone. Buffers included sodium phosphate. For formation of reverse micelle solutions the surfactant AOT, di(2-ethyl-hexyl)sodium sulphosuccinate, was obtained from Sigma Chemical Co. Isooctant was used as organic solvent. 12 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Walsh, C.T.

1990-10-26

428

Fungal permeable reactive barrier to remediate groundwater in an artificial aquifer.  

PubMed

Biobarriers, as permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), are a common technology that mainly uses bacteria to remediate groundwater in polluted aquifers. In this study, we propose to use Trametes versicolor, a white-rot fungus, as the reactive element because of its capacity to degrade a wide variety of highly recalcitrant and xenobiotic compounds. A laboratory-scale artificial aquifer was constructed to simulate groundwater flow under real conditions in shallow aquifers. Orange G dye was chosen as a contaminant to visually monitor the hydrodynamic behaviour of the system and any degradation of the dye by the fungus. Batch experiments at different pH values (6 and 7) and several temperatures (15 °C, 18 °C, 20 °C and 25 °C) were performed to select the appropriate residence time and glucose consumption rate required for continuous treatment. The maximum Orange G degradation was 97%. Continuous degradation over 85% was achieved for more than 8 days. Experimental results indicate for the first time that this fungus can potentially be used as a permeable reactive barrier in real aquifers. PMID:24095995

Folch, Albert; Vilaplana, Marcel; Amado, Leila; Vicent, Teresa; Caminal, Glòria

2013-11-15

429

Laccase component of the Ceriporiopsis subvermispora lignin-degrading system.  

PubMed Central

Laccase activity in the lignin-degrading fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora was associated with several proteins in the broth of cultures grown in a defined medium. Activity was not increased significantly by adding 2,5-xylidine or supplemental copper to the medium. Higher activity, associated with two major isoenzymes, developed in cultures grown on a wheat bran medium. These two isoenzymes were purified to homogeneity. L1 and L2 had isoelectric points of 3.4 and 4.8, molecular masses of 71 and 68 kDa, and approximate carbohydrate contents of 15 and 10%, respectively. Data indicated 4 copper atoms per mol. L1 and L2 had overlapping pH optima in the range of 3 to 5, depending on the substrate, and exhibited half-lives of 120 and 50 min at 60 degrees C. They were strongly inhibited by sodium azide and thioglycolic acid but not by hydroxylamine or EDTA. The isoenzymes oxidized 1,2,4,5-tetramethoxybenzene but not other methoxybenzene congeners. A variety of usual laccase substrates, including lignin-related phenols and ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)], were also oxidized. Kinetic parameters were similar to those of the laccases of Coriolus versicolor. The N-terminal amino acid sequence (20 residues for L1) showed significant homology to those of laccases of other white rot basidiomycetes but not to those of the laccases of Agaricus bisporus or Neurospora crassa. PMID:7793921

Fukushima, Y; Kirk, T K

1995-01-01

430

Influence of very low doses of mediators on fungal laccase activity - nonlinearity beyond imagination  

PubMed Central

Laccase, an enzyme responsible for aerobic transformations of natural phenolics, in industrial applications requires the presence of low-molecular substances known as mediators, which accelerate oxidation processes. However, the use of mediators is limited by their toxicity and the high costs of exploitation. The activation of extracellular laccase in growing fungal culture with highly diluted mediators, ABTS and HBT is described. Two high laccase-producing fungal strains, Trametes versicolor and Cerrena unicolor, were used in this study as a source of enzyme. Selected dilutions of the mediators significantly increased the activity of extracellular laccase during 14 days of cultivation what was distinctly visible in PAGE technique and in colorimetric tests. The same mediator dilutions increased demethylation properties of laccase, which was demonstrated during incubation of enzyme with veratric acid. It was established that the activation effect was assigned to specific dilutions of mediators. Our dose-response dilution process smoothly passes into the range of action of homeopathic dilutions and is of interest for homeopaths. PMID:19732425

Malarczyk, Elzbieta; Kochmanska-Rdest, Janina; Jarosz-Wilkolazka, Anna

2009-01-01

431

Fungal biodegradation of lignopolystyrene graft copolymers.  

PubMed Central

White rot basidiomycetes were able to biodegrade styrene (1-phenylethene) graft copolymers of lignin containing different proportions of lignin and polystyrene [poly(1-phenylethylene)]. The biodegradation tests were run on lignin-styrene copolymerization products which contained 10.3, 32.2, and 50.4% (wt/wt) lignin. The polymer samples were incubated with the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Trametes versicolor and the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. White rot fungi degraded the plastic samples at a rate which increased with increasing lignin content in the copolymer sample. Both polystyrene and lignin components of the copolymer were readily degraded. Polystyrene pellets were not degradable in these tests. Degradation was verified for both incubated and control samples by weight loss, quantitative UV spectrophotometric analysis of both lignin and styrene residues, scanning electron microscopy of the plastic surface, and the presence of enzymes active in degradation during incubation. Brown rot fungus did not affect any of the plastics. White rot fungi produced and secreted oxidative enzymes associated with lignin degradation in liquid media during incubation with lignin-polystyrene copolymer. Images PMID:1444360

Milstein, O; Gersonde, R; Huttermann, A; Chen, M J; Meister, J J

1992-01-01

432

Secretion of keratinolytic enzymes and keratinolysis by Scopulariopsis brevicaulis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes: regression analysis.  

PubMed

A survey on keratinophilic fungi from poultry-farm soils at Namakkal and from feather dumping soils at Chennai, India, revealed the existence of 34 species of fungi. Most of the fungi exhibited variable efficiency in producing extracellular keratinase when grown in plates with chicken feathers as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. The fungi Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus versicolor, Chrysosporium state of Arthroderma tuberculatum, Paecilomyces carneus, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Trichoderma viride, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes were efficient candidates to degrade the feathers. However, when cultivating the strains in submerged conditions in a medium containing chicken feathers as the sole nutrients source, Aspergillus glaucus, Chrysosporium keratinophilum, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium solani, and Penicillium citrinum also proved to be potent. Among all species, S. brevicaulis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes produced higher amounts of keratinase in both methods. Conditions for keratinase production were optimized by statistical design and surface plots. The highest keratinase activity was estimated by S. brevicaulis (3.2 KU/mL) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (2.7 KU/mL) in the culture medium with chicken feathers and shows (79% and 72.2% of degrading ability, respectively). PMID:17215897

Anbu, P; Gopinath, S C B; Hilda, A; Mathivanan, N; Annadurai, G

2006-11-01

433

Current trends in trichloroethylene biodegradation: a review.  

PubMed

Over the past few years biodegradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) using different microorganisms has been investigated by several researchers. In this review article, an attempt has been made to present a critical summary of the recent results related to two major processes--reductive dechlorination and aerobic co-metabolism used for TCE biodegradation. It has been shown that mainly Clostridium sp. DC-1, KYT-1, Dehalobacter, Dehalococcoides, Desulfuromonas, Desulfitobacterium, Propionibacterium sp. HK-1, and Sulfurospirillum bacterial communities are responsible for the reductive dechlorination of TCE. Efficacy of bacterial communities like Nitrosomonas, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, and Xanthobacter sp. etc. for TCE biodegradation under aerobic conditions has also been examined. Mixed cultures of diazotrophs and methanotrophs have been used for TCE degradation in batch and continuous cultures (biofilter) under aerobic conditions. In addition, some fungi (Trametes versicolor, Phanerochaete chrysosporium ME-446) and Actinomycetes have also been used for aerobic biodegradation of TCE. The available information on kinetics of biofiltration of TCE and its degradation end-products such as CO2 are discussed along with the available results on the diversity of bacterial community obtained using molecular biological approaches. It has emerged that there is a need to use metabolic engineering and molecular biological tools more intensively to improve the robustness of TCE degrading microbial species and assess their diversity. PMID:23057686

Shukla, Awadhesh Kumar; Upadhyay, Siddh Nath; Dubey, Suresh Kumar

2014-06-01

434

Polysaccharide peptide induces a tumor necrosis factor-?-dependent drop of body temperature in rats.  

PubMed

Polysaccharide peptide (PSP) extracted from the Coriolus versicolor mushroom is frequently suggested as an adjunct to the chemo- or radiotherapy in cancer patients. It improves quality of the patients' life by decreasing pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting. However, the effect of PSP on body temperature has not thus far been studied, although it is well known that treatment with other polysaccharide adjuvants, such as lipopolysaccharides, may induce fever. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to investigate the influence of PSP on temperature regulation in rats. We report that intraperitoneal injection of PSP provoked a dose-dependent decrease of temperature in male Wistar rats equipped with biotelemetry devices to monitor deep body temperature (Tb). The response was rapid (i.e., with latency of 15-20min), transient (lasting up to 5h post-injection), and accompanied by a significant elevation of the blood tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) level. Pretreatment of the rats with anti-TNF-? antibody prevented the PSP-induced drop in Tb. Based on these data, we conclude that rats may develop an anapyrexia-like response to the injection of peptidopolysaccharide rather than fever, and the response was TNF-?-dependent. PMID:25086966

Jedrzejewski, Tomasz; Piotrowski, Jakub; Wrotek, Sylwia; Kozak, Wieslaw

2014-08-01

435

Quantification of [i]C. globosum [/i]spores in house dust samples.  

PubMed

Chaetomium globosum is one of the most common fungi that grows in damp buildings and occurs in agricultural and forestry workplaces. Using sera from atopic patients, we characterized and purified an extracellular chitosanase (Chg47) from C. globosum that is antigenic to humans. The study reports the production of monoclonal antibodies to the protein. Three capture ELISAs were developed for Chg47 for detection of spores and spore and mycelial fragments in dust samples using different mono- and polyclonal antibody combinations. One method is based on an enhanced biotinylated polyclonal antibody as the secondary antibody and coating anti-IgM to capture one of two clones of IgM monoclonal antibodies as the capture antibody. The other method makes use of an enhanced rabbit polyclonal antibody as both the primary and capture antibody. The detection limit of the double PAb method for the Chg47 antigen was 7.6 pg/ml. When the anti-IgM+10B3 clone was used, the detection limit was 61 pg/ml and for anti-IgM+5F12, 122 pg/ml. The detection limit of double PAb method is comparable to methods for the allergen and spores of Aspergillus versicolor in house dust and is more sensitive than other immunoassays for allergens in house including for Stachybotrys chartarum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Alternaria alternata. All three methods had limited cross-reactivity to fungi common in house dust representing a diverse array of taxa. PMID:25292122

Shi, Chunhua; Provost, Natacha B; Desroches, Tamara; Miller, J David

2014-09-01

436

Review of the genera Hishimonus Ishihara and Litura Knight(Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from the Indian subcontinent with description of new species.  

PubMed

This paper deals with 21 species of Hishimonus Ishihara and two species of Litura Knight from the Indian subcontinent. The following new species are described: Hishimonus acuminatus sp. nov. (India: Mizoram), H. distinctus sp. nov. (India: Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu. Sri Lanka), H. dwipae sp. nov. (Sri Lanka), H. longisetosus sp. nov. (India: Karnataka), H. spicans sp. nov. (India: Karnataka), H. thapai sp. nov. (Nepal), H. zeylanicus sp. nov. (Sri Lanka), and Litura triangula sp. nov. (India: Karnataka). Hishimonus versicolor Subba Rao & Ramakrishnan is removed from the genus Hishimonus and two new combinations namely, Hishimonus apricus (Melichar) comb. nov. (formerly in the genus Eutettix) and Litura tripunctatus (Li) comb. nov. (formerly in the genus Hishimonus) and a new name Hishimonus knightiella nom. nov. for Hishimonus apricus Knight 1970a, not Distant 1908 is proposed. H. gillespiei Dai, Fletcher & Zhang, H. pallidus Dai, Fletcher & Zhang, H. dividens Knight, H. aberrans Knight, H. concavus Knight, H. arcuatus Knight and Litura unda Knight are new records for India. All the taxa are described and new taxa are illustrated. Keys to identification of the species of Hishimonus and Litura found in the Indian subcontinent are also provided along with list of known host plants. PMID:24872175

Viraktamath, C A; Murthy, H V Anantha

2014-01-01

437

Survival of Microorganisms under the Extreme Conditions of the Atacama Desert  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spores of Bacillus subtilis, conidia of Aspergillus niger, versicolor and ochraceus andcells of Deinococcus radiodurans have been exposed in the dark at two locations (at about 23°S and 24°S) in the Atacama Desert for up to 15 months. B. subtilis spores (survival ˜15%) and A. niger conidia (survival ˜30%) outlived the other species. The survival of the conidiaand spores species was only slightly poorer than that of thecorresponding laboratory controls. However, the Deinococcus radiodurans cells did not survive the desertexposure, because they are readily inactivated at relativehumidities between 40 and 80% which typically occurduring desert nights. Cellular monolayers of the dry sporesand conidia have in addition been exposed to the full sunlight for up to several hours. The solar fluences causing 63% loss in viability (F37-values) have been determined.These F37-values are compared with those determined atother global locations such as Punta Arenas (53°S), Key Largo (25°N) or Mainz (50°N) during the same season. Thesolar UVB radiation kills even the most resistantmicroorganisms within a few hours due to DNA damages. Thedata are also discussed with respect to possible similaritiesbetween the climatic conditions of the recent Atacama Desertand the deserts of early Mars.

Dose, Klaus; Bieger-Dose, Angelika; Ernst, Birgit; Feister, Uwe; Gómez-Silva, Benito; Klein, Anke; Risi, Sergio; Stridde, Christine

2001-06-01

438

Communicating in a cacophony: Possible solutions to the cocktail party problem in treefrog choruses.  

PubMed

Male treefrogs advertise for mates in dense assemblages characterized by high levels of noise and acoustic clutter. Non-mutually exclusive approaches to ameliorating the "cocktail party" problem in frog choruses could involve signal production or perception. Male neotropical Dendropsophus microcephalus employ multi-note calls and can rapidly alter inter-note timing to reduce call overlap. Adjustments are made selectively such that interference is most effectively reduced among closest neighbors. There is evidence that intensity and perhaps spatial cues contribute to this selectivity. Male gray treefrogs, Hyla versicolor, do not seem to exhibit selective attention in a way that reduces call interference among nearest neighbors, and changes made in call duration and rate that occur with increasing noise levels do not aid in signal detection by females. Moreover, auditory induction, by which the auditory system might perceptually restore masked or missing elements of pulsatile calls, does not seem to occur. Although, under some circumstances, differences in call frequency may help females distinguish among neighboring males, naturalistic spectral differences do not seem to help females perceptually separate the overlapping calls of such males. There is evidence, however, that spatial separation of males can contribute to signal segregation by listening females during acoustic interference. PMID:25235035

Schwartz, Joshua J

2014-04-01

439

Immobilized laccase on activated poly(vinyl alcohol) microspheres for enzyme thermistor application.  

PubMed

Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) microspheres were prepared by inverse suspension crosslinked method, with glutaraldehyde as a crosslinking agent. PVA microspheres activated with aldehyde groups were employed for Trametes versicolor laccase immobilization. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the activated PVA microspheres and PVA microspheres with immobilized laccase (Lac/PVA microspheres), which show that laccase was successfully immobilized on the PVA microspheres. The optimum pH and temperature coupling conditions for the immobilized laccase were determined to be 3.3 and 30 °C, respectively. Residual activity was also investigated by soaking the immobilized laccase in organic solvents at different concentrations, proving it chemically stable. Immobilized laccase exhibited good storage stability at 4 °C. The enzyme biosensor showed good performance in 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylthiazoline-6-sulfonate) and bisphenol A, with concentration ranges of 2 to 8 mM and 0.05 to 0.25 mM, respectively. Therefore, PVA microspheres may have high potential as support for enzyme thermistor applications. PMID:24760609

Bai, Xue; Gu, Haixin; Chen, Wei; Shi, Hanchang; Yang, Bei; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Qi

2014-07-01

440

Three-dimensional organization of three-domain copper oxidases: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

“Blue” copper-containing proteins are multidomain proteins that utilize a unique redox property of copper ions. Among other blue multicopper oxidases, three-domain oxidases belong to the group of proteins that exhibit a wide variety of compositions in amino acid sequences, functions, and occurrences in organisms. This paper presents a review of the data obtained from X-ray diffraction investigations of the three-dimensional structures of three-domain multicopper oxidases, such as the ascorbate oxidase catalyzing oxidation of ascorbate to dehydroascorbate and its three derivatives; the multicopper oxidase CueO (the laccase homologue); the laccases isolated from the basidiomycetes Coprinus cinereus, Trametes versicolor, Coriolus zonatus, Cerrena maxima, and Rigidoporus lignosus and the ascomycete Melanocarpus albomyces; and the bacterial laccases CotA from the endospore coats of Bacillus subtilis. A comparison of the molecular structures of the laccases of different origins demonstrates that, structurally, these objects are highly conservative. This obviously indicates that the catalytic activity of the enzymes under consideration is characterized by similar mechanisms.

Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Zhukova, Yu. N.; Lyashenko, A. V.; Za?tsev, V. N.; Mikha?lov, A. M.

2008-01-01

441

Effects of subsidy quality on reciprocal subsidies: how leaf litter species changes frog biomass export.  

PubMed

Spatial subsidies are resources transferred from one ecosystem to another and which can greatly affect recipient systems. Increased subsidy quantity is known to increase these effects, but subsidy quality is likely also important. We examined the effects of leaf litter quality (varying in nutrient and tannin content) in pond mesocosms on gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) biomass export, as well as water quality and ecosystem processes. We used litter from three different tree species native to Missouri [white oak (Quercus alba), northern red oak (Quercus rubra), and sugar maple (Acer saccharum)], one non-native tree [white pine (Pinus strobus)], and a common aquatic grass [prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata)]. We found that leaf litter species affected almost every variable we measured. Gray treefrog biomass export was greatest in mesocosms with grass litter and lowest with white oak litter. Differences in biomass export were affected by high tannin concentrations (or possibly the correlated variable, dissolved oxygen) via their effects on survival, and by primary production, which altered mean body mass. Effects of litter species could often be traced back to the characteristics of the litter itself: leaf nitrogen, phosphorus, and tannin content, which highlights the importance of plant functional traits in affecting aquatic ecosystems. This work and others stress that changes in forest species composition could greatly influence aquatic systems and aquatic-terrestrial linkages. PMID:24399483

Earl, Julia E; Castello, Paula O; Cohagen, Kara E; Semlitsch, Raymond D

2014-05-01

442

Functional magnetic mesoporous nanoparticles for efficient purification of laccase from fermentation broth in magnetically stabilized fluidized bed.  

PubMed

A magnetically stabilized fluidized bed (MSFB) with the Cu(2+)-chelated magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MMSNPs-Cu(2+)) was established to purify laccase directly from the fermentation broth of Trametes versicolor. The MMSNPs-Cu(2+) particles in the MSFB maintained a stable bed expansion of two to threefold at a flow rate of 120-180 cm/h. At the optimal magnetic field intensity of 120 Gs, both the maximal Bodenstein number and the smallest axial dispersion coefficient were achieved, which resulted in a stable fluidization stage. The dynamic binding capacity of laccase in the MSFB decreased from 192.5 to144.3 mg/g when the flow velocity through the bed increased from 44.2 to 69.8 cm/h. The MSFB with MMSNPs-Cu(2+) achieved efficient laccase purification from the fermentation broth with 62.4-fold purification of laccase and 108.9 % activity yield. These results provided an excellent platform for the application of these magnetic mesoporous nanoparticles integrated with the MSFB in developing novel protein purification process. PMID:24037517

Wang, Feng; Guo, Chen; Liu, Chun-Zhao

2013-12-01